WorldWideScience

Sample records for vest references follow

  1. Incisional hernia recurrence following 'vest-over-pants' or vertical mayo repair of primary hernias of the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Luijendijk; M.H.M. Lemmen (M. H M); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.C.J. Wereldsma

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA series of 68 primary midline incisional hernias with a vertical Mayo repair was evaluated retrospectively. Patients without documented hernia recurrence following this repair were invited for physical examination. Life- table methods were used for statistical analysis. The 1-, 3-, 5-,

  2. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  3. A cooling vest for working comfortably in a moderately hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Tanabe, Shin-ichi; Hayama, Hirofumi; Komatsu, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    To alleviate worker's thermal discomfort in a moderately hot environment, a new cooling vest was designed and proposed in this paper. To investigate the effect of the cooling vest and to collect the knowledge for the design of comfortable cooling vest, subjective experiments were conducted. Two kinds of cooling vests, the new one and the commercially available one, were used for comparison. The new cooling vest had more insulation and its surface temperature was higher than the commercially available one. Experiments were performed in the climatic chamber where operative temperature was controlled at 30.2 degrees C and relative humidity was at 37% under still air. In addition, experiment without cooling vest was carried out as a control condition. The results obtained in these experiments were as follow: 1) By wearing both types of cooling vest, the whole body thermal sensation was closer to the neutral conditions than those without cooling vest. This effect was estimated to be equal to the 5.7 degrees C decrement of operative temperature. The subjects felt more comfortable with the cooling vest than without it. They felt more thermally acceptable than that without cooling vest. Wearing the cooling vest was useful to decrease the sweating sensation. 2) The local discomfort was observed when the local thermal sensation was "cool" approximately "cold" with the cooling vest. 3) The new cooling vest kept the skin temperature at chest at about 32.6 degrees C. On the other hand, by wearing the commercially available one, it lowered to about 31.1 degrees C. By wearing the new cooling vest, there was a tendency that local thermal sensation vote was higher and local comfort sensation vote was more comfortable than those of the condition wearing the commercially available one. It is important for the design of a comfortable cooling garment to prevent over-cool down from the body.

  4. Organizational Change and Vested Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is derived from a model with costs of delay, vested interests and costs of organizational change.The value of headquarters is derived from imposed organizational change. It is viewed as an institution which is able to prevent surplus

  5. Vested interest and environmental risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Crano, William D.; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2014-01-01

    found (both at "between cities" and "within city" levels). Study 2 (N=444) looked at the moderating role of VIT-based risk communication messages on the relationship between vested interest and behavioral intentions. Components of vested interest moderate attitude-intention consistency, suggesting a new......Vested interest theory (VIT), first investigated on environmental risk, suggests that the hedonic relevance of an attitude object moderates relations between attitudes, intentions, and responses to danger. Emphasizing vested interest may maximize impacts of risk communications. Study 1 (N=215...

  6. Herontwerp Ballistisch vest voor Vrouwen: Fase 1 (Redesign Ballistic Vest for Women: Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ballistische vest. Vooraf aan de inventarisatie zijn verschillende eenheden benaderd en is het doel van de inventarisatie uitgelegd. Hoewel het aantal...vest. Echter, een niet goed passend vest kan de fysieke prestatie negatief beivioeden. Doordat de vorm, en grootte van kogelwerende platen voor zowel...ballistische platen de druk op Vervolgens is een enqu te al"genomen waarin de borsten toeneemt, hetgeen tot klachten gevraagd werd naar klachten en

  7. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  8. Vibrotactile Vest and The Humming Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Knoche, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Vibrotactile information can be used to elicit sensations and encourage particular user body movements. We designed a vibrotactile vest with physiological monitoring that interacts with a vibroacoustic urban environment, The Humming Wall. In this paper, we describe the first field trial with the ......, with a system designed to calm, activate, guide and warn the participants....

  9. [Application of Halo-vest head ring in replantation of total scalp avulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Lin; Lizhi, Wu; Yuhua, Guo; Tianhao, Zhang; Shilin, Gu; Cheng, Wang; Zhongyi, Chen; Haixiao, Chen

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Halo-vest head ring in the treatment of replantation of total scalp avulsion. We treated 11 cases of total scalp avulsion with the anastomosis of arteriovenous vessels and Halo-vest head ring from December 2006 to February 2015. One patient's replanted scalp got necrosis because of serious contusion which was healed without hair growth after free skin graft and dressing. All the scalp flaps in the other 10 patients survived. After 3-96 months follow-up, the wound completely healed, the scalp and hair grew well with satisfactory appearance. The use of Halo-vest head ring for replantation of total scalp avulsion can effectively improve the survival rate and survival area.

  10. 46 CFR 160.052-3 - Materials-standard vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam... incorporated in the finished product. (b) Unicellular plastic foam. The unicellular plastic foam shall be all... Type A or B foam. (c) Envelope. The buoyant vest envelope, or cover, shall be made from 39″, 2.85...

  11. Performance-vested Stock Options and Pay-Performance Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper investigates the incentive effects of performance-vested stock options (PVSOs) in aligning management interests with shareholder wealth. Performance targets attached to option vesting would prevent executives from receiving rewards from outcomes that are unaffected by their effort.Such

  12. Reference List Accuracy in Social Work Journals: A Follow-Up Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Williams, Missy T.; Skipper, Antonius D.; Alexander, Marvin C.; Wilks, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Following up an "Research on Social Work Practice" article published a decade ago, this study aimed to examine reference error rates among five, widely circulated social work journals. Methods: A stratified random sample of references was selected from the year 2013 (N = 500, 100/journal). Each was verified against the original…

  13. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  14. Ambulatory surveillance of patients referred for cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalization: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David A; Habot, Juda; Grace, Sherry L; Fair, Terry; Kiernan, David; Clark, Wendy; Fell, David

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the feasibility of implementing an ambulatory surveillance system for monitoring patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations. This study consists of 1208 consecutive referrals to cardiac rehabilitation between October 2007 and April 2008. Patient attendance at cardiac rehabilitation, waiting times for cardiac rehabilitation, and adverse events while waiting for cardiac rehabilitation were tracked by telephone surveillance by a nurse. Among the 1208 consecutive patients referred, only 44.7% attended cardiac rehabilitation; 36.4% of referred patients were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation, while an additional 18.9% of referred patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 456 referred patients who attended the cardiac rehabilitation program, 19 (4.2%) experienced an adverse event while in the queue (13 of which were for cardiovascular hospitalizations with no deaths), with mean waiting times of 20 days and 24 days among those without and with adverse events, respectively. Among the 440 referred patients who were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation program, 114 (25.9%) had adverse clinical events while in the queue; 46 of these events required cardiac hospitalization and 8 patients died. Ambulatory surveillance for cardiac rehabilitation referrals is feasible. The high adverse event rates in the queue, particularly among patients who are referred but who do not attend cardiac rehabilitation programs, underscores the importance of ambulatory referral surveillance systems for cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.S., E-mail: tskim@kaeri.re.kr; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  16. A Pioneer Study on Online Learning Environments Following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sabater, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a pioneer study on how technology is used to complement face-to face teaching in universities following the directives of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL). The paper examines the students¿ and teachers¿ perception of the effectiveness of autonomous language practice. Findings reveal that while teachers value the incorporation of autonomous learning in traditional university classrooms, students don¿t seem to agree unanimously on ...

  17. Automatic external defibrillator, life vest defibrillator, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Conti, C

    2010-12-01

    The standard of practice for out-of-hospital defibrillation is the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. However, much has been written and discussed about the use of automated external defibrillators. Not as much has been written about life vest wearable defibrillators. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reffeltrath, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  19. Conflict of interests, vested interests and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-11-01

    This paper examines conflict of interest as it may arise in the activities of research advisory committees and ethical review committees. It distinguishes between vested interests and true conflict of interest. It also examines the ways in which stakeholdings differ from vested interests and conflicting interests differ from conflicts of interest. It explores the overlapping terrain of corruption and conflict of interest. The paper further examines the ways in which scientists, communities and the subjects of medical research all have legitimate stakeholdings in medical research. Each group thus has differently vested interests in the outcomes of the research. The vested interests of medical scientists are particularly complex because scientists have moral commitments to the welfare of patients that may compete with professional and personal interests in the outcome of research performed on those patients as research subjects. The more these interests diverge, the more opportunity will arise for conflict of interest. These observations have implications for the constitution of research advisory and ethical review committees, and the ways in which their discussions are conducted. Some practical help with protocols of discussion can be gained from philosophical and management writings.

  20. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.

    1996-12-01

    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  1. Assessment of a Thermoelectric Vest through Physical and Mental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    VO2max ) on each subject and designing a subject-specific submaximal test with a vigilance task. Each subject completed a total of four submaximal tests...for testing with the metabolic cart. .................................... 9 Figure 8. Baseline test outline to determine a subjects VO2max ...subjects. Efficacy of the vest was determined by running baseline maximal oxygen uptake ( VO2max ) on each subject and designing a subject-specific

  2. [Automated external defibrillators, life vest defibrillator, or both?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C Richard

    2012-03-01

    As most understand, survival of cardiac arrest victims falls significantly if cardioversion is not performed promptly. The standard of practice for out-of-hospital defibrillation is the implantable cardiac defibrillator; however, much has been written and discussed about the use of automated external defibrillators. Not as much has been written about life vest wearable defibrillators. How to use these devices will be reviewed in this article.

  3. Validation of the Hexoskin wearable vest during lying, sitting, standing, and walking activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rodrigo; Beltrame, Thomas; Hughson, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    We tested the validity of the Hexoskin wearable vest to monitor heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation, and hip motion intensity (HMI) in comparison with laboratory standard devices during lying, sitting, standing, and walking. Twenty healthy young volunteers participated in this study. First, participants walked 6 min on a treadmill at speeds of 1, 3, and 4.5 km/h followed by increasing treadmill grades until 80% of their predicted maximal heart rate. Second, lying, sitting, and standing tasks were performed (5 min each) followed by 6 min of treadmill walking at 80% of their ventilatory threshold. Analysis of each individual's mean values under each resting or exercise condition by the 2 measurement systems revealed low coefficient of variation and high intraclass correlation values for HR, BR, and HMI. The Bland-Altman results from HR, BR, and HMI indicated no deviation of the mean value from zero and relatively small variability about the mean. VT and minute ventilation were provided in arbitrary units by the Hexoskin device; however, relative magnitude of change from Hexoskin closely tracked the laboratory standard method. Hexoskin presented low variability, good agreement, and consistency. The Hexoskin wearable vest was a valid and consistent tool to monitor activities typical of daily living such as different body positions (lying, sitting, and standing) and various walking speeds.

  4. Vest-over-Pant Method for Closure of Residual Cavity of Liver Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Behdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several therapeutic strategies have proven to be effective for hydatid cyst of liver, but surgery is still the most common therapy despite its morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, a variety of technique has been recommended for managing the residual cavity after cystectomy. We report here a new technical method for the reconstruction of hydatid cyst residual cavity with using overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant. Methods. In this technique after removing the cyst, the edges of one side of cyst cavity were sutured to the base of the cavity using three to four mattress sutures, and edges of other side of liver was overlapped on the dorsal part of previous layer using four to five mattress sutures. Therefore residual cavity dead space was obliterated with two surfaces of cavity. Results. Fifty males were treated by our method. The average cyst volume was 423±110 mL. There was no intraabdominal sepsis, bile leakage, or hepatic necrosis. In follow-up ultrasound study, residual cavities were disappeared one month after operation. Conclusion. Overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant provides easy, safe closure of cyst with preservation of the liver anatomy.

  5. Vested interests as drivers of political dynamics and change in China: Cases from the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

    Shifting Chinese leaders and leaderships have seen vested interests as a disruptive driver of political dynamics in China ever since the establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949. Obviously, the nature and dynamics of vested interests are in the eyes of the beholder. But given the fact...... that China’s leaders time and again focus on the negative influence of vested interests, to the extent that Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping have stated that the one-party system may collapse if vested interested are not tackled resolutely by their roots, it is pertinent to ask what is the nature of vested interests...... in the perception of recent Chinese leaderships and what is the basis for assuming that such interests are detrimental to the maintenance of contemporary Communist Party rule? In a wider perspective, I am interested to examine how vested interests form ad why, how they exert their influence, how they play...

  6. Study of gait using weighted vests on balance with paraplegic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify static and dynamic balance with the addition of weighted vests for the rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. The study was conducted using weighted vest exercises with applied optimal weight ratios. Ten paraplegic patients who use custom orthosis were enrolled for experiments including static standing and dynamic gait with a weighted vest. We set weight ratios as 0%, 10%, and 15% of the patients? weight. A plantar pressure device was used for static ba...

  7. Changes in Reference Question Complexity Following the Implementation of a Proactive Chat System: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Krisellen; Kemp, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    There has been longstanding debate about whether the level of complexity of questions received at reference desks and via online chat services requires a librarian's expertise. Continued decreases in the number and complexity of reference questions have all but ended the debate; many academic libraries no longer staff service points with…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cooling Vest in a Hot and Humid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Zhao, Yijie; Chan, Albert P C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed hybrid cooling vest for construction workers in alleviating heat stress. Two types of cooling vests, namely, a commonly worn Vest A and a newly designed Vest B, were tested in a climatic chamber environment (34.0°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, and 0.4 m s-1 air velocity) using a sweating thermal manikin. Four test scenarios were included: fan off with no phase change materials (PCMs) (Fan-off), fan on with no PCMs (Fan-on), fan off with completely solidified PCMs (PCM + Fan-off), and fan on with completely solidified PCMs (PCM + Fan-on). Test results showed that Vests A and B provided a continuous cooling effect during the 3-h test. The average cooling power for the torso region of Vest B was 67 W, which was higher than that of Vest A (56 W). The addition of PCMs offered a cooling effect of approximately 60 min. Ventilation fans considerably improved the evaporative heat loss compared with the Fan-off condition. The newly designed hybrid cooling vest (Vest B) may be an effective means to reduce heat strain and enhance work performance in a hot and humid environment.

  9. Predicting watershed post-fire sediment yield with the InVEST sediment retention model: Accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; McVay, Jason C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vaillant, Nicole; Lowe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Increased sedimentation following wildland fire can negatively impact water supply and water quality. Understanding how changing fire frequency, extent, and location will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize erosion and sedimentation of burned watersheds. InVEST was developed by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University (Tallis et al., 2014) and is a suite of GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., USLE – Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured postfire sediment yields available for many watersheds throughout the western USA from an existing, published large database. We show that the model can be parameterized in a relatively simple fashion to predict post-fire sediment yield with accuracy. Our ultimate goal is to use the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield at a watershed scale as a function of future wildfire conditions.

  10. Designing a Vibrotactile Language for a Wearable Vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knoche, Hendrik; Manresa-Yee, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We designed a wearable vest that houses a set of actuators to be placed at specific points on the body. We developed vibrotactile patterns to induce five sensation types: (1) Calming, (2 patterns, Up and Down back) (2) Feel Good (4 patterns in different directions around the waist), (3) Activating...... (2 patterns, Tarzan and Shiver, on top front of body and then down the back as well for Shiver), (4) Navigation (2 patterns, Turn Left and Turn Right, prompting on back then opposite side front waist) for full body turning and (5) Warning, (1 pattern on solar plexus) to slow down or stop the wearers...

  11. Optimal Magnetic Sensor Vests for Cardiac Source Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetocardiography (MCG non-invasively provides functional information about the heart. New room-temperature magnetic field sensors, specifically magnetoresistive and optically pumped magnetometers, have reached sensitivities in the ultra-low range of cardiac fields while allowing for free placement around the human torso. Our aim is to optimize positions and orientations of such magnetic sensors in a vest-like arrangement for robust reconstruction of the electric current distributions in the heart. We optimized a set of 32 sensors on the surface of a torso model with respect to a 13-dipole cardiac source model under noise-free conditions. The reconstruction robustness was estimated by the condition of the lead field matrix. Optimization improved the condition of the lead field matrix by approximately two orders of magnitude compared to a regular array at the front of the torso. Optimized setups exhibited distributions of sensors over the whole torso with denser sampling above the heart at the front and back of the torso. Sensors close to the heart were arranged predominantly tangential to the body surface. The optimized sensor setup could facilitate the definition of a standard for sensor placement in MCG and the development of a wearable MCG vest for clinical diagnostics.

  12. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Sisson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO, we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC analyzed for NO metabolites (. Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; . CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  13. 20 CFR 422.122 - Information on deferred vested pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on deferred vested pension... PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.122 Information on deferred vested pension benefits. (a) Claimants for... electronic pension benefit record. This record contains information received from IRS on individuals for whom...

  14. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-3 - Vesting in employer-derived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vesting in employer-derived benefits. 1.411(a)-3... in employer-derived benefits. (a) In general—(1) Alternative requirements. A plan is not a qualified... percent of his accrued benefit derived from employer contributions. (c) 5- to 15-year vesting. A plan...

  15. A multi-purpose tactile vest for astronauts in the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van

    2003-01-01

    During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibrotactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orientation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector

  16. Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C; Gaudet, Cynthia M; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-12-04

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment.

  17. Designing of the cooling vest from paraffin compounds and evaluation of its impact under laboratory hot conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Yazdanirad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The designed cooling vest with low cost can be used to prevent thermal strain and to increase the physiological stability against the heat. However, the latent heat of this cooling vest was low.

  18. The Effect of Intermittent Vest Cooling on Thermoregulation and Cardiovascular Strain in Baseball Catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Szymanski, David J; Ryan, Greg A; Herron, Robert L; Bishop, Phil A

    2017-08-01

    Bishop, SH, Szymanski, DJ, Ryan, GA, Herron, RL, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent vest cooling on thermoregulation and cardiovascular strain in baseball catchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2060-2065, 2017-Baseball catchers are exposed to multiple physiological challenges while playing outside during the spring and summer months, many of which deal with recovery and thermoregulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent cooling on core temperature, cardiovascular strain, exertion, and recovery during a simulated catching performance in the heat. Six trained college-aged baseball catchers performed in a controlled, hot (35° C), and humid (25% relative humidity) environment in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Ice vest cooling (VC) was used as a cooling modality and was compared with a control of no cooling (NC). Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived recovery scale (PRS) were recorded before and after each simulated inning. All activities took place in a heat chamber, and each inning consisted of catchers receiving 12 pitches in their position followed by 6 minutes of recovery. Nine total innings were performed, and 27 total innings were performed with each of the 2 treatments. A significantly smaller mean Tre change was seen in VC when compared with NC (0.58 ± 0.2° C, 0.98 ± 0.2° C, p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly lower and PRS was significantly improved for VC compared with NC (both p ≤ 0.05). Mean recovery HR during VC was significantly lower than NC in the fifth (VC = 84 ± 8 b·min, NC = 90 ± 9 b·min, p = 0.04), seventh (VC = 84 ± 3 b·min, NC = 92 ± 7 b·min, p = 0.02), and ninth (VC = 85 ± 7 b·min, NC = 93 ± 5 b·min, p = 0.01) innings. Heart rate during catching was significantly lower at the end of the VC trials when compared with NC (108 ± 16 b·min vs. 120 ± 19 b·min, p = 0.02, respectively

  19. A printed, dry electrode Frank configuration vest for ambulatory vectorcardiographic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gordon; Torah, Russel; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a screen printed network of bio-potential measurement electrodes on a garment, in this case a vest. The electrodes are placed according to the Frank configuration, which allows monitoring of the electrical behavior of the heart in three spatial orientations. The vest is designed to provide stable contact pressure on the electrodes. The electrodes are fabricated from stencil printed carbon loaded rubber and are connected by screen printed silver polymer conductive tracks to an array of vias, which form an electrical connection to the other side of the textile. The vest is tested and compared to Frank configuration recordings that were obtained using standard self-adhesive ECG electrodes. The vest was successfully used to obtain Frank configuration recordings with minimal baseline drift. The vest is fabricated using only technologies found in standard textile production lines and can be used with a reduced setup effort compared to clinical 12-lead examinations.

  20. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a non-vested worker, we (the Social Security Administration) will consider your services in the railroad...

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  2. Evaluating the usability of a commercial cooling vest in the Hong Kong industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P; Yang, Yang; Song, Wen-Fang

    2017-02-28

    The provision of appropriate personal cooling vests is recognized as an effective measure to combat heat stress. However, personal cooling vests are not widely implemented in the Hong Kong industries. The current study aims to evaluate the usability of a hybrid cooling vest that is associated with the success of its application in industrial settings. A self-administrated questionnaire focusing on 10 subjective attributes of cooling effect, ergonomic design and usability of a hybrid cooling vest was administered with 232 occupational workers in the construction, horticultural and cleaning, airport apron services and kitchen and catering industries. A structural equation model estimated by analysis of moment structures was constructed to evaluate the usability of the cooling vest, as influenced by cooling effect and ergonomic design. Results showed that cooling effect (path coefficient = 0.69, p nature of the structural relationships among the subjective perceptions of personal cooling vests. The empirical findings furnish sound evidence for further optimization of the hybrid cooling vest in terms of cooling effect and ergonomic design for occupational workers.

  3. Lowered reference limits for hCG improve follow-up of patients with hCG-producing tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nome, Ragnhild V; Bjøro, Trine; Paus, Elisabeth; Bjerner, Johan; Fosså, Sophie D; Steen, Rita; Nustad, Kjell; Bolstad, Nils

    2018-02-01

    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is produced by germ cell tumors, but can also be elevated in benign conditions such as primary hypogonadism, where hCG is produced by the pituitary gland. In our experience, the reference limits for hCG (Elecsys hCG+β-assay, Roche Diagnostics), were unnecessarily high and did not reflect levels encountered in clinical practice. We wanted to establish new reference limits to increase the clinical utility of the hCG-assay. We analysed hCG in serum samples from a healthy adult population and in a cohort of testicular cancer survivors. The gonadotropins LH and FSH were measured in the cohort and in a selection of the reference population to assess gonadal function. We found low hCG levels for all men and women hCG levels exceeding the reference limit could be fully explained by reduced gonadal function indicated by elevated LH and FSH levels. The Elecsys hCG+β-assay should have lower reference limits than recommended by the manufacturer, with important implications for tumor follow-up. Elevated hCG is rare with intact gonadal function, both in a normal population and among survivors of testicular cancer, and should lead to further investigations when encountered in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Oslo University Hospital. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Running functional sport vest and short for e-textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, H.; Acikgoz, H.; Atakan, R.; Eryuruk, H.; Akalın, N.; Kose, H.; Li, Y.; Kursun Bahadir, S.; Kalaoglu, F.

    2017-10-01

    Sports garments with functional properties have become crucial as well as comfort properties since they improve the wearer performance. For this reason, sport vest and short having high elastic recovery with fall detection sensor, were designed and produced by using flat-bed knitting machine. Comfort properties of short and vest were tested with several test instruments and; tensile strength of elastomeric yarn, air permeability, moisture management, drape and objective handle (FAST tests) of garments were achieved. It was proved that short and vest samples have good comfort properties as a functional sport garment. It was also tested that fall-detection sensor can work efficiently by using a mobile phone application.

  5. Interactive Furniture: Bi-directional Interaction with a Vibrotactile Wearable Sensate Vest in an Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Manresa, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    reveals some patterns on the vest and zones at the wall im-pact relaxation in the form of calming and feel-good sensations, (even therapeu-tic) as well as activation and warning on the vest. We contribute to this research field by adding a large scale public object and visibly responsive interactive wall...... that was positively received as the partner responder for the wearers of a vi-brotactile vest set in an urban environment. Participants reported calming, thera-peutic, feel good sensations in response to the patterns....

  6. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  7. Balansert målstyring i Helse Vest RHF : korleis kan balansert målstyring bidra til betre styring av Helse Vest RHF

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Knut Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Det har dei siste åra vore mykje debatt omkring økonomisk styring av sjukehussektoren. Denne utgreiinga tek føre seg bruk av balansert målstyring i Helse Vest RHF, og om dette rammeverket kan gi betre styring for organisasjonen. Eg presenterer først teori knytt til balansert målstyring, og gir eit samandrag av dei viktigaste styringsdokumenta for Helse Vest RHF. Vidare koplar eg saman teori og empiri for å sjå om balansert målstyring er mogleg å bruke i denne organisasjonen, og om det vil gi ...

  8. Evaluating the Physiological and Perceptual Responses of Wearing a Newly Designed Cooling Vest for Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Yam, Michael C H

    2017-08-01

    Construction workers are subjected to heat stress because of the hot environment, physically demanding tasks, and/or personal protective equipment. A tailor-made cooling vest that protects construction workers from heat-related injuries was developed. The purpose of the study is to examine a newly designed cooling vest's effectiveness in alleviating physiological and perceptual strain in a hot and humid environment. Twelve male participants performed two trials, i.e., cooling vest (VEST) and control (CON) in a climatic chamber controlled at 37°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0.3 m/s air velocity, and 450 W/m2 solar radiation to simulate the summer working environment of construction sites. Two bouts of treadmill exercise intermitted with 30-minute passive recovery were designed to simulate the practical work-rest schedule of the construction industry. The cooling vest was used during the passive recovery period in the VEST condition, and the results were compared with that of no cooling vest in the CON condition. The results revealed that the newly designed cooling vest can significantly alleviate heat strain and improve thermal comfort, based on the decrease in body temperature, heart rate, and subjective perceptions (including perceived exertion, thermal, wetness, and comfort sensation) of the participants. It can also prolong work duration in the subsequent exercise. The cooling countermeasures proposed in this study will be able to provide an effective solution in situations that involve repeated bouts of outdoor construction work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  9. Interactive Furniture: Bi-directional Interaction with a Vibrotactile Wearable Sensate Vest in an Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Manresa, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate the experience for participants while wearing a vi-brotactile vest that interacts with a vibroacoustic architecture The Humming Wall, set in an urban space. This public large scale artefact is built to exchange vibrotactile and physiological interactions with a vibrot......In this study we investigate the experience for participants while wearing a vi-brotactile vest that interacts with a vibroacoustic architecture The Humming Wall, set in an urban space. This public large scale artefact is built to exchange vibrotactile and physiological interactions...... with a vibrotactile wearable vest. The heart beats and breath rates of the vest wearers are vibroacoustically displayed at The Humming Wall. In addition, participants can swipe and knock on The Hum-ming Wall and the vest wearer is effectively swiped and knocked upon. We work with overlapping vibrotactile outputs...... in order that the wearers experience a flow of sensations similar to a touch gesture. The communication privileged vi-broacoustic and vibrotactile as the primary interaction modalities for both vest wearers as well as for a passing public. The participants found the experience fa-vourable and analysis...

  10. Loss to follow-up and mortality amongst pregnant women referred to a community clinic for antiretroviral treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Catherine; Zwane, Eugene; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Summary In a retrospective cohort analysis, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality rates were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women referred to a community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in South Africa. While there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality rates between the two groups, the pregnant women had a substantially higher risk of LTFU both pre and on-treatment. This finding highlights the need for programmatic interventions to address retention in care for this patient population. PMID:18670232

  11. The Effectiveness of the Snug Vest on Stereotypic Behaviors in Children Diagnosed With an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Sparling, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Various reviews of the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT) have concluded that such interventions fail to reduce stereotypy. However, a new, and as yet untested, SIT iteration, an inflatable wearable vest known as the Snug Vest purports to decrease such repetitive behavior. In the current study, three children who emitted different forms of stereotypy participated in an alternating treatments design in which each participant wore a fully inflated vest and either a fully deflated vest or no vest. The results of the study show that the Snug Vest failed to reduce any participants' stereotypy. We highlight our findings in the context of professional practice and discuss several potential limitations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Study of gait using weighted vests on balance with paraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify static and dynamic balance with the addition of weighted vests for the rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. The study was conducted using weighted vest exercises with applied optimal weight ratios. Ten paraplegic patients who use custom orthosis were enrolled for experiments including static standing and dynamic gait with a weighted vest. We set weight ratios as 0%, 10%, and 15% of the patients' weight. A plantar pressure device was used for static balance tests for excursion and velocity of center of pressure and we identified dynamic balance through the tool of Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The results of static and dynamic balance in 0%, 10%, and 15% weight ratios did not have statistically significant differences, but we found an increasing tendency of sway excursion from nonweight (0%) to weight ratios (10%, 15%) in static balance when weight is applied. Sway excursion in anteroposterior direction is greater than mediolateral sway. In dynamic balance, the TUG results showed a more delayed time when weight ratios were applied. In conclusion, we have to focus on balance training with anteroposterior direction to upgrade a patient's balance and prevent falls. Exercises with weighed vests are more useful than nonweighted but there is no difference between 10% and 15% weight ratios. Weighted vest exercises may play a role in the rehabilitation of balance in those with paraplegia.

  13. Noble gas partitioning behavior in the Sleipner Vest hydrocarbon field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Warr, O.; Mabry, J.; Byrne, D. J.; Meurer, W. P.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Noble gases are chemically inert and variably soluble in crustal fluids. They are primarily introduced into hydrocarbon reservoirs through exchange with formation waters, and can be used to assess migration pathways, mechanisms and reservoir storage. Of particular interest is the role groundwater plays in hydrocarbon transport, which is reflected in hydrocarbon-water volume ratios. We present compositional, stable isotope and noble gas isotope and abundance data from the Sleipner Vest field, in the Norwegian North Sea. Sleipner gases are generated from primary cracking of kerogen and the thermal cracking of oil, sourced from type II marine source, with relatively homogeneous maturities and a range in vitrinite reflectance (1.2-1.7%). Gases are hosted in the lower shoreface sandstones of the Jurassic Hugin formation, which is sealed by the Jurassic Upper Draupne and Heather formations. Gases are composed of N2 (0.6-0.9%), CO2 (5.4-15.3%) and hydrocarbons (69-80%). Helium isotopes (3He/4He) are radiogenic and range from 0.065 to 0.116 RA, showing a small mantle contribution, consistent with Ne isotopes (20Ne/22Ne from 9.70-9.91; 21Ne/22Ne from 0.0290-0.0344) and Ar isotopes (40Ar/36Ar from 315-489). 20Ne/36Ar, 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar values are systematically higher relative to air saturated water ratios. These data are discussed within the framework of several conceptual models: i) Total gas-stripping model, which defines the minimum volume of water to have interacted with the hydrocarbon phase; ii) Equilibrium model, assuming simple equilibration between groundwater and hydrocarbon phase at reservoir P,T and salinity; and iii) Open and closed system gas-stripping models. Using Ne-Ar, we estimate gas-water ratios for the Sleipner system of 0.02-0.09, which compare with geologic gas-water estimates of ~0.24, and suggest more groundwater interaction than a static system estimate. Kr and Xe show evidence for an additional source or process involving oil or sediments.

  14. Use of the reference organism Eisenia foetida to investigate bioaccumulation and biological effects following contamination of soil by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, A.; Cozzella, M.L.; Basso, E. [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301 00060, Rome (Italy); Ninova, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology, G. Bonchev St. 21, 1130, Sofia (Bulgaria); Fesenko, S.; Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency Laboratories Seibersdorf, A -1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of reference organisms for radiological assessments on non -human species is an integral part of the current systemic approach for the management of radiation effects in the environment. The reference organisms approach allows the evaluation of radiological impact on the environment taking into account relationships among ambient radionuclide activity concentrations, dose and expected adverse biological effects. Four broad categories of biological damages are included: mortality, morbidity, DNA damage and reproductive failure. Earthworms are one of the most important biotic components in the soil, they are commonly used in studies of toxicity and they are included in the list of the reference organisms suggested by International (ICRP) and national organisations. However, up to now, no adequate results have been obtained for earthworms allowing the identification of the dose-response relationship, essentially for the contamination scenarios where radionuclide can provide both radiation and chemical impact. Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal. Recently there has been public concern on the presence in the environment of depleted uranium (DU), a by-product of the process used to enrich natural uranium ore for use in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons. The presence of uranium in soil could lead to both toxic and radiation impact and it is difficult to distinguish the different impacts and their contribution to possible biological effects. European Union, OECD and FAO have selected the earthworms Eisenia for testing soil toxicity because it is an organism that can be easily cultured in the laboratory, an extensive database is available, and it feeds at the soil surface level. The prime objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of Eisenia foetida as a bio-marker of U environmental impact. Four groups of six sexually mature Eisenia foetida were maintained in the dark at 21 deg. C in Petri

  15. Halo vest treatment of cervical spine injuries: a success and survivorship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, Richard J; Stevens, David W; Uyeji, Staci; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective study of a consecutive series of traumatic cervical spine injuries treated with halo vest immobilization (HVI) over an 8-year period at a level 1 trauma center. To assess survivorship, success, and causes of failure of HVI in the management of cervical spine injuries. The use of HVI has been increasingly questioned as an immobilization technique in cervical trauma due to reports of high complication rates and unacceptable treatment results. It was our hypothesis that selective use of updated HVI could demonstrate higher clinical success rates and lower complication rates compared to several previous landmark studies. All patients with traumatic cervical spine injuries treated with HVI between 1998 and 2006 at a single level 1 trauma center were reviewed retrospectively. With Internal Review Board approval, the trauma, spine, and orthotics databases were reviewed for (1) injury type, (2) patient age, (3) complications and comorbidities, (4) survivorship of the device and (5) treatment outcome. Four hundred ninety traumatic cervical spine injuries in 342 patients were treated with HVI. Thirty-one (9%) patients were lost to follow-up. Average age was 41 years (2-94). HVI was used as definitive treatment in 288 (84%) patients and in conjunction with surgical intervention in 54 (16%) patients. One hundred thirteen (35%) complications occurred, the most common of which were pin site infections (39) and instability (38). Two hundred seven (74%) of the 289 halo survivors with appropriate follow-up completed the initially prescribed time period of HVI. Two hundred eight of 247 (85%) halos placed as stand-alone management achieved their intended goal. Treatment with HVI was successful in 85% of patients and 74% of survivors completed their intended treatment period. Complications, though common, were mostly not severe. HVI is still a reasonable treatment option in managing cervical spine injuries.

  16. Reappraising the P–T evolution of the Rogaland–Vest Agder Sector, southwestern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanore Blereau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rogaland–Vest Agder Sector of southwestern Norway comprises high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by voluminous plutonic bodies that include the ∼1000 km2 Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC. New petrographic observations and thermodynamic phase equilibria modelling of three metapelitic samples collected at various distances (30 km, 10 km and ∼10 m from one of the main bodies of RIC anorthosite were undertaken to assess two alternative P–T–t models for the metamorphic evolution of the area. The results are consistent with a revised two-phase evolution. Regional metamorphism followed a clockwise P–T path reaching peak conditions of ∼850–950 °C and ∼7–8 kbar at ∼1035 Ma followed by high-temperature decompression to ∼5 kbar at ∼950 Ma, and resulted in extensive anatexis and melt loss to produce highly residual rocks. Subsequent emplacement of the RIC at ∼930 Ma caused regional-scale contact metamorphism that affected country rocks 10 km or more from their contact with the anorthosite. This thermal overprint is expressed in the sample proximal to the anorthosite by replacement of sillimanite by coarse intergrowths of cordierite plus spinel and growth of a second generation of garnet, and in the intermediate (10 km sample by replacement of sapphirine by coarse intergrowths of cordierite, spinel and biotite. The formation of late biotite in the intermediate sample may suggest the rocks retained small quantities of melt produced by regional metamorphism and remained at temperatures above the solidus for up to 100 Ma. Our results are more consistent with an accretionary rather than a collisional model for the Sveconorwegian Orogen.

  17. Derivation of an inhalation reference concentration based upon olfactory neuronal loss in male rats following subchronic acetaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Wong, Brian A; Gross, Elizabeth A; Parkinson, Carl; Willson, Gabrielle A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Campbell, Jerry L; Teeguarden, Justin G; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2008-02-01

    Acetaldehyde inhalation induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic responses in the rodent nasal cavity. This experiment further characterizes the dose-response relationship for nasal pathology, nasal epithelial cell proliferation, and DNA-protein cross-link formation in F-344 rats exposed subchronically to acetaldehyde. Animals underwent whole-body exposure to 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1500 ppm acetaldehyde for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for up to 65 exposure days. Respiratory tract histopathology was evaluated after 4, 9, 14, 30, and 65 exposure days. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with reduced body weight gain or other evidence of systemic toxicity. Histologic evaluation of the nasal cavity showed an increased incidence of olfactory neuronal loss (ONL) following acute to subchronic exposure to > or = 150 ppm acetaldehyde and increased olfactory epithelial cell proliferation following exposure to 1500 ppm acetaldehyde. The severity of the ONL demonstrated dose- and temporal-dependent behaviors, with minimal effects noted at 150-500 ppm acetaldehyde and moderately severe lesions seen in the highest exposure group, with increased lesion severity and extent as the exposure duration increased. Acetaldehyde exposure was also associated with inflammation, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. These responses were seen in animals exposed to > or = 500 ppm acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with increased DNA-protein cross-link formation in the respiratory or olfactory epithelium. A model of acetaldehyde pharmacokinetics in the nose was used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) of 0.4 ppm, based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 50 ppm for the nasal pathology seen in this study.

  18. The prevalence of tooth hypersensitivity following periodontal therapy with special reference to root scaling. A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Miriam E; Jakob, Michael; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz; Hickel, Reinhard

    2013-02-01

    To provide a current status of the art, answering the question whether a certain procedure of periodontal treatment is more reliable than another and where innovative developments could improve on the incidence of hypersensitivity by a systematic literature review. Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane library were considered for the study. 2,656 articles of the PubMed search were found, from the beginning of 1945 until April 2011. 99 articles from PubMed were evaluated for this review. From Embase, 60 articles were selected and one was included in this review. From the Cochrane library, 182 were found, of which two contributed to the review. Included were all studies dealing with periodontal treatment followed by hypersensitivity and all studies dealing with the loss of attachment, followed by hypersensitivity. Excluded were any treatments of tooth hypersensitivity with pathogenesis not related to dentin exposure, genetically caused disorders, and fractures. Ultimately, 102 papers were evaluated, included and referred to in the review. The term "tooth hypersensitivity" is most often used. Common causes of loss of hard substance are listed and updated. Mechanical loss of hard tissue formed one group of etiological factors; gingival recession and loss of attachment another. Surgical interventions, scaling and root planing were considered and in most cases performed as combined procedures. The different methods were evaluated and critically discussed. There were no properly randomized studies in the literature. The weak point of all epidemiological studies is the lack of any objective measurement. With respect to periodontal therapy, further research and developmental work on medical devices is needed, as well as ongoing applied research with laser technologies, continuing education and training programs for professionals.

  19. Modeling Ecosystem Services in an Arid Landscape Using the InVEST Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we describe the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Southwest Ecosystem Services Program (SwESP) initial efforts to use the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) tool to quantify and map the values of multiple ecosystem services in the S...

  20. The influence of firm and executive characteristics on performance-vested stock option grants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, B.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the considerable changes over the last two decades in the form and composition of executive remuneration schemes and the increasing use of performance-vested stock options (PVSOs), this study examines the determinants of PVSO grants. Using data on 4193 executive-year observations of

  1. The Dynamic Reactance Interaction - How Vested Interests Affect People's Experience, Behavior, and Cognition in Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindl, Christina; Jonas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In social interactions, individuals may sometimes pursue their own interests at the expense of their interaction partner. Such self-interested behaviors impose a threat to the interaction partner's freedom to act. The current article investigates this threat in the context of interdependence and reactance theory. We explore how vested interests influence reactance process stages of an advisor-client interaction. We aim to explore the interactional process that evolves. In two studies, participants took the perspective of a doctor (advisor) or a patient (client). In both studies we incorporated a vested interest. In Study 1 (N = 82) we found that in response to a vested interest of their interaction partner, patients indicated a stronger experience of reactance, more aggressive behavioral intentions, and more biased cognitions than doctors. A serial multiple mediation revealed that a vested interest engendered mistrust toward the interaction partner and this mistrust led to an emerging reactance process. Study 2 (N = 207) further demonstrated that doctors expressed their reactance in a subtle way: they revealed a classic confirmation bias when searching for additional information on their preliminary decision preference, indicating stronger defense motivation. We discuss how these findings can help us to understand how social interactions develop dynamically.

  2. Reference-based digital concept to restore partially edentulous patients following an immediate loading protocol: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmaseb, A.; de Clerck, R.; Eckert, S.; Wismeijer, D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed reference elements and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology to restore the partially edentulous patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-implants

  3. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 29 CFR 4006.4 - Determination of unfunded vested benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination must be made in a manner consistent with generally accepted actuarial principles and practices. (b... because of the circumstance that the participant is living, in the case of the following death benefits... lump-sum death benefit (other than a benefit described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section) is not...

  5. Virtual Environments for Soldier Training via Editable Demonstrations (VESTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    how to determine if airway is patent after spreading tracheal incision Based on all of these requirements, we formulated the following demonstration...eds.), Perspectives on Imitation: From Mirror Neurons to Memes . Vol 1. Mechanisms of Imitation and Imitation in Animals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

  6. Reference-based digital concept to restore partially edentulous patients following an immediate loading protocol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaseb, Ali; De Clerck, Renaat; Eckert, Steven; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed reference elements and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology to restore the partially edentulous patient. Mini-implants and/or reference brackets were inserted or positioned in specified locations in a test cast and in two patients prior to imaging to act as definitive fiducial markers. This served as a fixed base to better define a setup for the fabrication of a surgical template used during computed tomographic imaging. A simulated partially edentulous maxilla was used for the study, and two partially edentulous patients participated. With the CT images, a CAD/CAM superstructure was created prior to surgery and inserted immediately after surgery. Fit of the prosthesis was assessed using three-dimensional tension measurements with strain gauges. Mean misfit for all implants in the x-, y-, and z-axes was 26.6, 24.8, and 10.4 μm, respectively. The total misfit calculated according to the Pythagorean theorem was 42.6 μm. Based upon this pilot study in two patients and an in vitro analysis, it appears that the use of reproducible fiducial markers consisting of mini-implants and reference brackets results in the fabrication of an acceptably accurately fitting definitive prosthesis prior to implant placement.

  7. Positional changes of maxillary central incisors following orthodontic treatment using single-crown implants as fixed reference markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahem Ben, Elissa; Holm, Bente; Sonnesen, L

    2017-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients - thirty-seven with (test group) and twenty without pre-implant orthodontic treatment (control group) - were rehabilitated with 89 single-crown implants in the upper maxilla. Clinical and radiographic data, clinical photographs, and dental casts were collected......OBJECTIVES: This follow-up study (1) compares tooth displacement of central incisors in patients with and without pre-implant orthodontic treatment and (2) investigates whether sex, age, or orthodontic retention have an effect on tooth displacement after the insertion of single-crown implants...... during baseline examinations after prosthetic rehabilitation and at the final follow-up examination at least 5 years later. A total of 114 dental casts were digitalized and aligned using a software program to measure changes in the positions of the central incisors. RESULTS: After a follow-up period...

  8. Course of Skin Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children Referred for Patch Testing - A Long-term Follow-up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne B; Sommerlund, Mette; Deleuran, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Children are patch tested in the same manner as adults, but little has been done to establish whether positive or negative findings influence the course of skin symptoms. To uncover the course of skin symptoms and the impact of persistent eczema on life quality in paediatric patients referred...... for patch testing, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to children and adolescents referred for patch testing during a 9-year period. Persistent eczema at follow-up was strongly associated to atopic dermatitis, but was not explained by gender, age, contact allergy or time span from patch testing...... to follow-up. Among patients without atopic dermatitis, 23.5% reported to suffer from chronic eczema. Persistent eczema increased the risk of severe impairment of life quality. Our findings indicate a significant risk of childhood eczema becoming chronic and affecting life quality considerably. Patch...

  9. Case of retroperitoneal fibrosis following dihydroergotamine therapy. With special reference to partial diabetes insipidus and positive Ga scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masaharu; Abe, Shosaku; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Yoshikazu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Ide, Hajime

    1984-06-01

    A 72-year-old male patient who developed retroperitoneal fibrosis during treatment with dihydroergotamine, aspirin, and phenacetin was reported. The disease developed as mediastinal lesions and was accompanied by abnormal deposits of /sup 67/Ga-citrate, idiopathic partial diabetes insipidus, and hypergonadotropinism. One year later, he had fibrotic masses around the great vessels in the abdomen, which caused ureteral obstruction. Fibrous lesions completely disappeared and various laboratory findings improved by steroid therapy following the ablation and fixation of the ureter.

  10. Evaluation of Congenital Valvular Heart Diseases by the Pediatrician: When to Follow, When to Refer for Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2015-11-01

    Isolated congenital valvular heart disease in children constitutes a small fraction of congenital heart diseases. Valve involvement is seen more along with other congenital diseases. The most commonly involved valve is the pulmonary valve followed by the aortic valve. Stenotic lesions of the pulmonary and aortic valves are more frequently encountered than mitral and tricuspid valvular lesions. The presentation depends on the severity of the lesion and the age of the patient. Symptoms range from asymptomatic status to florid symptoms of valve obstruction and/or leak. Detailed clinical assessment and various imaging techniques confirm the diagnosis and help in management planning. Transcatheter balloon dilatation for obstructive pulmonary valve has very good long-term outcomes. The results of balloon dilation of aortic valve are also good enough for it to be the treatment of choice. Significant lesions of the mitral and tricuspid valve, regurgitant lesions, sub and supra valvular obstructions require surgical correction. Most valvar lesions mandate regular follow up. Communication and coordination between the pediatric cardiologist and the pediatrician helps in the optimal management.

  11. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  12. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  13. Vestes que falam: a tecelagem e as personagens femininas dos poemas homéricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Amadei Sais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é mostrar de que forma as vestes são apresentadas na sociedade homérica. Podemos observar que a tecelagem, sendo um trabalho exclusivamente feminino em Homero, é importante para que as mulheres obtenham prestígio e fama. A Odisseia nos mostra que o oferecimento de roupas como presente era uma etapa importante na cena típica de hospitalidade, consolidando os laços existentes entre anfitrião e hóspede. Por fim, argumentamos que na narrativa homérica a vestimenta possui capacidade de comunicação.

  14. Follow-up of surgically treated patients with massive pulmonary embolism--with reference to 12 operated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, R; Brunet, A P; Redonnet, M; Borg, J Y; Hubscher, C; Letac, B

    1982-04-01

    Since 1978, 17 patients have undergone surgery for massive pulmonary embolism in our department. Twelve patients survived and have been followed up for between 2 and 31 months postoperatively (mean 16 months). Reassessment of these patients included exercise tolerance test, pulmonary function test, perfusion scan, right heart catheterization and coagulation screening. Two survivors present major sequelae, namely vascular pruning and definite signs of pulmonary hypertension. The other 10 patients have minimal or no residual vascular occlusion, but show a high incidence of minor abnormalities: slight rise in pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise (3 cases), small angiographic and scintigraphic defects (5 cases), arterial hypoxemia (5 cases) and disturbances of pulmonary function (10 cases). Systemic venous problems were found to be frequent and to be a handicap in 5 cases, and an abnormal pattern of response to exercise was observed in 4 patients. These disturbances may be related to ligation of the vena cava. Various derangements of coagulation were found in all but one of the patients.

  15. Exercise capacity and mortality - a follow-up study of 3033 subjects referred to clinical exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Raija; Lämsä, Jenni; Kaikkonen, Kaisu M; Korpelainen, Juha; Laukkanen, Jari; Palatsi, Ilkka; Takala, Timo E; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Hautala, Arto J

    2016-08-01

    Exercise stress testing is used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. We determined the prognostic significance of exercise test findings for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality in men and women. 3033 subjects underwent a symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Exercise capacity was defined as the mean of last four minutes of exercise workload. During an average follow-up of 19 years, 186 (11.6%) CVD and 370 (20.6%) all-cause deaths in men and 57 (5.0%) CVD and 155 (12.5%) all-cause deaths in women occurred. Among exercise test variables (workload, ECG, BP, HR), exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of mortality. Low exercise capacity (1st quartile) was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.8) for CVD and 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5, 6.4) for all-cause mortality compared with high exercise capacity (4th quartile) among men and in women with a 5.4-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 24.0) risk for CVD and 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 4.3) risk for all-cause mortality, respectively. The relationship between other exercise test variables and mortality was much weaker. Among exercise test variables exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both genders, and especially CVD deaths in women. Key Messages Exercise capacity was the most powerful predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both men and women. Low exercise capacity is a strong predictor of CVD death, especially among women.

  16. Is drug treatment for dementia followed up in primary care? A Swedish study of dementia clinics and referring primary care centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Sonde

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It is largely unknown how the medical treatment of patients diagnosed with dementia is followed up in primary care. Therefore, we studied patient medical records from two dementia clinics and from the referring primary care centres. METHODS: A retrospective study of 241 patients was conducted from April to October 2011 in north west Stockholm, Sweden. Over half (51.5% of the patients had Alzheimer's disease (AD, the remainder had mixed AD/vascular dementia (VaD. Eighty-four medical reports from primary care (35% of the study group were analysed at follow-up 18 months after diagnosis. RESULTS: All four dementia drugs available on the Swedish market (three cholinesterase inhibitors [donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine] and memantine were prescribed at the two dementia clinics. The most commonly used dementia drug was galantamine. There were differences between the two dementia clinics in preference and combination of drugs and of treatment given to male and female patients. At follow-up, 84% were still on dementia medication. Drug use was followed up by the general practitioners (GPs in two-thirds of the cases. Eighteen per cent of the GPs' medical records made no reference to the patient's dementia or treatment even though dementia drugs were included in the list of medications prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the Swedish guidelines for treatment of cognitive symptoms in AD are being followed in primary care. However, documentation of follow-up of drug treatment was sometimes insufficient, which calls for development of guidelines for complete medical records and medication lists.

  17. Nephrotoxicity during tenofovir treatment: a three-year follow-up study in a Brazilian reference clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 275 patients in use of tenofovir were retrospectively followed-up for three years to evaluate risk factors involved in impaired renal function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to verify any differences in creatinine levels and estimated clearance at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, adjusting for the co-variables sex, skin color, age >50 years, arterial hypertension, diabetes and the use of the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r lopinavir/r or atazanavir/r. The software package STATISTICA 10® was used for statistical analysis. The patients’ mean age was 43.2 ± 10.7 years. Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH and diabetes were found in 20.4% and 8.7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, 96.7% were on tenofovir associated with lamivudine (TDF + 3TC, 39.3% on lopinavir/r, 29.8% on efavirenz, and 17.6% on atazanavir/r. There was a statistically significant difference in estimated creatinine clearance at 24 months, when the co-variables male (F = 3.95; p = 0.048, SAH (F = 6.964; p = 0.009, and age over 50 years (F = 45.81; p < 0.001 were taken into consideration. Analysis of the co-variable use of atazanavir/r showed a tendency toward an increased risk over time (F = 2.437; p = 0.063; however, no significant time interaction was seen. At 36-month, a statistically significant difference was found for age over 50 years, (F = 32.02; p < 0.05 and there was a significant time-by-sex interaction (F = 3.117; p = 0.0149. TDF was discontinued in 12 patients, one because of a femoral neck fracture (0.7% and 11 due to nephrotoxicity (4%. Of these latter cases, 9/11 patients were also using protease inhibitors. These data strongly alert that tenofovir use should be individualized with careful attention to renal function especially in male patients, over 50 years, with SAH, and probably those on ATV/r.

  18. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other... Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests may have...

  19. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other... Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap lock assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests may have...

  20. The dynamic reactance interaction – How vested interests affect people’s experience, behavior, and cognition in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSteindl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In social interactions, individuals may sometimes pursue their own interests at the expense of their interaction partner. Such self-interested behaviors impose a threat to the interaction partner’s freedom to act. The current article investigates this threat in the context of interdependence and reactance theory. We explore how vested interests influence reactance process stages of an advisor-client interaction. We aim to explore the interactional process that evolves. In two studies, participants took the perspective of a doctor (advisor or a patient (client. In both studies we incorporated a vested interest. In Study 1 (N=82 we found that in response to a vested interest of their interaction partner, patients indicated a stronger experience of reactance, more aggressive behavioral intentions, and more biased cognitions than doctors. A serial multiple mediation revealed that a vested interest engendered mistrust toward the interaction partner and this mistrust led to an emerging reactance process. Study 2 (N=207 further demonstrated that doctors expressed their reactance in a subtle way: They revealed a classic confirmation bias when searching for additional information on their preliminary decision preference, indicating stronger defense motivation. We discuss how these findings can help us to understand how social interactions develop dynamically.

  1. Noble gases solubility models of hydrocarbon charge mechanism in the Sleipner Vest gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Meurer, W. P.; Warr, O.; Mabry, J. C.; Byrne, D. J.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Noble gases are chemically inert and variably soluble in crustal fluids. They are primarily introduced into hydrocarbon reservoirs through exchange with formation waters, and can be used to assess migration pathways and mechanisms, as well as reservoir storage conditions. Of particular interest is the role groundwater plays in hydrocarbon transport, which is reflected in hydrocarbon-water volume ratios. Here, we present compositional, stable isotope and noble gas isotope and abundance data from the Sleipner Vest field, in the Norwegian North Sea. Sleipner Vest gases are generated from primary cracking of kerogen and the thermal cracking of oil. Gas was emplaced into the Sleipner Vest from the south and subsequently migrated to the east, filling and spilling into the Sleipner Ost fields. Gases principally consist of hydrocarbons (83-93%), CO2 (5.4-15.3%) and N2 (0.6-0.9%), as well as trace concentrations of noble gases. Helium isotopes (3He/4He) are predominantly radiogenic and range from 0.065 to 0.116 RA; reported relative to air (RA = 1.4 × 10-6; Clarke et al., 1976; Sano et al., 1988), showing predominantly (>98%) crustal contributions, consistent with Ne (20Ne/22Ne from 9.70 to 9.91; 21Ne/22Ne from 0.0290 to 0.0344) and Ar isotopes (40Ar/36Ar from 315 to 489). Air-derived noble gas isotopes (20Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr, 132Xe) are introduced into the hydrocarbon system by direct exchange with air-saturated water (ASW). The distribution of air-derived noble gas species are controlled by phase partitioning processes; in that they preferentially partition into the gas (i.e., methane) phase, due to their low solubilities in fluids. Therefore, the extent of exchange between hydrocarbon phases and formation waters - that have previously equilibrated with the atmosphere - can be determined by investigating air-derived noble gas species. We utilize both elemental ratios to address process (i.e., open vs. closed system) and concentrations to quantify the extent of hydrocarbon

  2. Characterization of in vivo ablation zones following percutaneous microwave ablation of the liver with two commercially available devices: are manufacturer published reference values useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Ronald S; Du, Jerry Y; Pua, Bradley B; Talenfeld, Adam D; Sista, Akhilesh K; Schiffman, Marc A; Trost, David W; Madoff, David C

    2014-12-01

    To analyze in vivo ablation properties of microwave ablation antennae in tumor-bearing human livers by performing retrospective analysis of ablation zones following treatment with two microwave ablation systems. Percutaneous microwave ablations performed in the liver between February 2011 and February 2013 with use of the AMICA and Certus PR ablation antennae were included. Immediate postablation computed tomography images were evaluated retrospectively for ablation length, diameter, and volume. Ablation length, diameter, and volume indices were calculated and compared between in vivo results and references provided from each device manufacturer. The two microwave antenna models were then also compared versus each other. Twenty-five ablations were performed in 20 patients with the AMICA antenna, and 11 ablations were performed in eight patients with the Certus PR antenna. The AMICA and Certus PR antennae showed significant differences in ablation length (P = .013 and P = .009), diameter (P = .001 and P = .009), and volume (P = .003 and P = .009). The AMICA ablation indices were significantly higher than the Certus PR ablation indices in length (P = .026) and volume (P = .002), but there was no significant difference in ablation diameter indices (P = .110). In vivo ablation indices of human tumors are significantly smaller than reference ex vivo ablation indices, and there are significant differences in ablation indices and sphericity between devices. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous reporting of adverse events following pandemic influenza A (H1N1 immunization in a reference center in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danise Senna Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper describes adverse events (AEs temporally associated to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine observed in a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, during a 2010 mass vaccination campaign. Methods A retrospective study involving persons who sought medical care for AEs following influenza vaccination. Data were retrieved from medical records, vaccine AE notification forms, and a computerized system for immunobiological registration. Results Sixty-six vaccinees sought medical care for AEs after immunization. The most frequent AEs were fever, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Few vaccinees spontaneously reported AEs to influenza A (H1N1 vaccine at this center.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tagliafico@unige.it [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  5. Estrogen enhances the retention of spatial reference memory in the open field tower task, but disrupts the expression of spatial memory following a novel start position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Toufexis, Donna J

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen's (E) involvement in cognition has been difficult to characterize; numerous studies show that E can both enhance and impair learning and memory. One difficulty may be that experimental paradigms often examine only a single aspect of E's involvement in cognition, for example, the role E plays in the expression of memory after learning has taken place. In addition, the effect of aversive and/or stressful features inherent to many cognitive tests may contribute to the contradictory findings. The present experiment aims to examine the effect of estradiol (E2) on several elements of cognition in a specific experimental setting. We investigated the within-subject effects of long-term E2 replacement in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats on the acquisition and retention of a hippocampal-mediated spatial reference memory task in a familiar non-threatening environment. Results show that E2-replaced rats and OVX sham-replaced rats acquired the ability to navigate an open-field tower maze in order to obtain a food reward at the same rate. Subsequent to acquisition, both E2-replaced and OVX rats performed the task at comparable levels. However, following a 21-day retention interval, non-replaced rats exhibited a significant impairment in spatial memory when returned to the maze environment, while E2-replaced rats exhibited no change in maze performance. When the OVX group was performing once again at asymptote, test trials were administered during which the rats were placed in a non-experienced start location within the maze. This novel condition significantly reduced correct responses in E2-replaced females whereas OVX controls remained unaffected. These results suggest that while the presence of E2 is not important for acquisition of spatial memory in a safe familiar environment, it improves retention of spatial memory. Data further suggests that E2 disrupts the expression of spatial reference memory following an alteration of the test conditions sustaining a habitual

  6. Physiological and Thermal Responses of MS Patients to Head and Vest Cooling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics and the physiologic changes produced by short term application of the stationary thermal control system used by most clinical institutions. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) Mark VII portable cooling system and a lightweight Head-vest active cooling garment were used to cool the head and chest regions of 4 male and 3 female MS patients (30 to 66 yrs. old) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 24 C), were tested for 60 min. with the liquid cooling garment (LCG) operated at 50 F. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures, heart rate, respiration, and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc., Biolog ambulatory monitor. All temperature responses showed extreme variation among subjects. The cold-sensitive subject's rectal temperature increased initially in response to cooling; the heat sensitive subject's rectal temperature decreased. After 40 min. of cooling and during recovery, all subjects'rectal temperatures decreased. Oral temperatures began to decrease after 30 min. of cooling. After 60 min. of cooling, temperature drops ranged from approx. 0.3 - 0.8 C. Oral temperatures continued to decrease during recovery (approx. 0.2 C). The car temperature of the heat sensitive subject was increased after cooling, other subjects exhibited an ear temperature decrease (0.0 - 0.5 C). These data indicate that head and vest cooling may be used to reduce the oral temperatures of MS patients by the approximate amount needed for symptomatic relief as shown by other researchers. The combination of a small subject population and a large subject variance does not permit us to draw statistical

  7. [Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Zeni Drubi; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Leite, Maria Efigênia de Queiroz; Kiya, Márcia Miyuki; Amorim, Tatiana; Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da

    2015-01-01

    To study breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SS and SC hemoglobinopathies aged between 2 and 6 years old receiving regular follow-up at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and sex. The average (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SS hemoglobinopathy. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR) up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75) was 90.0 (24.0-180.0) days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75) was 360.0 (90.0-20.0) days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for an average duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01), and were weaned later (p<0.05). Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had SS hemoglobinopathy and were over 4 years of age. EBR time and weaning age were greater than found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBR and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. WCD LifeVest: risk stratification in a case of Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy with QT interval prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S; Klein, H U

    2012-03-01

    A 50-year-old woman with arterial hypertension suffered from recurrent syncope. On admission, recurrent torsades de pointes tachycardia, ventricular flutter, and ventricular fibrillation with the necessity of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were documented. After administration of β-blocking agents, amiodarone, and magnesium, heart rhythm was stabilized. Coronary angiography excluded coronary artery disease. Echocardiography revealed apical ballooning with reduced ventricular function. The ECG showed left bundle-branch block and profound QT prolongation. A WCD (wearable cardioverter-defibrillator) LifeVest was prescribed for the patient, and, thereafter, no arrhythmias were experienced. The ECG gradually normalized; echocardiography revealed slight anteroapical hypokinesia with overall normal left ventricular function. After a period of 3 months, the patient was no longer asked to wear the LifeVest; 6 months later the patient is without any complaints.

  9. Biomechanical Profiles When Towing a Sled and Wearing a Weighted Vest Once Cleared for Sports Post-ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin; Lawrence, Michael; Murray, Thomas; Shaw, Bernadette; Collins, Erin; Powers, Kaitlin; Townsend, James

    2016-09-01

    Though rehabilitation attempts to correct "stiff knee gait" and control for dynamic limb valgus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), impaired biomechanics often persist when an individual is cleared to return to sport (RTS). Reduced knee extension moments (KEMs) and knee flexion angles (KFAs) often continue. While at the hip, increased hip adduction angles (HADDAs) and hip internal rotation angles (HIRAs) often persist in spite of dynamic hip stabilization exercises. Sled towing and weighted vest tasks increase KEM and hip extension moments (HEMs) in healthy individuals, yet biomechanical profiles during these tasks after ACLR are unknown. Weighted gait will increase KEM, HEM, hip abduction moments (HABDMs), and hip external rotation moments (HERMs) and will not increase unwanted biomechanics (limb asymmetries, HIRA, HADDA) compared with normal gait. Controlled laboratory study. Level 4. Fourteen men and 24 women who were 5 to 12 months after ACLR, had no concomitant ligament injuries, and were cleared to RTS were recruited. Sexes were evaluated independently given the sex-specific incidence to ACL injury, reinjury, and gait responses to certain interventions. Joint moment impulses and peak angles over the first 25% of stance were compared between limbs and across tasks (eg, unweighted gait, sled 50% body weight [BW], and vest 50% BW). Men showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HADDA, HIRA (sled only), and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM and KFA existed across tasks. Women showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HFA (sled only), HADDA, and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM, HEM, HIRA, and KFA (sled only) existed across tasks. Weighted gait generally increased joint moments. Unwanted biomechanics were unique for each weighted gait task. Though joint moments increased, both tasks created unwanted biomechanics after ACLR. Persistent hip (women only) and KEM asymmetries across tasks when cleared to RTS are

  10. The rabbi as symbolic exemplar by the power vested in me

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Jack H

    2012-01-01

    The solution to the growing problem of stress and burnout in rabbis! Written by a practicing clinical psychologist who spent 10 years as a congregational rabbi, The Rabbi As Symbolic Exemplar: By the Power Vested in Me presents positive solutions to the inevitable negative effects of symbolic exemplarhood, coaching rabbis through dilemmas of the “inner soul.” Being a rabbi means serving as a Symbolic Exemplar of the best that is in humankind, being experienced and treated and expected to act as a stand-in for God, and a walking, talking symbol of all that Jewish tradition represents. The burden of being a symbolic exemplar of God is extraordinary, and the struggle to live up to its “requirements” can be one of loneliness, frustration, and despair, alienating rabbis who tire of living in a glass house. The Rabbi As Symbolic Exemplar examines how the symbolic role that serves as the source of the rabbi's authority and power can lead to disillusionment and disenchantment. Author Jack H Bloom draws on his own...

  11. The post-2015 landscape: vested interests, corporate social responsibility and public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the tensions between UN calls for private sector engagement in the post-2015 landscape and public health opposition to those 'harm industries' that are 'corporate vectors of disease' for the mounting global non-communicable disease burden. The UN's support for public-private partnership has provided industries with 'vested interests' in the propagation of unhealthy behaviours with new opportunities for the strategic alignment of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) endeavours with the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. This has galvanised public health advocates to place pressure on the World Health Organisation to formalise their ambiguous stance towards private sector involvement in public policy formation and the resultant 'conflicts of interest'. This paper critically examines the 'gathering storm' between this 'anti-corporate movement' and the alcohol industry in the increasingly politicised domain of CSR. Drawing on the example of SABMiller's Tavern Intervention Program, the paper argues that CSR represents a profound threat to the sanctity and moral authority of the public health worldview. Questions therefore need to be asked about whether the public health-led path of industry non-association will necessarily result in health improvements or just a further retrenchment of the ideological faultlines explored in the paper. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  12. Nanocomposite electrodes for smartphone enabled healthcare garments: e-bra and smart vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    The financial burden of hospital readmissions and treatment of chronic cardiac diseases are global concerns. Point of Care (POC) has been presented as an elegant solution for healthcare cost reduction. However, large scale adoption of POC systems requires an intuitive, unobtrusive and easy to use health monitoring system from patient's perspective. Healthcare textiles are sensor systems mounted on textile platform that function as wearable unobtrusive health monitoring systems. Although much work has been done in the development and demonstration of textile mounted monitoring systems, material and production costs are still high. Nanomaterials based devices and technology can be employed in these healthcare textiles for improved electrical characteristics of the sensors, lowered cost due to less material consumption and compatibility to varied manufacturing techniques. Carbon nanotube composite ink based printable conductive electrodes is such a textile adaptable nanomaterial technology. Screen printed Nanocomposite electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and an acrylic polymer can be used in undergarments like vests and brassieres, for cardiac biopotential (Electrocardiography, ECG) sensing. A Bluetooth module and a smartphone can then be used to provide cyber-infrastructure connectivity for the healthcare data from these healthcare garments. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. In this study, we evaluate screen printed CNT-acrylic Nanocomposite electrodes for ECG signal quality and any CNT leaching hazard that might lead to skin toxicity.

  13. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  14. Durham Smith Vest-Over-Pant Technique: Simple Procedure for a Complex Problem (Post-Hypospadias Repair Fistula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, Venkat A; Patil, Saurabh R; Bote, Sachin M; Siddiqui, Mohd Ayub Karam Nabi; Nikose, Jayant V; Kandi, Anitha J

    2017-01-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula, which occurs after hypospadias surgery, is often a baffling problem and its treatment is challenging. The study aimed to evaluate the results of the simple procedure (Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique) for this complex problem (post-hypospadias repair fistula). During the period from 2011 to 2015, 20 patients with post-hypospadias repair fistulas underwent Durham Smith repair. Common age group was between 5 and 12 years. Site wise distribution of fistula was coronal 2 (10%), distal penile 7 (35%), mid-penile 7 (35%), and proximal-penile 4 (20%). Out of 20 patients, 15 had fistula of size 5 mm (25%). All cases were repaired with Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique by a single surgeon. In case of multiple fistulas adjacent to each other, all fistulas were joined to form single fistula and repaired. We have successfully repaired all post-hypospadias surgery urethrocutaneous fistulas using the technique described by Durham Smith with 100% success rate. Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique is a simple solution for a complex problem (post hypospadias surgery penile fistulas) in properly selected patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

  16. Descriptive study of symptomatic epilepsy by age of onset in patients with a 3-year follow-up at the Neuropaediatric Department of a reference centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gómez, L; López-Pisón, J; Fuertes-Rodrigo, C; Fernando-Martínez, R; Samper-Villagrasa, P; Monge-Galindo, L; Peña-Segura, J L; García-Jiménez, M C

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a descriptive study of symptomatic epilepsy by age at onset in a cohort of patients who were followed up at a neuropaediatric department of a reference hospital over a 3-year period PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all children with epilepsy who were followed up from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010 RESULTS: Of the 4595 children seen during the study period, 605 (13.17%) were diagnosed with epilepsy; 277 (45.79%) of these had symptomatic epilepsy. Symptomatic epilepsy accounted for 67.72% and 61.39% of all epilepsies starting before one year of age, or between the ages of one and 3, respectively. The aetiologies of symptomatic epilepsy in our sample were: prenatal encephalopathies (24.46% of all epileptic patients), perinatal encephalopathies (9.26%), post-natal encephalopathies (3.14%), metabolic and degenerative encephalopathies (1.98%), mesial temporal sclerosis (1.32%), neurocutaneous syndromes (2.64%), vascular malformations (0.17%), cavernomas (0.17%), and intracranial tumours (2.48%). In some aetiologies, seizures begin before the age of one; these include Down syndrome, genetic lissencephaly, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, metabolic encephalopathies, and tuberous sclerosis. The lack of a universally accepted classification of epileptic syndromes makes it difficult to compare series from different studies. We suggest that all epilepsies are symptomatic because they have a cause, whether genetic or acquired. The age of onset may point to specific aetiologies. Classifying epilepsy by aetiology might be a useful approach. We could establish 2 groups: a large group including epileptic syndromes with known aetiologies or associated with genetic syndromes which are very likely to cause epilepsy, and another group including epileptic syndromes with no known cause. Thanks to the advances in neuroimaging and genetics, the latter group is expected to become increasingly smaller. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Espa

  17. The Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching (InVEST) project: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, W.; Cervato, C.; Parham, T.; Larsen, M.; Cruz-Neira, C.; Boudreaux, H.

    2009-04-01

    The InVEST (Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching) project has as its goal the development of state-of-the-art virtual reality geoscience tools that can be used to correct student misunderstandings about some geoscience phenomena. One tool, originally developed several years ago, the virtual tornadic thunderstorm, was recently modified based on feedback from instructors given the opportunity to use the tool. The modified virtual storm will be demonstrated during the presentation. In addition, a virtual volcano application is currently under development. To steer the development of this application, a Volcanic Concept Survey was recently administered to over 600 students at six U.S. institutions with the goal of identifying areas of greatest misconception relating to volcanoes. Both mean and median scores on the instrument were exceptionally low, indicating that students generally possessed minimal understanding of volcanic systems. High scores were restricted to the simplest aspects of volcanism (terminology, basic volcano shape) while questions requiring higher thinking and deeper conceptual connections (analysis of patterns, eruptive controls, and hazards) saw much lower scores. Categorical analysis of response types revealed the extent of specific misconceptions, the most predominant of which demonstrated a failure to link tectonics to a global volcanic pattern. Eruptive catalysts and controls also appear poorly understood, as are volcanic impacts on the environment and human endeavors. The survey also included demographic information which has been analyzed. Analysis of student sources of knowledge found that over 41% of students said that they had acquired most of their understanding about volcanoes from non-traditional sources such as the popular media and Hollywood films. Application of a multiple linear regression model and an expanded model suggests that these students were much less likely to receive high scores on questions relating to understanding

  18. The challenge of referring HIV-positive pregnant women with treatment indication from PMTCT to ART services: a retrospective follow-up study in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuring, Stefanie; Sewangi, Julius; Nchimbi, Philo; Harms, Gundel; Mbezi, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Providing full antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-positive, pregnant women with treatment indication could significantly reduce overall mother-to-child transmission. However, the effectiveness of referring HIV-positive antenatal care (ANC) clients with a treatment indication to ART services has rarely been assessed to date. We retrospectively followed-up data of a cohort of treatment-eligible ANC clients in Mbeya Region, Tanzania by retracing and merging registries of ANC, Care and Treatment Centers (CTC), and Infant Care. ART initiation and ART duration before delivery served as primary outcome indicators to assess referral effectiveness. We retraced data of 60 ANC clients with treatment indication: 39 (65%) started predelivery ART and 21 (35%) remained untreated during pregnancy. Eight (13.3%) did not initiate ART at all within the observation period. Women starting ART before delivery had significantly lower CD4-cell counts at enrollment than nonstarters (medians: 207.5 vs. 292 cells/µl; p = 0.013). Predelivery ART starters had experienced a significantly shorter duration between staff-declared "ART readiness" and actual ART start (medians: 0 vs. 28 days; p = 0.0004). The median ART duration prior to delivery was 57 days; only eight women (13.3%) accomplished ≥90 days ART intake during pregnancy. Early enrollment in ANC at ≤24 gestational weeks was associated with longer duration of predelivery ART. At maternity wards, 24.3% of treatment-eligible mothers and newborns with retraceable delivery data had received no or inadequate antiretrovirals. Within 6 months postdelivery, women attended on average 3.5 out of 6 requested CTC visits. Concluding, every third treatment-eligible woman in this cohort was not covered through ART before delivery, and predelivery ART duration was mostly suboptimal regarding vertical transmission prevention. HIV-positive women need to be encouraged to approach ANC early in pregnancy, and health services need to address

  19. Selection of reliable reference genes for the normalisation of gene expression levels following time course LPS stimulation of murine bone marrow derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; To, Joyce; O'Brien, Bronwyn; Donnelly, Sheila; Lund, Maria

    2017-10-03

    Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especially those encoding cytokines. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) are commonly used as a model macrophage population for the study of immune responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli, notably lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may be pertinent to the human situation. Evaluation of the temporal responses of LPS stimulated macrophages is widely conducted via the measurement of gene expression levels by RT-qPCR. While providing a robust and sensitive measure of gene expression levels, RT-qPCR relies on the normalisation of gene expression data to a stably expressed reference gene. Generally, a normalisation gene(s) is selected from a list of "traditional" reference genes without validation of expression stability under the specific experimental conditions of the study. In the absence of such validation, and given that many studies use only a single reference gene, the reliability of data is questionable. The stability of expression levels of eight commonly used reference genes was assessed during the peak (6 h) and resolution (24 h) phases of the BMDM response to LPS. Further, this study identified two additional genes, which have not previously been described as reference genes, and the stability of their expression levels during the same phases of the inflammatory response were validated. Importantly, this study demonstrates that certain "traditional" reference genes are in fact regulated by LPS exposure, and, therefore, are not reliable candidates as their inclusion may compromise the accuracy of data interpretation. Testament to this, this study shows that the normalisation of gene expression data using an unstable reference gene greatly affects the experimental data obtained, and, therefore, the ultimate biological conclusions drawn. This study

  20. CubeSat infrared atmospheric sounder (CIRAS) NASA InVEST technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared sounders measure the upwelling radiation of the Earth in the Midwave Infrared (MWIR) and Longwave Infrared (LWIR) region of the spectrum with global daily coverage from space. The observed radiances are assimilated into weather forecast models and used to retrieve lower tropospheric temperature and water vapor for climate studies. There are several operational sounders today including the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua, the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP and JPSS, and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp spacecraft. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) is a NASA In-flight Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST) program to demonstrate three new instrument technologies in an imaging sounder configuration. The first is a 2D array of High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector (HOT-BIRD) material, selected for its high uniformity, low cost, low noise and higher operating temperatures than traditional materials. The detectors are hybridized to a commercial ROIC and commercial camera electronics. The second technology is a MWIR Grating Spectrometer (MGS) designed to provide imaging spectroscopy for atmospheric sounding in a CubeSat volume. The MGS employs an immersion grating or grism, has no moving parts, and is based on heritage spectrometers including the OCO- 2. The third technology is a Black Silicon infrared blackbody calibration target. The Black Silicon offers very low reflectance over a broad spectral range on a flat surface and is more robust than carbon nanotubes. JPL will also develop the mechanical, electronic and thermal subsystems for the CIRAS payload. The spacecraft will be a commercially available CubeSat. The integrated system will be a complete 6U CubeSat capable of measuring temperature and water vapor profiles with good lower tropospheric sensitivity. The low cost of CIRAS enables multiple units to be flown to improve temporal coverage or measure 3D

  1. Reference citation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors...

  2. Eiropas Savienības kompetence vest sarunas par gaisa satiksmes nolīgumiem ar trešajām valstīm

    OpenAIRE

    Forda, Inga

    2012-01-01

    . Bakalaura darba „Eiropas Savienības kompetence vest sarunas par gaisa satiksmes nolīgumiem ar trešajām valstīm” apskata Eiropas Savienības (ES) ārējās kompetences apjomu vest sarunas ar trešajām valstīm par gaisa satiksmes nolīgumu slēgšanu. Spriedumi „atvērto debesu” lietās atspoguļo Eiropas Savienības Tiesas (EST) viedokli, ka ES nav pilnīga kompetence vest sarunas par gaisa satiksmes nolīgumiem, bet gan netiešā jauktā kompetence piedalīties sarunu vešanā kopā ar attiecīgo dalībvalsti...

  3. Medical and social prognoses of non-specific building-related symptoms (Sick Building Syndrome): a follow-up study of patients previously referred to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, B; Stenberg, B; Bergdahl, J; Eriksson, N; Lindén, G; Widman, L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the medical and social prognoses of patients with non-specific building-related symptoms. A follow-up questionnaire focusing on current medical and social status, care, treatment, other actions taken and personality traits was sent to 239 patients with non-specific building-related symptoms assessed during the period between 1986 and 1998 at University Hospital in Umeå, Sweden. The response rate was 79%. Fatigue, irritation of the eyes, and facial erythema were the most common weekly symptoms reported at follow-up. As females constituted 92% of the respondents, statistical analyses were restricted to women. The level and severity of symptoms decreased over time, although nearly half of the patients claimed that symptoms were more or less unchanged after 7 years or more, despite actions taken. Twenty-five percent of the patients were on the sick-list, and 20% drew disability pension due to persistent symptoms at follow-up. The risk of having no work capabilities at follow-up was significantly increased if the time from onset to first visit at the hospital clinic was more than 1 year. This risk was also significantly higher if the patient at the first visit had five or more symptoms. All risk assessments were adjusted for length of follow-up. Symptoms were often aggravated by different situations in everyday life. Long-lasting symptoms aggravated by environmental factors exist within this group of patients. The results support that early and comprehensive measures for rehabilitation are essential for the patients.

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 6. Omraede Skive Vest, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  5. The course and outcome of renal failure due to human leptospirosis referred to a hospital in North of Iran; A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Roya; Shokri, Mehran; Makhlough, Atieh; Suraki-Azad, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Renal complication of leptospirosis is common and its clinical manifestations vary from urinary sediment changes to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the final outcome of renal involvement in leptospirosis. This longitudinal prospective study included all serologically confirmed cases of leptospirosis with evidence of renal failure. All patients were followed for three months while all patients with renal failure were followed-up for one year. Fifty-one patients, 53.5±14.8 years (82.4% males) with acute renal failure were studied. Over the hospitalization period, 28 patients recovered, and seven (13.72%) patients died of multiple organ failure. At the time of discharge, 16 patients had mild renal failure. Over the follow-up period, all patients recovered but in two patients renal failure persisted at creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dl. Development of renal failure in leptospirosis is not rare. Recovery of renal function may last several months. However, most patients recover completely at least after one year.

  6. Determination of metal concentrations in certified plastic reference materials after small-size autoclave and microwave-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Esa; Väisänen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The digestion methods for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations in plastic samples using microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) and small-size autoclave digestion was developed. The certified polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene certified reference materials were used in order to find digestion method working properly for several sample matrices. Efficiency of the digestion methods was evaluated by analyzing the residual carbon in digests by TOC analyzer. MW-AD using a mixture of 7 mL of HNO3 and 3 mL of H2O2 as a digestion solution resulted in excellent recoveries for As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn, and were in the range of 92-107% for all the analytes except Pb in polyethylene material. Autoclave digestion using 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as a digestion solution resulted in similar recoveries with the exception of a higher As recovery (98%). Tin recovery resulted in low level after both MW-AD and autoclave digestion. Autoclave digestion was further developed resulting in a partially open two-step digestion process especially for the determination of Sn and Cr. The method resulted in higher recoveries of Sn and Cr (87 and 76%) but with the lower concentration of easily volatile As, Cd and Sb.

  7. A combined intervention to reduce interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking: a pilot-study evaluating the impact of staff training and safety vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckels-Baumgart, Saskia; Niederberger, Milena; Manser, Tanja; Meier, Christoph R; Meyer-Massetti, Carla

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of staff training and wearing safety vests as a combined intervention on interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking. Interruptions and errors during the medication process are common and an important issue for patient safety in the hospital setting. We performed a pre- and post-intervention pilot-study using direct structured observation of 26 nurses preparing and double-checking 431 medication doses (225 pre-intervention and 206 post-intervention) for 36 patients (21 pre-intervention and 15 post-intervention). With staff training and the introduction of safety vests, the interruption rate during medication preparation was reduced from 36.8 to 28.3 interruptions per hour and during double-checking from 27.5 to 15 interruptions per hour. This pilot-study showed that the frequency of interruptions decreased during the critical tasks of medication preparation and double-checking after the introduction of staff training and wearing safety vests as part of a quality improvement process. Nursing management should acknowledge interruptions as an important factor potentially influencing medication safety. Unnecessary interruptions can be successfully reduced by considering human and system factors and increasing both staff and nursing managers' awareness of 'interruptive communication practices' and implementing physical barriers. This is the first pilot-study specifically evaluating the impact of staff training and wearing safety vests on the reduction of interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other....060-3a Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant...

  9. The Effects of Weighted Vests on Appropriate In-Seat Behaviors of Elementary-Age Students with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amy L.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of weighted vests on the amount of time 3 elementary-age students with autism, intellectual disabilities, and sensory processing abnormalities engaged in appropriate in-seat behavior. An alternating treatments design was used to examine the duration of appropriate in-seat behavior under three…

  10. Effects of Sprint Training With and Without Weighted Vest on Speed and Repeated Sprint Ability in Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ezequiel; Padrón-Cabo, Alexis; Fernández-Penedo, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect resisted sprint training using weighted vests (WVs) compared with unresisted sprint (US) training on physical fitness (countermovement jump, 10-m sprint, 30-m sprint, and repeated sprint ability [RSA]) in amateur male soccer players. Nineteen soccer players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years; height: 178.3 ± 5.8 cm; body mass: 72.9 ± 5.2 kg) were randomly assigned to a WV (n = 10) or a US (n = 9) group. The intervention program had to be performed 2 times a week over 6 weeks. The only difference between the 2 interventions was that the WV group performed all the sprints with an additional weight of 18.9% ± 2.1% of body mass. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements (p soccer-related performance measures, and could be beneficial to players and coaches in field settings.

  11. Nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 10- to 60-year follow-up with special reference to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, Mathias; Elfering, Achim; Kilian, Reinhold; Min, Kan; Boos, Norbert

    2006-02-01

    Retrospective study on patients 10 to 60 years of age after nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To investigate long-term outcome with regard to pain, disability, psychological disturbance, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in nonoperatively treated patients with AIS. Only little is known on the long-term quality of life and disability in patients nonoperatively treated for AIS. A detailed knowledge of the nonoperative treatment results is important when advising patients for surgery. A total of 135 nonoperatively treated AIS patients with a minimum follow-up of 10 years were included in this investigation, 121 of whom responded to a questionnaire containing questions on pain, disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire [HFAQ], psychological general well-being [PGWB], and health-related quality of life [WHOQOLBREF]). Eighty-one patients participated in a clinical/radiologic follow-up examination. Nonoperative treatment consisted of bracing (n = 60), physiotherapy (n = 59), and electrical stimulation (n = 2). The overall follow-up rate was 89.6%. The mean age at follow-up was 38.0 years (range, 20-73 years.). In general, patients achieved a satisfactory outcome 10 to 60 years (mean, 23 years) after nonoperative treatment with regard to pain, disability, and HRQOL. The average curve at first diagnosis measured 29.5 degrees (range, 15 degrees -59 degrees ) for the thoracic spine, 21.3 degrees (range, 15 degrees -28 degrees ) for the thoracolumbar spine, and 26.8 degrees (10 degrees -44 degrees ) for the lumbar spine. Thirteen patients showed a substantial change in curve size (+/-10 degrees ) between first diagnosis and end of growth: 11 curves progressed more than 10 degrees showing an average increase of 19.0 degrees (range, 12 degrees -30 degrees ) and 2 patients presented with less severe curves at follow-up (-10 degrees and -13 degrees ). After end of growth, 7 patients showed a

  12. RAI1 Alternate Probe Identifies Additional Breast Cancer Cases as Amplified Following Equivocal HER2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Testing: Experience From a National Reference Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ling; Geiersbach, Katherine B; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Gulbahce, H Evin

    2017-02-01

    -In 2013 the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists updated the HER2 guidelines and changed the equivocal category for HER2 in situ hybridization testing to an average HER2 copy number of 4.0 to 5.9 with a HER2:CEP17 ratio of less than 2.0 and proposed retesting, with an option of using another control probe to avoid false-negative results. RAI1, located at band position 17p11.2, is a popular alternate probe locus for retesting equivocal changes. -To review experience with the RAI1 alternate probe in HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization equivocal breast cancers. -Primary and metastatic breast cancers with equivocal HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization, retested with an alternate (RAI1) probe, were identified. HER2, RAI1, and CEP17 copy numbers, HER2 to control probe ratios, and genetic heterogeneity were recorded. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed for type and grade of cancer. -Of 876 cases tested with CEP17 as the reference probe, 97 (11.1%) had equivocal HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization results. Additional testing with the RAI1 probe classified 39.2% cases (38 of 97) as amplified with a HER2:RAI1 ratio ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 (mean, 2.37); 3.1% (3 of 97) were still unclassifiable because of a deletion of RAI1. -RAI1 identified close to 40% of original HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization equivocal cases as amplified, making these patients eligible for targeted therapies. It is not known whether guidelines for US Food and Drug Administration-approved probes can be extrapolated to alternate probes when an alternate control probe shows losses or gains. Because of the lack of guidelines for reporting HER2 status with alternate probes, laboratories face challenges in interpreting results.

  13. Heterogeneity and plasticity in the development of language: a 17-year follow-up of children referred early for possible autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Anderson, Deborah K; Lord, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Delayed, abnormal language is a common feature of autism and language therapy often a significant component of recommended treatment. However, as with other disorders with a language component, we know surprisingly little about the language trajectories and how varied these might be across different children. Thus, we know little about how and when language problems might resolve, whether there are periods of relative stability or lack of change and what periods might offer more favourable circumstances for intervention. Expressive and receptive language was measured on six occasions between age 2 and 19 on a cohort of 192 children initially referred for autism. Latent class growth models were fitted to characterize the patterns of heterogeneous development. Latent class growth analysis identified seven classes. Between age 6 and 19, all classes tracked in parallel. Between ages 2 and 6, development was more heterogeneous with considerable variation in relative progress. In all groups, receptive and expressive language developed very largely in tandem. The results confirmed previous analysis of children with specific language impairment where progress beyond age 6 was remarkably uniform. Greater variation was evident before this age with some groups making clearly better or worse progress compared to others. While this developmental heterogeneity may simply be a reflection of variation in preexisting and unchanging biological disposition, it may also reflect, at least in part, greater sensitivity in the early years to environments that are more or less supportive of language development. These findings contribute to the case for the importance of early intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Controle postural e sistema vestíbulo-oculomotor em atletas de tiro esportivo da modalidade pistola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Porto Lourenço

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tiro esportivo desenvolve nos atletas destreza, concentração e equilíbrio. A estabilidade do atirador depende da resistência deste contra perturbações internas e externas que afetem seu equilíbrio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o controle postural e sistema vestíbulo-oculomotor de atletas atiradores de pistola. MÉTODO: Análise descritiva do tipo transversal. Avaliaram-se oito atletas com idade média de 37 anos (dp ± 8,11, afiliados à Confederação Brasileira de Tiro Esportivo. Utilizou-se prontuário sociodemográfico; estabilometria associada a simulador de tiro e sistema de videonistagmoscopia computadorizada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se em todos os voluntários, dominância motora à direita; metade deles atira com os dois olhos abertos; tempo médio de prática de 14 anos (dp ± 9 e média de treino semanal de 14 horas (dp ± 13. Metade relatou lesão associada ao tiro. Na estabilometria observou-se correlação nas velocidades anteroposterior e mediolateral.À videonistagmoscopia, nenhum atleta apresentou alteração patológica. CONCLUSÃO: O controle postural dos atletas avaliados possui alterações significativas para as velocidades de deslocamento do centro de pressão nas direções anteroposterior e mediolateral. O sistema vestíbulo-oculomotor não mostrou correlação com o controle postural e se apresentou sem alterações funcionais para todos os voluntários.

  15. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  16. Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  17. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hos Dyrlægelaug Vest går det sociale og det faglige op i en højere enhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Dyrlægelaug Vest mødes fire dage om året til foredrag og social samvær, og i maj måned holder de tillige en årlig sommerudflugt. Hidtil har lauget levet en lidt anonym tilværelse, men bliver her præsenteret for alle medlemmerne af DDD.......Dyrlægelaug Vest mødes fire dage om året til foredrag og social samvær, og i maj måned holder de tillige en årlig sommerudflugt. Hidtil har lauget levet en lidt anonym tilværelse, men bliver her præsenteret for alle medlemmerne af DDD....

  19. A field study of the effectiveness and practicality of a novel hybrid personal cooling vest worn during rest in Hong Kong construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P C; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Faming; Wong, Francis F K; Chan, Daniel W M

    2017-12-01

    A novel hybrid cooling vest (HCV) incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) and ventilation fans has been developed for construction workers in Hong Kong to attenuate heat stress and prevent heat-related illnesses, and its effectiveness and practicality have been validated in this study. A total of 140 wear trials involving of 140 workers were conducted in Hong Kong construction sites during the summer time. Each wear trial involves a two-day wear test, of which one day workers wore the HCV (denoted as VEST) during resting, and another day they wore traditional workwear (denoted as CON). Subjects were asked to rate their perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensations (TS) and 7 other subjective attributes. There were significant differences in the effectiveness on reducing workers' heat strain between VEST and CON in terms of alleviations of heart rate (ΔHR), ΔTS, ΔRPE as well as ΔPeSI (p fitness as well as effectiveness to combat heat stress. In addition, a remarkable proportion of 91 per cent of subjects prefer to use this newly designed HCV as a cooling measure during rest. The power to alleviate perceptual heat stain (PeSA) in VEST is about twice of that by rest, which means HCV can notably improve the workers' perceptual heat strain in a limited resting duration. However, the strain alleviation power of HCV nearly remains unchanged with the prolonged rest duration. Thus, the optimal work-rest schedule needs to be investigated in a further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting watershed sediment yields after wildland fire with the InVEST sediment retention model at large geographic extent in the western USA: accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, J. B.; Kreitler, J.; McVay, J.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Vaillant, N.; Lowe, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary threat to watersheds that can impact water supply through increased sedimentation, water quality decline, and change the timing and amount of runoff leading to increased risk from flood and sediment natural hazards. It is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world to improve understanding of how changing fire frequency, extent, and location, in conjunction with fuel treatments will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize vulnerability of burned watersheds to erosion and sedimentation. The InVEST tools are GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., RUSLE -Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. We evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured post-fire sedimentation rates available for many watersheds in different rainfall regimes throughout the western USA from an existing, large USGS database of post-fire sediment yield [synthesized in Moody J, Martin D (2009) Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 96-115]. The ultimate goal of this work is to calibrate and implement the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield as a function of future landscape heterogeneity predicted by wildfire simulations, and future landscape fuel treatment scenarios, within watersheds.

  1. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  2. The Integration of Ecosystem Services in Planning: An Evaluation of the Nutrient Retention Model Using InVEST Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Salata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping ecosystem services (ES increases the awareness of natural capital value, leading to building sustainability into decision-making processes. Recently, many techniques to assess the value of ES delivered by different scenarios of land use/land cover (LULC are available, thus becoming important practices in mapping to support the land use planning process. The spatial analysis of the biophysical ES distribution allows a better comprehension of the environmental and social implications of planning, especially when ES concerns the management of risk (e.g., erosion, pollution. This paper investigates the nutrient retention model of InVEST software through its spatial distribution and its quantitative value. The model was analyzed by testing its response to changes in input parameters: (1 the digital terrain elevation model (DEM; and (2 different LULC attribute configurations. The paper increases the level of attention to specific ES models that use water runoff as a proxy of nutrient delivery. It shows that the spatial distribution of biophysical values is highly influenced by many factors, among which the characteristics of the DEM and its interaction with LULC are included. The results seem to confirm that the biophysical value of ES is still affected by a high degree of uncertainty and encourage an expert field campaign as the only solution to use ES mapping for a regulative land use framework.

  3. Parameterization of the InVEST Crop Pollination Model to spatially predict abundance of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) native bee pollinators in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Shannon C.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Drummond, Frank; Bushmann, Sara; McGill, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native honeybees historically have been managed for crop pollination, however, recent population declines draw attention to pollination services provided by native bees. We applied the InVEST Crop Pollination model, developed to predict native bee abundance from habitat resources, in Maine's wild blueberry crop landscape. We evaluated model performance with parameters informed by four approaches: 1) expert opinion; 2) sensitivity analysis; 3) sensitivity analysis informed model optimization; and, 4) simulated annealing (uninformed) model optimization. Uninformed optimization improved model performance by 29% compared to expert opinion-informed model, while sensitivity-analysis informed optimization improved model performance by 54%. This suggests that expert opinion may not result in the best parameter values for the InVEST model. The proportion of deciduous/mixed forest within 2000 m of a blueberry field also reliably predicted native bee abundance in blueberry fields, however, the InVEST model provides an efficient tool to estimate bee abundance beyond the field perimeter.

  4. Utilizing Glove-Based Gestures and a Tactile Vest Display for Covert Communications and Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    obstacles, and (b) tactical movement, when they were following a 400-m path (i.e., two 200-m legs) through a forested field, while searching for...Economics (2), Comparative Literature, Mechanical Engineering, Finance (2), Marketing, Communication Sciences & Disorders, BioMed , Biology, Piano...Anytime vision is impaired, i.e., night, smoke. 1 Limited visual situations ( forest , urban environment). 1 Breaching buildings. 1 If the glove was

  5. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  6. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  7. American Folklore: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbee, Jo

    1989-01-01

    This annotated bibliography represents a core collection of reference sources on American folklore. In addition to general references, genre specific reference sources are listed in the following areas: folk narrative; folk music; customary folklore; material culture; ethnic and regional bibliographies; and applied folklore. (39 references) (CLB)

  8. Epidemiologia de 118 casos de esclerose múltipla com seguimento de 15 anos no centro de referência do Hospital da Restauração de Pernambuco Epidemiology of 118 cases of multiple sclerosis after 15 years of follow-up on the reference center of Hospital da Restauração, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Brito Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    : according to a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, prevalence study, we analyzed data of 118 patients, who attended at the Reference Center for Attention to Patients with Demielinizating Diseases of Hospital da Restauração (CRAPPDD-HR - Recife - Pernambuco, Brazil, from January 1987 to March 2002, to have MS diagnosed according to Poser criteria. RESULTS: The patients were followed up by 1 to 15 years. Ninety five (80.5% patients were in treatment with immune-modulators. The prevalence was 1,36:100000 habitants. We have identified: predominance of mulattoes (110,93.2%, 82 (82.2% cases clinically defined, 15 (12.7% cases laboratorial defined and 6 (5.1% cases clinically probable; a number of maximum bouts equal to 46; more frequent mild EDSS for patients with 1 to 10 years of MS of remittent-recurrent (RR form. Gender rate of 83 cases of RR form was equivalent to the general one, however on RR with secondary progressive form form, the rate was 2.5 times greater for females than for males, and on primary progressive form, 5.5 times greater for males. CONCLUSION: Although some results of this research had been similar to that of eight studies used as standards for comparison, the differences will require new approaches.

  9. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  10. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Dominika; Szymański, Jędrzej; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Michalska, Bernadeta; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Prill, Monika; Partyka, Małgorzata; Drabik, Karolina; Walczak, Jarosław; Sewer, Alain; Johne, Stephanie; Luettich, Karsta; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Duszyński, Jerzy; Szczepanowska, Joanna; van der Toorn, Marco; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2018-02-12

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Altogether, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM has a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reference Sources for Folklore Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, George, Comp.

    An annotated listing contains 35 basic reference materials on folklore. Following a discussion of the definition of folklore, citations are divided into the following categories: encyclopedias and dictionaries, national and regional encyclopedias and dictionaries, bibliographies, guides, indexes, and periodicals. The Library of Congress…

  12. Quando os diásporos são vestígios: estudo de caso no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Gomes Da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Um cadáver humano com sinais de violência física foi retirado das águas do Lago Guaíba, próximo à zona portuária do cais central em Porto Alegre. A vítima trouxe, aderidos às vestes, vestígios de vegetais terrestres, entre outros achados de interesse criminalístico. O exame mais apurado do material vegetal revelou tratar-se de um tipo de “pega-pega” e outra espécie de “carrapicho”, ambos aderidos na face externa do terço superior das calças. Tais estruturas eram pequenos frutos secos, que possuem cerdas ou ganchos utilizados para adesão aos pelos de animais, ou, eventualmente, ao tecido das roupas humanas. Algumas plantas apresentam tal estratégia para disseminação de suas sementes, chamada de dispersão epizoocórica. Conhecendo tal mecanismo de propagação das plantas que geram diásporos, o endemismo e tendo dados de ocorrência das espécies identificadas, poderíamos inferir onde teria sido o local original de violência contra a vítima, que foi localizada boiando no canal de navegação do Guaíba. Elaborado a partir de um caso real, conhecimento taxonômico e pesquisa bibliográfica, o presente trabalho busca dar subsídios para o reconhecimento de diferentes espécies de plantas produtoras de diásporos no âmbito forense, relacionando a identificação da espécie à zona de distribuição e de ocorrência. O caso estudado destaca a epizoocoria no contexto da botânica forense, além disso, salienta a imprescindível interação de peritos criminais com botânicos taxonomistas na correta identificação dos vestígios, para que tais conhecimentos possam servir como mais uma ferramenta na elucidação de crimes.

  13. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  14. Nature-assisted rehabilitation for reactions to severe stress and/or depression in a rehabilitation garden: long-term follow-up including comparisons with a matched population-based reference cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Währborg, Peter; Petersson, Ingemar F; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-03-01

    To determine the effect of a nature-assisted rehabilitation programme in a group of patients with reactions to severe stress and/or mild to moderate depression. Changes in sick-leave status and healthcare consumption in these patients were compared with those in a matched population-based reference cohort (treatment as usual). Retrospective cohort study with a matched reference group from the general population. A total of 118 participants referred to a nature-assisted rehabilitation programme, and 678 controls recruited from the Skåne Health Care Register. For both groups, information on sick leave was extracted from the National Social Insurance Register and on healthcare consumption data from the Skåne Health Care Register. The interventional rehabilitation programme was designed as a multimodal programme involving professionals from horticulture and medicine. The programme was conducted in a rehabilitation garden, designed especially for this purpose. A significant reduction in healthcare consumption was noted among participants in the programme compared with the reference population. The main changes were a reduction in outpatient visits to primary healthcare and a reduction in inpatient psychiatric care. No significant difference in sick-leave status was found. A structured, nature-based rehabilitation programme for patients with reactions to severe stress and/or depression could be beneficial, as reflected in reduced healthcare consumption.

  15. The impact of professional status on the effects of and adherence to the outpatient followed by home-based telemonitored cardiac rehabilitation in patients referred by a social insurance institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Szalewska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Legislators and policymakers have expressed strong interest in intervention programs to reduce dependence on social disability benefits. Hybrid: ambulatory followed by home-based cardiac telerehabilitation – hybrid cardiac rehabilitation (HCR seems to be a novel alternative for standard cardiac rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD as a form of pension prevention paid by the Social Insurance Institution (SII. The kind of professional status may bias the motivation to return to work after HCR. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the professional status can affect the effects of HCR. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-two patients with CVD referred by the SII for a 5-week HCR were qualified for the study. Patients (87.7% males, aged 57.31±5.61 years, were divided into 2 subgroups: W white-collar employees (N = 22 and B blue-collar employees (N = 130. To evaluate functional capacity, an exercise test on a treadmill was used. Results: The number of days of absence in the cardiac rehabilitation program did not differ between the groups (mean ± standard deviation – B: 1.09±3.10 days, W: 1.95±3.64 days. There were significant improvements (p < 0.05 in measured variables after HCR in both (W and B groups (max workload: 8.21±2.88 METs (measured in metabolic equivalents vs. 9.6±2.49 METs, 7.76±2.51 METs vs. 8.73±2.7 METs, resting heart rate (RHR: 77±16.22 bpm vs. 69.94±12.93 bpm, 79.59±14 bpm vs. 75.24±11.87 bpm; double product, i.e., product of heart rate and systolic BP (DP rest 10 815.22±2968.24 vs. 9242.94±1923.08, 10 927.62±2508.47 vs. 9929.7±2304.94. In group B, a decrease in systolic blood pressure (BP syst. – 137.03±17.14 mm Hg vs. 131.82±21.13 mm Hg, heart rate recovery in the 1st minute after the end of peak exercise (HRR1 (99.38±19.25 vs. 93.9±19.48 and New York Heart Association (NYHA class (1.22±0.53 vs. 1.11±0.36 was observed. In group W, a decrease in diastolic

  16. Why burn patients are referred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Noor-Ahmad; Karimi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Many burn patients are needed to be referred to a tertiary burn hospital according to the American Burn Association (ABA) criteria. The purpose of this study was to verify the reasons for referring of the burn patients to the hospital. For 2 years, we prospectively surveyed the burn patients referred to a tertiary teaching burn hospital. Data for the following variables were collected and analyzed with SPSS software V21.0: causes of burn; age; gender; total body surface area (TBSA) measured at the referring center; TBSA measured at the receiving center; concomitant diseases and traumas; the reason for referral; condition of patients before and during the transportation; transportation time; presence of infection; presence of inhalation injury, electrical injury, and chemical injury; child abuse; insurance coverage; and results and outcomes of patients. A total of 578 burn patients (33.6% of the total admissions) were referred in the study period. Among these patients, 70.9% were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 35.3 (19.69) years. The mean (SD) of TBSA was 45.2 (26.3). Of the 578 patients, 45% were referred by request of the family or patients; 9% were referred because lack of diagnostic facility, approximately 43% were referred because of the need to be admitted in a tertiary burn center, 0.7% were referred because of a lack of capacity at other hospitals, and 0.5% were referred because of an error in the estimation of TBSA. A total of 45% of the referrals were by request of the family and patients. Tele-medicine may help to establish a direct contact between expert burn physicians and the patients and thus reduce unnecessary transfers. Approximately 9% of the referrals were because of lack of some diagnostic facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (design to nonlinear photonics, sensing and communications. Techniques for short-length dispersion characterization are therefore critical to the development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the measurement of near-zero dispersion-length optical components via compression of the interference pattern. Additionally, a method for utilizing the virtual reference interferometer in a low-coherence setup is introduced, enabling characterization in new wavelength

  18. Fundamentals of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  19. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  20. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  1. REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOUSEHOLDER, FRED W.; AND OTHERS

    BASED ON A TRADITIONAL APPROACH, THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI IS DESIGNED TO BE MOST USEFUL TO ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATES OR BEGINNING GRADUATE STUDENTS OF GREEK. (DHIMOTIKI, OR DEMOTIC, IS THE POPULAR FORM OF MODERN GREEK.) IN PART I THERE IS AN EXTENSIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION OF THE WRITING…

  2. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  3. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  4. Onic reference in discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Shilikhina, K.

    2011-01-01

    the paper discusses the relation between ironic nomination and the real world. Starting with a brief overview of existing theories of reference the paper explores various ways of ironic reference indefinite pronouns and noun phrases for pseudo-indefinite and definite reference respectively. Metalinguistic assessment of ironic reference is used as yet another source of information. Ironic nomination fulfills several functions: referentive, evaluative and regulative. The evaluative function bec...

  5. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  6. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  7. Initial antiretroviral therapy in a 20-year observational cohort of patients followed at a reference center in the City of São Paulo, Brazil Terapia antiretroviral inicial (ARV em uma coorte observacional de 20 anos de pacientes em seguimento em um centro de referência na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. C. Ruiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Production and free universal access to ART for patients with HIV/Aids were responsible for a major fall in morbidity-mortality in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe antiretroviral treatment at the São Paulo STD/Aids Training and Reference Center. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the characteristics of the first treatment with antiretroviral drugs of a retrospective cohort of patients 13 years and over, enrolled at the Reference Center, 1985-2005, described by frequency tables and graphs. RESULTS: 4,191 patients were described. The most frequent initiation period was 1999-2003; 82.7% of patients were treatment naïve. Monotherapy prevailed until 1995, the peak of double therapy was 1996-98, and 1999-2005 was characterized by triple therapy. Regarding triple therapy, regimens with protease inhibitors accounted for 1,462 (34.9% of all first prescriptions. The combination AZT, 3TC and EFV was the most frequently prescribed regimen (47.4% in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: This descriptive study may enable more in depth analyses on the factors involved in the treatment patients with HIV/AIDS.INTRODUÇÃO: A produção e o acesso gratuito e universal aos antiretrovirais (ARV foram responsáveis pela grande queda na morbi-mortalidade por HIV/Aids no Brasil. OBJETIVO: descrever o tratamento com ARV no Centro de Referência e Treinamento DST/AIDS São Paulo. MÉTODO: Análise longitudinal das características do primeiro tratamento com antirretrovirais de uma coorte retrospectiva de pacientes com 13 anos e mais, matriculados no Centro de Referência, 1985-2005, descrito através de tabelas de frequência e gráficos. RESULTADOS: Foram descritos 4191 pacientes. A maior concentração de iniciação foi no período 1999-2003; 82,7% dos pacientes eram virgens de tratamento. A monoterapia prevaleceu até 1995, o pico da terapia dupla foi 1996-1998, e o período de 1999 a 2005 se caracterizou pela prescrição de terapia tripla. Na terapia tripla, esquemas

  8. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society’s alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642

  9. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society's alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-02-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007-10. Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Fratura bilateral de primeira costela em mergulho com colete salva-vidas Bilateral first rib fracture in a dive with life vest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro de Almeida Sandri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas de primeira costela são incomuns e geralmente associadas a grandes traumas torácicos a ponto de servirem como associação com a gravidade do trauma. As fraturas isoladas bilaterais de primeira costela sem grandes traumas torácicos são raramente descritas na literatura. Os sintomas podem passar despercebidos e serem minimizados dificultando o diagnóstico desta condição. O presente relato mostra um trauma direto sobre a região supraclavicular com sintomas de contusão do plexo braquial numa queda de jet ski com uso de salva-vidas. É feita uma revisão da literatura mostrando as diversas faces do problema discutindo-se o tratamento desta condição.First rib fractures are uncommon and are generally related to major thoracic traumas, so much so that they indicate the severity of the trauma. Isolated bilateral first rib fractures without major thoracic trauma are rarely described in the literature. Symptoms may go unnoticed and could be minimal, making diagnosis of this condition difficult. The present report presents a direct trauma of the supraclavicular region with symptoms of contusion of the brachial plexus, caused by a fall from a jet ski using a life vest. A review was done of literature indicating the various facets of the problem and discussing treatment of this condition.

  11. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Comparison of human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV tests in a population of women referred for colposcopy following detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance by Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n=988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P=1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P≤0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Reference Dependent Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Breitmoser, Yves; Tan, Jonathan H.W.

    2014-01-01

    In view of behavioral patterns left unorganized by current social preference theories, we propose a theory of reference dependent altruism (RDA). With RDA, one's degree of altruism increases at reference points. It induces equity and efficiency effects that are conditional on whether or not payoffs meet reference points. We verify the theory first by experimentally analyzing majority bargaining, where observed behavior contradicts existing theories but confirms RDA. Using parameter estimates ...

  14. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  15. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide 2 nd Edition A Publication of the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program Real Solutions for Real ... Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. ... Checklist ........................................................................................................................... 3 Ergonomic ...

  16. Family Therapy and Young Abusers : Experiences from the multi-agency treatment service TVERS in Vest-Agder County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Søftestad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on young abusers participating in a treatment program for families where one or more children have experienced child sexual abuse and/or have abused other children. TVERS is a multiprofessional team where the treatment is performed within a frame of control ,“care and control hand in hand”. Three trained family therapists from three different agencies come together and form the therapy. The caseworker from the child care protection service (Children`s Service becomes a part of the TVERS-team during their therapeutic work with the young abuser and his family. The therapists are given access to all reports and documents from the police, the court and medical services. The caseworker can follow up the family between appointments as well as initiate child protection procedures if necessary. The article describes our experience of working with families where the son in the family has abused other children outside or inside their own family.

  17. The Reference Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geraldine B.

    1972-01-01

    Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)

  18. California's Reference Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing reference skills and reference collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…

  19. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  20. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  1. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  2. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  3. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  4. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  5. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  6. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  7. Spectral transmittance reference standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, M.A.; Belyaeva, O.N.; Nikitin, M.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents spectral transmittance reference standards for UV and IR spectrophotometers, developed, studied, and certified by a precision spectrophotometry laboratory (the RSP Complex). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: aceruloplasminemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inherited neurodegenerative disease with impairment of iron homeostasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Mar;1012:299-305. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  10. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  11. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  12. Introduction to Reference Links

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Unlike most traditional metadata systems, the power of ServCat comes in relating a Reference to others. This module discusses the different types of links (aka...

  13. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  14. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  15. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  16. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  17. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  18. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  19. X Python reference manual

    OpenAIRE

    Mullender, Sjoerd

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. The Python Library Reference describes the built-in and standard modules of Python. This document can be seen as en extension to that ...

  20. Frequency reference in VSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Jonathon Y. C.

    1994-02-01

    A low cost technique of frequency reference distribution within a VSAT network is discussed. This technique allows the use of a modestly frequency stable oscillator as the master frequency reference in the hub of a star-connected VSAT network. The need for extremely frequency stable OCXOs in VSATs is completely avoided. This technique was successfully incorporated in the early commercial VSAT networks. It contributes partially to the low cost nature of some of the VSAT networks available today.

  1. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  2. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  3. Una iniciativa artística de los alumnos de la Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Carlos: la exposición organizada en el vestíbulo del teatro Principal de Valencia en julio de 1882

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Condomina, Vicente; Sempere Vilaplana, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    En julio de 1882, los alumnos de la Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Carlos de Valencia organizaron una exposición artística en el vestíbulo del teatro Principal, con el objeto de destinar sus beneficios a la creación de otra de carácter permanente. Aunque la muestra fue muy visitada y resultó un éxito, el proyecto de exposición permanente, no obstante, todavía tendría que esperar algunos años para llegar a ser una realidad. (A)

  4. Page 1 42 REFERENCES 1. Ectopic Pregnancy following Tubal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The students have to acquire the skill to use the skill. English as a service subject provides the learner the. ºne. how of language skill to be applied in the academic activities. As a result, Freshman English Course is offered at the Medical Colleges based on the premises that it will help students to develop their potential by ...

  5. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  6. Organizational Change and Vested Interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is analyzed in a dynamic bargaining model. Organizational change can be either imposed, or voluntary and immediate, or voluntary and delayed. Headquarters derives it value from preventing surplus reducing endogenous

  7. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  8. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  9. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  10. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  11. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  12. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  13. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  14. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  15. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  16. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  17. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  18. Tracking referents in discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.A.; Spooren, W.P.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This reading study registered eye movements to investigate the influence of different discourse constructional factors on anaphor resolution in written discourse. More specifically, the study focused on the influence of the possible interplay of proximity between a possible referent and the anaphor

  19. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  20. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  1. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  2. Genetics Home Reference: bradyopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they often have trouble watching or participating in sports with a ball, such as soccer or tennis. ... IAE.0b013e31827e2306. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  3. Generating Multimodal References

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions, based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer et al. (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing.

  4. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  5. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  6. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  7. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  8. Internet Issues in Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

  9. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  10. Standards for reference services in health sciences libraries: the reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, D Z; Hewison, N S; MacWilliams, S E; Olson-Urlie, C; Teich, S

    1986-01-01

    Standards for reference services were prepared by a committee of the Oregon Health Sciences Libraries Association (OHSLA). The standards are qualitative and address the following: quality control, appropriateness, accuracy, documentation, timeliness, accessibility, confidentiality, and evaluation. The standards are components of minimally competent reference service as reflected in the reference product. A discussion of concerns and prescriptive measures accompanies the statement of each standard. While prepared specifically for health sciences libraries, the standards are applicable to all types of libraries and may be used as guidelines in evaluating the reference product, in upgrading library service, and in writing policies and procedures.

  11. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  12. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  13. Reference fallible endgame play

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Guy McCrossan

    2002-01-01

    A reference model of fallible endgame play is defined in terms of a spectrum of endgame players whose play ranges in competence from the optimal to the anti-optimal choice of move. They may be used as suitably skilled practice partners, to assess a player, to differentiate between otherwise equi-optimal moves, to promote or expedite a game result, to run Monte-Carlo simulations, and to identify the difficulty of a position or a whole endgame.

  14. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  15. Grep pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bambenek, John

    2009-01-01

    grep Pocket Reference is the first guide devoted to grep, the powerful Unix content-location utility. This handy book is ideal for system administrators, security professionals, developers, and others who want to learn more about grep and take new approaches with it -- for everything from mail filtering and system log management to malware analysis. The book includes useful information not contained in the current grep documentation

  16. Reference to Galery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about some aspects of the application of military rowing vessels, composition and rules the formation of the command of rowers, special features of the organization of their work on bringing of ship into the motion, is analyzed the influence of the practice of use reference to gallery of the condemned criminals to entire legislation of this country.

  17. Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...

  18. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  19. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  20. Optomechanical reference accelerometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Melcher, John; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 {\\mu}g/$\\sqrt{\\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

  1. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  2. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  3. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  4. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  5. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  6. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  7. Nuclear Science References Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  8. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  9. Geochemical engineering reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, processing spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)

  10. Internet's Impact on Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Donna E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six articles cover topics related to the impact of the Internet on reference services, including Internet's effect on communication between reference librarians; integrating the use of electronic resources with traditional reference duties; reference services and the virtual library; offering remote services; Internet instruction; and Internet…

  11. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  12. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  13. Energy policy. [60 pages of references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danforth, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Academic literature on energy policy in general as well as specific and related areas of energy, the environment, and the economy make up this bibliography, which includes journal articles and books published since 1970. The bibliography begins with a reference section of bibliographies, directories, and assessments, and continues with a general section of references on the nature of energy policy and approaches to solving energy problems. This is followed by a section on specific energy policy at the federal, regional, state, and local levels and intergovernmental relations; a section on US public opinion and political participation; references comparing US policies with those of other countries; references on energy as an issue in international relations; and a final section on methods of analyzing energy policy.

  14. Nuclear Science References Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Běták, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Totans, J. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  15. Reference Lists for HECE Occupational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations to appropriate reference books, pamphlets and audiovisual materials for the following 17 occupations: art and craft aide, bridal consultant, child care aide, clothing assistant, companion to the elderly, consumer aide, dietetic aide, fabric coordinator, fashion coordinator, floral designer, food…

  16. Selected Reference Books of 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this annotated list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The citations are listed under the following headings: guide, bibliography, encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspapers, dissertations, biography, genealogy, literature, education, sociology,…

  17. Film: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This selective annotated bibliography lists current reference sources in the McGill Library system which deal with film. It emphasizes a scholarly approach to the film as art and includes only a few technical items. The citations are arranged in the following categories: guides and bibliographies, film catalogues and listings, dictionaries and…

  18. A Reference Guide to Audiovisual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, James L.

    A one-volume source of information on feature films, filmstrips, theater, radio, television, and recordings lists some 400 reference books, including filmographies, encyclopedias, biographies, and catalogs. Entries are arranged alphabetically by title and provide the following data: full title, author, editor, publisher, date of publication,…

  19. Collections Care: A Basic Reference Shelflist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, Amparo R., Ed.

    This is an extensive bibliography of reference sources--i.e., books and articles--that relate to the care and conservation of library, archival, and museum collections. Bibliographies are presented under the following headings: (1) General Information; (2) Basic Collections Care; (3) Architectural Conservation; (4) Collections Management: Law,…

  20. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 1. Open file and immediately click on enable macros to open workbook. Follow instructions on the workook welcome page. 2. Click yes on the security warning widow to make the workbook a Trusted document. 3. Save workbook with file extension XLSM. 4.

  1. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kealin M. McCabe; James R.W. MacDonald

    2011-01-01

    Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology), location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget). Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153) of whic...

  2. Collaborative reference management system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available are applicable on collaboration. Consensus is the greatest barrier in any collaboration process and should be the main focus when trying to work collaboratively. Consensus is hampered by cultural (organisational and personal) boundaries. The following... organisation has lately become predominantly collaborative based. This has been aided by collaboration tools such as version control systems and multimedia based tools such as wikis, web logs and communities of practice within the organisation. A need arose...

  3. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  4. LISA Gravitational Reference Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Kexun [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Johann, Ulrich [EADS Astrium GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); DeBra, Dan B; Buchman, Sasha [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Byer, Robert L [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We review state of the art of the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA consists of three identical spacecraft placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle with a 5 million kilometer baseline. In the LISA baseline design, the spacecraft at each corner will have two optical assemblies subtending an angle of 60 degrees. A proof mass (PM) is housed in a GRS located at the center of each assembly. LISA measures the distance variation between PMs separated by 5 million kilometers to a precision of 40 pm/Hz{sup 1/2}. The GRS must shield the PM from external disturbances such as solar wind and functions as a drag-free sensor for spacecraft control. The GRS must minimize the back action and cross talk exerted by measurements themselves. Significant progress has been made in the design, fabrication and testing of the GRS. LISA Pathfinder will fly a test GRS system scheduled around 2009. In addition, there have also been new architectures proposed to simplify the LISA payloads by using a single PM and therefore only one GRS per spacecraft. Further a modular GRS (MGRS) structure is proposed to reduce complexity. Optical sensing and large gap size between the PM and the MGRS housing are proposed to lower the disturbance level. Many experimental, engineering design, and trade off studies are underway.

  5. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  6. WFC3/UVIS: Bias Reference Files Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-11-01

    We created and delivered new superbias reference files for the WFC3/UVIS channel and analyzed the data for temporal variation in the residual two-dimensional bias structure. Previously, the pipeline only provided superbias reference files for 2009 to 2010 in which the 2010 file was used for all the following years. We updated the 2009 and 2010 reference files and created new reference files for 2009 to 2016. The files were constructed from stacks of standard bias frames taken from 2009-2016. Statistics of the reference files were calculated and plotted as a function of time to display any significant changes in the data. The difference between the previous and current superbias files is 0.02 electrons for 2009 and 0.04 electrons for 2010. The analysis shows that the overall residual bias level gradually increased by 0.16 electrons from 2009 - 2016. In this report, we briefly discuss the process we used to generate the bias reference files, the process to check for significant changes in the biases and results of the analysis.

  7. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  8. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  9. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  10. Accuracy of references in burns journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Rajgarhia, Prachi; Ahmed, Safraz; Sheikh, Zeeshan

    2009-08-01

    To study the incidence and risk factors for citation and quotation errors in two major burns surgery journals. 120 references were randomly selected from original articles published in the following two journals - January to December 2006 issues of Burns and Journal of Burn Care & Research. For each reference, the ease of retrieval on PubMed and the presence of citation errors were noted. Two independent observers analysed each reference for quotation errors. The characteristics of the root article, that is, type of study, author numbers, number of references and article word count were noted. Of the 120 selected references, 117 referred to articles from indexed medical journals published in English. Among these, 4 articles could not be retrieved due to fatal citation errors (3.3%). A further 12 citation errors were noted giving a total citation error rate of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.74-19.93%). Of the 117 references analysed, the quotation error rate was 13.7% (95% CI: 8.6-19.5%) half of which were major errors. There was no significant association between the combined error rate per article and the journal (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.861, type of study (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.717), author numbers (Spearman's rho=0.197, p=0.423), article length (Spearman's rho=0.118, p=0.705) or references per article (Spearman's rho=0.229, p=0.189). Significant numbers of citation and quotation errors still appear in current burns literature. Incorrect spelling of author names and partial omissions of article titles were the two most common errors. No observable underlying factors were identified in this study. The present results serve as a reminder to authors, editors and peer reviewers for more care of citation accuracy when striving for their common goal of scientific excellence.

  11. References in the Australasian Medical Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Adhikari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReferences serve as an important tool in providing credibility to the published literature and to assist retrieval of the cited and related information. This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Australasian Medical Journal.Method Fifty references were randomly selected from two different issues of Australasian Medical Journal (AMJ: Volume 3, Number 11, 2010 and Volume 3, Number 10, 2010. The instructions for authors of this journal were examined. References from each article were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: 1 authors; including spelling, initials, order and number; 2 title, including spelling and punctuation; 3 journal name, including use of correct abbreviation as listed in Index Medicus; 4 year; 5 volume; and 6 page numbers, including first and last page numbers. Citations were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. References not cited from indexed journals were excluded. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage.ResultsResults show that 14.0% references in AMJ were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and journal name. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 10.0% references while journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors were found to be incorrect in 4.0%. Least common error was found in writing the title of the article (2.0%. There were no errors found in other elements.ConclusionErrors in citing the references are also found in the AMJ. The quoted error in this study (14.0% is comparable to other international literature. The majority of errors are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.

  12. Comparison of select reference management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic management tools have been widely used by researchers to store, organize, and manage their references for research papers, theses, dissertations, journal articles, and other publications. There are a number of reference management tools available. In order for users to decide which tool is best for their needs, it is important to know each tool's strengths and weaknesses. This article compares four reference management tools, one of which is licensed by University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey libraries and the other three are open source and freely available. They were chosen based on their functionality, ease of use, availability to library users, and popularity. These four tools are EndNote/EndNote Web, Zotero, Connotea, and Mendeley Desktop/Mendeley Web. Each tool is analyzed in terms of the following features: accessing, collecting, organizing, collaborating, and citing/formatting. A comparison table is included to summarize the key features of these tools. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  13. Following Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Charlene

    Activities in this elementary unit focus on developing students' locational skills while strengthening their ability to read and follow instructions. Seven maps of varying complexity are accompanied by worksheets containing 8 to 13 direction exercises. Students are instructed to place buildings, landmarks, and labels in accurate locations on each…

  14. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  15. Information structure and reference tracking in complex sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Gijn, Rik van; Matic, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses argument marking and reference tracking in Mekens complex clauses and their correlation to information structure. The distribution of pronominal arguments in Mekens simple clauses follows an absolutive pattern with main verbs. Complex clauses maintain the morphological absolutive argument marking, but show a nominative pattern with respect to argument reference tracking, since transitive and intransitive subjects function as syntactic pivots. The language extends the use of argument-marking verb morphology to control the reference of discourse participants across clauses.

  16. Reference figures for organic farming inspections

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Rebekka; Klöble, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Consumers trust the quality of organic farming products and pay higher prices for organic food. For this reason controls are necessary to ensure that legal standards under the EC Organic Farming Regulation are being followed in production and processing of animal and crop products. Collected in this book are reference figures to be applied in controls for calculating product flow, appraising plausibility and also reliably assessing yields and wastage. Target groups are inspectors conducting o...

  17. Discurso e referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingedore Grünfeld Villaça Koch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo tem por objetivo examinar a questão da referência no discurso. Fazendo-se um levantamento das principais teorias sobre sentido e referência, adota-se a posição de que é preciso entender a referência como uma função global de todo o discurso. Não existe, no discurso, o referente considerado como elemento particular da realidade, mas uma referência do discurso a um universo diferente dele. Assim sendo, é o discurso que constitui o seu próprio objeto.

  18. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  19. Body-composition reference data for simple and reference techniques and a 4-component model: a new UK reference child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Williams, Jane E; Chomtho, Sirinuch; Darch, Tegan; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kennedy, Kathy; Haroun, Dalia; Wilson, Catherine; Cole, Tim J; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2012-12-01

    A routine pediatric clinical assessment of body composition is increasingly recommended but has long been hampered by the following 2 factors: a lack of appropriate techniques and a lack of reference data with which to interpret individual measurements. Several techniques have become available, but reference data are needed. We aimed to provide body-composition reference data for use in clinical practice and research. Body composition was measured by using a gold standard 4-component model, along with various widely used reference and bedside methods, in a large, representative sample of British children aged from 4 to ≥20 y. Measurements were made of anthropometric variables (weight, height, 4 skinfold thicknesses, and waist girth), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, body density, bioelectrical impedance, and total body water, and 4-component fat and fat-free masses were calculated. Reference charts and SD scores (SDSs) were constructed for each outcome by using the lambda-mu-sigma method. The same outcomes were generated for the fat-free mass index and fat mass index. Body-composition growth charts and SDSs for 5-20 y were based on a final sample of 533 individuals. Correlations between SDSs by using different techniques were ≥0.68 for adiposity outcomes and ≥0.80 for fat-free mass outcomes. These comprehensive reference data for pediatric body composition can be used across a variety of techniques. Together with advances in measurement technologies, the data should greatly enhance the ability of clinicians to assess and monitor body composition in routine clinical practice and should facilitate the use of body-composition measurements in research studies.

  20. 47 CFR 0.411 - General reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information Printed Publications § 0.411 General reference materials. The following reference materials are available in many libraries and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government...

  1. Applying the Causal Theory of Reference to Intentional Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew; Macleod, Miles

    2013-01-01

    . Specifically, we argue that some phenomena in early social de- velopment ðe.g., mimicry, gaze following, and emotional contagionÞ can serve as refer- ence fixers that enable children to track others’ intentional states and, thus, to refer to those states. This allows intentional concepts to be anchored...

  2. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporates by reference the following test procedures into Subpart G of Part 431. The Director of the Federal... given here for information and guidance. (2) List of References. (i) ASTM Standard Test Method C518-91... of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus.” (ii) ASTM Standard Test Method C177-97, “Standard Test Method for...

  3. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for iron. These include Average Requirement (AR) and Population Reference Intake (PRI). For adults, whole-body iron losses were modelled using data fro...

  4. Douglas Library Reference Department Policies and Procedure Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Robert B.

    This manual presents the policies and procedures of the Reference Department of Chicago State University's Douglas Library. General information about the reference department's staffing, functions, and services is given in the first section. In the next nine sections information is provided about the following areas: scope and circulation period…

  5. Sed and Awk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold D

    2002-01-01

    The sed & awk Pocket Reference is a handy, quick reference guide to frequently used functions, commands, and regular expressions used for day-to-day text processing needs. This book is a companion to both sed & awk, Second Edition and Effective awk Programming, Third Edition

  6. Physical Education Research Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat, Comp.

    This guide on physical education research reference resources was compiled for the use of physical education students and teachers. While it was written to be used by Northern Illinois University library users, much information may be useful to all physical education students who would be doing research using standard basic reference sources…

  7. Behaviour of Reference in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdou Moindjie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference, which is one aspect of cohesion, may affect or enhance cohesiveness in its behaviour in translation. This study is an investigation of the behaviour of reference in translating from Arabic into English and French. The texts which are used as corpuses are literary texts whose findings are expected to be reflexive to other genres. The study reveals that reference, in translation depends often on certain language peculiarities; it is seldom depends on the translator’s choices. It is found that English is more cohesive in translation than Arabic and French due to some of its peculiarities. Although the Arabic language and the French languages have different peculiarities, they are found to have more in common as far as translating reference is concerned. The translators’ familiarity with the language peculiarities would make them avoid pitfalls and handle reference perfectly, which enhances more translation in terms of meaning, cohesiveness, and coherence. It is observed that the translators’ unfamiliarity with the languages peculiarities may affect reference in terms of meaning, cohesiveness, and coherence. It can, therefore, create translations in that reference is often found to be determined by language peculiarities. Keywords: Cohesion, Reference Translatability, Language Peculiarity, Syndeton, Asyndeton, Hypothaxis

  8. Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants performed spirometry and answered questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric data were collected. Selection of subjects for generation of reference values followed American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations. Data were analyzed using multiple ...

  9. Point to a Referent, and Say, "What Is This?" Gesture as a Potential Cue to Identify Referents in a Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Lim, Jia Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether caregivers' gestures followed the discourse-pragmatic principle of information status of referents (given vs. new) and how their children responded to those gestures when identifying referents. Ten Chinese-speaking and eight English-speaking caregivers were videotaped while interacting spontaneously with their children.…

  10. Indians and Eskimos of Canada: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Suzy M.

    Emphasizing reference resources for ethnological research on Canadian American Indians and Eskimos, this guide constitutes a revised and expanded edition of an earlier student's guide entitled "Canadian Ethnology" and includes both reference sources and annotated bibliographic references for the following: (1) Handbooks (8 references);…

  11. Unapređenje balističkih karakteristika i održavanja zaštitnih balističkih prsluka/Ballistic characteristics improving and maintenance of protective ballistic vests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su realizovana istraživanja materijala neophodnog za održavanje zaštitnih balističkih prsluka. Predloženo je novo konstrukciono rešenje sa savremenim materijalom za izradu balističkih uložaka. U radu su prikazani rezultati laboratorijskih balističkih ispitivanja uložaka sa novim materijalom. Na osnovu rezultata ispitivanja zaključuje se da predloženo konstrukciono rešenje za izradu balističkih uložaka u potpunosti ispunjava zahteve aktuelnog standarda. / The work presents research of the materials necessary for the maintenance of protective ballistic vests. In this paper is proposed a new construction design with modern materials for ballistic inserts producing. This paper also presents the results of laboratory tests of ballistic cartridges with new materials. Based on the test results, it can be concluded, the proposed technical solution for making ballistic inserts adequately meets current standards.

  12. Interactions: A Study of Office Reference Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lederer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study was to analyze the data from a referencestatistics-gathering mechanism at Colorado State University (CSU Libraries. It aimedprimarily to better understand patron behaviours, particularly in an academic librarywith no reference desk.Methods – The researchers examined data from 2007 to 2010 of College LiaisonLibrarians’ consultations with patrons. Data were analyzed by various criteria,including patron type, contact method, and time spent with the patron. Theinformation was examined in the aggregate, meaning all librarians combined, andthen specifically from the Liberal Arts and Business subject areas.Results – The researchers found that the number of librarian reference consultationsis substantial. Referrals to librarians from CSU’s Morgan Library’s one public servicedesk have declined over time. The researchers also found that graduate students arethe primary patrons and email is the preferred contact method overall.Conclusion – The researchers found that interactions with patrons in librarians’ offices – either in person or virtually – remain substantial even without a traditional reference desk. The data suggest that librarians’ efforts at marketing themselves to departments, colleges, and patrons have been successful. This study will be of value to reference, subject specialist, and public service librarians, and library administrators as they consider ways to quantify their work, not only for administrative purposes, but in order to follow trends and provide services and staffing accordingly.

  13. 40 CFR 53.2 - General requirements for a reference method determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 53.2 General requirements for a reference method determination. The following general requirements for a Federal reference method (FRM) determination are summarized in table A-1 of this subpart. (a... forth as follows: § 53.2 General requirements for a reference method determination. (a) Manual methods...

  14. References:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwanda, J. Scotland, Malawi and Medicine: Livingstone's Legacy,. I Presume? An Historical Perspective. Scottish Medical Journal 2007,. 52 (3), 36 – 44. 7. Muula, A. 'Successes and challenges of Malawi's only medical school'. Croat Med J. 2009 April; 50(2): 189–191. 8. Malawi Government. Statement of Development ...

  15. References

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STG's) and. Essential Drug List (EDL) in 1996 some of the traditional medication for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were removed from the medication list. e.g. slow release oral theophylline.

  16. References

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costallat GL, Appenzeller S, Costallat LT. Evans syndrome and. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical presentation and outcome of. Evans syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical pres- entation and outcome: Joint Bone Spine. 2012 Jul;79(4):362-4. Epub. 2011 Sep 23. 8. Greenbaum, Joseph M. McMann, ...

  17. References:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996, 1987. 9. King, M. and King, E. The Story of Medicine and Disease in Malawi. Blantyre: Montfort Press, 1992, page 156. 10. Baker C. A. The government medical service in Malawi, 1891 -. 1974. Journal of History of Medicine, 1975, 13, 296 – 311. 11. Carr, S and MacLachlan, M. The social psychology of development.

  18. References

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Albert O., Awe T., Herault G., Omitoogun W., 1995, Informal Channels for Conflict Resolution in-Ibadan, Nigeria (Ibadan: IFRA). Adeagbo A., 2000, Communal Policing: Episodes of Encounters Between the Landlords/Tenants Associations and the State in the Peri-Urban Areas of Ibadan (Research Report Submitted tothe CRD, Kano). Ado Kurawa; 2004, Mallam Ibrahim Shekarau and the Press: An Analytical Survey (Kano: Trans West Africa Limited). Agbola T. and Sobanjo, 2003, “The Management of Urban Violen...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Grange syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X, Yang ML; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Bamshad MJ, Nickerson DA, Gornik HL, Ganesh ... 3):190-5. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ng S, Amor DJ; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics; Care4Rare Canada Consortium, Majewski J, Biesecker LG, ... Jul 1. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Menkes syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prohaska JR. Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3): ... or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... F. Ryanodine receptor 1 mutations, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and neuromuscular disorders. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005 Oct;15(9-10):577-87. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  3. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    on configuration systems in the shape of anecdotal reporting on the development of information systems that perhaps support the configuration task – perhaps not. Consequently, the definition of configuration has become ambiguous as different research groups defines configuration differently. This paper propose......This paper presents a reference frame for configuration. The reference frame is established by review of existing literature, and consequently it is a theoretical frame of reference. The review of literature shows a deterioration of the understanding of configuration. Most recent literature reports...... a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Usher syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have difficulty riding a bicycle and playing certain sports. Usher syndrome type II is characterized by hearing ... 19-27. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: osteoglophonic dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... referred to in the medical literature as a tower-shaped skull , or a relatively mild version of ... receptors are involved in important processes such as cell division, regulation of cell growth and maturation, formation ...

  6. Reference Values of Skin Autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Lutgers, H. L.; de Jonge, C.; Links, T. P.; Smit, A. J.; Graaff, R.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (AF) as measured with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands) is a noninvasive prognostic marker in diabetes mellitus and other diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. This study provides reference values of healthy Caucasian

  7. Genetics Home Reference: propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be triggered by prolonged periods without food (fasting), fever, or infections. Related Information What does it ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isovaleric acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be triggered by prolonged periods without food (fasting), infections, or eating an increased amount of protein- ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: WAGR syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of WAGR syndrome can include childhood-onset obesity, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and kidney failure. When WAGR syndrome includes childhood-onset obesity, it is often referred ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of a series of allergic disorders, referred to as the atopic march. Development ...

  11. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  12. Reference Models for Virtual Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter; Vesterager, Johan

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses different types of Reference Models (RMs) applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of virtual enterprises (VEs). RMs are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE towards a configuration task, and hence reduce the time...... needed for VE creation. The RMs are analysed through a mapping onto the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) created in the IMS GLOBEMEN project based upon GERAM....

  13. Diana Reference Manual. Revision 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-28

    private -To be filled in... ead Diana ; External Representation of DIANA Page 145 CHAPTER 5 EXTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF DIANA This chapter describes how a...1 1 mml L.~ 2 .i i .- . .... c7- 0/0 04 TARTAN LABORATOR4IES *dOORPORATED 00 N DIANA REFERENCE MANUAL Revision 3 Arthur Evans Jr. MCC Kenneth J...Butler Tartan Laboratories Incorporated Editors. Revised Diana Reference Manual G0. GOOD Inatitut fuer Informatik 11. Universitmet Karlsruhe Win. A. Wuif

  14. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  15. Dietary reference values for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin D. The Panel considers that serum 25(OH)D concentration, which reflects the amount of vitamin D attained from both cutaneous...... synthesis and dietary sources, can be used as a biomarker of vitamin D status in adult and children populations. The Panel notes that the evidence on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes in adults, infants and children, and adverse pregnancy-related health...... outcomes, is widely variable. The Panel considers that Average Requirements and Population Reference Intakes for vitamin D cannot be derived, and therefore defines adequate intakes (AIs), for all population groups. Taking into account the overall evidence and uncertainties, the Panel considers that a serum...

  16. Pressure-induced referred pain is expanded by persistent soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-García, V; Palsson, T S; Herrero, P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-05-01

    Several chronic pain conditions are accompanied with enlarged referred pain areas. This study investigated a novel method for assessing referred pain. In 20 healthy subjects, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded and pressure stimuli (120% PPT) were applied bilaterally for 5 and 60 seconds at the infraspinatus muscle to induce local and referred pain. Moreover, PPTs were measured bilaterally at the shoulder, neck, and leg before, during, and after hypertonic saline-induced referred pain in the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The pressure and saline-induced pain areas were assessed on drawings. Subsequently, delayed onset muscle soreness was induced using eccentric exercise of the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The day-1 assessments were repeated the following day (day 2). Suprathreshold pressure stimulations and saline injections into the infraspinatus muscle caused referred pain to the frontal aspect of the shoulder/arm in all subjects. The 60-second pressure stimulation caused larger referred pain areas compared with the 5-second stimulation (P induced referred pain area was larger (P induced pain, the PPTs at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced (P induced referred pain area was larger than baseline. Pressure pain thresholds at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced at day 2 in the delayed onset muscle soreness side (P induced referred pain areas were observed on day 2 (P pain to the shoulder/arm was consistently induced and enlarged after 1 day of muscle soreness, indicating that the referred pain area may be a sensitive biomarker for sensitization of the pain system.

  17. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpretativa, reelaborada e incorporada como argumento em outro texto. Pondera que no ensinar, estudar e fazer arquitetura é preciso saber citar com referência, para poder citar como referência.

  18. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Stephen D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-20

    applications of muon spin rotation techniques provide sensitive probes of the magnetic structure of materials. Goal: Provide MW-class proton beams at 1 GeV, coupled with novel targets required to support a broad range of materials science and energy applications. Platform for Evolution to Future Frontier Facilities: A high-intensity proton source will strengthen and modernize the Fermilab injector complex, providing a robust platform upon which to build future frontier facilities. The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider are examples that would provide world-leading capabilities at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers for many decades to come. Goal: Provide a straightforward upgrade path for a 4 MW, low-duty-factor source of protons at energies between 5 and 15 GeV. These four elements are expected to form the basis of the Mission Need statement required for the Department of Energy (DOE) Critical Decision 0 (CD-0), and represent the fundamental design criteria for Project X. The following chapters present the Reference Design for the Project X accelerator facility. The Reference Design is based on a continuous wave (CW) superconducting (SC) linac providing up to 1 and 3 MW of beam power at 1 and 3 GeV respectively. A pulsed linac provides acceleration of roughly 4% of the beam delivered from the CW linac to the 8 GeV injection energy of the existing Recycler/Main Injector complex. Upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector support a factor of three increase, beyond current capabilities, in proton beam power at 60 to 120 GeV. The Reference Design represents a facility that will be unique in the world with unmatched capabilities for the delivery of very high beam power, with flexible beam formats, to multiple users at multiple energies. The utilization of linacs within the Project X facility enables capabilities beyond what is achievable with circular accelerators. It is anticipated that the final configuration and operating parameters of the complex will be further refined through

  19. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  20. Reference Librarian in Digital Environment:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Sohili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The information explosion of the latter half of the twentieth century, gave rise to online databases and various information media that gradually impacted on the very physical environment of the library. It transformed the librarians’ role. Reference librarians are no exception. The present study aims to investigate the need or lack of need to reference librarians within the digital domains based on the views expressed by LIS authorities in Iran. It would attempt further, to identify the qualities required for such librarian should a need for her/his expressed. The research, while descriptive in nature, was based on analyzing the results obtained by the checklist devised by the authors. LIS Specialist sample was composed of 57 people who filled the checklist. Findings show that there is a significance between employing ICT and need for a reference librarian. LIS experts in Iran believe that introduction of ICT, especially Internet and the WWW not only didn’t decrease the need for such librarians, but has caused the reference librarian to attain a more important and better status than before. Findings further demonstrated that while Iran is not a signatory to the international copyright conventions, the Iranian reference librarians are fully committed to observing author’s copyright and intellectual rights and frown on using software crackers.

  1. Introduction to Animal Products. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to animal products. The curriculum contains the following six lessons: (1) importance of animal products; (2) beef; (3) pork; (4) lamb and mutton; (5) poultry products; and (6) dairy products. The instructor guide includes the following: objectives,…

  2. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  3. Fast Reference-Based MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Weizman, Lior; Ben-Basaht, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In some cases, a previously acquired image can serve as a reference image, that may exhibit similarity to the image being acquired. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient. In this paper we present a general framework for utilizing reference images for fast MRI. We take into account that the reference image may exhibit low similarity with the acquired image and develop an iterative weighted approach for reconstruction, which tunes the weights according to the degree of similarity. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the method in three different clinical MRI scenarios: SNR improvement in high resolution brain MRI, utilizing similarity between T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)...

  4. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  5. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13...... protein S was stable. Gestational age-specific reference values are essential for the accurate interpretation of a subset of haemostatic tests during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium.......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age...

  6. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  7. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  8. Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport t...

  9. Bronquiolite obliterante: perfil clínico e radiológico de crianças acompanhadas em ambulatório de referência Bronquiolitis obliterante: perfil clínico y radiológico de 35 niños acompañados en ambulatorio de referencia Bronchiolitis obliterans: clinical and radiological profile of children followed-up in a reference outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Arcanjo Lino

    2013-03-01

    los pediatras frente a lactantes silbadores graves y perennes.OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with bronchiolitis obliterans. METHODS: This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from patients diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans between 2004 and 2008 in the Pediatric Pulmonology Clinic of Hospital Infantil Albert Sabin, in Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Such diagnosis was based on clinical and tomographic criteria. Previous history, clinical findings at the diagnosis, complementary exams, and follow-up data were evaluated. RESULTS: 35 children diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans were identified. There was a predominance of male patients (3:1. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 7.5 months, and bronchiolitis obliterans was diagnosed at a mean age of 21.8 months. The most common clinical findings were crackles/wheezing, tachypnea, dyspnea, and chest deformity. Post-infectious etiology was the main cause of bronchiolitis obliterans. Predominant findings at chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography were peri-bronchial thickening and mosaic pattern, respectively. The treatment was variable and individualized. The majority of patients improved during follow-up, despite the persistence of respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the predominance of male patients and post-infectious etiology was noted, corroborating scientific literature. The most common tomographic findings were similar to those described in previous studies (mosaic pattern, peri-bronchial thickening, and bronchiectasis. Evidence about the treatment of this disease is still lacking. The diagnosis was delayed, which indicates that clinical suspicion of bronchiolitis obliterans is necessary in children with persistent and severe wheezing.

  10. Multimodal Referring Expressions in Dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Piwek, P.; Gatt, A.; Bangerter, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which dialogues are elicited through an identification task. Currently we are transcrib- ing the collected data. The primary purpose of the experiment is to test a number of hypotheses regarding both the production and per- ception of multimodal referring

  11. A Quick Reference on Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Shane W

    2017-03-01

    This article serves as a quick reference on the distribution, handling, and supplementation of magnesium. It also lists the manifestations and causes of magnesium deficit and provides criteria for the diagnosis of a magnesium deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sidransky E. Gaucher disease: insights from a rare Mendelian disorder. Discov Med. 2012 Oct;14(77):273-81. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  13. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  14. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  15. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  16. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  17. Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

  18. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  19. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  20. Quick Reference for Financial Reporting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference – Financial Reporting. 1. Only use and work on the updated workbook provided to you by your IDRC representative. The file will be sent before each reporting period. 2. Always enable macros to open workbook and click yes on the security warning window to make the workbook a ...

  1. Haematological reference intervals in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs.

  2. Haematological reference intervals in a multiethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeli Ambayya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. RESULTS: Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. CONCLUSION: Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs.

  3. A multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind comparison phase III study to determine the efficacy and safety of gadobutrol 1.0 M versus gadopentetate dimeglumine following single injection in patients referred for contrast-enhanced MRI of the body regions or extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Takahashi, Satoru; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Sugihara, Ryo; Zeng, Mengsu; Huan, Yi; Peng, Weijun; Ma, Lin; Guo, Liang; Teng, Gaojun; Yao, Weiwu; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Endo, Masahiro; Kaji, Shuichiro; Ro, Tokugen; Tae Hahn, Seong; Chul Kang, Byung; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Breuer, Josy; Aitoku, Yasuko

    2015-02-01

    To demonstrate the noninferiority of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in Asian patients referred for contrast-enhanced imaging of the body or extremities. A multicenter, parallel-group comparison study of Asian adults referred for contrast-enhanced MRI were randomized (1:1) to either gadobutrol or gadopentetate dimeglumine. Lesions were assessed for three primary visualization variables: degree of contrast enhancement, border delineation, and internal morphology. Secondary efficacy variables included number of lesions detected, match of MRI diagnosis with final clinical diagnosis, and sensitivity and specificity for malignant lesion detection. Safety was monitored for 24 ± 4 hours after contrast agent administration. A total of 363 patients received either gadobutrol (n = 168) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 178). Mean total scores for three primary visualization variables were 9.39 and 9.34 for gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine, respectively. The proportion of patients with matched MRI and final diagnosis and sensitivity for malignant lesion detection was greater for unenhanced versus combined images (gadobutrol: 72.2% vs. 81.7%; gadopentetate dimeglumine: 76.2% vs. 82.2%, respectively). Both contrast agents were well tolerated. Gadobutrol (0.1 mmol/kg BW) was well tolerated and effective in Asian patients referred for contrast-enhanced MRI of the body or extremities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Decentralized model reference adaptive control of large flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fu-Ming; Fong, I-Kong; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive control (DMRAC) method is developed for large flexible structures (LFS). The development follows that of a centralized model reference adaptive control for LFS that have been shown to be feasible. The proposed method is illustrated using a simply supported beam with collocated actuators and sensors. Results show that the DMRAC can achieve either output regulation or output tracking with adequate convergence, provided the reference model inputs and their time derivatives are integrable, bounded, and approach zero as t approaches infinity.

  5. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G

    1991-01-01

    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  6. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  7. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    fingerprinting tools include QueSO [10] (literally translates to “what OS”) and nmap [11], however there are a number of additional tools available for...Network Attack Reference Data Set J. McKenna and J. Treurniet Defence R&D Canada √ Ottawa TECHNICAL...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources

  8. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  9. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  10. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  11. Iconicity and escape from reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seweryna Wysłouch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of reference comprises three different ways of expressing reality: simulation, representation and transformation, and it is just from this point of view that I analyse Rybczyński's films from the years 1976-1990. Rybczyński was always against registration of reality and wants to present on the screen "mental pictures", i.e. that which exists in our thoughts, fantasies and dreams. He submits reality to grotesque deformation (Święto [Holiday], 1976, destroys iconicity of the text through playful metaphor (Lokomotywa (Locomotive based on J. Tuwim's poem, 1976, creates on the screen surreal situations (Tango, 1980 and shows transformation of people and things (The Fourth Dimension, 1998. However, "mental pictures" also contain conventional cultural symbols, which are distinctly shown in Orchestra (1990. Therefore, lifting references leads into the world of signs and signs refer to the social experience, history and European culture. Through signs we reverse to the representation of reality.

  12. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  13. The Library Visit Study: user experiences at the virtual reference desk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology and reports on initial findings of a study examining the perceptions of users of digital reference services. It is part of a long-term research project, The Library Visit Study, which has been conducted in three phases at the University of Western Ontario for more than a decade. Phases One and Two examined perceptions of users who approached physical reference desks in libraries with reference questions. Phase Three of the research considers reference encounters at virtual reference desks and compares users' experiences at the physical reference desk with experiences at the virtual reference desk. The findings suggest that, from the viewpoint of the enquirer, the virtual reference desk suffers from the same problems as the physical reference desk: inadequate reference interviewing, referral to alternative sources without a subsequent check on their suitability, and a lack of follow-up to determine satisfaction in general.

  14. Ozone reference models for CIRA. [COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.; Pitts, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The data bases and computational techniques used in recent models of the O3 distribution in the earth atmosphere are described, summarizing the results of ongoing efforts to define an O3 reference model for incorporation into CIRA. Consideration is given to the analysis of data from satellite instruments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, TOMS, and SBUV; SME UVS and IR; and AE-2 SAGE) to construct models of total column O3 and vertical O3 structure. The satellite-based model predictions are then compared with balloon, rocket, and umkehr measurements in extensive graphs: good agreement is demonstrated both among the satellite data sets and between satellite and nonsatellite data sets.

  15. Direct model reference adaptive control with application to flexible robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory W.

    1992-01-01

    A modification to a direct command generator tracker-based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system is suggested in this paper. This modification incorporates a feedforward into the reference model's output as well as the plant's output. Its purpose is to eliminate the bounded model following error present in steady state when previous MRAC systems were used. The algorithm was evaluated using the dynamics for a single-link flexible-joint arm. The results of these simulations show a response with zero steady state model following error. These results encourage further use of MRAC for various types of nonlinear plants.

  16. Comportamiento de brackets metálicos y cerámicos cementados con agentes cementantes ionoméricos y poliméricos cuando son sometidos a fuerzas ocluso-apicales, mesio-distales y vestíbulo-vestibulares

    OpenAIRE

    Angaramo, Leonel Erico

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar, a través de un ensayo de resistencia adhesiva al corte, brackets metálicos y cerámicos cementados con agentes ionoméricos y poliméricos al ser sometidos a fuerzas en sentido ocluso-apical, mesio-distal y de tracción vestíbulo-vestibular MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: A 120 Premolares humanos recientemente extraídos por razones ortodóncicas se los dividió en forma aleatoria en dos grupos, a 60 se le cementaron brackets metálic...

  17. Reference Materials--So Many Choices, So Little Money: Librarians and Publishers Speak Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    1997-01-01

    Differing perspectives of reference collection development librarians and publishers are presented for the following topics: fairness of pricing trends; best/worst ways to communicate about new reference titles; deciding which sources should be published; impact of electronic materials on reference services; deciding on/selecting formats; and…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  19. Animal helminths in human archaeological remains: a review of zoonoses in the past Helmintos animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos: revisão de zoonoses no passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sianto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a review of records of intestinal parasitic helminths from animals in human archaeological remains, reported since the emergence of paleopathological studies. The objective was to relate paleoparasitological findings to geographic, biotic, and abiotic factors from the environment in which the prehistoric populations lived, and understand some aspects related to the process of human dispersion and biological and cultural evolution. Modification of eating habits and the incorporation of new cultural practices are analyzed from the perspective of zoonoses from prehistory to the present day, especially in Brazilian indigenous populations. Three tables identifying the helminths, their natural hosts, dates, and sites of archaeological findings complete this review. In conclusion, various zoonoses known today have occurred since antiquity, and these data, combined with studies on the emergence and reemergence of diseases, could make possible to compose scenarios for the future.São revistos os registros de ocorrência de helmintos intestinais parasitos de animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos, relatados desde o surgimento dos estudos paleopatológicos. Busca-se relacionar os achados em paleoparasitologia com fatores geográficos, bióticos e abióticos do ambiente em que as populações pré-históricas viviam, e com aspectos do processo de dispersão e evolução biológica e cultural humana. A modificação de hábitos alimentares e a incorporação de novas práticas culturais são analisadas sob o ponto de vista das zoonoses desde a pré-história até a atualidade, em especial em populações indígenas brasileiras. Três tabelas identificando os helmintos, seus hospedeiros naturais, datações e local dos achados arqueológicos complementam esta revisão. Conclui-se que várias zoonoses conhecidas hoje ocorrem desde a antiguidade e que estes dados, combinados a estudos de emergência e reemergência de doenças, podem

  20. VERA: Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . To prepare for this is a complex task, in fact all business, management and planning views, and related subject areas and activities, may be involved. In order to deal with this complexity in a systematic way and secure global understanding Globemen has developed a Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture......Globalisation, outsourcing and customisation are main challenges of today not least for one-of-a-kind producers. A crucial competitive factor will be the ability rapidly to form customer focused virtual enterprises comprised of competencies from different partners by taking full advantage of ICT...

  1. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  2. Visual Basic 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Build effective user interfaces with Windows Presentation Foundation. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is included with the Windows operating system and provides a programming model for building applications that provide a clear separation between the UI and business logic. Written by a leading expert on Microsoft graphics programming, this richly illustrated book provides an introduction to WPF development and explains fundamental WPF concepts. Packed with helpful examples, this reference progresses through a range of topics that gradually increase in their complexity. You'll quickly sta

  3. Dynamic HTML The Definitive Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Packed with information on the latest web specifications and browser features, this new edition is your ultimate one-stop resource for HTML, XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript development. Here is the comprehensive reference for designers of Rich Internet Applications who need to operate in all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Safari, and Opera. With this book, you can instantly see browser support for the latest standards-based technologies, including CSS Level 3, DOM Level 3, Web Forms 2.0, XMLHttpRequest for AJAX applications, JavaScript 1.7

  4. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  5. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  6. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  7. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  8. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  9. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Olivia; Stamatakos, Korene; Ayers, Amanda J.; Fryer, Victoria A.; Jernigan, David H.; Siegel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims There has been insufficient research attention to the alcohol industry’s use of corporate sponsorship as a marketing tool. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the nature and extent of alcohol sponsorship—at the brand level—in the U.S. Methods The study examined sponsorship of organizations and events in the U.S. by alcohol brands from 2010–2013. The top 75 brands of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers were identified based on a previously conducted national internet-based survey. For each of these brands, a systematic search for sponsorships was conducted using Google. The sponsorships were coded by category and type of sponsorship. Results We identified 945 sponsorships during the study period for the top 75 brands consumed by underage drinkers. The most popular youth brands were far more likely to engage in sponsorship and to have a higher number of sponsorships. The identified sponsorships overwhelmingly associated alcohol brands with integral aspects of American culture, including sports, music, the arts and entertainment, and drinking itself. The most popular brands among underage drinkers were much more likely to associate their brands with these aspects of American culture than brands that were less popular among underage drinkers. Conclusions Alcohol brand sponsorship must be viewed as a major alcohol marketing strategy that generates brand capital through positive associations with integral aspects of culture, creation of attractive brand personalities, and identification with specific market segments. Alcohol research, practice, and policy should address this highly prevalent form of alcohol marketing. PMID:25384933

  10. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctors and researchers now follow a set of strict guidelines that define the signs and symptoms of Proteus ... change is not inherited from a parent; it arises randomly in one cell during the ...

  12. Electrothermal frequency references in standard CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kashmiri, S Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes an alternative method of accurate on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS IC processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate.  This is the first book describing thermal-diffusivity-based frequency references, including the complete theoretical methodology supported by practical realizations that prove the feasibility of the method.  Coverage also includes several circuit and system-level solutions for the analog electronic circuit design challenges faced.   ·         Surveys the state-of-the-art in all-silicon frequency references; ·         Examines the thermal properties of silicon as a solution for the challenge of on-chip accurate frequency generation; ·         Uses simplified modeling approaches that allow an electronics engineer easily to simulate the electrothermal elements; ·         Follows a top-down methodology in circuit design, in which system-level des...

  13. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudigel, H. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Albarede, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon (France); Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McDonough, B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; White, W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1996-12-01

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals are clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.

  14. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  15. 33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.210 Section... of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat...) The aft reference area of a boat is the aft most two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck, as...

  16. 33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.310 Section... of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat... aft reference area of a boat is the aftmost two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck, as...

  17. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of

  18. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  19. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  20. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  1. An overview of digital reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Hemnani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Digital reference service is an emerging trend of traditional reference service. Easily accessible digital reference service has become one of the hallmark of the library and information services. The paper highlights how new visage of traditional reference service is developing as a natural solution to keep pace with comprehensive technological environment. It discusses about the basic concepts, elements of digital reference service and give in detail modes, the advantages, limitations, and...

  2. Reference Ranges: A Novel Interpretation of Turfgrass Nutrient Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Shaddox

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue testing is a common practice in turfgrass management and is intended to guide nutrient applications. However, standard interpretations are a product of agricultural cropping systems and use yield as the primary metric. Yield is often of little importance in turfgrass systems and, thus, traditional test interpretations may be of little value. Reference ranges interpret test results by first defining a ‘normal’ population followed by analysis and determination of the 95% confidence interval for each nutrient. Moreover, reference ranges can be determined for cultivar, season, and age-specific populations, which would result in a more precise interpretation and nutrient recommendation for turf managers. Because reference ranges use the accepted turf quality metric, reference ranges should be considered as an alternate option to traditional turfgrass tissue test interpretations.

  3. Foundations for Tools as a Service Workspace: A Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, on-demand provisioning of computing resources following a payper- use service model have enabled client organizations to have easy and on the fly access to the resources. The resources that are provisioned using the service model are generally characterized as resource as a Service (*aa...... on addressing the challenges using an architecture centric solution by providing a Software Reference Architecture for TSPACE. As a specific case, software architecting domain and the tools used for software architecting have been focused in this dissertation. This dissertation explores (a) the challenges...... associated with software architecting of cloud-enabled systems, (b) TSPACE reference architecture design guidelines, (c) TSPACE requirements, (d) information structuring needs and methods of TSPACE reference architecture, (e) a detailed description of TSPACE reference architecture sub-systems and components...

  4. Digital reference service: trends in academic health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2005-01-01

    Two years after the initial 2002 study, a greater number of academic health science libraries are offering digital reference chat services, and this number appears poised to grow in the coming years. This 2004 follow-up study found that 36 (27%) of the academic health science libraries examined provide digital chat reference services; this was an approximately 6% increase over the 25 libraries (21%) located in 2002. Trends in digital reference services in academic health science libraries were derived from the exploration of academic health science library Web sites and from digital correspondence with academic health science library personnel using e-mail and chat. This article presents an overview of the current state of digital reference service in academic health science libraries.

  5. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  6. The Micropaleontological Reference Centers Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Micropaleontological Reference Centers (MRCscomprise large microfossil slide collections prepared from core samples obtained through the Deep Sea Drilling Project(DSDP and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP. The MRCs have been maintained for three decades, largely as a volunteer effort by a global network of curators at more than a dozen institutions (Fig.1, Table 1. They were originallyintended to provide a permanent micropaleontological archive for the DSDP; however, as their geographic and stratigraphic coverage has increased they have become increasingly valuable for research and teaching. This article describes the MRCs and their current usage, identifi es the need to maintain and improve the accuracy of the microfossil taxonomy upon which most DSDP and ODP geochronologyis based, and cites the potential for the future use of the MRCs by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP.

  7. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  8. The Nuclear Science References Database

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B; Singh, B; Totans, J

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

  9. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  10. Bilingualized Dictionaries with Special Reference to the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It first traces, with a special reference to the Chinese EFL context, the origin and historical development of this type of dictionary, and then proposes several approaches to its classification. The strengths and weaknesses of the BLD are evaluated and its role in language pedagogy discussed, followed by an extensive review ...

  11. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for copper. Owing to the absence of appropriate biomarkers of copper status and the limitations of available balance studies, the Panel was ...

  12. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for vitamin A. The Panel considered that a concentration of 20 µg retinol/g liver can be used as a target for establishing the Average Requirement (AR) for vi...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...—American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018 APA—American Plywood... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) The specifications, standards and codes of the following organizations are incorporated by...

  14. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  15. Shakespeare: A Student's Guide to Basic Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claener, Anne, Comp.

    Basic and standard reference materials dealing with William Shakespeare are listed in this bibliography. Annotated entries are grouped under the following headings: concordances, dictionaries, encyclopedias and handbooks, and bibliographies. The section on bibliographies is further divided into lists of editions of Shakespeare's work, general…

  16. Introduction to Dairy Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to dairy production. The curriculum contains the following six lessons: (1) introduction to the dairy industry; (2) breeds of dairy cattle; (3) principles of dairy cattle selection; (4) herd management; (5) herd health; and (6) industry issues. The…

  17. Fraction Multiplication and Division Models: A Practitioner Reference Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented in literature that rational number is an important area of understanding in mathematics. Therefore, it follows that teachers and students need to have an understanding of rational number and related concepts such as fraction multiplication and division. This practitioner reference paper examines models that are important to…

  18. Abnormal cytology in HIV-positive women referred for colposcopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A retrospective review of case records of HIV positive women referred to the colposcopy clinic of a tertiary referral centre in Cape Town, South Africa was done to correlate the cytologic referral findings with colposcopic evaluation and histological diagnosis of biopsy samples. Findings at subsequent follow-up ...

  19. Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for magnesium. The Panel considers that Average Requirements (ARs) and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) for magnesium cannot be derived...

  1. Intelligence Community Legal Reference Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    There shall be conspicuously printed on pilot charts prepared in the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency the following: “Prepared from data...Secretary for Trade Development of the Department of Commerce on issues related to the travel and tourism industries; and (11) consulting with the...Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness on all matters of concern to the private sector, including the tourism industry. (g

  2. Clinical laboratory test reference (CLTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, R R

    1993-04-01

    As the healthcare system undergoes a transformation in scope and funding, there remain many unfinished projects which will be essential for the next generation of automated medical support services. The most demanding and labor intensive tasks for this new frontier deal with the accumulation of knowledge which can be used as a clinical database to support supervisory functions in a physician operated interactive care delivery environment. These databases will contain the worlds accumulated knowledge in specialized areas. They will be organized by topic or clinical service, and have significant impact on the quality of care as well as medical malpractice exposure. This article will describe a clinical pathology database that has been adapted for medical practice. The database contains information about laboratory tests and their interpretation. The data is structured for rapid reading and has references where indicated. The database can be used in a stand alone program or integrated into an information system within an application program. The files are reviewed on a continuing basis and quarterly updates are made available to subscribers.

  3. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  4. From the non-place to chronotopes, through the lobby of the Atocha station. Del no-lugar al cronotopos, pasando por el vestíbulo de la Estación de Atocha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ramoneda

    2012-03-01

    un achicamiento del planeta. A través de la fotografía, asumiendo el punto de vista de Joan Fontcuberta (1990, 2009, hemos intentado buscar indicadores suficientes para entender la relación que hay entre un supuesto “no-lugar” y quienes lo transitan. Sin embargo, esta relación va más allá de una simple categoría. Hemos recurrido a la noción de cronotopos acuñada por Mijail Bajtín (1975/1989 y hemos intentado ofrecer otra mirada a las numerosas configuraciones que se pueden establecer entre las personas y los espacios. Hemos elaborado una tabla de Tipos de configuraciones espaciotemporales en un espacio concreto, en la que Cronotopoi (estables vs. efímeros y Significación (lugar vs. no-lugar se ponen en juego. A partir de esta tabla, hemos analizado algunos de los resultados que encontramos a lo largo de los casi cinco meses que estuvimos fotografiando el vestíbulo de Atocha y hemos hallado que las personas nos ubicamos en los espacios de diferentes modos, apropiándolos de formas peculiares que, como es lógico, van más allá de nuestras categorías de análisis.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomal abnormalities in 2078 infertile couples referred for assisted reproductive techniques. Hum Reprod. 2005 Feb;20(2):437-42. ... Yq microdeletions in infertile italian couples referred for assisted reproductive technique. Sex Dev. 2007;1(6):347-52. doi: ...

  6. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Penmann-Monteith equation and finally calculation of crop evapotranspiration. The objective of this study was to establish crop coefficients and evapotranspiration of different soybean varieties using shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration (ET0). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Reference evapotranspiration.

  7. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values.

  8. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  9. The Reference Interview: Some Intercultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R. Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the significance of the reference interview and the need for better communication between Black students and White librarians. Sensitivity and understanding of Black behaviors are recommended as ways of building trust between librarians and students. (52 references) (MES)

  10. Synchronizing Defense Transportation System Reference Files

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frohman, Harold

    1998-01-01

    .... Many DTS AISs frequently use outdated reference files. As a result, electronic transactions and documents containing reference file information have data errors that cause those AISs to reject the transactions or report erroneous information...

  11. Empirically-grounded Reference Architectures : A Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris

    2011-01-01

    A reference architecture describes core elements of the software architecture for systems that stem from the same domain. A reference architecture ensures interoperability of systems through standardization. It also facilitates the instantiation of new concrete architectures. However, we currently

  12. Reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. METHODS: Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male, anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male, and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. RESULTS: We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds, circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences, and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences. CONCLUSIONS: These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes.

  13. REFERENCE MATERIALS OF COMPOSITION FOR FLUORITE AND PLATINUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Trifonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Siberian Research and Design Institute for Nonferrous Metallurgy (JSC “Sibtsvetmetniiproekt” was established in August 1949 for the technology development for the nonferrous ore extraction and treatment as well as for the engineering of mining plants in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Nowadays JSC "Sibtsvetmetniiproekt" continues to develop the quality projects and actual technology for material treatment for new mineral companies as well as reference materials for composition of technological conversion products. During 1970-2012 JSC "Sibtsvetmetniiproekt" developed 83 reference materials which includes 42 types of State reference materials for silver, cuprum, silver alloys with noble metals, cuprum alloys with noble metals, ores, mattes, sludge, concentrates etc., State reference materials for fluorites as well as 41 types of in-house reference materials for the following companies: PJSC "Mining and Metallurgical Company 'Norilsk Nickel'", fluorite branches companies, OJSC "Gorevsky Gok" and others. All developed reference materials are high-demand and used by analytical department and testing laboratories of Russian and foreign leading academic and research companies, geological enterprises.

  14. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  15. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    response to systematic variations in input parameters, numerical studies often start from a 'reference' subduction model. However, the reference model often varies between different numerical studies, making it difficult to compare results directly. We aim therefore to define a numerical reference model......, and initial temperature distribution. We will show results of the evolution and dynamics of the subduction reference model using different numerical codes: a finite element code, SULEC, and two finite difference codes, YACC and FDcon....

  16. New trends of library reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, W.M.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Reference service is considered as the heart of the library services. It is a service, facilitated by a reference librarian, which meets the information needs of users with desired information. Like many other library services, library reference service also has changed with the impact of emerging technologies and in par with changing social needs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these new trends of library reference services. These new trends are divided into four main areas name...

  17. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 94.5 Section 94.5... Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.5 Reference materials. We have incorporated by reference the... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register...

  18. Communication Theory's Role in the Reference Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogoff, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Notes the applicability of communication science theory to the reference process, particularly in areas involving human behavior, and discusses the roles of both verbal and nonverbal communication (body language, paralanguage, proxemics, and environmental factors) in the reference interview. Forty-one references are provided. (EJS)

  19. The Dimensions of the Reference Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1981-01-01

    Develops a conceptual base for analyzing the literature on interviewing for its usefulness to the reference interview. Four holistic dimensions of the reference interview are identified and discussed in relation to interviewer decisions and other factors not directly controlled by the librarian. There are 18 references. (Author/RAA)

  20. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  1. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into... the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  3. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  4. From Reference Model to Component Model

    OpenAIRE

    Albani, Antonia; Zaha, Johannes Maria

    2005-01-01

    Stable component models are an essential prerequisite for developingcustomer-individual business applications. Thereby the information for theidentification and specification of their components is gained from domainmodels. Reference models constitute a potential source for building enterprisespecificdomain models. Based on the analysis of existing reference models,this article shows how information available through reference models can beused for the development of stable component models. ...

  5. Environmental Sciences Reference Sources. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Mary I., Comp.

    This list of Environmental Sciences References Sources is intended to give undergraduate and graduate students a starting point when searching for information in the library. Entries are grouped according to type of reference material and then are listed in alphabetical order. The types of reference material included are guides to dictionaries,…

  6. CMOS voltage references an analytical and practical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Chi-Wah

    2013-01-01

    A practical overview of CMOS circuit design, this book covers the technology, analysis, and design techniques of voltage reference circuits.  The design requirements covered follow modern CMOS processes, with an emphasis on low power, low voltage, and low temperature coefficient voltage reference design. Dedicating a chapter to each stage of the design process, the authors have organized the content to give readers the tools they need to implement the technologies themselves. Readers will gain an understanding of device characteristics, the practical considerations behind circuit topology,

  7. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties density

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1976-01-01

    This book first presents the nomenclature and units used in the determination of densities of liquids and solids, followed by a general description of the apparatus and the methods used in the measurement of density, with particular reference to the pycnometric, hydrostatic weighing, magnetic float, and temperature flotation methods. The use of water as a density reference material is then explained, focusing on the isotopic composition of Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) and the absolute density of SMOW as a function of temperature. Problems due to the effect of pressure and dissolved gases o

  8. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...... inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies...

  9. Reference Values for Spirometry Derived Using Lambda, Mu, Sigma (LMS) Method in Korean Adults: in Comparison with Previous References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Bum Seak; Myong, Jun Pyo; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Koo, Jung Wan; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2018-01-15

    The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal (LLN) by using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations. Spirometric data of 10,249 healthy non-smokers (8,776 females) were extracted from the fourth and fifth versions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009; V, 2010-2012). Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness (lambda [L]), mean (mu [M]), and coefficient of variation (sigma [S]). The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. Prediction equations were presented in the following form: predicted value = e{a + b × ln(height) + c × ln(age) + M - spline}. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in 2013. There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in 2012. The results should be interpreted with caution for young adults and elderly males, particularly in terms of the LLN for forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity in elderly males. Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages.

  10. Implementing virtual reference services a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Thomsett-Scott, Beth C

    2013-01-01

    Social web technologies present an often confusing array of options for answering user reference questions. Applying 20 years' experience as a reference librarian working through the development of virtual reference and the integration of new tools and technologies into the industry, Thomsett-Scott lays out how libraries are using vendor services such as LibraryH3lp, LibAnswers, and Text a Librarian, as well as free tools like Twitter and Google Voice for their reference needs. Practitioners offer details on virtual reference services such as Twitter Search, instant messaging services such as

  11. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.

  12. Reference Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup

    2012-08-01

    Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the common Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on reference architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development process as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.

  13. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  14. A reference Pelton turbine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemslie, B. W.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2012-09-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  15. Informativity renders a referent more accessible: Evidence from eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-04-01

    The amount of information attached to a noun phrase (henceforth, NP) has been shown to enhance accessibility and increase pronominal reference in language production. However, both the effect of information quantity on the comprehension of ambiguous pronouns and the time course of any informativity effect have been left unexplored. In two eyetracking experiments, we investigated how additional information on the part of NP referents influenced the resolution of following ambiguous pronouns. The results of the first experiment revealed an informativity effect, with more looks to the informationally richer referent than to the competitor. However, the effect of additional information emerged late in time when the referent was the object of the verb. The second experiment replicated the results of the first and also showed that, consistent with the online results, an ambiguous pronoun is interpreted as referring to the informationally richer NP in an offline, explicit pronoun resolution task. The results lend support to theories of language processing that assume that explicit information increases the accessibility of the associated concept, in contrast to approaches that assume that accessibility is associated with givenness.

  16. The equations of relative motion in the orbital reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of relative motion of two spacecraft in Earth-bound orbits is usually carried out on the basis of simplifying assumptions. In particular, the reference spacecraft is assumed to follow a circular orbit, in which case the equations of relative motion are governed by the well-known Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. Circular motion is not, however, a solution when the Earth's flattening is accounted for, except for equatorial orbits, where in any case the acceleration term is not Newtonian. Several attempts have been made to account for the J_2 effects, either by ingeniously taking advantage of their differential effects, or by cleverly introducing ad-hoc terms in the equations of motion on the basis of geometrical analysis of the J_2 perturbing effects. Analysis of relative motion about an unperturbed elliptical orbit is the next step in complexity. Relative motion about a J_2-perturbed elliptic reference trajectory is clearly a challenging problem, which has received little attention. All these problems are based on either the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for circular reference motion, or the de Vries/Tschauner-Hempel equations for elliptical reference motion, which are both approximate versions of the exact equations of relative motion. The main difference between the exact and approximate forms of these equations consists in the expression for the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the rotating reference frame with respect to an inertial reference frame. The rotating reference frame is invariably taken as the local orbital frame, i.e., the RTN frame generated by the radial, the transverse, and the normal directions along the primary spacecraft orbit. Some authors have tried to account for the non-constant nature of the angular velocity vector, but have limited their correction to a mean motion value consistent with the J_2 perturbation terms. However, the angular velocity vector is also affected in direction, which causes precession

  17. Normal heights for GNSS reference station antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, J.; Morozova, K.; Reiniks, M.; Normand, M.

    2017-10-01

    The GNSS reference station ellipsoidal heights are of the mm precision quality due to their continuous operation and monitoring of their coordinates in the international terrestrial reference frame. The GNSS reference station data is mostly used for rover positioning. The reference stations are very important also as a fitting points for the geoid modelling developments. Unfortunately, the importance of the referencing of antenna heights to the national levelling network are sometimes neglected. Usually the antennas are fixed on the roof of high buildings in urban environment. It is quite difficult to make a high precision levelling procedures and sometimes the direct geodetic measurements of antenna normal heights are not performed. Actually, for the most of Latvian GNSS reference network antennas the normal heights are not tied to the national levelling network. The aim of this research is to use the collected data of GNSS/levelling points for the determination of the normal heights of continuously operating reference station antennas.

  18. Long-term Quit Rates in Fax-Referred as Compared to Self-Referred Tobacco Quitline Registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowls, Dana S; Boeckman, Lindsay; Gillaspy, Stephen R; Beebe, Laura A

    2017-04-01

    To increase the use of quitlines for treating tobacco use and dependence, quitline referral interventions are recommended for healthcare systems and providers. Research is limited as to whether fax-referred smokers have quit outcomes similar to those of traditional self-callers to quitlines. Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data from March 2013 to October 2014 and 7-month follow-up data were used to compare hospital- and clinic-based fax-referred registrants (n=537) to self-callers (n=2,577). Contingency table chi-square tests and relative risks were used to identify differences in 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 7-month follow-up. Two-sided p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Fax-referred registrants versus self-callers were significantly more likely to be older (49.4 vs 47.6 years), white (70.6% vs 59.1%), non-Hispanic (96.8% vs 94.2%), and to have smoked fewer than one pack of cigarettes per day (54.0% vs 44.9%). Self-callers versus fax-referred registrants were significantly more likely to be uninsured (36.5% vs 29.4%) and have received nicotine-replacement therapy from the Helpline (92.3% vs 79.9%). At 7-month follow-up, a similar proportion of fax-referred registrants reported not using tobacco in the past 30 days as compared to self-callers (29.3% vs 31.8%, p=0.2945). Although differences in sociodemographics, tobacco use behavior, and Helpline services were observed between fax-referred registrants and self-callers, quit outcomes at follow-up did not differ. This observational study has important implications for tobacco control initiatives as it shows patients fax-referred by hospitals and clinics to quitlines may be as successful as self-callers in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A standard satellite control reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Constance

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  20. Terror management and religion: evidence that intrinsic religiousness mitigates worldview defense following mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Fischer, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Terror management theory suggests that people cope with awareness of death by investing in some kind of literal or symbolic immortality. Given the centrality of death transcendence beliefs in most religions, the authors hypothesized that religious beliefs play a protective role in managing terror of death. The authors report three studies suggesting that affirming intrinsic religiousness reduces both death-thought accessibility following mortality salience and the use of terror management defenses with regard to a secular belief system. Study 1 showed that after a naturally occurring reminder of mortality, people who scored high on intrinsic religiousness did not react with worldview defense, whereas people low on intrinsic religiousness did. Study 2 specified that intrinsic religious belief mitigated worldview defense only if participants had the opportunity to affirm their religious beliefs. Study 3 illustrated that affirmation of religious belief decreased death-thought accessibility following mortality salience only for those participants who scored high on the intrinsic religiousness scale. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that only those people who are intrinsically vested in their religion derive terror management benefits from religious beliefs. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. 49 CFR 614.101 - Cross-reference to management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to management systems. 614.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT § 614.101 Cross-reference to management systems. The regulations in 23 CFR Part 500, subparts A and B shall be followed in...

  2. Deixis, Personal Reference, and the Use of Pronouns by Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pereira, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Investigated young blind children's use of pronouns, following blind and sighted children longitudinally and analyzing every spatial deictic term and personal reference term they used (noting reversal errors). Results indicated that blind children began to use personal reference terms as early as sighted children, and use of reversals was not…

  3. The Knowledge Base as an Extension of Distance Learning Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores knowledge bases as extension of reference services for distance learners. Through a survey and follow-up interviews with distance learning librarians, this paper discusses their interest in creating and maintaining a knowledge base as a resource for reference services to distance learners. It also investigates their perceptions…

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Detailed appendices are presented under the following headings: reference PWR facility description, reference PWR site description, estimates of residual radioactivity, alternative methods for financing decommissioning, radiation dose methodology, generic decommissioning activities, intermediate dismantlement activities, safe storage and deferred dismantlement activities, compilation of unit cost factors, and safety assessment details.

  5. The Italian reference site for TEM methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of a long term transient electromagnetic survey (TEM rigorously calls for appropriate system calibration, in addition to advanced processing and inversion of the measured data. In fact, acquisition of TEM data can be affected by a variety of noise sources from both inside and outside the system, making it difficult, for example, to define an absolute turn off time and/or to synchronize transmitter and receiver. For these reasons, a reference site plays an important role. As first step, we performed the calibration of a Geonics 47 at the Lyngby reference site in Denmark. We then set up a new reference site using the same calibrated TEM instrument. The reference site was established in the San Rossore park area (Pisa, where we identified an area that matches the required conditions. Subsequently, a series of TEM measurements were collected in the selected area using two pre-calibrated TEM instruments: the Geonics 47 and the WalkTEM respectively. The reference responses were therefore jointly inverted, obtaining a 5 layers model that was appointed to be the TEM reference model for the site. Afterwards, based on that reference model, we calibrated the Geonics 47 and 57 instruments for a 100 x 100 m central loop configuration. A unique time-shift and a data level shift factor was calculated and applied to the TEM system as result of the calibration procedure. The San Rossore TEM reference site is now available for anyone interested in calibrating TEM systems.

  6. Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

  7. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. (a) The documents in paragraph (b) of this... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  8. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 90.7 Section 90.7... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.7 Reference materials... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  9. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 91.6 Section 91.6... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.6 Reference materials. (a) Incorporation by... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  10. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  11. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  12. Sense and the Computation of Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper shows how ideas that explain the sense of an expression as a method or algorithm for finding its reference, preshadowed in Frege's dictum that sense is the way in which a referent is given, can be formalized on the basis of the ideas in Thomason (1980). To this end, the function that sends

  13. The Reference Interview in Archival Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbin, Susan L.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews two strands of modern archival writing about reference: one stressing the importance of subject finding aids; the other relying on traditional forms of archival retrieval. Each has emphasized the advantages of new technology but neglected the importance of the reference interview. Raises issues for research and recommends improved…

  14. Writing references and using citation management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized. PMID:26328132

  15. Information Entrepreneurship: Sources for Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilton, Donna L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses information entrepreneurs, or information brokers, and information intrapreneurship, or the establishment of fee-based information services within a library. Annotations are provided for 56 information sources that include general materials, research in these areas, and relationships with traditional reference services. (four references)…

  16. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

  17. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... clinical chemistry investigations. Most of the reference values corresponded to values for the same age groups in the. Western world. There was no age-related rise in the alkaline phosphatase values, which suggested absence of occult. Paget's disease. Reference values for serum total protein and.

  18. Reflections on Malpractice of Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ronglin

    1994-01-01

    Explores the legal ramifications of malpractice among librarians and the possible impact on services due to fear of being sued. Topics include identification of potential malpractice areas; cooperative electronic reference services; use of reference standards; insurance; contract; disclaimer; updating library collections; using Internet resources;…

  19. Writing references and using citation management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  20. Digital reference services: an overview | Oluwabiyi | Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for specialized training for Librarians and collaborative services were proposed to ensure high quality service. The need to train students and create more awareness for the service is also mentioned. Keywords: digital libraries, digital reference service, information service, reference service, libraries ...

  1. Reference frames and rigid motions in relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, J.; Soler, D.

    2004-07-01

    A reference frame consists of a reference space, a time scale and a spatial metric. The geometric structure induced by these objects in spacetime is developed. The existence of a class of spatial metrics which are rigid, have free mobility and can be derived as a slight deformation of the radar metric, is demonstrated.

  2. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  3. On Learning to Write Those **** References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how difficult it is for psychology college students to learn to write multiple disciplines of references. It is hard for students to understand why all details have to be written in the right order and the right type-style--depending upon which reference system is used. In this article, the author proposes…

  4. Uncertainty in Reference and Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanScoy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking process, but it has not been explored as a component of reference and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of reference and information service for eight academic research…

  5. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  6. Reference model decomposition in direct adaptive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, H.; Honderd, G.; van Amerongen, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of reference model decomposition as a way to improve the robustness of model reference adaptive control systems (MRACs) with respect to unmodelled dynamics with a known structure. Such unmodelled dynamics occur when some of the nominal plant dynamics are purposely

  7. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values. Objective: ...

  8. 7 CFR 1755.97 - Incorporation by reference of telecommunications standards and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of telecommunications... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON... telecommunications standards and specifications. The following telecommunications bulletins have been approved for...

  9. Evaluating College Students' Displayed Alcohol References on Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Litt, Dana; Christakis, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    Current trends suggest that adolescents and young adults typically maintain a social media "portfolio" of several sites including Facebook and Twitter, but little is known regarding how an individual chooses to display risk behaviors across these different sites. The purpose of this study was to investigate college students' displayed alcohol references on both Facebook and Twitter. Among a larger sample of college students from two universities, we identified participants who maintained both Facebook and Twitter profiles. Data collection included evaluation of 5 months of participants' Facebook and Twitter posts for alcohol references, number of social connections (i.e., friends or followers), and number of posts. Phone interviews assessed participants' frequency of Facebook and Twitter use and self-reported alcohol use. Analyses included Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon matched pair sign test, Friedman rank-sum tests, and logistic regression. Of 112 eligible participants, 94 completed the study. Participants were more likely to display alcohol references on Facebook compared with those on Twitter (76% vs. 34%, p = .02). Participants reported more social connections on Facebook versus Twitter (average 801.2 friends vs. 189.4 followers, p Facebook versus Twitter (94.6% vs. 50%, p Facebook and Twitter displayed alcohol references, but mediators differed in each model. College students were more likely to display alcohol references on Facebook compared with those on Twitter. Understanding these patterns and predictors may inform prevention and intervention efforts directed at particular social media sites. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  11. Reference is Dead, Long Live Reference: Electronic Collections in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Terrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a literature survey on how reference collections have changed to accommodate patrons’ web-based information-seeking behaviors, one notes a marked “us vs. them” mentality — a fear that the Internet might render reference irrelevant. These anxieties are oft-noted in articles urging libraries to embrace digital and online reference sources. Why all the ambivalence? Citing existing research and literature, this essay explores myths about the supposed superiority of physical reference collections and how patrons actually use them, potential challenges associated with electronic reference collections and how providing vital e-reference collections benefits the library as well as its patrons.

  12. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  13. Spontaneous Ankylosis of Occiput to C2 following Closed Traction and Halo Treatment of Atlantoaxial Rotary Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Walter F.; Kim, Paul H.; Wiater, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report a case of spontaneous atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) presenting 9 months after onset in an 11-year-old boy. Methods This is a retrospective case report of spontaneous ankylosis of occiput to C2 following traction, manipulative reduction, and halo immobilization for refractory atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Results The patient underwent traction followed by close manual reduction and placement of halo immobilization after 6 months of severe spontaneous-onset AARF that had been refractory to chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy. Imaging demonstrated dislocation of the left C1–C2 facet joint and remodeling changes of the C2 superior facet prior to reduction, followed by near complete reduction of the dislocation after manipulation and halo placement. Symptoms and clinical appearance were satisfactorily improved and the halo vest was removed after 3 months. At late follow-up, computed tomography demonstrated complete bony ankylosis of the occiput to C2. The patient was found to be HLA B27-positive, but he had no family history of ankylosing spondyloarthropathy or other joint symptoms. The underlying reasons for spontaneous fusion of the occiput to C2 could include the traction, HLA-B27-related spondyloarthropathy, or arthropathic changes caused by traction, reduction, the inciting insult, or immobilization. Conclusion When discussing treatment of childhood refractory AARF by traction, closed manipulation, and halo immobilization, the possibility of developing “spontaneous” ankylosis needs to be considered. PMID:26131392

  14. A Comparison Between the OSI Reference Model and the B-ISDN Protocol Reference Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalhagen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This article aims at comparing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model (RM) and the broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) Protocol Reference Model (PRM). According to the International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T), the exact...

  15. What Determines the Response: Test or Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukova, S. V.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The stability of sensory memory has been studied by presenting a reference stimulus, a delay, and a test stimulus. As has been pointed out by Lages and Treisman (1998 Vision Research 38 557-572), the usual measure of performance depends only on the effect of test variations on the responses. The Weber fraction characterizing performance is more properly called the test stimulus Weber fraction. We measure the relative contribution of the test and reference to the response by the ratio of the test Weber fraction to the reference Weber fraction. The stimuli were two dark lines on a bright background. Seven reference separations, varying from 9.5 to 16.7 arc min, were intermixed in each run. Interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 50, 200 and 2000 msec and intertrial intervals (ITI) of 500 and 2500 msec were investigated. When the ISI was short (50 or 200 msec), for both ITIs, responses were determined equally by the test and reference. For the long ISI (2000 msec), the reference stimulus contributed less. However, only for the 500 msec ITI (and not for all observers) was the contribution of the reference stimulus negligible, as Treisman's criterion setting theory might suggest.

  16. Craniomandibular Disorders and Mandibular Reference Position in Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Bourzgui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD, we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system.

  17. A comparison of methods for construction of fetal reference charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Daniel; Mandel, Micha; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Shen, Ori; Ben Chetrit, Avraham; Daniel-Spiegel, Etty; Yagel, Simcha

    2016-03-30

    Reference charts for fetal measures are used for early detection of pregnancies that should be monitored closely. Construction of reference charts corresponds to estimation of quantiles of a distribution as a function of gestational age. Existing methods have been developed under various modeling assumptions, typically by fitting a polynomial regression to certain functionals of the distributions (e.g., mean, standard deviation, and quantiles). We use a large dataset to compare various existing methods for construction of reference charts. We also relax the assumptions of a parametric polynomial link between the distribution parameters and age and consider cubic splines and discretization of age in order to compare charts based on more flexible and simpler models, respectively. We compare the different methods using various tools and demonstrate the importance of considering performance measures calculated from age-stratified data. We also examine the question of sample size. We compare our charts to similar charts that have been recently published and emphasize that the source of an apparent heterogeneity should be investigated. We conclude that the choice of which method to use for construction of reference charts should take the following into account: available sample size, validity of normality assumption, and results of various performance measures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Davies bar as the reference for impact acceleration metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Akira; Ueda, Kazunaga

    1996-09-01

    The mass production of silicon accelerometers has clarified that the current acceleration standard is not perfect. The acceleration standard is usually transferred by a reference accelerometer with the so-called back-to-back connection technique. Manufacturers, however do not explain what sort of calibration technique is applied to the reference accelerometer in the impact acceleration range. This paper proposes a novel impact technique for accelerometers calibration. The input acceleration to an accelerometer to be tested is generated by the reflection of an elastic pulse at one end surface of a bar. The bar is called Davies Bar, after Prof. Davies, who measured the dynamic displacement of the end surface of a metal bar by electrodes. The experiment was the comparison between the calibration of RION PV-44A accelerometer by ENDEVCO 2270 and that by NRLM method. The paper concludes that Davies' Bar should be used as the reference for the impact acceleration, ranging from roughly 200 [m/s2] to 1000,000 [m/s2] for mainly following reasons: (1) NRLM method is based on laser interferometer measurement with the reliable accuracy. (2) The frequency bandwidth of the impact acceleration generated using Davies bar is much wider than that of reference accelerometers. (3) Back to back connection does not always enable the comparison between the measurement of the connecting surface motion and the accelerometers' outputs.

  19. Craniomandibular Disorders and Mandibular Reference Position in Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourzgui, Farid; Aghoutan, Hakima; Diouny, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD), we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system. PMID:24101929

  20. Python pocket reference, version 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Python is optimized for quality, productivity, portability, and integration. Hundreds of thousands of Python developers around the world rely on Python for general-purpose tasks, Internet scripting, systems programming, user interfaces, and product customization. Available on all major computing platforms, including commercial versions of Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, Python is portable, powerful and remarkable easy to use. With its convenient, quick-reference format, Python Pocket Reference, 3rd Edition is the perfect on-the-job reference. More importantly, it's now been refreshed

  1. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  2. Toward a computational psycholinguistics of reference production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van Gompel, Roger P G; Krahmer, Emiel

    2012-04-01

    This article introduces the topic ''Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference'' of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at odds with psycholinguistic results, discussing how future algorithms might include non-determinism, and how new psycholinguistic experiments could inform the development of such algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. [Careful! Your bibliographic references may be examined].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras-Fernández, J; García de Lorenzo, A; Wanden-Nerghe, C; David Castiel, L; Sanz-Valero, J

    2008-01-01

    Reference to previous work represents a conceptual association of recognized scientific ideas that are beneficial for the citing author. I.e., a reference is an express recognition of an intellectual compromise towards a previous source of information. After all, advancement of science is supported by previous research. At present, the way to know and to measure the importance of a published item comes through its posterior citations, circumstance that obliges scientific journals to control the pertinence and relevance of the cited work. Therefore, when submitting a manuscript for consideration to a scientific journal, it must be beard in mind that the included references will be examined.

  4. Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van Gompel, Roger P.G; Krahmer, Emiel

    2012-01-01

    ...’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science . We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms...

  5. Reference List About Implicit and Unconscious Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence; Weidemann, Cecilie Dam

    ” (Equality Challenge Unit, 2013) and expands and updates it with other references – including literature published up to July 2016. The list aims to be used as a working document for employees or students at Copenhagen Business School. Therefore, besides the references, it includes direct links......The compilation of this reference list is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Council for Diversity and Inclusion at Copenhagen Business School (CBS). This reference list is the first in a series of efforts initiated by this Council to develop an academic resource pool......, everyday human thought and activity” (Hardin and Banaji, 2013, pp. 13-14). Research also indicates that it is possible to implement procedures and strategic actions that help reduce implicit biases (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012). Although extensive, this list does not include all existing academic...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BH. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism: from rare Mendelian diseases to more common disorders. Hum Mol Genet. ... gov/books/NBK1319/ Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary folate malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matherly LH, Goldman ID. Membrane transporters and folate homeostasis: intestinal absorption and transport into systemic compartments and ... or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E, Fiers T, Bouillon R. Calcium and bone homeostasis in heterozygous carriers of CYP24A1 mutations: A cross- ... or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: central core disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... F. Ryanodine receptor 1 mutations, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and neuromuscular disorders. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005 Oct;15( ... 2007 May 4. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  10. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  11. References poster: Social thermoregulation in close relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Fieke

    2014-01-01

    References of Wagemans, F. M. A. & IJzerman, H. (2014, February). Social thermoregulation in close relationships. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Austin, USA.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ichthyosis with confetti

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AJ, Bree A, Milstone LM, Lifton RP. Mitotic recombination in patients with ichthyosis causes reversion of dominant ... 36-9. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: branchiootorenal/branchiootic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Branchio-oto-renal syndrome cohort identifies a recombination hotspot and implicates new candidate genes. Hum Genet. ... gov/books/NBK1380/ Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ogata T. Genomic basis of aromatase excess syndrome: recombination- and replication-mediated rearrangements leading to CYP19A1 overexpression. ... 2013 Oct 18. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WN, Curley R, Macdonald F, Maher ER. Mitotic recombination and uniparental disomy in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Genomics. ... 43R-47R. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  16. Automated Reference Toolset (ART)—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These environmental raster covariate, geospatial vector data, and tabular data were compiled as input data for the Automated Reference Toolset (ART) algorithm.

  17. Global Reference Tables for Management Information Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardize code structures and code usage of SSA...

  18. Global Reference Tables for Production Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardized code structures and code usage of SSA...

  19. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  20. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  1. Climate Reference Network Hourly02 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  2. Medicare Referring Provider (DMEPOS) Data CY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a new dataset, the Referring Provider Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies...

  3. Aerial Photos - Photo Reference Mosaics -CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS and Non USGS Agencies Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics inventory contains indexes to aerial photographs. The inventory contains imagery from various government...

  4. 40 CFR 260.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Definitions § 260.11 References. (a) When used in parts 260 through 268..., DC 20005. (1) API Publication 2517, Third Edition, February 1989, “Evaporative Loss from External...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Sep 7. Citation on PubMed Thottungal AD, Charles AK, Dickinson JE, Bower C. Caudal dysgenesis and ... Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age-related Macular Degeneration ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: DICER1 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... N, Pasini B, Asioli S, Baynam G, Choong CS, Charles A, Frieder RP, Dishop MK, Graf N, Ekim ... Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age-related Macular Degeneration ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML, Fedirko E, Forlani S, Cazeneuve C, Hannequin D, Charles P, Feki I, Pinel JF, Ouvrard-Hernandez AM, ... Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age-related Macular Degeneration ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Spengler S, Gogiel M, Begemann M, Elbracht M. Epigenetic and genetic diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome. Expert ... PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age- ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PubMed Berkel TD, Pandey SC. Emerging Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Alcohol Addiction. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. ... PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin Day 2018 February is Age- ...

  10. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  11. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Coffin-Siris syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in disorder: SWItching from malignancies to intellectual disability. Epigenetics. 2012 Nov;7(11):1219-24. doi: 10. ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold temperatures, certain medications, and periods without food (fasting). Muscle strength usually returns to normal between attacks, ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggered by an illness or periods without food (fasting). Children with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency type A typically ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ketothiolase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are frequently triggered by infections, periods without food (fasting), or increased intake of protein-rich foods. Related ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  16. Comparison of Several Methods to Estimate Reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Penman-Monteith-FAO-56, Blaney-Criddle, Hargreaves-Samani modified 2, Pan Evaporation, Jensen-Haise and Thornthwait in the Garebayegan research station at Fars province. Penman- Monteith-FAO-56 was reference model. Results of ...

  17. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  18. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  19. Nonparametric spirometry reference values for Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nancy L; Brown, Vanessa M

    2011-02-01

    Recent literature sites ethnic origin as a major factor in developing pulmonary function reference values. Extensive studies established reference values for European and African Americans, but not for Hispanic Americans. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey defines Hispanic as individuals of Spanish speaking cultures. While no group was excluded from the target population, sample size requirements only allowed inclusion of individuals who identified themselves as Mexican Americans. This research constructs nonparametric reference value confidence intervals for Hispanic American pulmonary function. The method is applicable to all ethnicities. We use empirical likelihood confidence intervals to establish normal ranges for reference values. Its major advantage: it is model free, but shares asymptotic properties of model based methods. Statistical comparisons indicate that empirical likelihood interval lengths are comparable to normal theory intervals. Power and efficiency studies agree with previously published theoretical results.

  20. Printed circuit board designer's reference basics

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Chris

    2003-01-01

    PCB design instruction and reference manual, all in one book, with in- depth explanation of the processes and tools used in modern PCB design Standards, formulas, definitions, and procedures, plus software to tie it all together.