WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessels carrying oil

  1. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo...

  2. 33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155.1045 Response plan requirements... actions. (4) The organizational structure that will be used to manage the response actions. This structure... with government agencies; (v) Spill response operations; (vi) Planning; (vii) Logistics support; and...

  3. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  4. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  7. Apparatus for carrying out ultrasonic inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, K.H.; Challender, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for use in carrying out ultrasonic inspection of coolant nozzles of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. It comprises a manipulator for supporting an ultrasonic scanning transducer within the coolant nozzle. The manipulator is carried by a support located within the pressure vessel and comprises a pair of legs pivotable in caliper manner to span the base of the nozzle. Means are provided for pivoting the legs together to enable free entry of the manipulator and scanning transducer into the nozzle, and for pivoting the legs apart to bring the transducer into an operating position adjacent to the wall of the nozzle. The manipulator is rotatable within the nozzle to enable scanning of its interior surface. (U.K.)

  8. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0522] Tank Vessel Oil Transfers... that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil spills in oil transfer operations from...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  9. Apparatus for carrying out ultrasonic inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, K.H.; Greenhalgh, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for moving an ultrasonic scanning mechanism over the interior surface of a pressure vessel and comprising a mast for supporting the scanning mechanism inside the vessel and a carriage for traversing the mast within the vessel, the mast being pivotably secured to the carriage so that when the ultrasonic scanning mechanism contacts the interior surface of the pressure vessel the mast is caused to pivot. (auth)

  10. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and away from the vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary... motors turned off and their emergency brakes set when the vessel is underway, and that the motors are not... vehicles or next to a loading ramp must have its wheels securely blocked, while the vessel is being...

  11. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be distinctly... their emergency brakes set when the vessel is underway, and that the motors are not started until the... loading ramp must have its wheels securely blocked, while the vessel is being navigated. (c) The master...

  12. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  13. Apparatus for carrying out ultrasonic inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, K.H.; Challender, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    A carriage-supported manipulator for taking an ultrasonic scanner mechanism into a coolant nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel is described. The manupulator is rotatable about the axis of the nozzle and is radially expansible to urge the scanner mechanism into a scanning position within the nozzle

  14. 46 CFR 25.45-1 - Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-1 Heating and lighting systems...) Alcohol, solid, (2) Alcohol, liquid, combustible, (3) Fuel oil, No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3, (4) Kerosene, (5) Wood or, (6) Coal. (b) Heating and lighting systems using alcohol must meet the following requirements...

  15. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  16. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  17. Vessel and oil spill early detection using COSMO satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Natalia V.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2017-10-01

    Oil spillage is one of the most common sources of environmental damage in places where coastal wild life is found in natural reservoirs. This is especially the case in the Patagonian coast, with a littoral more than 5000 km long and a surface above a million and half square km. In addition, furtive fishery activities in Argentine waters are depleting the food supplies of several species, altering the ecological equilibrium. For this reason, early oil spills and vessel detection is an imperative surveillance task for environmental and governmental authorities. However, given the huge geographical extension, human assisted monitoring is unfeasible, and therefore real time remote sensing technologies are the only operative and economically feasible solution. In this work we describe the theoretical foundations and implementation details of a system specifically designed to take advantage of the SAR imagery delivered by two satellite constellations (the SAOCOM mission, developed by the Argentine Space Agency, and the COSMO mission, developed by the Italian Space Agency), to provide real-time detection of vessels and oil spills. The core of the system is based on pattern recognition over a statistical characterization of the texture patterns arising in the positive and negative conditions (i.e., vessel, oil, or plain sea surfaces). Training patterns were collected from a large number of previously reported contacts tagged by experts in the National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The resulting system performs well above the sensitivity and specificity of other avalilable systems.

  18. Method for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases and sulfur-carrying waste water from pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspegren, O E.A.; Eklund, A J

    1951-03-15

    A method is described for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases, which are formed in processes for the manufacture of solid, liquid, or gaseous products by pyrolysis of oil shale, and thereby to extract valuable products, characterized in that the sulfur dioxide-carrying gases are washed with a solution or sludge obtained by leaching wholly or partly burned-out residues from the pyrolysis.

  19. Research and development of spent fuel shipping casks and the criteria for seagoing vessel carrying casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Considering that the transportation of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted ''Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials'' based on ''IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials 1973 Revised Edition''. Coping with the recommendation of AEC, Atomic Energy Bureau in Science and Technology Agency and other authorities concerned started to review the former ordinances for transportation of radioactive materials and to consolidate a unified system of relevant laws and standards. On the other hand, Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development since ten years ago in order to obtain the data for design and licensing work of spent fuel shipping casks. In those studies some different scale models of a prototype of 80 t in weight have been used to make clear the scale effect at the drop, pucture and fire tests, which are one of the features of Japanese research and development. And also the immersion test in high pressure water up to about 500 bars is now carried out to investigate the integrity of cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the ambient when the cask falls into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site conditions of nuclear plants, almost all transportations of unirradiated and spent fuels are done on the sea. Therefore, in order to secure the safety of transportation, the design criteria of the seagoing vessels for exclusive transportation of spent fuel shipping casks, namely full load shipping, has been enacted, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collison, stranding and other unforeseen accidents at sea and also to restrain radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible

  20. Diagnostics carried by a light multipurpose deployer for vacuum vessel interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houry, M., E-mail: Michael.houry@cea.fr [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gargiulo, L.; Balorin, C.; Bruno, V.; Keller, D.; Roche, H. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kammerer, N.; Measson, Y. [CEA, LIST, F-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carrel, F.; Schoepff, V. [CEA, LIST, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-10-15

    ITER will greatly rely on remote-handling operations to accomplish its scientific missions. Robotic systems will also be required to operate inside vacuum vessels in order to limit or replace human access, to intervene quickly between experimental sessions for in-vessel inspections and measurements, and to preserve the machine conditioning and thus improve machine availability. In this prospect, a multipurpose carrier prototype called Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) was developed by CEA laboratories within the European work program. With an embedded camera, it successfully demonstrated close inspection feasibility inside Tore Supra tokamak. The AIA robot was designed for mini-invasive operations with interchangeable diagnostics to be plugged at its head. This covers various applications for the safety, the operation and the scientific mission (in-vessel inspection, plasma diagnostics calibrations or inner components analysis and treatments). This paper presents recent analysis and results obtain with diagnostics developed by CEA for in-vessel remote-handling intervention.

  1. Diagnostics carried by a light multipurpose deployer for vacuum vessel interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.; Gargiulo, L.; Balorin, C.; Bruno, V.; Keller, D.; Roche, H.; Kammerer, N.; Measson, Y.; Carrel, F.; Schoepff, V.

    2011-01-01

    ITER will greatly rely on remote-handling operations to accomplish its scientific missions. Robotic systems will also be required to operate inside vacuum vessels in order to limit or replace human access, to intervene quickly between experimental sessions for in-vessel inspections and measurements, and to preserve the machine conditioning and thus improve machine availability. In this prospect, a multipurpose carrier prototype called Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) was developed by CEA laboratories within the European work program. With an embedded camera, it successfully demonstrated close inspection feasibility inside Tore Supra tokamak. The AIA robot was designed for mini-invasive operations with interchangeable diagnostics to be plugged at its head. This covers various applications for the safety, the operation and the scientific mission (in-vessel inspection, plasma diagnostics calibrations or inner components analysis and treatments). This paper presents recent analysis and results obtain with diagnostics developed by CEA for in-vessel remote-handling intervention.

  2. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eley, D.

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an accurate

  3. 33 CFR 157.450 - Maneuvering and vessel status information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils...

  4. Novel Robot Solutions for Carrying out Field Joint Welding and Machining in the Assembly of the Vacuum Vessel of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessi, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to use highly specialized robots in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) both in the manufacturing and maintenance of the reactor due to a demanding environment. The sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) require more stringent tolerances than normally expected for the size of the structure involved. VV consists of nine sectors that are to be welded together. The vacuum vessel has a toroidal chamber structure. The task of the designed robot is to carry the welding apparatus along a path with a stringent tolerance during the assembly operation. In addition to the initial vacuum vessel assembly, after a limited running period, sectors need to be replaced for repair. Mechanisms with closed-loop kinematic chains are used in the design of robots in this work. One version is a purely parallel manipulator and another is a hybrid manipulator where the parallel and serial structures are combined. Traditional industrial robots that generally have the links actuated in series are inherently not very rigid and have poor dynamic performance in high speed and high dynamic loading conditions. Compared with open chain manipulators, parallel manipulators have high stiffness, high accuracy and a high force/torque capacity in a reduced workspace. Parallel manipulators have a mechanical architecture where all of the links are connected to the base and to the end-effector of the robot. The purpose of this thesis is to develop special parallel robots for the assembly, machining and repairing of the VV of the ITER. The process of the assembly and machining of the vacuum vessel needs a special robot. By studying the structure of the vacuum vessel, two novel parallel robots were designed and built; they have six and ten degrees of freedom driven by hydraulic cylinders and electrical servo motors. Kinematic models for the proposed robots were defined and two prototypes built. Experiments for machine cutting and laser welding with the 6-DOF robot were

  5. Novel Robot Solutions for Carrying out Field Joint Welding and Machining in the Assembly of the Vacuum Vessel of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessi, P.

    2009-07-01

    It is necessary to use highly specialized robots in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) both in the manufacturing and maintenance of the reactor due to a demanding environment. The sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) require more stringent tolerances than normally expected for the size of the structure involved. VV consists of nine sectors that are to be welded together. The vacuum vessel has a toroidal chamber structure. The task of the designed robot is to carry the welding apparatus along a path with a stringent tolerance during the assembly operation. In addition to the initial vacuum vessel assembly, after a limited running period, sectors need to be replaced for repair. Mechanisms with closed-loop kinematic chains are used in the design of robots in this work. One version is a purely parallel manipulator and another is a hybrid manipulator where the parallel and serial structures are combined. Traditional industrial robots that generally have the links actuated in series are inherently not very rigid and have poor dynamic performance in high speed and high dynamic loading conditions. Compared with open chain manipulators, parallel manipulators have high stiffness, high accuracy and a high force/torque capacity in a reduced workspace. Parallel manipulators have a mechanical architecture where all of the links are connected to the base and to the end-effector of the robot. The purpose of this thesis is to develop special parallel robots for the assembly, machining and repairing of the VV of the ITER. The process of the assembly and machining of the vacuum vessel needs a special robot. By studying the structure of the vacuum vessel, two novel parallel robots were designed and built; they have six and ten degrees of freedom driven by hydraulic cylinders and electrical servo motors. Kinematic models for the proposed robots were defined and two prototypes built. Experiments for machine cutting and laser welding with the 6-DOF robot were

  6. 33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155.1040 Response plan...-based support or advice; (ii) The individuals who shall be notified of a casualty potentially affecting... coordinator responsible for overseeing or directing those actions. (4) The organizational structure that will...

  7. 33 CFR 157.420 - Vessel specific watch policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils...

  8. The case for using vessel-based systems to apply oil-spill dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.

    1998-01-01

    Most emergency plans for dealing with marine oil spills include the use of chemical dispersants. This paper presents a comparison between the capabilities of aircraft-based dispersant application systems and vessel-based systems. The comparison was presented in terms of the logistics of treating offshore spills. Vessel-based systems have certain advantages in terms of their availability and cost. They have better spray control and accuracy and can dose thick slicks in one pass. However, this advantage is lost if the dispersant payload on the vessel is relatively small and the spill is located very far from the base of operations. Under certain conditions, vessel-based dispersant application systems can treat spills as quickly as aircraft-based systems. Most marine spills tend to occur in restricted waters near ports where dispersant stockpiles could be stored for ready use by vessels in the area. Development of a modern vessel-based, fire-monitor system for applying chemical dispersant onto marine oil spills was one of the recommendations emerging from the study. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  9. 33 CFR 151.35 - Certificates needed to carry Category D NLS and Category D Oil-like NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo... Category D oil-like NLS listed in § 151.49 in a cargo tank unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection... Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo tank, and if the ship engages...

  10. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  11. Price and prospects for oil: carrying the burden of excess capacity in the 1980s and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, W

    1985-12-01

    The continuing decline in world oil prices will not be halted in the short term, and prospects for the long run are not encouraging. There is a problem of unprecedented gravity in the surplus capacity of the oil industry. A glut of 10 million bbl/day of crude oil remains unsold, the cohesion of the OPEC cartel is becoming more strained, and a sizeable proportion of refinery plant has been taken off-stream. The basic difficulty is that high interest rates have curbed international capital formation and depressed demand. Upward pressures on the US dollar have been created by the deficit on US domestic and external accounts, and have retarded the recovery of the global economy. Today, the cost of money exceeds the factor price of oil, and the market is highly unstable. The devastating costs of carrying surplus capacity are likely to survive through the 1980s. 6 figures.

  12. 75 FR 49411 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and Deepwater... ports to reflect significant increases in the Consumer Price Index. The amendment triggered information... interim rule entitled ``Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability...

  13. The impact of regulations on the development of oil spill recovery vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Past, present, and future regulations have imposed and may continue to impose serious and unnecessary restraints on the design, construction, and operation of oil spill recovery vessels (OSRVs). OSRVs have been regulated as tankers under 46 CFR Subchapter D regulations. The application of these regulations to the design and construction of the Clean Sound Cooperative's Shearwater and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's Valdez Star and other vessels through the design approval and inspection processes of the American Bureau of Shipping and United States Coast Guard illustrate some of the problems. Present regulations do not encourage the development of new OSRVS. The regulations regarding OSRVs should be reevaluated. Committees of OSRV designers and users as well as regulators should evaluate comments and recommendations before incorporating them in the design of new OSRVS

  14. 33 CFR 151.33 - Certificates needed to carry Category C Oil-like NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo tank, and if the ship engages in a foreign... unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo... Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance...

  15. Optimizing the recovery efficiency of Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland using Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Annukka; Luoma, Emilia; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-02-19

    Oil transport has greatly increased in the Gulf of Finland over the years, and risks of an oil accident occurring have risen. Thus, an effective oil combating strategy is needed. We developed a Bayesian Network (BN) to examine the recovery efficiency and optimal disposition of the Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), Eastern Baltic Sea. Four alternative home harbors, five accident points, and ten oil combating vessels were included in the model to find the optimal disposition policy that would maximize the recovery efficiency. With this composition, the placement of the oil combating vessels seems not to have a significant effect on the recovery efficiency. The process seems to be strongly controlled by certain random factors independent of human action, e.g. wave height and stranding time of the oil. Therefore, the success of oil combating is rather uncertain, so it is also important to develop activities that aim for preventing accidents. We found that the model developed is suitable for this type of multidecision optimization. The methodology, results, and practices are further discussed.

  16. Research and development of spent-fuel shipping casks and the criteria for sea-going vessels carrying them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Since the transport of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, the Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted the Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials, based on the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973 Revised Edition. The authorities concerned have begun to review the former ordinances for transporting radioactive materials and to develop a unified system of relevant laws and standards. For ten years the Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development to obtain data for the design and licence of a spent-fuel shipping cask. Different scale models of a prototype weighing 80t were used to clarify the scale effect of drop, puncture and fire tests, which are a feature of Japanese research and development. Also an immersion test in water at pressures up to about 500 bar is now carried out to investigate the integrity of the cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the surroundings should the cask fall into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site of nuclear plants, almost all transport of unirradiated and spent fuels is by sea. Therefore, to secure safe transport, the design criteria of ships for the exclusive transport of spent-fuel shipping casks, namely full-load shipping, have been enacted, which aim to make the likelihood of sinking on collision, stranding, and other unforeseen accidents at sea highly improbable and also to keep radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible. (author)

  17. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  18. 75 FR 750 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... historical record of annual changes in the CPI-U (the Consumer Price Index--All Urban Consumers, Not...-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and... final rule, without change, an interim rule published on July 1, 2009. The interim rule increased the...

  19. State of opening the cover and carrying out the checkup of the reactor vessel of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In the checkup by opening the cover of the reactor vessel of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu', Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out the checkup and maintenance for the reactor proper, control system and primary coolant facilities including the secondary side of steam generators and the pressure balancing valve of the containment vessel. The works were classified into the opening of the reactor, checkup, maintenance and restoration. The opening was begun on August 4, 1988, and finished on December 5. The checkup and maintenance were begun on September 22, and are still continued now. The maximum radiation dose rate on the surfaces of fuel assemblies and control rods and at the positions 1 m distant from them was measured. The results of the checkup of various components are reported. In 290 absorbent rods of control rods, spot corrosion and discoloration were observed, of which the spot corrosion penetrated the walls of 4 rods. Also in 12 fuel rods, spot corrosion was observed near the welded end plugs, but leak was not observed. (K.I.)

  20. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  1. 33 CFR 151.10 - Control of oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... current International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) Circular...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND...

  2. 33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actions in the event of a— (i) Transfer system leak; (ii) Tank overflow; or (iii) Suspected cargo tank or hull leak; (2) Procedures in the order of priority for the crew to mitigate or prevent any discharge or... this section must be capable of providing the equipment and supplies necessary to meet the requirements...

  3. Comparison of fishes taken by a sportfishing party vessel around oil platforms and adjacent natural reefs near Santa Barbara, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, M.S.; Westphal, W.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1958, 29 oil platforms have been sited in the southern California Bight of which 28 still remain in place. However, little is known of the fish populations surrounding these structures, particularly those sited in water deeper than 30 m. In the course of research on the Santa Barbara, California, party vessel sport fishery, it was noted that the platforms off Santa Barbara supported considerable sportfishing activity. Those platforms, located to the southeast of Santa Barbara in depths of 48-62 m, were particularly important and were fished intensively for various rockfishes (genus Sebastes). When fishing a platform, the vessel pulled up to within 5-10 m of a platform and drifts along one side, with the vessel operator using intermittent power to keep it near the structure. Most of the desirable species, particularly rockfishes, remained close to the platforms, rarely venturing more than perhaps 20 m from the structure. The party vessels also spent considerable time fishing over nearby natural reefs. In this survey, it was noted that there appeared to be differences in species catch composition and fish size between oil platforms and these natural reefs. Increased offshore oil drilling off California has raised interest in the role platforms play in marine systems. Questions have been raised regarding what fish live around platforms, how these structures influence populations over surrounding reefs, and whether the platforms act as fish enhancers (promoting recruitment) or only as aggregators. These questions are particularly relevant when the platforms are to be decommissioned and the possibility of allowing them to remain as artificial reefs is raised. This paper describes the results of the study on the fish populations around oil platforms and nearby natural reefs off Santa Barbara

  4. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... information for resource providers for each vessel with appropriate equipment and resources located in each... appropriate salvage and marine firefighting resources were identified and available for responding to...

  5. 75 FR 76742 - Detecting Oil Leaks From Vessels Into the Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... to detect leaks from oil tanks into the water? (E) What is the threshold for detection, accuracy... than leak detection from oil cargo tanks into the water? (H) Are methods or equipment being applied for... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2010-1085] Detecting Oil Leaks From...

  6. Offshore support vessel developments for deep water oil and gas E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dielen, Baldo A.M. [SMIT, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide trend to move towards more exposed locations and deeper waters for O and G exploration and production activities resulted in an increased need for larger and more powerful tugs and offshore support vessels. These vessels must meet higher operational requirements under higher wind and sea-state conditions. This market-driven need, together with technological developments, is leading towards a new generation of powerful and sophisticated offshore support vessels (OSV's). This paper will describe the actual and future trends in OSV design for deep water offshore use. (author)

  7. 75 FR 54025 - Vessel and Facility Response Plans for Oil: 2003 Removal Equipment Requirements and Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... responders for each vessel or facility with appropriate equipment and resources located in each zone of operation; specific lists of equipment that the resource providers will make available in case of an...

  8. 46 CFR 32.60-20 - Pumprooms on tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, C, D and/or E liquid cargo-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Ventilation from the weather deck shall be provided. Power supply ventilation may be fitted in lieu of natural... not exceed 500 °F. (b) Ventilation for pumprooms on tank vessels the construction or conversion of... with power ventilation. Pumprooms equipped with power ventilation shall have the ventilation outlets...

  9. Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR

  10. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H 2 O 2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H 2 O 2 . Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H 2 O 2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X 1 : 30–50 °C), solid loading (X 2 : 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X 3 : 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X 4 : 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R 2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (∼37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (∼8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (∼14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (∼5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  11. 33 CFR 151.47 - Category D NLSs other than oil-like Category D NLSs that may be carried under this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, primary) Animal and Fish oils, n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) Animal and Fish acid oils and distillates, n..., n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) Vegetable acid oils and distillates, n.o.s. Waxes: Candelilla Carnauba...

  12. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  13. Ministerial Order of 31 December 1982 made in implementation of Section 3(2)(a) of the Royal Order of 5 November 1982 on the training certificate for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in cisterns or vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Ministerial Order fixes the conditions for obtaining the ADR training certificate for driving transport vehicles which contain radioactive materials in cisterns and vessels. It is the second of four Orders made under the 1982 Royal Order. (NEA) [fr

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy-Faundez, Alex; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Camano, Andres; Saez-Navarrete, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration > 50,000 mg kg -1 ) and sawdust (fuel concentration > 225,000 mg kg -1 ) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 deg. C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min -1 ) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (p < 0.050) on the contaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Camaño, Andrés; Sáez-Navarrete, César

    2008-03-01

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration>50,000 mg kg(-1)) and sawdust (fuel concentration>225,000 mg kg(-1)) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 degrees C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min(-1)) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (pcontaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct nutrient balance

  16. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  17. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  18. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enns JE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Enns,1,2 Peter Zahradka,1–3 Randolph P Guzman,4,5 Alanna Baldwin,1 Brendon Foot,1 Carla G Taylor1–31Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada; 2Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4IH Asper Clinical Research Institute, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada; 5Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, CanadaBackground: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD are at high risk for cardiac events due to atherosclerosis. Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to modulate blood vessel properties, but whether a diet enriched in conventional canola oil can improve clinical endpoints in PAD is not known.Purpose: To describe the rationale and design of a clinical trial testing the effect of canola oil consumption on vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in an 8-week dietary intervention in individuals with PAD.Methods: The Canola-PAD Study was a single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 50 patients over 40 years old with PAD. Participants were randomized into two groups and consumed food items containing either conventional canola oil (25 g/day or an oil mixture representing the Western diet (25 g/day for 8 weeks as part of their usual diet. The primary outcome was vascular function (ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, walking capacity, and cognitive function. Secondary measurements included anthropometrics, serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition, markers of inflammation and glycemic control, and serum metabolite profile.Discussion: The Canola-PAD Study uses an innovative and noninvasive approach to evaluate the effect of canola oil on clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with PAD, including

  19. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  20. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  1. Effect of passing vessels on a moored ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lean, G H; Price, W A

    1977-11-01

    The effect of passing vessels on a moored ship was investigated by a series of model tests carried out at the Hydraulics Research Station for the Esso Petroleum Co. Ltd., transportation department in connection with their oil jetty at Milford Haven. A main conclusion was that the forces appeared to be due to the pressure gradients associated with the pattern of flow that accompanies the passing ship rather than with the wave system. Slack lines are to be avoided, and some relief in maximum line loads can be achieved by increasing the pretension. The results included the effects of passing vessel speed and ship clearance and draft.

  2. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  3. Nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, E.G.; Lofy, R.A.; Williams, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for the in situ inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel to detect the location and character of flaws in the walls of the vessel, in the welds joining the various sections of the vessel, in the welds joining attachments such as nozzles, elbows and the like to the reactor vessel and in such attachments wherein an inspection head carrying one or more ultrasonic transducers follows predetermined paths in scanning the various reactor sections, welds and attachments

  4. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  5. Transport and handling of dangerous goods. Training of persons in charge of vehicles or vessels carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways (Dangerous Goods 1979 No.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Order supplements the Regulations of 15 April 1945 on the transport of dangerous goods by rail, land and inland waterways. It deals with the training of persons in charge of vehicles or boats carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways. It refers in particular to transport of radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  7. Effective operational oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    An operational Contingency Plan is one of the single most important aspects of effective oil spill response operations. It is a spill control game plan. A thorough contingency plan provides a set of guidelines that can be used to help direct all phases of spill response activities. More than simple a compilation of lists and rosters, the contingency plan reflects strategic and philosophical elements of spill response that help to ensure a viable response to any spill incident. Facilities and oil carrying vessels should have well maintained contingency plans with these features. This paper describes the requirement for effective oil spill response pans and the training required to exercise them

  8. 50 CFR 648.4 - Vessel permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying passengers for hire. (8) Atlantic bluefish vessels. (i) Commercial. Any vessel of the United... lands Atlantic bluefish in or from the EEZ in excess of the recreational possession limit specified at § 648.164 must have been issued and carry on board a valid commercial bluefish vessel permit. (ii) Party...

  9. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  10. An image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil slicks from moving vessels in the Southern African oceans using SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil slick events caused due to bilge leakage/dumps from ships and from other anthropogenic sources pose a threat to the aquatic ecosystem and need to be monitored on a regular basis. An automatic image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil...

  11. 75 FR 56015 - Vessel Inspection Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 Vessel Inspection Alternatives CFR... Certificate; (ii) International Tonnage Certificate; (iii) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate; (iv) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate; and (v) International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate; and...

  12. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  13. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.D.; Gangsaas, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  14. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  15. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  16. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model ( R 2  > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0038 gmg -1 d -1 ; half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  17. Method of removing radioactive waste from oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing particulates, radioactive contaminants, and moisture from oil, which consists of: straining out the particulates by passing the oil through a coarse filter screen to a receiving vessel; forming an upper stratum of oil and a lower stratum of sludge, consisting of mud, oil, particulates, and moisture, by heating the upper two-thirds of the receiving vessel; skimming off the stratum of oil from the receiving vessel; transferring the sludge from the receiving vessel to a container; transferring additional separated oil to the receiving vessel; conveying the oil skimmed from the receiving vessel to a mixing vessel; adding an effective amount of Calcium Hypochlorite crystals containing 65% free Chlorine to the mixing vessel to initiate salt formation with the radioactive contaminants; mixing the contents of the mixing vessel for at least ten minutes; transferring the mixture from the mixing vessel to a circulating heater; outputting the mixture from the circulating heater to a second mixing vessel; removing moisture from the oil; and filtering from the oil, the solid radioactive contaminant-salts and residual particulate matter

  18. Nuclear reactor vessel decontamination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed in the present application, a decontamination system for reactor vessels. The system is operatable without entry by personnel into the contaminated vessel before the decontamination operation is carried out and comprises an assembly which is introduced into the vertical cylindrical vessel of the typical boiling water reactor through the open top. The assembly includes a circular track which is centered by guideways permanently installed in the reactor vessel and the track guides opposed pairs of nozzles through which water under very high pressure is directed at the wall for progressively cutting and sweeping a tenacious radioactive coating as the nozzles are driven around the track in close proximity to the vessel wall. The whole assembly is hoisted to a level above the top of the vessel by a crane, outboard slides on the assembly brought into engagement with the permanent guideways and the assembly progressively lowered in the vessel as the decontamination operation progresses. The assembly also includes a low pressure nozzle which forms a spray umbrella above the high pressure nozzles to contain radioactive particles dislodged during the decontamination

  19. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  20. Phenomenological vessel burst investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippelein, K.W.; Julisch, P.; Muz, J.; Schiedermaier, J.

    1985-07-01

    Fourteen burst experiments have been carried out using vessels with circumferential and longitudinal flaws, for investigation of the fracture behaviour, i.e. the time-related fracture opening. The vessels had dimensions (outer diameter x wall thickness = 800 x 47 mm) which correspond to the dimensions of the main coolant piping of a 1300 MW e PWR. The test specimens had been made of the base-safe material 20 MnMoNi 55 and of a special, 22 NiMoCr 37 base alloy. The experimental conditions with regard to pressure and temperature have been chosen so as to correspond to normal operating conditions of a PWR (p∝17.5 MPa, T∝300 0 C), i.e. the flaws have been so dimensioned that failure was to be expected at a pressure of p∝17.5 MPa. As a rule, water has been used as the pressure medium, or in some cases air, in order to influence the time-dependent pressure decrease. Fluid and structural dynamics calculations have also been made. In order to determine the impact of a fast propagating crack on the leak-to-fracture curve, which normally is defined by quasistationary experiments, suitable tests have been made with large-volume, cylindrical vessels (outer diameter x wall thickness x length = 3000 x 21 x 14000 mm) made of the material WSt E 43. The leak-before-fracture criterion has been confirmed. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Life extension of the BR2 aluminium vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Verwerft, M.; Raedt, C. de; Winckel, S. van; Wacquier, W.; Dadoumont, J.; Verwimp, A.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor has recently undergone a major refurbishment comprising the replacement of all vessel internals. The vessel itself however was not replaced. An important requalification programme has been executed to prove that the vessel would remain fit during the contemplated life extension period of BR2. Representative material samples could be obtained from the shroud surrounding the vessel. A comprehensive in-service inspection was carried out and a vessel surveillance programme has been established. (author)

  2. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  3. 46 CFR 178.325 - Intact stability requirements for a sailing vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weathertight deck, such as open boats; (4) A vessel that carries more than 49 passengers; (5) A sailing school vessel that carries a combined total of six or more sailing school students or instructors; (6) A vessel... whether the vessel has adequate stability and satisfactory handling characteristics under sail for...

  4. 33 CFR 135.401 - Access to vessel, Certificates of Financial Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Access, Denial, and Detention § 135.401 Access to vessel, Certificates of...

  5. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  6. Development of Catamaran Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamaluddin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihull due to a couple of advantages has been the topic of extensive research work in naval architecture. In this study, a series of investigation of fishing vessel to save fuel energy was carried out at ITS. Two types of ship models, monohull (round bilge and hard chine and catamaran, a boat with two hulls (symmetrical and asymmetrical were developed. Four models were produced physically and numerically, tested (towing tank and simulated numerically (CFD code. The results of the two approaches indicated that the catamaran mode might have drag (resistance smaller than those of monohull at the same displacement. A layout of catamaran fishing vessel, proposed here, indicates the freedom of setting the deck equipments for fishing vessel.

  7. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  8. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  9. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  10. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... that their vessels have prearranged, prompt access to computerized, shore-based damage stability and...

  11. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  12. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  13. Improvement to reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The vessel described includes a prestressed concrete vessel containing a chamber and a removable cover closing this chamber. The cover is in concrete and is kept in its closed position by main and auxiliary retainers, comprising fittings integral with the concrete of the vessel. The auxiliary retainers pass through the concrete of the cover. This improvement may be applied to BWR, PWR and LMFBR type reactor vessel [fr

  14. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  15. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  16. Removing heavy fuel oil from the submerged wreck of the Jacob Luckenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, C [PCCI Inc./GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Beaver, T [Global Diving and Salvage Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Snyder, B [PCCI Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Jacob Luckenbach cargo carrier sank in July 1953 just west of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California after being struck by another vessel. It was carrying a cargo of military vehicles and railroad parts and was topped with heavy No.6 residual oil in deep and double bottom tanks. In 2002, the sunken ship was named as the source of mystery oil spills along the California coast. In response, the United States Coast Guard contracted Titan Maritime LLC and PCCI Inc. to conduct a vessel assessment and removal available oil. Diving services were provided by Seattle-based Global Diving and Salvage. The recovery operation proved difficult due to cold-water saturation diving at depths to 55 metres, strong currents, bad weather and poor subsea visibility. Pumping the heavy residual oil from the tanks also proved to be difficult because some tanks contained oil that was much more viscous than normal No.6 fuel oil, and the tanks had to be heated to more than 78 degrees C to allow for better fluid flow. Some of the abnormal differences in fuel oil rheologies were described along with the tools used to find and recover the oil and to minimize leaks in the wreck. The project, although more difficult than expected, was successful in removing all accessible oil and mitigating the potential for a catastrophic oil release. More than 460 metric tons of heavy fuel oil and emulsified water-in-oil product was removed from the wreck. One of the most important lessons learned was that cohesiveness and a united front are very much needed when a diverse group of salvage personnel are brought together. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  18. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  19. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  20. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  1. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  2. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  3. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  4. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  5. Handling and carrying head for nuclear fuel assemblies and installation including this head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, R.; Cransac, J.P.; Jogand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention proposes a handling and carrying head ensuring efficiently the cooling of the nuclear fuel asemblies it transports so that any storage in liquid metal in a drum within or adjacent the reactor vessel is suppressed. The invention claims also a nuclear fuel handling installation including the head; it allows a longer time between loading and unloading campaigns and the space surrounding the reactor vessel keeps free without occupying a storage zone within the vessel [fr

  6. Onshore preparedness for hazardous chemical marine vessel accidents: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisel T. Illiyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS are widely transported in marine vessels to reach every part of the world. Bulk transportation of hazardous chemicals is carried out in tank container–carrying cargo ships or in designed vessels. Ensuring the safety of HNS containers during maritime transportation is critically important as the accidental release of any substance may be lethal to the on-board crew and marine environment. A general assumption in maritime accidents in open ocean is that it will not create any danger to the coastal population. The case study discussed in this article throws light on the dangers latent in maritime HNS accidents. An accident involving an HNS-carrying marine vessel in the Arabian Sea near the coast of Yemen became a safety issue to the coastal people of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The ship carried more than 4000 containers, which were lost to the sea in the accident. Six HNS tank containers were carried by the waves and shored at the populated coast of Kasargod, more than 650 nautical miles east from the accident spot. The unanticipated sighting of tank containers in the coast and the response of the administration to the incident, the hurdles faced by the district administration in handling the case, the need for engaging national agencies and lessons learned from the incident are discussed in the article. This case study has proven that accidents in the open ocean have the potential to put the coastal areas at risk if the on-board cargo contains hazardous chemicals. Littoral nations, especially those close to the international waterlines, must include hazardous chemical spills to their oil spill contingency plans.

  7. Pressure vessel for a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the retention of low temperature water and also prevent the thermal fatigue of the pressure vessel by making large the curvature radius of a pressure vessel of a feed water sparger fitting portion and accelerating the mixing of low-temperature water at the feed water sparger base and in-pile hot water. Constitution: The curvature radius of the corner of the feed water sparger fitting portion in a pressure vessel is formed largely. In-pile circulating water infiltrates up to the base portion of the feed water sparger to carry outside low-temperature water at the base part, which is mixed with in-pile hot water. Accordingly, low temperature water does not stay at the base portion of the feed water sparger and generation of thermal fatigue in the pressure vessel can be prevented and the safety of the BWR type reactor can be improved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Method to moor an offshore operating vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, J.F.

    1983-01-24

    A vessel such as a storage vessel is permanently moored, by means such as a yoke pivoted on the forecastle of the vessel, to a mooring leg, e.g. a riser or anchor chain, which is attached to a base located on the ocean floor. Mounted on the vessel is tension exsisting means, for example, counterweights, springs, winches, or the like, operably connected with the mooring leg for applying tension thereto such as by lifting the yoke. The top of the mooring leg is connected to the end of the yoke through a mooring swivel and a gimbaled mooring table or a universal joint. A fluid swivel may be located above the mooring table or about a load-carrying shaft connected to the mooring leg. 8 drawings.

  9. Oil production from bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotting, H E.B.; Gotting, L K

    1940-07-30

    The material such as shale, coal, lignite and the like, is heated in an externally heated retort and the generated gas is passed to a series of cells comprising a bubble tower, the cells of which are separated by plates, through which pipes, with perforated caps pass, also overflow pipes. The gas passing through the cell produces further oil vapour, and is decomposed by heated oil into lighter fractions, till it passes out of the tower through a pipe and through condensing coil to receiving vessels for the oil. Fixed gas passes to cylindrical wash vessels, the back pressure inducing the required pressure in the retort.

  10. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  11. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  12. Fracture behaviour assessment of a flawed pressure vessel in the hydro-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M; Rintamac, R

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the fracture properties of a flawed pressure vessel. The experiment was carried out within the Nordic Countries on a vessel in a Finnish refinery. The instrumentation used included acoustic emission. Some results are provided. (TEC).

  13. Offshore wind transport and installation vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The initial objective of the project was to complete a feasibility study to determine the viability of an innovative transportation vessel to be deployed in the installation of offshore wind farms. This included the feasibility of providing a stable-working platform that can be used in harsh offshore environments. A study of current installation contractors and their installation equipment was used to provide a preliminary specification for the installation vessel. A typical barge was selected and a number of hydrodynamic analyses were carried out in order to establish it's on course and operational stability. The analysis proved the stability of the vessel during operation was critical and that in order to utilise the crane's full potential a stabilisation system must be employed. The main aim of the work to date was to establish whether it was feasible to use a stabilisation system on the installation vessel. The spud leg FEED study established that it was feasible to use spud legs to stabilise the vessel. In order to achieve the degree of stability required it is necessary to lift the vessel completely out of the water. This was not the original aim of the study but due to the external loads on the hull it was the only viable option. Lifting the vessel out of the water results in the legs and leg casings becoming very large. This has a number of consequences for the final design. Due to large loads on the legs spud cans must be used to avoid bottom penetration, the spud cans increase the draft of the vessel by 2m. The large loads require larger winches and more reeving to be used, this results in larger pumps and motors, all of which have to be housed. The stabilisation system has been proved to be feasible for a large installation vessel, the cost and physical size are however more excessive than first anticipated. (Author)

  14. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  15. LopheliaII2012: Coral Research on Oil Rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on TDI-Brooks Vessel Brooks McCall between 2012-07-12 and 2012-07-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The final year of a multi-year effort to study Lophelia coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico is occurring on the TDI-Brooks research vessel, Brooks McCall,...

  16. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  17. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Tempest in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    As the ASN made some statements about anomalies of carbon content in the EPR vessel bottom and top, the author recalls and comments some technical issues to better understand the information published on this topic. He notably addresses the role of the vessel, briefly indicates its operating conditions, shape and structure, and mechanical components for the top, its material and mechanical properties, and test samples used to assess mechanical properties. He also comments the phenomenon of radio-induced embrittlement, the vessel manufacturing process, and evokes the applicable regulations. He quotes and comments statements made by the ASN and Areva which evoke further assessments of the concerned components

  19. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2011 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  4. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  6. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  7. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  8. Reactor pressure vessel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butti, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A link and pin support system provides the primary vertical and lateral support for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel without restricting thermally induced radial and vertical expansion and contraction. (Auth.)

  9. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  13. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  14. Foundamental characteristics of layered pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Yoshikazu; Fugino, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    Pressure vessels become larger and the working pressure become higher with the remarkable development of petroleum, chemical, thermal power generation and atomic energy industries. Multi-layered pressure vessels can be manufactured cheaply without large installations, and large wall thickness can be made, therefore they are suitable for large pressure vessels. The stress and deformation behaviors of such vessels are very complex because of the effect of frictional force working between layers. In this study, the phenomena arising in multiple layers and the difference as compared with single wall were studied fundamentally as one step for analyzing multi-layered pressure vessels as a whole. Finite element technique was employed as the analyzing method, and the behavior of multiple layers was analyzed, regarding it as multiple contact problem. The behavior of multiple layers seems to appear conspicuously in case of bending load, therefore the basic characteristics regarding bending were examined. The evaluation of interfacial stiffness was carried out by experiment. The computer program for analyzing multiple contact problem was developed. In order to examine the validity of the program, comparison with the analytical solution heretofore and the result of calculation by finite element technique was carried out. Moreover, the experimental proof with multi-layered models was made. The frictional force between layers hardly contributes to the stiffness. (Kako, I.)

  15. Improved nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. A generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounds the reactor vessel and a central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and supports the bottom wall of the reactor vessel and the reactor core. The periphery of the reactor vessel bore is supported by an annular structure which allows thermal expansion but not seismic motion of the vessel, and a bed of thermally insulating material uniformly supports the vessel base whilst allowing expansion thereof. A guard ring prevents lateral seismic motion of the upper end of the reactor vessel. The periphery of the core is supported by an annular structure supported by the vessel base and keyed to the vessel wall so as to be able to expand but not undergo seismic motion. A deck is supported on the containment structure above the reactor vessel open top by annular bellows, the deck carrying the reactor control rods such that heating of the reactor vessel results in upward expansion against the control rods. (author)

  16. Crack propagation on spherical pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1975-01-01

    The risk presented by a crack on a pressure vessel built with a ductile steel cannot be well evaluated by simple application of the rules of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, which only apply to brittle materials. Tests were carried out on spherical vessels of three different scales built with the same steel. Cracks of different length were machined through the vessel wall. From the results obtained, crack initiation stress (beginning of stable propagation) and instable propagation stress may be plotted against the lengths of these cracks. For small and medium size, subject to ductile fracture, the resulting curves are identical, and may be used for ductile fracture prediction. Brittle rupture was observed on larger vessels and crack propagation occurred at lower stress level. Preceedings curves are not usable for fracture analysis. Ultimate pressure can be computed with a good accuracy by using equivalent energy toughness, Ksub(1cd), characteristic of the metal plates. Satisfactory measurements have been obtained on thin samples. The risks of brittle fracture may then judged by comparing Ksub(1cd) with the calculated K 1 value, in which corrections for vessel shape are taken into account. It is thus possible to establish the bursting pressure of cracked spherical vessels, with the help of two rules, one for brittle fracture, the other for ductile instability. A practical method is proposed on the basis of the work reported here

  17. Reactor pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 2, the general principles of reactor pressure vessel design are elaborated. Crack and fracture initiation and propagation are treated in some detail

  18. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    metals (e.g., cadmium, chromium, lead, copper , zinc, silver, nickel, and mercury), solids, and nutrients (USEPA, 2008b; USEPA 2010). Wastewater from... flotation ), and disinfection (using ultraviolet light) as compared to traditional Type II MSDs that use either simple maceration and chlorination, or...Coliform Naval Vessels Oceanographic Vessels Small Cruise Ships 25a Vendor 2 Hamann AG Biological Treatment with Dissolved Air Flotation and

  19. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  20. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  1. FFTF and CRBRP reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) reactor vessel each serve to enclose a fast spectrum reactor core, contain the sodium coolant, and provide support and positioning for the closure head and internal structure. Each vessel is located in its reactor cavity and is protected by a guard vessel which would ensure continued decay heat removal capability should a major system leak develop. Although the two plants have significantly different thermal power ratings, 400 megawatts for FFTF and 975 megawatts for CRBRP, the two reactor vessels are comparable in size, the CRBRP vessel being approximately 28% longer than the FFTF vessel. The FFTF vessel diameter was controlled by the space required for the three individual In-Vessel Handling Machines and Instrument Trees. Utilization of the triple rotating plug scheme for CRBRP refueling enables packaging of the larger CRBRP core in a vessel the same diameter as the FFTF vessel

  2. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was ∼15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results

  3. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990: a decade later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketkar, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of oil spills data confirms that accidental oil spills are natural phenomenon and that there is a relationship between accidental oil spills and variables like vessel size, vessel type, time and region of spill. The volume of oil spilled bears relationship with the volume of petroleum imports and domestic movement of petroleum and proportion of large oil spills. Finally, navigational risk increases with increase in marine traffic and is also determined by variables like hydrographic and meteorological conditions, water configuration, manoeuvring space, obstructions and nuisance vessels. The Oil Pollution Act, 1990 (OPA 90) was passed by the US Congress in the aftermath of 11 million gallon spill of crude oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The objective of OPA 90 was to minimize marine casualties and oil spills by addressing preventive, protective, deterrent and performance aspects of accidental oil spills. The arm of various regulations like double-hull tankers and vessel response plans extended to both US flagged and foreign-flagged tank vessels. The cost-benefit analysis of major regulations shows that the estimated costs exceed estimated benefits. We observe from USCG data on oil spills by size, by vessel type, Coast guard district and type of petroleum product that there have been significant reductions in the number and the quantity of oil spills. Our regression results show that the quantity of oil spilled increases with increase in oil imports but increases at a decreasing rate. The quantity of oil spilled decreases with increases in the domestic oil movements. Furthermore, percent of oil spills larger than 10,000 gallons also increases the potential quantity of oil spilled. OPA 90 has been a deterrent to accidental oil spills but the finding is not conclusive. (author)

  4. The JET high temperature in-vessel inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Businaro, T.; Cusack, R.; Calbiati, L.; Raimondi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The JET In-vessel Inspection System (IVIS) has been enhanced for operation under the following nominal conditions: vacuum vessel at 350 degC; vacuum vessel evacuated (∼10 -9 mbar); radiation dose during D-T phase 10 rads. The target resolution of the pictures is 2 mm at 5 m distance and tests on radiation resistance of the IVIS system are being carried out. Since June 1988, the new system is installed in the JET machine and the first inspections of the intire vessel at 250 degC have been satisfactory done. (author). 3 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  5. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  6. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  7. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  8. Maritime Renaissance: oil begins to make up for lost seals and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2000-12-04

    The economic recovery of Newfoundland as a result of success in the Hibernia oilfield off the coast of Newfoundland is discussed. Oil production and the transport of oil from the Hibernia to the mainland by rugged double-hulled tankers that are about five times bigger than any other ship in Canada in terms of carrying capacity is a welcome event, considering that the seal hunt and the fishing industry that formerly provided sustenance to the people of Newfoundland have died as a result of world-wide pressure by animal rights groups, and indiscriminate overfishing. Transport of the crude oil from the Hibernia field is provided by Canship Ugland, a St. John's-based firm which now operates a fleet of three tankers. Each of the three vessels are capable of carrying 850,000 barrels of oil, or more than four times Hibernia's daily production. The 'Vinland' the latest of the three tankers to be commissioned, was built in South Korea, is 272 metres long and 46 metres wide. The ship is expected to carry oil from the rig 315 kms offshore to the Newfoundland Terminal at Whiffen Head, where the oil is picked up by smaller vessels. The 'Vinland' is equipped with the dynamic positioning feature which lets the ship maintain its maneuverability and position even if half her power is lost. The company employs people from all over the province and puts millions of dollars annually into the Newfoundland economy. 1 photo.

  9. 78 FR 11950 - Identification of Entities and Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; Telephone (356)(21241232) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 42. SINA SHIPPING COMPANY...; MMSI 572449210 (vessel) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 93. SINA (9HNY9) Crude Oil...

  10. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  11. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  12. 46 CFR 180.207 - Survival craft-vessels operating on lakes, bays, and sounds routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on lakes, bays, and... Survival Craft § 180.207 Survival craft—vessels operating on lakes, bays, and sounds routes. (a) Except as... warm water is not required to carry survival craft. (d) A vessel certificated to operate on lakes, bays...

  13. 46 CFR 117.208 - Survival craft-vessels operating on rivers routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on rivers routes. 117... LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.208 Survival craft—vessels... vessel certificated to operate on a rivers route in warm water is not required to carry survival craft...

  14. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  15. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  16. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  17. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  18. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  19. Reactor vessel stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Beer, R.W.; Salton, R.B.; Spiegelman, S.R.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner, for facilitating the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud, has gripper jaws which when the tensioner is lowered into engagement with the upper end of the stud are moved inwards to grip the upper end and which when the tensioner is lifted move outward to release the upper end. (author)

  20. PDX vacuum vessel stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    A stress analysis of PDX vacuum vessel is described and the summary of results is presented. The vacuum vessel is treated as a toroidal shell of revolution subjected to an internal vacuum. The critical buckling pressure is calculated. The effects of the geometrical discontinuity at the juncture of toroidal shell head and cylindrical outside wall, and the concavity of the cylindrical wall are examined. An effect of the poloidal field coil supports and the vessel outside supports on the stress distribution in the vacuum vessel is determined. A method evaluating the influence of circular ports in the vessel wall on the stress level in the vessel is outlined

  1. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  2. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  3. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, S; Ramakumar, M S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Div. of Remote Handling and Robotics

    1994-12-31

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs.

  4. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs

  5. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Maritime vessels carry more than half of growing U.S.-East Africa trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Trade between the United States and East African countries (defined in this special report as Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) has grown substantially in recent years, reaching $1.3 billion in value in 2007. Between 1997 and 2007, U.S. e...

  7. Nursing care for patients carrying indwelling catheter in target vessel for continuous chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the occurrence of undesirable catheter-related events in patients with indwelling catheter during the course of continuous chemotherapy. Methods: (1)To enhance the propaganda,education and guidance to patients. (2) To standardize the nursing care operations. (3) To establish the reasonable care rules and procedures. (4) The nurses should take the daily nursing care,observations and recording work seriously. Results: Through the analysis of a variety of problems occurred in patients with indwelling catheter during the course of continuous chemotherapy the nursing care experience was summed up. Conclusion: Proper and effective care can reduce the occurrence of undesirable catheter-related events in patients with indwelling catheter during the course of continuous chemotherapy. (authors)

  8. The functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Siner, M.; Tijdhof, B.

    2003-01-01

    The title study regarding the functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis is carried out with particular reference to the strategic behaviour of oil companies. Section 2 identifies major oil supply disruptions since 1951 and describes some important changes in the market that have occurred in recent decades; Section 3 reviews the economic literature of the functioning of oil markets during disruptions and models of oil supply disruptions; Section 4 examines the response of oil markets to recent supply disruptions; Section 5 examines the incentives and scope for strategic behaviour; Section 6 considers the implications of our analysis for the design of policy responses to oil supply disruptions; Appendix A describes the background to the four recent oil supply disruptions; Appendix B discusses the relationship between spot and futures prices for a storable commodity; and Appendix C is the bibliography

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  10. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  11. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  12. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  13. Reactor vessel stud closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelman, S.R.; Salton, R.B.; Beer, R.W.; Malandra, L.J.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner apparatus for enabling the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud. The apparatus is adapted to engage the vessel stud by closing a gripper around an upper end of the vessel stud when the apparatus is seated on the stud. Upon lifting the apparatus, the gripper releases the vessel stud so that the apparatus can be removed

  14. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  15. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  16. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomenology of radiation-induced changes in blood vessels are systematized and authors' experience is generalized. Modern concepts about processes leading to vessel structure injury after irradiation is critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of X-ray vessel injury, consideration of which is not yet sufficiently elucidated in literature

  18. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomeology of radiation changes of blood vessels are systemized and the authors' experience is generalyzed. A critical analysis of modern conceptions on processes resulting in vessel structure damage after irradiation, is given. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of radiation injury of vessels

  19. Amending the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for state implementation of program elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, L. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Juneau, AK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A legal argument was made in favour of amending the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 to allow state implementation of a portion or portions of the law. As it now stands the OPA does not have language for delegating program elements to the states. A review of the legislation indicated that a number of program elements may be more effectively carried out by the State of Alaska, while others should continue to be administered by both the federal and state governments. The review and approval of industry contingency plans for manned and unmanned vessels/barges carrying oil as a primary cargo is one example where efficiencies may be gained. Such plans are currently submitted to Coast Guard headquarters in Washington and retained there. In effect, there is no `local` federal knowledge of the vessel response plans approved for operation in the State of Alaska, nor do Alaskans have the opportunity to review or comment on the adequacy of these plans. Components where efficiencies would be gained include: local review of industry contingency/ response plans, inventory of existing rural above-ground tank farms, coordination of vessel and facility inspections, area contingency plan development and access to federal clean up funds. Past experience clearly indicates that delegation to the states is a workable proposition. There is no apparent justification for not extending this provision to the OPA, not as a mandate, but as an option for reducing cost and improving efficiency. 28 refs.

  20. Amending the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for state implementation of program elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, L.

    1997-01-01

    A legal argument was made in favour of amending the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 to allow state implementation of a portion or portions of the law. As it now stands the OPA does not have language for delegating program elements to the states. A review of the legislation indicated that a number of program elements may be more effectively carried out by the State of Alaska, while others should continue to be administered by both the federal and state governments. The review and approval of industry contingency plans for manned and unmanned vessels/barges carrying oil as a primary cargo is one example where efficiencies may be gained. Such plans are currently submitted to Coast Guard headquarters in Washington and retained there. In effect, there is no 'local' federal knowledge of the vessel response plans approved for operation in the State of Alaska, nor do Alaskans have the opportunity to review or comment on the adequacy of these plans. Components where efficiencies would be gained include: local review of industry contingency/ response plans, inventory of existing rural above-ground tank farms, coordination of vessel and facility inspections, area contingency plan development and access to federal clean up funds. Past experience clearly indicates that delegation to the states is a workable proposition. There is no apparent justification for not extending this provision to the OPA, not as a mandate, but as an option for reducing cost and improving efficiency. 28 refs

  1. In-service ultrasonic inspection of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepechal, J.; Sulc, J.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic tests of pressure vessels for WWER 440 reactors, type 213 V, are carried out partly manually and partly by test equipment. The inner surface of the pressure vessel is tested using device REACTORTEST TRC which is fully mobile. The outer surface of the cylindrical parts and bottoms of the body is tested using handling equipment permanently in-built under the pressure vessel and dismountable testing heads. A set of these heads may be used for two reactor units. The testing equipment REACTORTEST TRC is equipped with a TRC 800 ultrasound device. The equipment for testing the outer surface of the vessel operates with the UDAR 16 ultrasound apparatus to which may be simultaneously connected 10 ultrasound probes and six probes for acoustic feedback. The whole system of ultrasonic tests makes possible a first-rate and reliable volume control of the whole pressure vessel and all points where cracks may originate and grow. (Z.M.)

  2. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  3. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  4. 46 CFR 35.25-15 - Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL. 35.25-15 Section 35.25... § 35.25-15 Carrying of excess steam—TB/ALL. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer of any tank vessel to see that a steam pressure is not carried in excess of that allowed by the certificate of...

  5. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2005-03-01

    Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As a result, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10 -11 in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel by using mercury-leakage sensors. (author)

  7. Factors influencing the development of routes for regular oil transport from Dikson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riska, K. [ILS Ltd., Helsinki (Finland); Breivik, K.; Eide, I.S.; Gudmestad, O.; Hilden, T. [Statoil ASA, Stavanger (Norway)

    2006-11-15

    Many oil and gas companies have increased their exploration efforts in the Arctic where a considerable part of the world's remaining oil and gas resources are located. Several large fields have been discovered in areas far from markets. This paper described the challenge of finding methods for efficient, reliable and economic transport to markets. Traditionally, shipping operations in Arctic waters has taken place by using icebreakers. However, large scale development of oil and gas fields in the Arctic will require large tankers that are designed for operation under severe Arctic conditions. For that reason, Statoil initiated a program in 2005 to study the operation of large tankers in ice infested waters and under Arctic conditions. The primary objective was to demonstrate that large vessels could operate in ice infested waters and to study the effect of using vessels with large beams. Factors influencing the design of the vessels used for reliable year-round oil transportation by ships from the north-western Russian Arctic areas were investigated with special attention to one icebreaker escorting tanker with wider beam than that of the icebreaker; passage through pressurized ice fields; and, passage through ridge fields. The design of the whole transport system was described in this paper along with an investigation of the physics of the above factors. An ice model tank at the Helsinki University of Technology was used to carry out the tests for oil transport from a possible terminal in the vicinity of the port of Dikson to Murmansk. Three types of winter/ice conditions were analyzed, notably mild, average and severe. For each of these conditions, the parameters of the ice cover were determined along the whole route. The average transport speed was determined based on the ice conditions and ship characteristics for the whole route from Dikson to Murmansk and return. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Seismic transient analysis of a containment vessel with penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Weiner, E.O.

    1979-12-01

    A linear transient analysis of the FFTF containment vessel was conducted with STAGS to justify the load levels used for the seismic qualification testing of the heating and ventiliation valve operators. The modeling consists of a thin axisymmetric shell for the containment vessel with four penetrations characterized by linear and rotational inertias as well as attachment characteristics to the shell. Motions considered are horizontal, rocking and vertical input to the base, and the solution is carried out by direct integration. Results show that the test levels and the approximate analyses considered are conservative. Response spectra for some containment vessel penetrations applicable to the model are presented

  9. Pressure vessel lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Elter, C.; Becker, G.; Pertiller, S.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a lid for closing openings in reactor pressure vessels containing helium, which is made as a circular casting with hollow spaces and a flat floor and is set on the opening and kept down. It consists of helium-tight metal cast material with sufficient temperature resistance. There are at least two concentric heat resistant seals let into the bottom of the lid. The bottom is in immediate contact with the container atmosphere and has hollow spaces in its inside in the area opposite to the opening. (orig./HP) [de

  10. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Inservice inspection of Halden BWR pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerli, O.; Hernes, T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of how the recertification inspection of the 20 years old Halden Reactor pressure vessel was carried out in accordance with the latest ASME-CODES, despite the fact that inspection accessibility was poor. As no volumetric inspection had been carried out since the preservice radiography in 1957, the ultrasonic inspection included the high flux region of all welds. In total 70% of longitudinal welds and 20% of bottom circumferential welds were inspected as well as the bottom nozzle connection. The vessel was not designed with provisions for inservice inspection, the welds are unaccessible from the outside and removal of the lid is virtually impossible. The ultrasonic probes could only be loaded through 77 mm diameter holes in the top lid and remotely positioned inside the vessel. The inspection was performed using 450C and 60OC 1 MHz angle probes and 2.25 MHz normal probes in immersion technique. In a zone around the welds, small regions with lack of bonding between the stainless steel cladding and the boiler steel were revealed. One root defect known and accepted from the preservice radiographs was examined. The defect was found to be 6x30mm as a maximum and well within acceptable limits according to the fracture mechanics analysis method recommended in ASME X1. The inspection required a period of three weeks' work in the reactor hall. (UK)

  12. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  13. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  14. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  15. An automated vessel segmentation of retinal images using multiscale vesselness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, M.; Malek, J.; Tourki, R.; Krissian, K.

    2011-01-01

    The ocular fundus image can provide information on pathological changes caused by local ocular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Automated analysis and interpretation of fundus images has become a necessary and important diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology. The extraction of blood vessels from retinal images is an important and challenging task in medical analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion which allows reducing the noise and better preserving small structures like vessels in 2D images. A vessel detection filter, based on a multi-scale vesselness function, is then applied to enhance vascular structures.

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  17. Irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Vacek, M.

    1975-01-01

    A Standard Research Programme on Irradiation Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Steels was approved by the Coordinating Meeting on the 12th May 1972 at the Working Group on Engineering Aspects of Irradiation Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Steels. This Working Group was set up by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Seven countries with their research institutes agreed on doing irradiation experiments according to the approved programme on steel A533 B from the U.S. HSST Programme. The Czechoslovak contribution covering tensile and impact testing of non-irradiated steel and steel irradiated at 280degC to 1.3 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E above 1 MeV) is presented in this report. As an additional part the same set of experiments was carried out on two additional steels - A 542 and A 543, made in SKODA Works for comparison of their irradiation embrittlement and hardening with A533 B steel. (author)

  18. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  19. Lining up device for the internal structures of a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverblatt, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a nuclear reactor of the type with a vessel, a vessel head carried at the top of this vessel by a core cylinder comprising a flange internally supported by the vessel, and an upper support structure supported between the core cylinder flange and the vessel head to align laterally the head, vessel, flange and support structure. A bottom key device is provided for lining up the flange, support structure and vessel, and an upper key device for laterally lining up support structure and the vessel head and for maintaining this alignment when they are removed simultaneously from the core cylinder and vessel. When re-assembling the reactor, the top support structure and the vessel head are lowered simultaneously so that an opening in the top alignment structure engages in the upper extension of the bottom alignment structure. A plurality of alignment stuctures may be utilised round the circumference of the reactor vessel. The disposition of the invention also facilitates the removal of the core cylinder from the reactor vessel. In this way, the alignment on re-assembly is ensured by the re-entry of the bottom extension under the flange of the core cylinder with the groove or keyway of the reactor vessel [fr

  20. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  1. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Morris LS. Hysterectomy vs. resectoscopic endometrial ablation for the control of abnormal uterine bleeding . A cost-comparative study. J Reprod Med 1994;39...after the antibody treatment contain a pericyte coat, vessel architecture is normal, the diameter of the vessels is smaller (dilated, abnormal vessels...involvement of proteases from inflammatory mast cells and functionally abnormal (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000; Pasqualini (Coussens et al., 1999) and other bone

  2. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  3. Oil spill risk assessment in maritime transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudhbir, L.; Iakovou, E.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial shippers and regulatory agencies face the challenge of evaluating the merits of various alternative policies for the transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. This paper presented a new risk estimation and assignment methodology that assesses the risk costs for the bodies of water where shipping lanes exist. The methodology is based on historical spills and uses causal data to estimate risk cost between 2 points of reference for numerous products transported by a variety of vessels. In response to public concerns regarding the environmental impacts of accidental spills from tanker ships, laws have been imposed on companies for all costs relating to environmental damage. This measure has prompted the oil industry to take greater responsibility, but a better understanding of tanker re-routing on environmental sensitive areas is needed in order to implement detailed emergency response plans and greater safety precautions. This methodology addressed the need for an efficient maritime transportation system that provides routing for various vessels carrying different petroleum products. The risk estimation methodology successfully modeled a multi-objective, multi-commodity routing problem. 23 refs., 3 figs

  4. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  5. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  6. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    subsea pipeline leaks , or the leaking of oil from tanks after a damaged vessel has sunk to the bottom. Oil arriving at the surface of the water may...i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development Distribution...Center. June 2016 Report No. CG-D-03-16 Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC

  8. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  9. Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the Safety of WWER-440/230 NPPs, a list of safety issues requiring broad studies of generic interest have been agreed upon by an Advisory Group who met in Vienna in September 1990. The list was later revised in the light of the programme findings. The information on the status of the issues, and on the amount of work already completed and under way in the various countries, needs to be compiled. Moreover, an evaluation of what further work is required to resolve each one of the issues is also necessary. In view of this, the IAEA has started the preparation of a series of status reports on the various issues. This report on the generic safety issue ''Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement'' presents a comprehensive survey of technical information available in the field and identifies those aspects which require further investigation. 39 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  11. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, J.P.; Eperonnat, P.; Lions, N.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [fr

  12. Heavy oils clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collitt, R.

    1997-01-01

    High production, transport and refining costs have long led oil companies to shun heavy crude oils. Advances in the technology of upgrading heavy oils, however, are likely to reduce transport costs and improve the refinery output. Research and development by Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), has resulted in a process called Aquaconversion which permits the upgrading of heavy crude oils using a catalyst and the hydrogen from steam. This may be carried out at the wellhead in small low-pressure and relatively inexpensive units. In addition, higher distillate yields of higher value could be produced by revamping the thermal cracking units of refineries to incorporate the new technology. This has generated considerable interest in Venezuela's large extra-heavy crude oil reserves and has led multinational oil companies along with PDVSA to pledge $17 billion to their development. Even at a $2 to $3 per barrel upgrading cost, Venezuela's extra heavy crudes are competitive with lighter oils from other countries. Other major markets for the new technology are likely to be China and Russia, given their own large heavy crude reserves. (UK)

  13. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  14. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  15. Multipurpose service vessels. Versatile toolkits for well intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, S [Dowell, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Cupello, F; Hicks, J; Keenleyside, M [Sedco Forex, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Formas, D; Gabillard, C [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); Gamarra, F; Sanchez, A [Lagoven SA, Tia Juana (Venezuela)

    1997-12-31

    The industry has entered a new area in offshore support operations. Today, novel concepts and designs offer an expanded range of capabilities from a single vessel rather than the multiple boats and barges that have been used in the past. This continuing evolution in marine services is rapidly transforming well workover and intervention activities, and solving logistics and performance problems that have challenged oil and gas operators for decades. 13 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Multipurpose service vessels. Versatile toolkits for well intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, S. [Dowell, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Cupello, F.; Hicks, J.; Keenleyside, M. [Sedco Forex, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Formas, D.; Gabillard, C. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); Gamarra, F.; Sanchez, A. [Lagoven SA, Tia Juana (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    The industry has entered a new area in offshore support operations. Today, novel concepts and designs offer an expanded range of capabilities from a single vessel rather than the multiple boats and barges that have been used in the past. This continuing evolution in marine services is rapidly transforming well workover and intervention activities, and solving logistics and performance problems that have challenged oil and gas operators for decades. 13 figs., 5 refs.

  17. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  18. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 155 - Determining and Evaluating Required Response Resources for Vessel Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Pt. 155, App. B Appendix B to Part 155—Determining and... environment. For example, vessels moving from the ocean to a river port must identify appropriate equipment...

  19. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  20. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  1. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  2. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  3. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention applies to a pressure vessel for nuclear reactors whose shell, made of cast metal segments, has a steel liner. This liner must be constructed to withstand all operational stresses and to be easily repairable. The invention solves this problem by installing the liner at a certain distance from the inner wall of the pressure vessel shell and by filling this clearance with supporting concrete. Both the concrete and the steel liner must have a lower prestress than the pressure vessel shell. In order to avoid damage to the liner when prestressing the pressure vessel shell, special connecting elements are provided which consist of welded-on fastening elements projecting into recesses in the cast metal segments of the pressure vessel. Their design is described in detail. (TK) [de

  4. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  5. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  6. Pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, D.

    2007-01-01

    This book guides through general and fundamental problems of pressure vessel design. It moreover considers problems which seem to be of lower importance but which turn out to be crucial in the design phase. The basic approach is rigorously scientific with a complete theoretical development of the topics treated, but the analysis is always pushed so far as to offer concrete and precise calculation criteria that can be immediately applied to actual designs. This is accomplished through appropriate algorithms that lead to final equations or to characteristic parameters defined through mathematical equations. The first chapter describes how to achieve verification criteria, the second analyzes a few general problems, such as stresses of the membrane in revolution solids and edge effects. The third chapter deals with cylinders under pressure from the inside, while the fourth focuses on cylinders under pressure from the outside. The fifth chapter covers spheres, and the sixth is about all types of heads. Chapter seven discusses different components of particular shape as well as pipes, with special attention to flanges. The eighth chapter discusses the influence of holes, while the ninth is devoted to the influence of supports. Finally, chapter ten illustrates the fundamental criteria regarding fatigue analysis. Besides the unique approach to the entire work, original contributions can be found in most chapters, thanks to the author's numerous publications on the topic and to studies performed ad hoc for this book. (orig.)

  7. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  8. Possible research program on a large scale nuclear pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear pressure vessel structural integrity is actually one of the main items in the nuclear plants safety field. An international study group aimed at investigating the feasibility of a ''possible research program'' on a scale 1:1 LWR pressure vessel. This report presents the study group's work. The different research programs carried out or being carried out in various countries of the European Community are presented (phase I of the study). The main characteristics of the vessel considered for the program and an evaluation of activities required for making them available are listed. Research topic priorities from the different interested countries are summarized in tables (phase 2); a critical review by the study group of the topic is presented. Then, proposals for possible experimental programs and combination of these programs are presented, only as examples of possible useful research activities. The documents pertaining to the results of phase I inquiry performed by the study group are reported in the appendix

  9. Seismic proving test of PWR reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Tokumaru, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic reliability proving tests of nuclear power plant facilities are carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC), using the large-scale, high-performance vibration of Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, and sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). In 1982, the seismic reliability proving test of PWR containment vessel started using the test component of reduced scale 1/3.7 and the test component proved to have structural soundness against earthquakes. Subsequently, the detailed analysis and evaluation of these test results were carried out, and the analysis methods for evaluating strength against earthquakes were established. Whereupon, the seismic analysis and evaluation on the actual containment vessel were performed by these analysis methods, and the safety and reliability of the PWR reactor containment vessel were confirmed

  10. Shear strength of end slabs of prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reins, J.D.; Quiros, J.L. Jr.; Schnobrich, W.C.; Sozen, M.A.

    1976-07-01

    The report summarizes the experimental and part of the analytical work carried out in connection with an investigation of the structural strength of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The project is part of the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory sponsored by ERDA. The objective of the current phase of the work is to develop procedures to determine the shear strength of flat end slabs of reactor vessels with penetrations

  11. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  12. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  13. Radiation protection and management of NORM residues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, P.P.; )

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides in oil and gas streams belong to the decay chains of 238 U and 232 Th originate from the reservoir rock that contains oil, gas and formation water. Formation water contains significant concentrations of isotopes of radium dissolved from the reservoir rock. The parent isotopes of uranium and thorium are not mobilized from the rock and hence the radium isotopes appear in the water co-produced with the oil and gas. When the ions of Group II elements are present in the produced water, drops in pressure and temperature can lead to precipitation of sulphate and carbonate scales on the inner walls of production tubulars, well heads, valves, pumps, separators, water treatment vessels, gas treatment and oil storage tanks. The mixed stream of oil, gas and water carries the radon gas generated in the reservoir rock and in the production stream it preferentially follows the dry export gases. Consequently the equipment from gas treatment and transport facilities may accumulate a thin film of 210 Pb in the inner surfaces of gas lines. The radionuclide concentrations in produced water, hard scale and sludge will be presented. Indication on typical quantities of wastes generated and best practices followed in the industry in managing such wastes will be outlined. Information on external gamma exposure and potential internal exposure as well as global emerging issues will be discussed

  14. Human Milk Fat Substitute Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oil Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Turan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil, palm kernel oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and marine oil blend, formulated in the mass ratio of 4.0:3.5:1.0:1.5:0.2, was subjected to interesterification catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme® TL IM for obtaining a product that contains similar triacylglycerol (TAG structure to that of human milk fat (HMF. Reactions were carried out in a double jacketed glass vessel equipped with magnetic stirrer at 60 °C for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h. The blend was analyzed for fatty acid composition of both total fatty acids and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. After interesterification, TAGs were purified by thin layer chromatography and TAG species were determined according to the carbon number (CN by high-temperature gas chromatography. Enzymatic interesterification generated significant differences for all TAG species from CN30 to CN54. Concentrations of some TAG species (CN30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52 and 54 decreased, while some (CN40 to 48 increased after 24 h. TAG species with higher CN reached maximum levels at the end of 6 h of reaction time. The predominant TAGs of the reaction product after 24 h were CN46, 48, 50, 52 and 54 with ratios of 13.8, 18.2, 13.9, 17.8, and 12.1 %, respectively. These TAG species contain mainly 1,3-diunsaturated-2-saturated structure, like HMF.

  15. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  16. PWR vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Kinsman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on PWR pressure vessels which operate under NRC rules and regulatory guides intended to prevent failure of the vessels. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified under these rules and regulations are required to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. However, the flaw distribution assumed in the development of the NRC Regulations and recommended for the plant specific analyses is potentially over-conservative. This is because the distribution is based on the limited amount of vessel inspection data available at the time the criteria were being developed and does not take full advantage of the more recent and reliable domestic vessel inspection results. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding an effort through Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of developing a new flaw distribution based on the increased amount and improved reliability of domestic vessel inspection data. Results of Phase I of the program indicate that state-of-the-art NDE systems' capabilities are sufficient for development of a new flaw distribution that could ultimately provide life extension benefits over the presently required operating practice

  17. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  18. Determination of Calorific Ability of Fuel Briquettes on the Basis of Oil and Oil Slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Rakhmatulina, E. M.; Zakharov, V. A.; Fisenko, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization and neutralization of oil slimes is one of important environmental problems of the oil-extracting, oil-processing and petrochemical industry. The easiest and economic way of utilization of oil slimes is their use as a part of the bricketed boiler fuel. In this work the highest calorific ability of crude oil, the oil slimes and fuel briquettes made on their basis is defined. A research problem was carrying out the technical analysis of oil fuels on the content in them analytical moisture, the cindery rest and volatiles. It is established that in comparison with oil slimes crude oil possesses bigger highest calorific ability, has smaller humidity and an ash-content. The highest calorific abilities of the boiler briquettes made of samples of crude oil, oil slimes and peat made 14 - 26 MJ/kg.

  19. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  20. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knottenbelt, H W

    1910-04-13

    An improved process of treating petroleum and shale oils is disclosed consisting in separating by distillation fractions suitable after treatment as a substitute for turpentine and for illuminating purposes respectively such treatment consisting in separating any tar bodies that may be present and subjecting the fractions to the action of a solution of ammonia carrying litmus, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

  1. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. PWR vessel inspection performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair Fairbrother, D.; Bodson, Francis

    1998-01-01

    A compact robot for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessels has been developed that reduces setup logistics and schedule time for mandatory code inspections. Rather than installing a large structure to access the entire weld inspection area from its flange attachment, the compact robot examines welds in overlapping patches from a suction cup anchor to the shell wall. The compact robot size allows two robots to be operated in the vessel simultaneously. This significantly reduces the time required to complete the inspection. Experience to date indicates that time for vessel examinations can be reduced to fewer than four days. (author)

  3. Safety of steel vessel Magnox pressure circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokoe, T.Y.; Bolton, C.J.; Heffer, P.J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The maintenance of pressure circuit integrity is fundamental to nuclear safety at the steel vessel Magnox stations. To confirm continued pressure circuit integrity the CEGB, as part of the Long Term Safety Review, has carried out extensive assessment and inspection in recent years. The assessment methods and inspection techniques employed are based on the most modern available. Reactor pressure vessel integrity is confirmed by a combination of arguments including safety factors inferred from the successful pre-service overpressure test, leak-before-break analysis and probabilistic assessment. In the case of other parts of the pressure circuits that are more accessible, comprising the boiler shells and interconnecting gas duct work, in-service inspection is a major element of the safety substantiation. The assessment and inspection techniques and the materials property data have been underpinned for many years by extensive research and development programmes and in-reactor monitoring of representative samples has also been undertaken. The paper summarises the work carried out to demonstrate the long term integrity of the Magnox pressure circuits and provides examples of the results obtained. (author)

  4. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  5. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bert; Lindberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  6. 78 FR 30961 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE DUTCH; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013-0057] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE DUTCH; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... LITTLE DUTCH is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Carrying up to six passengers for day trips, sunset...

  7. 76 FR 67253 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE GIFT; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2011 0131] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE GIFT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... GIFT is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger carrying.'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``ME, NH, MA, RI...

  8. Special enclosure for a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.; Wedellsborg, U.W.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure vessel enclosure is described comprising a primary pressure vessel, a first pressure vessel containment assembly adapted to enclose said primary pressure vessel and be spaced apart therefrom, a first upper pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose the upper half of said first pressure vessel containment assembly and be spaced apart therefrom, said upper pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim and a lower rim, each of said rims connected in a slidable relationship to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, mean for connecting in a sealable relationship said upper rim of said first upper pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, means for connecting in a sealable relationship said lower rim of said first upper pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, a first lower pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose the lower half of said first pressure vessel containment assembly and be spaced apart therefrom, said lower pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim connected in a slidable relationship to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, and means for connecting in a sealable relationship said upper rim of said first lower pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, a second upper pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose said first upper pressure vessel jacket and be spaced apart therefrom, said second upper pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim and a lower rim, each of said rims adapted to slidably engage the outer surface of said first upper pressure vessel jacket, means for sealing said rims, a second lower pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose said first lower pressure vessel jacket and be spaced apart therefrom

  9. ITER vacuum vessel, in vessel components and plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Enoeda, M.; Federici, G.

    2007-01-01

    Design of the NB ports including duct liners under heat loads of the neutral beams has been developed. Design of the in-wall shielding has been developed in more details considering the supporting structure and the assembly method. The ferromagnetic inserts have previously not been installed in the outboard midplane region due to irregularity caused by the tangential ports for NB injection. Due to this configuration, the maximum ripple is relatively large (∝1 %) in a limited region of the plasma and the toroidal field flux lines fluctuate ∝10 mm in the FW region. To avoid these problems, additional ferromagnetic inserts are to be installed in the equatorial port region. Detailed studies were carried out on the ITER vacuum vessel to define appropriate codes and standards in the context of the ITER licensing in France. A set of draft documents regarding the ITER vacuum vessel structural code were prepared including an RCC-MR Addendum for the ITER VV with justified exceptions or modifications. The main deviation from the base Code is the extensive use of UT in lieu of radiography for the volumetric examination of all one-side access welds of the outer shell and field joint. The procurement allocation of blanket modules among 6 parties was fixed and the blanket module design has progressed in cooperation with parties. Fabrication of mock-ups for prequalification testing is under way and the tests will be performed in 2007-2008. Development of new beryllium materials is progressing in China and Russia. The ITER limiters will be installed in equatorial ports at two toroidal locations. The limiter plasma-facing surface protrudes ∝8 cm from the FW during the start-up and shutdown phase. In the new limiter concept, the limiters are retracted by ∝8 cm during the plasma flat top phase. This concept gives important advantages; (i) mitigation of the particle and heat loads due to disruptions, ELMs and blobs, (ii) improvement of the power coupling with the ICRH antenna

  10. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  16. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  17. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  18. Reactor pressure vessel status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Wichman, K.; Elliot, B.

    1994-12-01

    This report gives a brief description of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), followed by a discussion of the radiation embrittlement of RPV beltline materials and the two indicators for measuring embrittlement, the end-of-license (EOL) reference temperature and the EOL upper-shelf energy. It also summarizes the GL 92-01 effort and presents, for all 37 boiling water reactor plants and 74 pressurized water reactor plants in the United States, the current status of compliance with regulatory requirements related to ensuring RPV integrity. The staff has evaluated the material data needed to predict neutron embrittlement of the reactor vessel beltline materials. These data will be stored in a computer database entitled the reactor vessel integrity database (RVID). This database will be updated annually to reflect the changes made by the licensees in future submittals and will be used by the NRC staff to assess the issues related to vessel structural integrity

  19. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward

  20. Allocation of multiple, widely spread oil spills associated with one polluter : GC-MS fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of spilled oil and oiled seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.B.; Avnskjold, J.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, a Cypriot cargo ship leaked about 5 tons of heavy fuel bunker oil in Kerteminde Bay in the Great Belt, Denmark. The ship was stopped to inspect and collect oil samples from its 2 damaged tanks for forensic oil spill identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two weeks following the accident, a series of waterborne and stranded oil spills showed up in the Great Belt area, north and south of the vessel's route. Thousands of oiled seabirds on small islands and coastlines were affected. The Danish Coast Guard suspected that the vessel might be responsible for the observed spills. More than 50 oil samples were collected and sent for forensic analysis at the National Environmental Research Institute. Both waterborne and stranded spill samples showed an almost perfect match of diagnostic ratios and chromatograph with the potential responsible party (PRP) bunker. The spill samples therefore matched the reference oil and were allocated to the spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. One sample deviated significantly from the other samples and was not allocated to the ship's accidental spill. Oil samples collected from oiled seabirds showed larger variations between diagnostic ratios and the reference bunker oils. The variations can be attributed to weathering and biodegradation, but also to contamination by non-petrogenic material. It was concluded that the oiled seabirds represented non-match samples that cannot be allocated to the oil spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. An interior vessel viewing system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, R.

    1989-11-01

    It was anticipated that there could be damage to the interior walls of the vacuum vessel during operations of the DIII-D tokamak. A method of viewing the inside of the vessel from the outside was required, that would allow the interior walls to be inspected visually for damage and to locate any debris resulting from operations. A miniature closed circuit television color camera system was developed which could be inserted into one of several ports of the vessel during a 'clean' vent, i.e., vented to inert gas. The system has pan, tilt and zoom capability and carries its own lighting. The use of this system allows a quick assessment of the condition of the vessel to be made under 'clean' vent conditions. This precludes the need for the permit process and manned entry into the vessel which would allow air inside the vessel. A permanent record of the inspection can then be made on video tape. The design and configuration of this camera system is presented and its use as a diagnostic tool discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs

  2. Power reactor pressure vessel benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of experimental and calculational benchmarks for use in understanding the radiation embrittlement effects in the pressure vessels of operating light water power reactors. The requirements of such benchmarks for application to pressure vessel dosimetry are stated. Recent developments in active and passive neutron detectors sensitive in the ranges of importance to embrittlement studies are summarized and recommendations for improvements in the benchmark are made. (author)

  3. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  4. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  5. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  6. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  7. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  8. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  9. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru.

    1997-01-01

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and γ rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  10. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru

    1997-07-31

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and {gamma} rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  11. 33 CFR 161.4 - Requirement to carry the rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Services General Rules § 161... the Local Notice to Mariners. The VTS User's Manual and the World VTS Guide, an International Maritime...

  12. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  13. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR parts...

  14. Radon diffusion in polymer vessels using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Rocha, Zildete; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita de Oliveira; Lara, Evelise Gomes; Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    At CDTN/CNEN, the method to determine {sup 226}Ra in several matrices by gamma spectrometry is already established; however, the method should be improved. This paper is about the first step of this improvement. Several polymer vessels were studied verifying the effect of radiolysis on the walls of the vessel. A test about the diffusion of {sup 222}Rn through the walls was carried out using the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The results pointed out that the vessel made up by acrylic material is the best candidate to replace the vessel actually used. (author)

  15. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more

  16. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Cylindrical prestressed concrete pressure vessel for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.; Hodzic, A.; Haferkamp, D.

    1976-01-01

    A prestressed concrete pressure vessel for a HTGR is proposed which encloses, in addition to the reactor core, not only the heat-exchanging facilities but also the turbine unit. The reinforcement of the cylindrical concrete body is to be carried out with special care, it is provided for horizontal tendons, the prestressed concrete pressure vessel has a wire-winding device, while the longitudinal reinforcement is achieved by tendous guided in parallel to the vesses axes through the interspaces between the pods. (UWI) [de

  18. A prototype knowledge based system for pressure vessel design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, L.

    1991-11-22

    The usage of expert system techniques in the area of mechanical engineering design has been studied. A prototype expert system for pressure vessel design has been developed. The work has been carried out in two steps. Firstly, a pre-processor for the finite element system PCFEMP, named INFEMP, was developed. Secondly, an expert supported system for pressure vessel design, named PVES, was developed. Both INFEMP and PVES are integrated to the AutoCAD system, and AutoCAD`s language AutoLISP has been used. A practical example has been investigated to demonstrate the principal ideas of the prototype. (au).

  19. A prototype knowledge based system for pressure vessel design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, L.

    1991-11-22

    The usage of expert system techniques in the area of mechanical engineering design has been studied. A prototype expert system for pressure vessel design has been developed. The work has been carried out in two steps. Firstly, a pre-processor for the finite element system PCFEMP, named INFEMP, was developed. Secondly, an expert supported system for pressure vessel design, named PVES, was developed. Both INFEMP and PVES are integrated to the AutoCAD system, and AutoCAD's language AutoLISP has been used. A practical example has been investigated to demonstrate the principal ideas of the prototype. (au).

  20. A prototype knowledge based system for pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, L.

    1991-01-01

    The usage of expert system techniques in the area of mechanical engineering design has been studied. A prototype expert system for pressure vessel design has been developed. The work has been carried out in two steps. Firstly, a pre-processor for the finite element system PCFEMP, named INFEMP, was developed. Secondly, an expert supported system for pressure vessel design, named PVES, was developed. Both INFEMP and PVES are integrated to the AutoCAD system, and AutoCAD's language AutoLISP has been used. A practical example has been investigated to demonstrate the principal ideas of the prototype. (au)

  1. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinayak S; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Garvin, Mona K; Abramoff, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV) classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  2. Remote controlled ultrasonic pre-service and in-service inspections of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.

    1990-01-01

    The first mechanised in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel on unit one of Eskom's Koeberg nuclear power station has been carried out. Since 1968 a whole range of manipulators to carry out remote controlled ultrasonic inspections of nuclear power station equipment has been developed. The inspection of a reactor pressure vessel using a central mast manipulator is described. 3 figs., 1 ill

  3. The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null diverters. TPX is designed for 1,000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces

  4. Commissioning result of the KSTAR in-vessel cryo-pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. B.; Lee, H. J.; Park, Y.M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-15

    KSTAR in-vessel cryo-pump has been installed in the vacuum vessel top and bottom side with up-down symmetry for the better plasma density control in the D-shape H-mode. The cryogenic helium lines of the in-vessel cryo-pump are located at the vertical positions from the vacuum vessel torus center 2,000 mm. The inductive electrical potential has been optimized to reduce risk of electrical breakdown during plasma disruption. In-vessel cryo-pump consists of three parts of coaxial circular shape components; cryo-panel, thermal shield and particle shield. The cryo-panel is cooled down to below 4.5 K. The cryo-panel and thermal shields were made by Inconel 625 tube for higher mechanical strength. The thermal shields and their cooling tubes were annealed in air environment to improve the thermal radiation emissivity on the surface. Surface of cryo-panel was electro-polished to minimize the thermal radiation heat load. The in-vessel cryo-pump was pre-assembled on a test bed in 180 degree segment base. The leak test was carried out after the thermal shock between room temperature to LN2 one before installing them into vacuum vessel. Two segments were welded together in the vacuum vessel and final leak test was performed after the thermal shock. Commissioning of the in-vessel cryo-pump was carried out using a temporary liquid helium supply system.

  5. Clay Corner: Recreating Chinese Bronze Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson where students make faux Chinese bronze vessels through slab or coil clay construction after they learn about the history, function, and design of these vessels. Utilizes a variety of glaze finishes in order to give the vessels an aged look. Gives detailed guidelines for creating the vessels. (CMK)

  6. Analysis of aging mechanism and management for HTR-PM reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunxue; Shao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessel is an important part of the reactor pressure boundary, its important degree ranks high in ageing management and life assessment of nuclear power plant. Carrying out systematic aging management to ensure reactor pressure vessel keeping enough safety margins and executing design functions is one of the key factors to guarantee security and stability operation for nuclear power plant during the whole lifetime and prolong life. This paper briefly introduces the structure and aging mechanism of reactor pressure vessel in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant, and introduces the design principle and structure characteristics of HTR-PM. At the same time, this paper carries out preliminary analysis and exploration. and discusses aging management of HTR-PM reactor pressure vessel. Finally, the advice of carring out aging management for HTR-PM reactor pressure vessel is proposed. (authors)

  7. System for cooling the upper wall of a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailla, Henri; Schaller, Karl; Vidard, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A system for cooling the upper wall of the main vessel of a fast neutron reactor is described. This vessel is suspended from an upper shield by the upper wall. It includes coils carrying a coolant which are immersed in an intermediate liquid bathing the wall and contained in a tank integral with the vessel. At least one of the two cooling and intermediate liquids is a liquid metal. The main vessel is contained in a safety vessel, the space between the main and safety vessels is occluded in its upper part by an insulating shield placed under the tank. There is a liquid metal seal between the upper wall and the upper shield under the tank. This system has been specially designed for sodium cooled fast neutron reactors [fr

  8. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  9. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki

    1997-07-11

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  10. Molten material-containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The molten material-containing vessel of the present invention comprises a vessel main body having an entrance opened at the upper end, a lid for closing the entrance, an outer tube having an upper end disposed at the lower surface of the lid, extended downwardly and having an closed lower end and an inner tube disposed coaxially with the outer tube. When a molten material is charged from the entrance to the inside of the vessel main body of the molten material-containing vessel and the entrance is closed by the lid, the outer tube and the inner tube are buried in the molten material in the vessel main body, accordingly, a fluid having its temperature elevated by absorption of the heat of the molten material rises along the inner circumferential surface of the outer tube, abuts against the lower surface of the lid and cooled by exchanging heat with the lid and forms a circulating flow. Since the heat in the molten material is continuously absorbed by the fluid, transferred to the lid and released from the lid to the atmospheric air, heat releasing efficiency can be improved compared with conventional cases. (N.H.)

  11. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  12. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a Customs...

  13. Manipulator for testing a top-opened reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Kastl, H.

    1991-01-01

    The design is described of a manipulator to be inserted into the inside of reactor pressure vessels opened at the top. The main components of the manipulator include a fixed column protruding into the pressure vessel and a support which is slidable on the column and carries the bearing component for the measuring, testing, inspection and repair instruments. The device includes a driving equipment for the support as well as the power supply for the sets accommodated on the support, with the aim to reduce the failure rate of the manipulator as a whole, shorten the time necessary for its assembling and thus the time of staying in the reactor pressure vessel and, at the same time, make its maintenance and operation easier. (Z.S.). 13 figs

  14. New baking system for the RFX vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Luchetta, A.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G.

    1996-01-01

    A heating system based on eddy currents has been developed for the vacuum vessel of the RFX Reversed Field Pinch device. After a testing phase, carried out at low power, the final power supply system has been designed and installed. It has been used during last year to bake out the vessel and the graphite first wall up to 320 degree C. Recently the heating system has been completed with a control system that allows for baking sessions with an automatic control of the vacuum vessel temperature and for pulse sessions with a heated first wall. After the description of the preliminary analyses and tests, and of the main characteristics of the power supply and control systems, the experimental results of the baking sessions performed during last year are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs

  15. New baking system for the RFX vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Luchetta, A.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G. [Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    A heating system based on eddy currents has been developed for the vacuum vessel of the RFX Reversed Field Pinch device. After a testing phase, carried out at low power, the final power supply system has been designed and installed. It has been used during last year to bake out the vessel and the graphite first wall up to 320{degree}C. Recently the heating system has been completed with a control system that allows for baking sessions with an automatic control of the vacuum vessel temperature and for pulse sessions with a heated first wall. After the description of the preliminary analyses and tests, and of the main characteristics of the power supply and control systems, the experimental results of the baking sessions performed during last year are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Oil Slick Characterization with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, its capability for characterizing oil, e.g., to discriminate thicker from thinner oil or mineral slicks from look-alikes, is far less well defined. In fact, the capability of SAR to quantify the oil-to-water ratio of emulsions within slicks on the open water was first demonstrated using UAVSAR data acquired over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico [Minchew et al., 2012]. UAVSAR's capability was made possible by the airborne instrument's high signal-to-noise ratio, which enabled it to measure low backscatter signals from oil-smoothed water that are often near or below the noise floor of satellite SAR instruments. Since 2010, UAVSAR has been used to study oil slicks through experiments in Norway (2015) and the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2016, UAVSAR took part in a NOAA-led experiment to study remote sensing of oil slicks, which took place at the site of a persistent seep in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal was to use remote sensing to identify zones of thicker oil, which is the type of information that could direct emergency responders for more effective clean-up. The objectives of the experiment were to validate and compare different remote sensing methods' capabilities for measuring the thickness of oil within a slick on open water under environmental conditions typical of oil spills. In this presentation, we show the results from UAVSAR for determining oil thickness within a slick, and relate them to the standard method of oil slick classification, the Bonn Agreement oil appearance code used by trained observers in the field. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.

    1995-01-01

    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  18. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  19. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  20. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  1. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  2. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  3. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  4. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and...

  5. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a...

  6. [Hemodynamic phenomena in retrobulhar and eyeball vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors connected with blood flow and indices regulating vascular diameter and some parameters influencing retrobulbar circulation such as type of vascular resistance, anatomical structure of vascular wall and vessel lumen. Neurogenic and angiogenic factors, rheological blood composition, presence of anatomical and pathological obstructions on blood flow pathway as well as degree of development of collateral circulation pathways--have influence on the volume and blood flow velocity in eyeball. There were discussed bulbar circulation hemodynamics, emphasizing the importance of perfusion pressure. The role of risk factors was underlined for pathological lesions in vessels supplying blood to eyeball and in ophthalmic artery (OA) and its collaterals, in central retinal artery (CRA) as well as posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs), and in venous system carrying away blood from eye. IN CONCLUSION--the results of many studies of retrobulbar blood flow in different types of ophthalmic diseases of the vascular etiopathogenesis indicate that registry of the mean values of blood flow parameters and vascular resistance indices parallel to measurement of blood flow spectrum in OA, CRA, PCAs arteries, might contribute much information to explain or to evaluate nature of pathological changes in retinal and choroidal circulation.

  7. A specialized vessel for specialized work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, J.; De Beenhouwer, S.; Strong, R.; Eversdijk, B. [Tideway BV (Netherlands); Breen, L. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges associated with the construction and development of the Terra Nova Field, situated on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. In particular, the paper describes how pipelines were protected and stabilized in this harsh environment where the presence of icebergs is common in the springtime. Pipelines were covered with a berm of well-graded quarry stone. The job was executed by the specialized dynamically positioned fall-pipe vessel (DPFPV) called Seahorse. Tideway Marine of the Netherlands operates the Seahorse, which has 2 storage bunkers to carry a total of 18,000 metric tons of rock. Conveyor belts transport the stones from the storage bunkers to a fall-pipe, an open tubular hanging under the vessel which allows the rocks to be dumped in water depths ranging from 20 metres to 1,000 metres. This paper demonstrates that rock dumping is an effective and flexible solution to stabilize and protect pipelines. Dimensions and configuration of the rock can be optimized according to unique specifications of a project. The insulation properties of the rock reduce the amount of insulation foam required for hot flowlines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  9. Containment vessel design and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of analysis and design of the concrete containment vessels required for BWR and PWR is reviewed. A step-by-step critical appraisal of the existing work is given. Elastic, inelastic and cracking conditions under extreme loads are fully discussed. Problems associated with these structures are highlighted. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is included to cater for service, overload and dynamic cracking of such structures. Missile impact and seismic effects are included in this work. The second analysis is known as the limit state analysis, which is given to design such vessels for any kind of load. (U.K.)

  10. Stress analysis of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Song, D.H.; Son, K.H.; Kim, K.S.; Park, K.B.; Song, H.K.; So, J.Y.

    1979-01-01

    This interim report contains the results of the effort to establish the stress report preparation capability under the research project ''Stress analysis of pressure vessels.'' 1978 was the first year in this effort to lay the foundation through the acquisition of SAP V structural analysis code and a graphic terminal system for improved efficiency of using such code. Software programming work was developed in pre- and post processing, such as graphic presentation of input FEM mesh geometry and output deformation or mode shope patterns, which was proven to be useful when using the FEM computer code. Also, a scheme to apply fracture mechanics concept was developed in fatigue analysis of pressure vessels. (author)

  11. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-01-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment. (orig.) [de

  12. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-11-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment.

  13. Application of a newly built semi-submersible vessel for transportation of a tension leg platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagang; Sun, Weiying; Fan, Zhixia

    2012-09-01

    Transportation of tension leg platform (TLP) structures for a long distance has always been associated with the use of a heavy semi-transport vessel. The requirements of this type of vessel are always special, and their availability is limited. To prepare for the future development of South China Sea deepwater projects, the China Offshore Oil Engineering Corporation has recently built a heavy lift transport vessel-Hai Yang Shi You 278. This semi-submersible vessel has a displacement capacity of 50k DWT, and a breath of 42 meters. Understanding the vessel's applicability and preparing it for use in future deepwater projects are becoming imminent needs. This paper reviews the current critical issues associated with TLP transportation and performs detailed analysis of the designed TLP during load-out and transportation. The newly built COOEC transportation vessel HYSY 278 was applied to dry transport of the TLP structure from the COOEC fabrication yard in Qingdao to an oil field in South China Sea. The entire process included the load-out of the TLP structure from the landsite of the fabrication yard, the offloading and float-on of the platform from the vessel, the dry transport of the TLP over a long distance, and the final offloading of the platform. Both hydrodynamic and structure analysis were performed to evaluate the behavior of the transport vessel and TLP structure. Special attention was paid to critical areas associated with the use of this new vessel, along with any potential limitations. The results demonstrate that HYSY 278 can effectively be used for transporting the structure with proper arrangement and well-prepared operation. The procedure and details were presented on the basis of the study results. Special attention was also given to discussion on future use based on the results from the analysis.

  14. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  15. Study on the combustion behavior of radiolytically generated hydrogen explosion in small scale annular vessels at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Tatsuya; Tamauchi, Yoshikazu; Arai, Nobuyuki; Dai, Wenbin; Sakaihara, Motohiro; Kanehira, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water, etc. in process vessels in reprocessing plant. Usually, the hydrogen is scavenged by compressed air into vessels to prevent hydrogen explosion. When an earthquake beyond design based occurs, for example, the compressed air may stop and the hydrogen starts accumulating in the vessels, and under this condition, an ignition source might set off hydrogen explosion. Therefore, the explosion derived by the radiolytically generated hydrogen is designated as one of severe accidents on Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in new regulatory requirements. It is important to understand the combustion behavior of hydrogen explosion inside a vessel for consideration of safety measures against the severe accident, because the influences of detonation are not considered in the design basis of vessels. Especially, the investigations about the combustion behavior which considered influence of interior obstacles inside the vessel are not performed yet. In order to investigate the combustion behavior comprehensively, explosion experiment, combustion analysis and structural analysis are carried out using the representative vessels (small scale annular vessel, small scale plate vessel, large scale annular vessel and large scale cylindrical vessel) selected from Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. In this paper, the results of experiments and analysis of small scale annular vessel (as one of representative vessel, imitated a pulsed column in the reprocessing plant) are reported. As imitated vessels, three vessels are manufactured with different interior obstacle arrangements as follows, A) cylindrical obstacles are faithfully reproduced and are arranged based on the actual vessel, B) cylindrical obstacles are arranged more densely than the actual vessel, and C) there are no obstacles inside the vessel. Experiments of hydrogen explosion are performed under condition of stoichiometric hydrogen-air ratio (premixed hydrogen-air is used). As a result of

  16. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  17. Trajectory planning of tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Weidong; Lai, Yinping; He, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. • Two trajectory planning methods are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. • The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot. • Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: Tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is mainly designed to carry a camera for close observation of the first wall of the vacuum vessel, which is essential for the maintenance of the future tokamak reactor without breaking the working condition of the vacuum vessel. A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. In order to improve efficiency of the remote maintenance, it is necessary to design a corresponding trajectory planning algorithm to complete the automatic full coverage scanning of the complex tokamak cavity. Two different trajectory planning methods, RS (rough scanning) and FS (fine scanning), according to different demands of the task, are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. To quickly locate the damage position, the first trajectory planning method is targeted for quick and wide-ranging scan of the tokamak D-shaped section, and the second one is for careful observation. Furthermore, both of the two different trajectory planning methods can ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning with an optimal end posture. The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Trajectory planning of tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China); Lai, Yinping; He, Tao [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. • Two trajectory planning methods are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. • The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot. • Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: Tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is mainly designed to carry a camera for close observation of the first wall of the vacuum vessel, which is essential for the maintenance of the future tokamak reactor without breaking the working condition of the vacuum vessel. A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. In order to improve efficiency of the remote maintenance, it is necessary to design a corresponding trajectory planning algorithm to complete the automatic full coverage scanning of the complex tokamak cavity. Two different trajectory planning methods, RS (rough scanning) and FS (fine scanning), according to different demands of the task, are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. To quickly locate the damage position, the first trajectory planning method is targeted for quick and wide-ranging scan of the tokamak D-shaped section, and the second one is for careful observation. Furthermore, both of the two different trajectory planning methods can ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning with an optimal end posture. The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Materials for high temperature reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenaventura Pouyfaucon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the 5th Euraton Framework Programme, a big effort is being made to promote and consolidate the development of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Empresarios Agrupados is participating in this project and among others, also forms part of the HTR-M project Materials for HTRs. This paper summarises the work carried out by Empresarios Agrupados regarding the material selection of the HTR Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The possible candidate materials and the most promising ones are discussed. Design aspects such as the RPV sensitive zones and material damage mechanisms are considered. Finally, the applicability of the existing design Codes and Standards for the design of the HTR RPV is also discussed. (Author)

  20. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  1. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  2. Design of High Temperature Reactor Vessel Using ANSYS Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandriyana; Kasmudin

    2003-01-01

    Design calculation and evaluation of material strength for high temperature reactor vessel based on the design of HTR-10 high temperature reactor vessel were carried out by using the ANSYS 5.4 software. ANSYS software was applied to calculate the combined load from thermal and pressure load. Evaluation of material strength was performed by calculate and determine the distribution of temperature, stress and strain in the thickness direction of vessel, and compared with its material strength for designed. The calculation was based on the inner wall temperature of vessel of 600 o C and the outer temperature of 500 and 600 o C. Result of calculation gave the maximum stress for outer temperature of 600 o C was 288 N/ mm 2 and strain of 0.000187. For outer temperature of 500 o C the maximum stress was 576 N/ mm 2 and strain of 0.003. Based on the analysis result, the material of steel SA 516-70 with limited stress for design of 308 N/ mm 2 can be used for vessel material with outer wall temperature of 600 o C

  3. Heat-transfer, inside of the ground heat-transfer units, from liquid, additionally cooling the oil-immersed transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madyshev Ilnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A device for cooling the oil-immersed transformer by means of thermoelectric transducers has been developed. Their operating principle is based on the fact that at night at minimum ambient temperature, the cold is accumulated inside of a vessel due to formation of water ice layer on the developed surfaces of thermoelectric transducers` ribs. Melting of this layer is used in the hottest time of a day for additional cooling of transformer oil in the cooling system of the transformer. Pre-cooling of the circulating water takes place in vertical ground heat-transfer units (VGHT units, mounted into ground drilled boreholes. Certain estimate calculations of the heat-transfer process have been carried out.

  4. Oil coastal tanker maintenance and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsztejn, Eduardo; Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [Government' s Oil Company of Uruguay (ANCAP), Montivideo (Uruguay)

    2008-07-01

    ANCAP (Government's Oil Company of Uruguay) owns a 4000 DWT oil coastal tanker which is mainly used for oil transport in the River Plate, Uruguay and Parana rivers. Availability of the ship is critical because of shortage of available vessels in the region. Full maximum draught of the vessel is 4m , so it can navigate in very shallow waters as it is the case of some places in the Uruguay and Parana rivers. Although the ship was built in 1979, it is a complete double hull, powered by two twin main engines and propellers. Since 1994, several changes in maintenance management have been introduced, in order to increase the availability, thus increasing the total oil volume yearly transported. These changes affected several maintenance items and they also included a modification in the design of part of the cargo tank floors of the ship. As a result of these changes, an increase of 60% of the oil derivatives volume transported yearly was achieved. In this paper, some of the important improvements on maintenance practises and management are described, together with a quantification of their influence on vessel's availability and overall maintenance costs. (author)

  5. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  6. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  7. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  8. CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Gautham

    2017-05-23

    The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.

  9. CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Gautham; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin; Elsaadawy, Ehab

    2017-01-01

    The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.

  10. Prevention of catastrophic failure in pressure vessels and pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Toerroenen, K.; Talja, H.; Keinaenen, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Nilsson, F.; Sarkimo, M.; Waestberg, S.; Debel, C.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture resistance and integrity of pressure-loaded components have been assessed in a Nordic research programme. Experiments were performed to validate the computational fracture assessment analysis. Two tests were also conducted on a large decommissioned pressure vessel from an oil refinery plant. Different fracture assessment methods were developed and subsequently applied to the tested components. Interlaboratory round robin programmes with the participation of several laboratories were arranged to examine elastic-plastic finit element calculations and fracture mechanics testing. The transferability of material parameters derived from small specimens with simple crack geometries to more realistic crack geometries in real components has been verified. (author)

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  12. PLANNING VESSEL BODY SECTION PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Grivachevsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of planning production of a vessel body section is considered. The problem is reduced to the classic Johnson’s tree-machine flow-shop scheduling problem. A genetic algorithm and computer experiment to compare efficiency of this algorithm and the algorithm of full enumeration are described.

  13. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  14. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  15. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG's and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline

  16. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  17. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-01-01

    This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic ...

  18. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  19. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  20. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactor plant consisting of several pre-stressed cast pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmann, E.

    1984-01-01

    Several cylindrical pressure vessel components made of pressure castings are arranged on a sector of a circle around the cylindrical cast pressure vessel for accommodating the helium cooled HTR. Each component pressure vessel is connected to the reactor vessel by a horizontal gas duct. The contact surfaces between reactor and component pressure vessel are in one plane. In the spaces between the individual component pressure vessels, there are supporting blocks made of cast iron, which are hollow and also have flat surfaces. With the reactor vessel and the component pressure vessels they form a disc-shaped connecting part below and above the gas ducts. (orig./PW)

  1. Experimental study of in-and-ex-vessel melt cooling during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Baik; Yoo, K J; Park, C K; Seok, S D; Park, R J; Yi, S J; Kang, K H; Ham, Y S; Cho, Y R; Kim, J H; Jeong, J H; Shin, K Y; Cho, J S; Kim, D H

    1997-07-01

    After code damage during a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, the degraded core has to be cooled down and the decay heat should be removed in order to cease the accident progression and maintain a stable state. The cooling of core melt is divided into in-vessel and ex-vessel cooling depending on the location of molten core which is dependent on the timing of vessel failure. Since the cooling mechanism varies with the conditions of molten core and surroundings and related phenomena, it contains many phenomenological uncertainties so far. In this study, an experimental study for verification of in-vessel corium cooling and several separate effect experiments for ex-vessel cooling are carried out to verify in- and ex-vessel cooling phenomena and finally to develop the accident management strategy and improve engineered reactor design for the severe accidents. SONATA-IV (Simulation of Naturally Arrested Thermal Attack in Vessel) program is set up for in-vessel cooling and a progression of the verification experiment has been done, and an integral verification experiment of the containment integrity for ex-vessel cooling is planned to be carried out based on the separate effect experiments performed in the first phase. First phase study of SONATA-IV is proof of principle experiment and it is composed of LALA (Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment to find the gap between melt and the lower plenum during melt relocation and to certify melt quenching and CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) experiment to certify heat transfer mechanism in an artificial gap. As separate effect experiments for ex-vessel cooling, high pressure melt ejection experiment related to the initial condition for debris layer formation in the reactor cavity, crust formation and heat transfer experiment in the molten pool and molten core concrete interaction experiment are performed. (author). 150 refs., 24 tabs., 127 figs.

  2. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  3. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  4. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.M.; HAMZA, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  5. Electromagnetic forces on a metallic Tokamak vacuum vessel following a disruptive instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhartt, D.

    1979-04-01

    During a 'hard' disruptive instability of a Tokamak plasma the current-carrying plasma is lost within a very short time, typically few milliseconds. If the plasma is contained in a metallic vacuum vessel, electric currents are set up in the vessel following the disappearance of the plasma current. These vessel currents together with the magnetic fields intersecting the vessel generate electromagnetic forces which appear as mechanical loads on the vessel. In the following note it is assumed that the vacuum vessel is surrounded by an 'outer equivalent' or 'flux-conserving' shell having a characteristic time of magnetic field penetration which is long compared to the time of existence of the vessel currents. This property defines the distribution of vessel current densities (and hence the load distribution) without referring to the exact mechanism or time sequence of events by which the plasma current is lost. Numerical examples of the electromagnetic force distribution from this model refer to parameters of the JET-device with the simplifying assumption of circular cross-sections for plasma current, vacuum vessel, and outer equivalent shell. (orig.)

  6. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  7. 2013 EPA Vessels General Permit (VGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information for any vessel that submitted a Notice of Intent (NOI), Notice of Termination (NOT), or annual report under EPA's 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP)....

  8. Transcranial route of brain targeted delivery of methadone in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, W; Abhayawardhana, P; Kariyawasam, H; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2009-05-01

    The unique anatomical arrangement of blood vessels and sinuses in the human skull and the brain, the prevalence of a high density of skin appendages in the scalp, extracranial vessels of the scalp communicating with the brain via emissary veins and most importantly, the way that the scalp is used in Ayurvedic medical system in treating diseases associated with the brain show that a drug could be transcranially delivered and targeted to the brain through the scalp. The present study was to investigate by measuring the antinociceptive effect on rats whether the opioid analgesic methadone could be delivered and targeted to the brain by transcranial delivery route. A non aqueous solution of methadone base in sesame oil was used for the application on the scalp. Animal studies were carried out using six groups of male rats consisting of group 1, the oral control treated with distilled water 1 ml; group 2, the oral positive control treated with methadone hydrochloride solution 316.5 mug/ml; group 3, the negative control treated transcranially with the blank sesame oil 0.2 ml and three test groups 4, 5 and 6 treated with three different dose levels of the transcranial oil formulation of methadone base, 41.6 mug/0.2 ml, 104 mug/0.2 ml and 208 mug/0.2 ml, respectively. The antinociceptive effects were examined by subjecting the rats to the hot plate and tail flick tests. The two higher concentrations of the three transcranial methadone formulations yielded response vs time curves showing nearly equal maximum antinociceptive effects similar to that of the oral positive control. Maximum analgesic effect after transcranial administration was observed between 1st and 2nd h and declined up to 6th hour. The results indicate that the transcranial brain targeted delivery of methadone base in the form of an oil based non aqueous solution results in statistically significant antinociceptive effects under experimental conditions. Therefore, it is possible to deliver central nervous

  9. Kuwait oil spill studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  10. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  11. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  12. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for the planning and reporting of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant pressure vessels are presented. The guide specifically applies to inservice inspections of Safety class 1 and 2 nuclear power plant pressure vessels, piping, pumps and valves plus their supports and reactor pressure vessel internals by non- destructive examination methods (NDE). Inservice inspections according to the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/73) are discussed separately in the guide YVL 3.0. (4 refs.)

  13. Expanded Fermilab pressure vessel directory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, A.

    1983-01-01

    Several procedures have been written to manage the information pertaining to the vacuum tanks and pressure vessels for which the laboratory is responsible. These procedures have been named TANK1 for the vessels belonging to the Accelerator Division, TANK2 and TANK3 for the vessels belonging to the Research Division and to Technical Support respectively, and TANK4 for the vessels belonging to the Business Division. The operating procedures are otherwise identical in every respect.

  14. Expanded Fermilab pressure vessel directory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, A.

    1983-01-01

    Several procedures have been written to manage the information pertaining to the vacuum tanks and pressure vessels for which the laboratory is responsible. These procedures have been named TANK1 for the vessels belonging to the Accelerator Division, TANK2 and TANK3 for the vessels belonging to the Research Division and to Technical Support respectively, and TANK4 for the vessels belonging to the Business Division. The operating procedures are otherwise identical in every respect

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  16. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tars, and oils containing powdered coal, coke, oreat, sulphur in suspension, by passing air or other oxygen-containing gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air and c., is carried out in stages in a series of treatment zones, the pressure in at least one of the zones being above atmospheric pressre. The products of oxidation include acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, acrylic and phthalic acids, alcohols, acetone, solvents, gums, and substances adapted for use as motor fuels or burnign oils. The oxidizing gas may be enriched with oxygen or be diluted with steam, and its point of entry into the oil and c. layer may be varied to promote or retard settlement of suspended solids.

  17. Vacuum vessel for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masao; Taguchi, Masami.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit effective utility of the space in the inner and outer sides of the container wall and also permit repeated assembly for use. Structure: Vacuum vessel wall sections are sealed together by means of welding bellows, and also flange portions formed at the end of the wall sections are coupled together by bolts and are sealed together with a seal ring and a seal cap secured by welding. (Nakamura, S.)

  18. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  19. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

  20. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel safety. 151.1512 Section... River § 151.1512 Vessel safety. Nothing in this subpart relieves the master of the responsibility for ensuring the safety and stability of the vessel or the safety of the crew and passengers, or any other...

  1. Reactor vessel supported by flexure member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.D.; Pankow, B.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a reactor pressure vessel which is provided with vertical support means in the form of circumferentially spaced columns upon which the vessel is mounted. The columns are adapted to undergo flexure in order to accommodate the thermally induced displacements experienced by the vessel during operational transients

  2. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United States and Great Britain ‘concerning reciprocal rights for United States and Canada in the... meaning of this statute. (e) A Mexican vessel may engage in a salvage operation on a Mexican vessel in any territorial waters of the United States in which Mexican vessels are permitted to conduct such operations by...

  3. Model tests for prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, R.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations with models of reactor pressure vessels are used to check results of three dimensional calculation methods and to predict the behaviour of the prototype. Model tests with 1:50 elastic pressure vessel models and with a 1:5 prestressed concrete pressure vessel are described and experimental results are presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system for spent target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Sasaki, Shinobu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual design of a handling and storage system for spent target vessels has been carried out, in order to establish spent target technology for the neutron scattering facility. The spent target vessels must be treated remotely with high reliability and safety, since they are highly activated and contain the poisonous mercury. The system is composed of a target exchange trolley to exchange the target vessel, remote handling equipment such as manipulators, airtight casks for the spent target vessel, storage pits and so on. This report presents the results of conceptual design study on a basic plan, a handling procedure, main devices and their arrangement of a handling and storage system for the spent target vessels. (author)

  5. Light-water-reactor pressure-vessel surveillance dosimetry using solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The accumulation of neutron dose by the pressure vessel of an operating nuclear power plant results in damage in the form of steel embrittlement. In order to ascertain the safe operating lifetime of the reactor pressure vessel, dosimetric measurements must be made to evaluate the neutron dose to the pressure vessel and relate this dose to the cumulative radiation damage. Advanced dosimetry techniques are being evaluated for surveillance of operating reactors. Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) techniques are included among these advanced dosimetry techniques. Described herein are low neutron fluence calibration and standardization measurements that are being carried out in pressure vessel mockup benchmark neutron fields in the USA, Belgium, and England. In addition, high fluence SSTR dosimetry capsules have been irradiated with metallurgical specimens in a pressure vessel mockup facility. The design and deployment of advances SSTR dosimetry capsules in operating power reactors are also described

  6. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  7. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  8. Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardine, J.W.; Pelly, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. 33 CFR 155.1050 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying groups I through IV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualified individual; and (2) Within 30 minutes of a discovery of a discharge or substantial threat of... a discharge in advance of the arrival of response resources identified in the plan for tiers 1, 2... shoreline protection operations. (1) The response resources must include the quantities of boom listed in...

  10. 46 CFR 30.25-1 - Cargoes carried in vessels certificated under the rules of this subchapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohols (C13+) Cetyl-Stearyl alcohol), see Alcohols (C13+) III † Coal tar A Copper salt of long chain (C17... Pentene (all isomers) C n-Pentyl propionate C Petrolatum III 1-Phenyl-1-xylyl ethane C Phosphate esters..., see Triisopropylated phenyl phosphates Tributyl phosphate B Tricresyl phosphate (less than 1% of the...

  11. 76 FR 28315 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... determination based on the fact that the security zones created by this rule will only be in effect during the... its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses may send comments on... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2009-1134] RIN 1625...

  12. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  13. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  14. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  15. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  16. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  17. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  18. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  19. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  20. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  1. Sense, enrich and classify: The scanmaris workshop for assessment of vessel's abnormal behavior in the EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Jangal , Florent; Giraud , Marie-Annick; Morel , Michel; Mano , Jean-Pierre; Napoli , Aldo; Littaye , Anne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Constant monitoring of the Exclusive Economic Zone cannot be performed only using high performance sensors. On the one hand, all available information on the observed area as juridical history of vessels or delineation of fishing zone is not necessarily measurable. On the other hand, even if the large amount of available information could be caught out they would be useless if none thorough sorting and analysis are carried on. So, we propose to sense vessel trail in Ex...

  2. The characteristics of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the HHT demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the design studies of the HTGR prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) for the HHT Demonstration Plant. The multi-cavity reactor pressure vessel accommodates all components carrying primary gas, including heat exchangers and gas turbine. For reasons of economics and availability of the reactor plant, generic requirements are made for the PCRV. A short description of the power plant is also presented

  3. Bursting tests on pressure vessels with cracks differing in configuration and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlberg, R.

    1978-01-01

    For assessing the safety of nuclear pressure vessels exhibiting cracks, bursting test were carried out on a series of medium-size pressure vessels with and without welded nozzles and exhibiting cracks differing in configuration and location. The linear-elastic approach proved to be sufficiently accurate for straight strain conditions up to the onset of general yielding. Other analytical methods were successfully used to cover the plastic region. (orig.) [de

  4. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  5. Flaw distribution development from vessel ISI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Basin, S.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for use in the structural integrity evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all vessels. In contrast, this paper describes the analysis of vessel-specific in-service inspection (ISI) data for the development of a flaw distribution reliably representative of the condition of the particular vessel inspected. The application of the methodology may be extended to other vessels, but has been primarily developed for PWR reactor vessels. For this study, the flaw data analyzed included data obtained from three recently performed PWR vessel ISIs and from laboratory inspection of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor vessel. The variability in both the character of the reviewed data (size range of flaws, number of flaws) and the UT (ultrasonic test) inspection system performance identified a need for analyzing the inspection results on a vessel-, or data set-specific basis. For this purpose, traditional histogram-based methods were inadequate, and a new methodology that can accept a very small number of flaws (typical of vessel-specific ISI results) and that includes consideration of inspection system flaw detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy and flaw detection threshold, was developed. Results of the application of the methodology to each of the four PWR reactor vessel cases studied are presented and discussed

  6. Estimation of embrittlement damage risk at neutron embrittled vessel constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevski, K.; Madzharov, D.; Detistov, P.; Petrova, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this work a methodology based on Damage mechanics criteria is proposed. This methodology serves for probability assessment of the brittle damage risk for the neutron embrittled vessel elements. The developed methodology is realised in RISK code and has been verified on the base of tough reliability of the pressure vessel, 'Kozloduy' NPP Unit 2. This investigation has been carried out at the given parameters of the possible defects on the vessel's weld 4 taking into account requirements of the western and Russian standards. The obtained values for ductile to brittle transition temperatures, defining the equipment life-time in the presence of maximal defect, are in good consistence with the experimentally determined ones. The analyses of results show that the pressure vessel of 'Kozloduy' NPP Unit 2 has got a high level of reliability from brittle damage risk point of view and that the western standards give more conservative evaluation. On the bases of the results a conclusion is made that the developed methodology enables analysing the influence of possible defects in the neutron embrittled elements on their to reliability and their remained life-time

  7. In-vessel coolability and steam explosion in Nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.; Li, L.; Hansson, R.; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.; Manickam, L.; Tran, C.-T. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this research is to reduce the uncertainty in quantification of steam explosion risk and in-vessel coolability in the Nordic BWR plants which employ cavity flooding as severe accident management (SAM) strategy. To quantify the coolability of debris bed packed with irregular particles, the friction laws of fluid flow in particulate beds packed with non-spherical particles were investigated on the POMECO-FL test facility, and the experimental data suggest that the Ergun equation is applicable if the effective particle diameter of the particles is represented by the equivalent diameter of the particles, which is the product of Sauter mean diameter and shape factor of the particles. One-way coupling analysis between PECM model for melt pool heat transfer and ANSYS thermo-structural mechanics was performed to analyze the vessel creep, and the results revealed two different modes of vessel failure: a 'ballooning' of the vessel bottom and a 'localized creep' concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Single-droplet steam explosion experiments were carried out by using oxidic mixture of WO{sub 3}-CaO, and the results show an apparent difference in steam explosion energetics between the eutectic and non-eutectic melts at low melt superheat (100 deg. C). (Author)

  8. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  9. Design, fabrication and quality assurance of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Ichiro; Miki, Masao; Yamazaki, Tsuneji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Misao

    1978-01-01

    The production facilities, design and manufacturing technologies, and quality assurance in the Toyo Works, Ehime Manufactory, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., which manufactures pressure vessels, are described, and especially the actual example of non-destructive tests is shown. The Toyo Works was completed in April, 1973, to manufacture large structures such as pressure vessels, offshore structures and bridges. The total area of the site is 535,000 m 2 , that of factory buildings is 33,600 m 2 , and the outdoor assembling yard is 114,800 m 2 . The large dry dock and main installations such as 12,000 tf hydraulic press, an annealing furnace, a heat treating furnace, a quenching tank, a horizontal boring machine, 6 m vertical lathe, various welding machines, 8 MeV X-ray apparatus, sand blasting and pickling facilities, and two 160 t cranes for shipment are arranged so as to enable smooth flow of production. The standards for chemical pressure vessels in various countries are compared, and considerably high allowable stress is adopted in Europe. The design and stress analysis of pressure vessels are carried out in accordance with ASME Section 8, Div. 1 or Div. 2. As for the materials, attention must be paid to the change of properties due to heat and strain, temper brittleness, low temperature toughness and so on. The quality assurance system must be established to observe the requirements of standards. (Kako, I.)

  10. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, JEFFREY A.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios

  11. In-vessel coolability and steam explosion in Nordic BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.; Li, L.; Hansson, R.; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.; Manickam, L.; Tran, C.-T.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this research is to reduce the uncertainty in quantification of steam explosion risk and in-vessel coolability in the Nordic BWR plants which employ cavity flooding as severe accident management (SAM) strategy. To quantify the coolability of debris bed packed with irregular particles, the friction laws of fluid flow in particulate beds packed with non-spherical particles were investigated on the POMECO-FL test facility, and the experimental data suggest that the Ergun equation is applicable if the effective particle diameter of the particles is represented by the equivalent diameter of the particles, which is the product of Sauter mean diameter and shape factor of the particles. One-way coupling analysis between PECM model for melt pool heat transfer and ANSYS thermo-structural mechanics was performed to analyze the vessel creep, and the results revealed two different modes of vessel failure: a 'ballooning' of the vessel bottom and a 'localized creep' concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Single-droplet steam explosion experiments were carried out by using oxidic mixture of WO 3 -CaO, and the results show an apparent difference in steam explosion energetics between the eutectic and non-eutectic melts at low melt superheat (100 deg. C). (Author)

  12. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  13. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  14. Analyses and testing of model prestressed concrete reactor vessels with built-in planes of weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.; Paton, A.A.; Fleischer, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, analyses and testing of two small scale, single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models, one without planes of weakness and one with planes of weakness immediately behind the cavity liner. This work was carried out to extend a previous study which had suggested the likely feasibility of constructing regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and biological shields, which become activated, using easily removable blocks, separated by a suitable membrane. The paper describes the results obtained and concludes that the planes of weakness concept could offer a means of facilitating the dismantling of activated regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, biological shields and similar types of structure. (author)

  15. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  16. Primo vessel inside a lymph vessel emerging from a cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Jaekwan

    2012-10-01

    Primo vessels were observed inside the lymph vessels near the caudal vena cava of a rabbit and a rat and in the thoracic lymph duct of a mouse. In the current work we found a primo vessel inside the lymph vessel that came out from the tumor tissue of a mouse. A cancer model of a nude mouse was made with human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460. We injected fluorescent nanoparticles into the xenografted tumor tissue and studied their flow in blood, lymph, and primo vessels. Fluorescent nanoparticles flowed through the blood vessels quickly in few minutes, and but slowly in the lymph vessels. The bright fluorescent signals of nanoparticles disappeared within one hour in the blood vessels but remained much longer up to several hours in the case of lymph vessels. We found an exceptional case of lymph vessels that remained bright with fluorescence up to 24 hours. After detailed examination we found that the bright fluorescence was due to a putative primo vessel inside the lymph vessel. This rare observation is consistent with Bong-Han Kim's claim on the presence of a primo vascular system in lymph vessels. It provides a significant suggestion on the cancer metastasis through primo vessels and lymph vessels. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cracking oils, etc. , glycerine, oil and coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, W

    1919-02-06

    In the cracking of hydrocarbon oils, the thermal decomposition of fats to obtain glycerine, the production of oil and coal gas, and the destructive distillation of coal, peat, shale, etc., the lower molecular weight products are separated, while the higher molecular weight products are separated, while the higher molecular weight products and undecomposed substances are retained for further exposure to the decomposition conditions, by interposing one or more porous septa between the decomposition chamber and the condenser or receiver. The decomposition conditions may be maintained up to the porous septum; but it is preferable to place the porous septum in a separate chamber inside or outside the decomposition vessel; and a plurality of decomposition chambers may be used in series or parallel.

  18. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  19. 46 CFR 4.03-40 - Public vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-40 Public vessels. Public vessel means a vessel that— (a) Is owned, or demise... Department (except a vessel operated by the Coast Guard or Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation...

  20. Chemical and physical oceanographic data collected from numerous vessels in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event and compiled for the Joint Analysis Group summary report: NOAA Technical Report NOS OR&R 27 (NODC Accession 0087872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Horizon Joint Analysis Group (JAG) for Surface and Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil and Dispersant Data was a working group with membership from federal...

  1. Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST) and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) measurements and supporting data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Incident from multiple vessels in the Gulf of Mexico from 21/04/2010 to 24/08/2010 (NODC Accession 0086284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At the request of the United States (U.S.) government and BP, research scientists and technicians from the Centre for Offshore Oil Gas and Energy Research (COOGER),...

  2. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  3. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  4. IMPACT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some anti ... In Nigeria, palm oil production ... crude palm oil produced, 5-7.5 tonnes of water ... inter group comparison using least significant .... York, U.S.A. pp.

  5. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  6. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  7. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Bayon, A.; Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B.; Kim, B.C.; Kuzmin, E.; Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M.; Pathak, H.; Preble, J.; Sa, J.W.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure

  8. Oil spill analysis in Sao Sebastiao Channel. Sao Paulo (SP) Brazil, from 1974 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffo, Iris R.F.; Midaglia, Carmen L.; Heitzmann, Sueli R.; Caetano, Nelson; Cantao, Renato F.; Pompeia, Sergio L.; Eysink, Geraldo G.; Nakasaki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Environmental accident files from PETROBRAS and CETEBS were studied. A total of 210 oil spill accidents were registered in Sao Sebastiao region (1974-1994), the oil reached the sea in 191 cases. The analysis was carried out by: cause of the accident, kind and amount of oil spilled, displacement of the oil spot, affected areas, dispersive used, amount of the oil and contaminated sands removes, waste disposal, and the relation between the wind direction intensity and the displacement of oil spot

  9. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    G?lyurt, Mustafa ?mer; ?z?imen, Didem; ?nan, Benan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were opti...

  10. Occupational dermatoses from cutting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomar, A; Conde-Salazar, L; Romaguera, C

    1985-03-01

    230 patients with occupational dermatitis in the metallurgic industry were studied with standard patch test (GEIDC) and an oil series. An occupational and clinical questionnaire survey was carried out. Responses to paraphenylenediamine, chrome, cobalt in the standard series, and benzisothiazolone, triethanolamine, and Grotan BK were the main positive results.

  11. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Basin, S.L.

    1991-12-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all PWR vessels. In contrast, this report describes (1) a new flaw distribution development analytic methodology that can be applied to the analysis of vessel-specific inservice inspection (ISI) data, and (2) results of the application of the methodology to the analysis of flaw data for each vessel case (ISI data on three PWR vessels and laboratory inspection data on sections of the Midland reactor vessel). Results of this study show significant variation among the flaw distributions derived from the various data sets analyzed, strongly suggesting than a vessel-specific flaw distribution (for vessel integrity prediction under pressurized thermal shock) is preferred over a ''generic'' distribution. In addition, quantitative inspection system flaw sizing accuracy requirements have been identified for developing a flaw distribution from vessel ISI data. The new flaw data analysis methodology also permits quantifying the reliability of the flaw distribution estimate. Included in the report are identified needs for further development of several aspects of ISI data acquisition and vessel integrity prediction practice

  12. PWR reactor vessel in-service-inspection according to RSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarotti, Marc; Dubois, Philippe; Hernandez, Luc; Landez, Jean Paul

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear services experience Framatome ANP (an AREVA and Siemens company) has designed and constructed 86 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) around the world including the three units lately commissioned at Ling Ao in the People's Republic of China and ANGRA 2 in Brazil; the company provided general and specialized outage services supporting numerous outages. Along with the American and German subsidiaries, Framatome ANP Inc. and Framatome ANP GmbH, Framatome ANP is among the world leading nuclear services providers, having experience of over 500 PWR outages on 4 continents, with current involvement in more than 50 PWR outages per year. Framatome ANP's experience in the examinations of reactor components began in the 1970's. Since then, each unit (American, French and German companies) developed automated NDT inspection systems and carried out pre-service and ISI (In-Service Inspections) using a large range of NDT techniques to comply with each utility expectations. These techniques have been validated by the utilities and the safety authorities of the countries where they were implemented. Notably Framatome ANP is fully qualified to provide full scope ISI services to satisfy ASME Section XI requirements, through automated NDE tasks including nozzle inspections, reactor vessel head inspections, steam generator inspections, pressurizer inspections and RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) inspections. Intercontrole (Framatome ANP subsidiary dedicated in supporting ISI) is one of the leading NDT companies in the world. Its main activity is devoted to the inspection of the reactor primary circuit in French and foreign PWR Nuclear Power Plants: the reactor vessel, the steam generators, the pressurizer, the reactor internals and reactor coolant system piping. NDT methods mastered by Intercontrole range from ultrasonic testing to eddy current and gamma ray examinations, as well as dye penetrant testing, acoustic monitoring and leak testing. To comply with the high requirements of

  13. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    from Dulang, Malaysia , to Santan, Indonesia, was requested by Westpac MRCC to proceed to a position 08 degrees 03.3 minutes North and 118 degrees 34.3...the reliability and loss prevention concepts in the OSHA process safety management (PSM) regulation (29 CFR 1910.119) and in the maritime International

  14. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    DESCRIPTION ACTIONS CAUSES APPROX1350 COXSWAIN REPORTS LOSS OF STARBOARD TACH. ENGINEERS WENT INTO ENGINE ROOM TO EFFECT REPAIRS. UNABLE TO REPAIR...REPORTED TO CONTROL. EOW ASKED FOR A REPEAT IN BISBELIEF. AFETR CONFIRMING THE REPORT OOD WAS CONTACTED. ACTIONS CAUSES DEPARTMENTAL TRAINING SNM...damage to his eye. Continue providing safety training. Unit safety board to evaluate effectiveness of current training program and recommend

  15. An economic model for seaborne oil trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kian-Wah

    1996-01-01

    This thesis aims to provide some insights as to how oil prices and oil flows might vary with the carrying capacity of the tanker fleet as affected by political events. It provides an econometric analysis of tanker freight rates in the modern era and proposes a mathematical (quadratic) programming economic model that links the crude oil market to the supply elasticity of the world oil tanker fleet based on a competitive economy. The economic model can be considered as a version of the Walras-C...

  16. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  17. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  18. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qiang; Du Wei; Liu Dehua [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed. (orig.)

  19. A Review of Algorithms for Retinal Vessel Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Intriago Pazmiño

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of algorithms for extracting blood vessels network from retinal images. Since retina is a complex and delicate ocular structure, a huge effort in computer vision is devoted to study blood vessels network for helping the diagnosis of pathologies like diabetic retinopathy, hypertension retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity or glaucoma. To carry out this process many works for normal and abnormal images have been proposed recently. These methods include combinations of algorithms like Gaussian and Gabor filters, histogram equalization, clustering, binarization, motion contrast, matched filters, combined corner/edge detectors, multi-scale line operators, neural networks, ants, genetic algorithms, morphological operators. To apply these algorithms pre-processing tasks are needed. Most of these algorithms have been tested on publicly retinal databases. We have include a table summarizing algorithms and results of their assessment.

  20. Analysis of cracked pressure vessel nozzles by finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynen, J.

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the safety of pressure vessel nozzles, the analysis should take into account cracks. The paper describes various algorithms, their computer implementations and relative merits to define in an effective way strain energy release rates along the tip front of arbitrary 3 D cracks under arbitary load including thermal strains. These techniques are basically equivalent to substructuring techniques and consequently they can be implemented to only FEM program able to deal with the data handling problems of the substructuring technique. Examples are given carried out with a substructure version of the BERSAFE system. These examples include a corner crack in a pressure vessel nozzle loaded by internal pressure and by thermal stresses. (Auth.)

  1. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide

    1999-01-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  2. Fracture toughness of irradiated and recovered vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perosanz, F.; Lapena, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the fracture toughness measurements carried out on three vessel steels in an irradiated condition and after a post-irradiation recovery treatment. A statistical approach and the fracture parameters corresponding to two theoretical models of the fracture tests are used for evaluating toughness. Test results show that the neutron fluence gradually transforms the fracture behaviour of the vessel steels from ductile to brittle and seriously reduces their fracture toughness. The effectiveness of the recovery treatment, as evaluated from the toughness measurements, is confirmed, although the efficiency is not the same for the steels and depends on the evaluation parameter except in the case of almost complete recovery. The recovery effect increases with the received neutron fluence if the toughness values after treatment are compared with those in the irradiated condition rather than those in the as received condition. (orig.)

  3. Manufacture of electron beam irradiation vessel and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Takao; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1992-05-01

    Electron beam irradiation vessel, which is used for the irradiation of samples under an inert or a vacuum atmosphere, is made by considering the temperature control during or after irradiation. The vessel was composed of the temperature controlable samples supporting plate, beam slit with water cooling plate and the insert of thermosensor. The four samples supporting plate was produced with the materials made up of aluminium, stainless steel (SUS304), and copper. The stainless steel supporting plate has a heater inside the cooling pipes for the high temperature treatment of samples without exposure to atmosphere after the irradiation. In this report, the temperature distribution and dose characteristics such as dose distribution and effects of backscattered electron were studied by using several supporting plate and the comparison of the experimental results with the simulated results was also carried out. (author)

  4. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, C.

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [fr

  5. Assessment of motion effects on the FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) vessel Terra Nova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, B.; Hofer, K. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brooks, C.J. [Survival Systems Group Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to define the incidence and severity of seasickness, motion-induced fatigue and task performance problems encountered on the Floating, Production, Storage, Offshore (FPSO) vessel which Petro-Canada operates in the Grands Banks of Newfoundland at the Terra Nova Field. The FPSO vessel is tethered to the oil well head by flexible couplings and is subjected to severe wave motion at sea. Crew members living and working aboard the FPSO vessel are exposed to more severe weather motion compared to those on fixed installation platforms, particularly during the winter months. The study involved a questionnaire to determine if seasickness is a problem and whether specific ship motions affect sleep, mental and physical performance on the vessel. Ship motion data was obtained through sensors mounted on the bow of the vessel. Respondents revealed that the incidence and severity of motion sickness and sleep disturbance ranged from slight to moderate. The correlation between sleep disturbance and ship motion was high. Problems in task performance ranged from loss of concentration, decision making and memory disorders and task completion problems. The number of safety, health and performance issues increased with bad weather conditions. One of the objectives of this study is to develop recommendations to provide operations guidance to improve comfort and performance on FPSO vessels. 13 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  7. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  8. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  9. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  10. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  11. Automatic Vessel Segmentation on Retinal Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yuan Yu; Chia-Jen Chang; Yen-Ju Yao; Shyr-Shen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Several features of retinal vessels can be used to monitor the progression of diseases. Changes in vascular structures, for example, vessel caliber, branching angle, and tortuosity, are portents of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and arterial hyper-tension. This paper proposes an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method based on morphological closing and multi-scale line detection. First, an illumination correction is performed on the green band retinal image. Next, the morphological closing and subtraction processing are applied to obtain the crude retinal vessel image. Then, the multi-scale line detection is used to fine the vessel image. Finally, the binary vasculature is extracted by the Otsu algorithm. In this paper, for improving the drawbacks of multi-scale line detection, only the line detectors at 4 scales are used. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 0.939 for DRIVE (digital retinal images for vessel extraction) retinal database, which is much better than other methods.

  12. Electrical discharge machining for vessel sample removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litka, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Due to aging-related problems or essential metallurgy information (plant-life extension or decommissioning) of nuclear plants, sample removal from vessels may be required as part of an examination. Vessel or cladding samples with cracks may be removed to determine the cause of cracking. Vessel weld samples may be removed to determine the weld metallurgy. In all cases, an engineering analysis must be done prior to sample removal to determine the vessel's integrity upon sample removal. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is being used for in-vessel nuclear power plant vessel sampling. Machining operations in reactor coolant system (RCS) components must be accomplished while collecting machining chips that could cause damage if they become part of the flow stream. The debris from EDM is a fine talclike particulate (no chips), which can be collected by flushing and filtration

  13. Uncertainty Characterization of Reactor Vessel Fracture Toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Modarres, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    To perform fracture mechanics analysis of reactor vessel, fracture toughness (K Ic ) at various temperatures would be necessary. In a best estimate approach, K Ic uncertainties resulting from both lack of sufficient knowledge and randomness in some of the variables of K Ic must be characterized. Although it may be argued that there is only one type of uncertainty, which is lack of perfect knowledge about the subject under study, as a matter of practice K Ic uncertainties can be divided into two types: aleatory and epistemic. Aleatory uncertainty is related to uncertainty that is very difficult to reduce, if not impossible; epistemic uncertainty, on the other hand, can be practically reduced. Distinction between aleatory and epistemic uncertainties facilitates decision-making under uncertainty and allows for proper propagation of uncertainties in the computation process. Typically, epistemic uncertainties representing, for example, parameters of a model are sampled (to generate a 'snapshot', single-value of the parameters), but the totality of aleatory uncertainties is carried through the calculation as available. In this paper a description of an approach to account for these two types of uncertainties associated with K Ic has been provided. (authors)

  14. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  15. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  16. Computerized reactor pressure vessel materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Monserrate, C.; Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A computerized information system for storage and retrieval of reactor pressure vessel materials data was established, as part of Task Action Plan A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness. Data stored in the system are necessary for evaluating the resistance of reactor pressure vessels to flaw-induced fracture. This report includes (1) a description of the information system; (2) guidance on accessing the system; and (3) a user's manual for the system

  17. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  18. An Investigation of Presumptive Synergism of Oil Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two kilogram (2 kg) of sandy soil was placed in each of five plastic vessels labeled TA, TB, TC, TD and TE. TA was left in its natural state while the others were each polluted with 6.7% v/w of crude oil. TB was not given any remediation amendment. TC and TD were each amended with 13.3% of oil palm bunch ash and ...

  19. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  20. How to replace a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1996-01-01

    A potential life extending procedure for a nuclear reactor after, say, 40 years of service life, might in some circumstances be the replacement of the reactor pressure vessel. Neutron induced degradation of the vessel might make replacement by one of a different material composition desirable, for example. Although the replacement of heavy components, such as steam generators, has been possible for many years, the pressure vessel presents a much more demanding task if only because it is highly irradiated. Some preliminary feasibility studies by Siemens are reported for the two removal strategies that might be considered. These are removal of the entire pressure vessel in one piece and dismantling it into sections. (UK)

  1. Prestressed reactor vessel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    With usual pressure vessels for nuclear reactor plants, especially for gas-cooled nuclear reactors, the load occurring due to the inner overpressure, especially the tensile load affecting the vessel top and/or bottom, their axis of inertia being horizontal, shall be compensated without a supplementary modification in design of the top and/or the bottom. This is attained by choosing an appropriate prestressing system of the vessel wall in the field the top and/or the bottom, so that the top and/or the bottom form a tension vault directed towards the interior of the vessel. (orig.) [de

  2. Reactor vessel decommissioning project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoonen, D.H.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes a reactor vessel decommissioning project; it documents and explains the project objectives, scope, performance results, and sodium removal process. The project was successfully completed in FY-1983, within budget and without significant problems or adverse impact on the environment. Waste generated by the operation included the reactor vessel, drained sodium, and liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes which were significantly less than project estimates. Personnel radiation exposures were minimized, such that the project total was one-half the predicted exposure level. Except for the sodium removed, the material remaining in the reactor vessel is essentially the same as when the vessel arrived for processing

  3. Safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.

    1994-01-01

    The failure of several types of geometrically similar cylindrical and spherical steel and glass fibers vessels filled with water or air was investigated when an explosive charge of TNT was detonated in the center. Vessels had radius 50-1000 mm, thickness of walls 2-20%. The detonation on TNT imitated energy release. The parameter: K = M/mf is a measure of the strength of the vessel where M is the mass of the vessel, and mf is the mass of TNT for which the vessel fails. This demanded 2-4 destroyed and nondestroyed shots. It may be showed that: K=A/σ f where σ f is the fracture stress of the material vessel, and A = const = F(energy TNT, characteristic of elasticity of vessel material). The chief results are the following: (1) A similar increase in the geometrical dimensions of steel vessels by a factor of 10 leads to the increase of parameter K in about 5 times and to decrease of failure deformation in 7 times (scale effect). (2) For glass fibers, scale effect is absent. (3) This problem is solved in terms of theory energetic scale effect. (4) The concept of TNT equivalent explosive makes it possible to use these investigations to evaluate the response of safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

  4. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increase of cyclic durability of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, V.A.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of multilayer pressure vessels under cyclic loading is compared with single-layer vessels. The relative conditional durability is calculated taking into account the assumption on the consequent destruction of layers and viewing a vessel wall as an indefinite plate. It is established that the durability is mainly determined by the number of layers and to a lesser degree depends on the relative size of the defect for the given layer thickness. The advantage of the multilayer vessels is the possibility of selecting layer materials so that to exclude the effect of agressive corrosion media on the strength [ru

  6. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  7. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  8. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  9. Vessels for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (background; elevated temperature concerns; design tools); design of pressure vessels for elevated temperature per ASME code; basic elevated temperature failure modes; allowable stresses and strains per ASME code (basic allowable stress limits; ASME code limits for bending; time-fraction summations; strain limits; buckling and instability; negligible creep and stress-rupture effects); combined membrane and bending stresses in creep regime; thermal stress cycles; bounding methods based on elastic core concept (bounds on accumulated strains; more accurate bounds; strain ranges; maximum stresses; strains at discontinuities); elastic follow-up; creep strain concentrations; time-dependent fatigue (combined creep rupture and fatigue damage; limits for inelastic design analyses; limits for elastic design analyses); flaw evaluation techniques; type 316 stainless steel; type 304 stainless steel; steel 2 1/4Cr1Mo; Inconel 718; Incolloy 800; Hastelloy X; detailed inelastic design analyses. (U.K.)

  10. Milestones in pressure vessel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, J.; Nash, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    The progress of pressure vessel technology over the years has been influenced by many important events. This paper identifies a number of 'milestones' which have provided a stimulus to analysis methods, manufacturing, operational processes and new pressure equipment. The formation of a milestone itself along with its subsequent development is often critically dependent on the work of many individuals. It is postulated that such developments takes place in cycles, namely, an initial idea, followed sometimes by unexpected failures, which in turn stimulate analysis or investigation, and when confidence is established, followed finally by the emergence of codes ad standards. Starting from the industrial revolution, key milestones are traced through to the present day and beyond

  11. Development of an oil skimming and separating system to combat oil spills at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, R.; Clauss, G.

    1983-02-01

    For efficiently combatting oil pollution at sea, it is intended to combine a hopper dredger with two oil skimmers. This system consists of two oil skimmers, which are permanently stowed on deck of the ship. In case of operation, the oil skimmers work connected beside the ship, but decoupled from the ship concerning motions of sea. Hopper dredgers have already sufficient pump and tank capacity and are well-suited for operation in offshore areas and river deltas. They are characterized by low draught and are capable of lightening their cargo very quickly so that they are ready for oil skimming operation within 2 hours. Model tests with regard to the behaviour and function of the oil skimmer system were carried out at scales of 1:15, 1:10, and 1:5. Tests with the system ship/oil skimmer were performed at a scale of 1:15.

  12. Effect of lithological composition of oil reservoirs on oil production by a hot agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasov, A A; Kasimov, Sh A

    1965-01-01

    Several small-scale experiments were performed to determine the effect of steam on oil recovery and on permeability of water-sensitive clay-containing cores. Steam has 2 contradictory actions on oil recovery - (1) steam increases temperature and decreases viscosity of the oil, which aids oil recovery; and (2) steam hydrates and swells clays, which reduces permeability and hinders oil recovery. The oil-recovery experiments were carried out with consolidated cores containing 0, 10, and 22% clay, saturated with water and 28 cp crude oil; superheated steam at 125-300$C was used. The following conclusions were made from the experimental results: (1) oil recovery decreased as clay content of cores increased; however, at all temperatures steam recovered more oil than cold water did. (2) As steam temperature increases, oil recovery reaches a maximum, then decreases. The temperature at which oil recovery begins to decrease depends on core clay content; the higher the clay content, the lower this temperature. (3) Irrespective of whether a reservoir contains clay or not, oil recovery is considerably greater with steam than with water.

  13. Oil spillage recovery by vacuum trawl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this invention, floating oil is sucked from the surface of the sea under a skirt and into a tubular floating boom, along whose interior it is carried to water-oil separation means. The suction is produced by one or more ejectors which are supplied with sea water under pressure and may be located inside the boom, or immediately below it and connected into a separate pipe. The boom is used to enclose an oil slick and drawn tighter to increase the thickness of the oil layer. The oil enters the boom through holes in its upper half and then flows to the ejector(s) along separate internal tubes or between buoyancy balls. A fraction of the oil-water mixture withdrawn from the boom is pressurised and returned to ejector(s) and the rest is diverted to the separation means. (author)

  14. Vehicle for removing pollutants, especially oil, from the surface of waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, J

    1968-11-28

    A vessel for removing pollutants from the surface of water consists of wings extending transversally from the axis of the vessel. The wings are partially immersed in the water and are arranged at an angle, so that when the vessel is in motion, the oil is driven over the upper edge of the wing into a separation chamber. The chamber has a circular cross section and ends in an opening in the hull of the ship, where the polluting oil is collected. The opening and the channel have such a shape that the mixture of water and pollutant enters the opening in a turbulent stream. (8 claims)

  15. Reactor pressure vessel thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    The steel plates and/or forgings and welds in the beltline region of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are subject to embrittlement from neutron irradiation. This embrittlement causes the fracture toughness of the beltline materials to be less than the fracture toughness of the unirradiated material. Material properties of RPVs that have been irradiated and embrittled are recoverable through thermal annealing of the vessel. The amount of recovery primarily depends on the level of the irradiation embrittlement, the chemical composition of the steel, and the annealing temperature and time. Since annealing is an option for extending the service lives of RPVs or establishing less restrictive pressure-temperature (P-T) limits; the industry, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have assisted in efforts to determine the viability of thermal annealing for embrittlement recovery. General guidance for in-service annealing is provided in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E 509-86. In addition, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Case N-557 addresses annealing conditions (temperature and duration), temperature monitoring, evaluation of loadings, and non-destructive examination techniques. The NRC thermal annealing rule (10 CFR 50.66) was approved by the Commission and published in the Federal Register on December 19, 1995. The Regulatory Guide on thermal annealing (RG 1.162) was processed in parallel with the rule package and was published on February 15, 1996. RG 1.162 contains a listing of issues that need to be addressed for thermal annealing of an RPV. The RG also provides alternatives for predicting re-embrittlement trends after the thermal anneal has been completed. This paper gives an overview of methodology and recent technical references that are associated with thermal annealing. Results from the DOE annealing prototype demonstration project, as well as NRC activities related to the

  16. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  17. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  18. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  19. Streamlined vessels for speedboats: Macro modifications of shark skin design applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Amran, S. N. A.; Zulkharnain, A.; Sunami, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Functional properties of shark denticles have caught the attention of engineers and scientist today due to the hydrodynamic effects of its skin surface roughness. The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help to reduce skin friction drag, shear stresses, making its movement to be more efficient and faster. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has conducted a study on alternative on improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels by applying the simplified version of shark skin skin denticles on the surface hull of the vessels. Models used for this study are constructed and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are then carried out to predict the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic effects of the biomimetic shark skins on those models. Interestingly, the numerical calculated results obtained shows that the presence of biomimetic shark skin implemented on the vessels give improvements in the maximum speed as well as reducing the drag force experience by the vessels. The pattern of the wave generated post cruising area behind the vessels can also be observed to reduce the wakes and eddies. Theoretically, reduction of drag force provides a more efficient vessel with a better cruising speed. To further improve on this study, the authors are now actively arranging an experimental procedure in order to verify the numerical results obtained by CFD. The experimental test will be carried out using an 8 metre flow channel provided by University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.

  20. Detection of solvent losses (entrainment) in gas streams of process vessels using radioisotope tracing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Juhari Mohd Yusof

    2002-01-01

    Liquid droplets (MDEA aqueous solution) entrained in the gas streams can cause severe problems on chemical plants. On-line detection of liquid entrainment (carry over) into gas streams from process vessel is investigated using radioisotope iodine ( 131 I). In order to obtain information on whether there is any carry-over of MDEA in the vapour space leaving from the process system, a number of test and calibration injections involving the released of certain amount of tracer activity (mCi) at the inlet and overhead lines of the process vessels were made using a special injection device. MDEA solvent- tagged tracer in the overhead line of the designated process vessels was monitored using radiation scintillation detectors mounted externally at specified locations of the vessels. Output pulses (response curves) with respect to time of measurements from all detectors were plotted and analysed for the finger prints of solvent losses leaving the vessels. From this study, no distinguishable peaks were detected at the outlet vessels of the overhead lines. Thus, no significant MDEA solvent losses in the form of vapour being discovered along the gas streams due to the process taking place in the system. (Author)

  1. Structural analysis of the KSTAR vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Sang Ryul; Yoon, Byeong Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    Structure analysis of the vacuum vessel for the KSTAR tokamak which, is in the end phase of the conceptual design have been performed. Mechanical stresses and deformations of the vessel produced by constant forces due to atmospheric pressure, dead weight, fluid pressure, etc and various transient electromagnetic forces induced during tokamak operations were calculated as well as modal characteristics and buckling properties were investigated. Influences of the temperature gradient and the constraint condition of the support on the thermal stress and deformation of the vessel were analyzed. The thermal stress due to the temperature distribution on the vessel as supplying the N{sub 2} gas of 400 deg C through poloidal channels according to the recent baking concept were calculated. No severe problem in the robustness of the vessel was found when applying the constant pressures on the vessel. However the mechanical stress due to the EM force induced by halo currents flowing on the vessel and the plasma facing components (PFCs) far exceeded the allowable limit. Some reinforcing components should be added on the boundary of the PFC support and the vessel, and that of the vessel support and the vessel. A steep temperature gradient in the vicinity of the inlet and oulet of the heating gas produced a thermal stress much higher than allowable. It is necessary to make the temperature of the vessel as uniform as possible and to develop a new support concept which is flexible enough to accommodate a thermal expansion of a few cm while sufficiently strong to resist mechanical impacts. (author). 5 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  3. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Burnup influence on the VVER-1000 reactor vessel neutron fluence evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, I.; Mihaylov, N.; Ilieva, K.; Kirilova, D.; Manolova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron fluence of the vessels of the reactors is determined regularly accordingly the RPV Surveillance Program of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and 6 in order to assess the state of the metal vessel and their radiation damaging. The calculations are carried out by the method of discrete ordinates used in the TORT program for operated reactor cycles. An average reactor spectrum corresponding to fresh U-235 fuel is used as an input neutron source. The impact of the burn up of the fuel on the neutron fluence of VVER-1000 reactor vessel is evaluated. The calculations of isotopic concentrations of U-235 and Pu-239 corresponding to 4 years burn up were performed by the module SAS2H of the code system SCALE 4.4. Since fresh fuel or 4 years burn up fuel assembly are placed in periphery of reactor core the contribution of Pu-239 of first year burn up and of 4 years burn up is taken in consideration. Calculations of neutron fluence were performed with neutron spectrum for fresh fuel, for 1 year and for 4 years burn up fuel. Correction factors for neutron fluence at the inner surface of the reactor vessel, in 1/4 depth of the vessel and in the air behind the vessel were obtained. The correction coefficient could be used when the neutron fluence is assessed so in verification when the measured activity of ex-vessel detectors is compared with calculated ones. (authors)

  5. Assessment of the effects of neutron fluence on Swedish nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.

    1980-11-01

    Nuclear pressure vessels are subject to neutron irradiation during service causing embrittlement. This is one important factor in the overall problem of reactor vessel integrity. At present the irradiation effects are mainly assessed by the Charpy V-notch test. Two measures of embrittlement are defined: the increase of the ductile/brittle transition temperature and the decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The object of the present work is to assess these changes for the Swedish nuclear pressure vessels. On the basis of data from irradiations carried out in other countries and Swedish surveillance programmes, the expected end of life embrittlement is estimated for Swedish vessels. The results show that the embrittlement of most reactor vessels is expected to be quite small. Oskarshamn 1 and PWR-vessels, however, will probably show moderate changes, the former due to the higher copper content, and the latter due to the high end of life fluences. Some of the vessel materials which exhibit marginal properties in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by the Charpy V-notch impact test, are identified. It is recommended that fracture mechanics analyses be applied in these cases. (author)

  6. Burnup influence on the WWER-1000 reactor vessel neutron fluence evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, I.; Mihaylov, N.; Ilieva, K.; Kirilova, D.; Manolova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron fluence of the vessels of the reactors is determined regularly accordingly the RPV Surveillance Program of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and 6 in order to assess the state of the metal vessel and their radiation damaging. The calculations are carried out by the method of discrete ordinates used in the TORT program for operated reactor cycles. An average reactor spectrum corresponding to fresh U-235 fuel is used as an input neutron source. The impact of the burn up of the fuel on the neutron fluence of WWER-1000 reactor vessel is evaluated. The calculations of isotopic concentrations of U-235 and Pu-239 corresponding to 4 years burn up were performed by the module SAS2H of the code system SCALE 4.4. Since fresh fuel or 4 years burn up fuel assembly are placed in periphery of reactor core the contribution of Pu-239 of first year burn up and of 4 years burn up is taken in consideration. Calculations of neutron fluence were performed with neutron spectrum for fresh fuel, for 1 year and for 4 years burn up fuel. Correction factors for neutron fluence at the inner surface of the reactor vessel, in ? depth of the vessel and in the air behind the vessel were obtained. The correction coefficient could be used when the neutron fluence is assessed so in verification when the measured activity of ex-vessel detectors is compared with calculated ones. (Authors)

  7. Pendulum support of the W7-X plasma vessel: Design, tests, manufacturing, assembly, critical aspects, status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missal, B., E-mail: bernd.missal@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, F.; Schiller, T. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Werftstraße 17, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Friedrich, P. [Universität Rostock, FB Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Albert-Einsteins-Straße 2, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Capriccioli, A. [ENEA Frascati, Fusion Technology Unit, Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma vessel support has to allow vertical adjustment and horizontal passive movement. • Planar sliding tables with PTFE do not fulfill all requirements. • Pendulums can fulfill all requirements. • Geometry and material of spherical bearings had to be optimized in calculations and tests. • Optimized pendulums were manufactured and assembled. - Abstract: The superconducting helical advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The three dimensional shape of plasma will be generated by 50 non-planar magnetic coils. The plasma vessel geometry follows exactly this three dimensional shape of plasma. To ensure the superconductivity of coils a cryo vacuum has to be generated. Therefore the coils and their support structure are enclosed within the outer vessel. Plasma vessel, coil structures and outer vessel have to be supported separately. This paper will describe the vertical supports of plasma vessel which have to fulfill two special requirements, vertical adjustability and horizontal mobility. These two tasks will be carried out by plasma vessel supports (PVS) with hydraulic cylinders, special sliding tables during assembly and pendulum supports during operating phase. The paper will give an overview of design, calculation, tests, fabrication, assembly, critical aspects and status of PVS.

  8. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  9. Vessel classification method based on vessel behavior in the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Daamen, W.; Vellinga, T.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) data have proven to be a valuable source to investigate vessel behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several

  10. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  11. Minimum critical crack depths in pressure vessels guidelines for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, M.R.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1983-09-01

    Estimates of the minimum critical depths which can be expected in high quality vessels designed to certain British and American Code rules are given. A simple means of allowing for fatigue crack growth in service is included. The data which are presented can be used to decide what sensitivity and what reporting levels should be employed during an ultrasonic inspection of a pressure vessel. It is emphasised that the minimum crack depths are those which would be relevant to a vessel in which the material is stressed to its maximum permitted value during operation. Stresses may, in practice, be significantly less than this. Less restrictive inspection standards may be established, if it were considered worthwhile to carry out a detailed stress analysis of the particular vessel under examination. (author)

  12. Mooring system for a permanently moored storage vessel at an offshore site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, J.F.

    1983-01-24

    A vessel, e.g. a storage vessel, is permanently moored by means such as a yoke pivoted on the forecastle of the vessel to a mooring leg, e.g. a riser or anchor chain, which is attached to a base located on the ocean floor. Mounted on the vessel are tension, exerting means e.g. counterweights, springs, winches, etc., operably connected with the mooring leg for applying tension e.g. by lifting the yoke. The top of the mooring leg is connected to the end of the yoke through a mooring swivel and gimbaled mooring table or a universal joint. A fluid swivel may be located above the mooring table or about a load-carrying shaft connected to the mooring leg.

  13. Ageing study of Cirus reactor vessel expansion bellow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, W.V.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Sahu, A.K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Pant, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion bellow of Cirus reactor vessel is a comparatively weak component which is joined to top tube sheet and shell by helium tight lap weld. This has been subjected to thermal stress caused by high temperature during reactor operation and thermal shock due to trip or shutdown. Therefore a finite element analysis was carried out to assess thermal stresses and fatigue life of the component. It was found that the fluctuating stress in the bellow is far less than its endurance limit. (author). 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel and applies in particular when this is a fast reactor, the core or active part of the reactor being inside the vessel and immersed under a suitable volume of flowing liquid metal to cool it by extracting the calories released by the nuclear fission in the fuel assemblies forming this core [fr

  15. Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given

  16. Irradiation embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.

    2000-01-01

    From the historical decision of closing the Yankee Rowe NPP because of the uncertainties on the level of reactor pressure vessel neutron embrittlement, this paper reviews the technical-scientist bases of the degradation phenomena, and refers to the evolution of reactor pressure vessel radiation surveillance programs. (Author)

  17. Ultrasound periodic inspections of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.

    1980-01-01

    Two versions are described of ultrasonic equipment for periodic inspections of reactor pressure vessels. One uses the principle of exchangeable programmators with solid-state logic while the other uses programmable logic with semiconductor memories. The equipment is to be used for inspections of welded joints on the upper part of the V-1 reactor pressure vessel. (L.O.)

  18. Elastic plastic buckling of elliptical vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The risks of buckling of dished vessel head increase when the vessel is thin walled. This paper gives the last results on experimental tests of 3 elliptical heads and compares all the results with some empirical formula dealing with elastic and plastic buckling

  19. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  20. Preliminary structural evaluations of the STAR-LM reactor vessel and the support design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary structural evaluations of the reactor vessel and support design of the STAR-LM (The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal variant), which is a lead-cooled reactor, are carried out with respect to an elevated temperature design and seismic design. For an elevated temperature design, the structural integrity of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel is investigated by using a detail structural analysis and the ASME-NH code rules. From the results of the structural analyses and the integrity evaluations, it was found that the design concept of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel cannot satisfy the ASME-NH rules for a given design condition. Therefore, a design modification with regards to the thermal barrier is introduced in the STAR-LM design. For a seismic design, detailed seismic time history response analyses for a reactor vessel with a consideration of a fluid-structure interaction are carried out for both a top support type and a bottom support type. And from the results of the hydrodynamic pressure responses, an investigation of the minimum thickness design of the reactor vessel is tentatively carried out by using the ASME design rules

  1. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, M.; Mocek, J.; Barackova, L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure. (B.S.)

  2. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepka, M; Mocek, J; Barackova, L [Skoda, Plzen (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-09-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure.

  3. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  4. Method of burying vessel containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yoshihito.

    1989-01-01

    A float having an inert gas sealed therein is attached to a tightly closed vessel containing radioactive wastes. The vessel is inserted and kept in a small hole for burying the tightly closed vessel in an excavated shaft in rocks such as of granite or rock salts, while filling bentonite as shielding material therearound. In this case, the float is so adjusted that the apparent specific gravity is made equal or nearer between the tightly closed vessel and the bentonite, so that the rightly closed vessel does not sink and cause direct contact with the rocks even if bentonite flows due to earthquakes, etc. This can prevent radioactivity contamination through water in the rocks. (S.K.)

  5. An experimental study on feasibility of ex-vessel cooling through the external guide vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Park, Rae-Jun; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments for assessing the efficacy of ex-vessel cooling through the external guide vessel during a severe accident. Four tests were performed in the LAVA test facility at KAERI, varying the boundary conditions at the outer surface of the vessel. The first test was a dry condition test conducted without cooling the outside of the vessel. On the other hand, in the second test, the cooling of the vessel surface was produced by gravity-driven forced injection of water along the annular gap of 25 mm between the vessel and the external guide vessel. Water flow rate was about 0.85 kg/s and total mass of available water was 300 kg. For the evaluation of the water flow rate effect, the third test was performed with a pool type cooling in the annulus without any circulation of water. These two external cooling tests were performed under elevated pressure of about 1.6 MPa. Finally, the fourth test was conducted under atmospheric pressure to evaluate the effect of system pressure on boiling heat transfer characteristics. In the dry test and the pool type ex-vessel cooling test performed under atmospheric pressure, the vessel was failed by a melt penetration at about 40 degree upper position from the vessel bottom, which is coincident with the boundary of the Al 2 O 3 /Fe melt separated layers. On the other hand, in both of the ex-vessel cooling tests conducted under elevated pressure of about 1.6 MPa, the vessel didn't fail. Compared with the pool boiling test, the vessel experienced effective cooling due to the inlet flow in the forced flow test. Synthesized the results of the tests, it was shown that the heat removal with ex-vessel cooling through the guide vessel is feasible, but the additional evaluations should be performed to guarantee enough thermal margin. (author)

  6. An assessment of acoustic emission for nuclear pressure vessel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruby, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Recent research has greatly improved our understanding of the basic mechanisms of deformation and fracture that generate detectable acoustic emission signals in structural steels. A critical review of the application of acoustic emission (AE) to the fabrication, proof testing and in-service monitoring of nuclear pressure vessels is presented in the light of this improved understanding. The detectability of deformation and fracture processes in pressure vessel steels is discussed, and recommendations made for improving source location accuracy and the development of quantitative source assessment techniques. Published data suggest that AE can make an important contribution to fabrication monitoring, and to the detection of defects in lower toughness materials during vessel proof testing. In high toughness materials, however, the signals generated during ductile crack growth may frequently be too weak for reliable detection. The feasibility of AE for continuous monitoring has not yet been adequately demonstrated because of high background noise levels and uncertainty about AE signal strengths from the defect growth processes that occur in service. In-service leak detection by AE shows considerable promise. It is recommended that further tests are carried out with realistic defects, and under realistic conditions of loading (including thermal shock and fatigue) and of environment. (author)

  7. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C; Thankey, Prashant L; Dhanani, Kalpesh R; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  8. Studies of fragileness in steels of vessels of BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, E.F.; Balcazar, M.; Alpizar, A.M.; Calderon, B.E.

    2003-01-01

    The structural materials with those that are manufactured the pressure vessels of the BWR reactors, suffer degradation in its mechanical properties mainly to the damage taken place by the fast neutrons (E > 1 MeV) coming from the reactor core. Its are experimentally studied those mechanisms of neutron damage in this material type, by means of the irradiation of steel vessel in experimental reactors to age them quickly. Alternatively it is simulated the neutron damage by means of irradiation of steel with heavy ions. In this work those are shown first results of the damage induced by irradiation from a similar steel to the vessel of a BWR reactor. The irradiation was carried out with fast neutrons (E > 1 MeV, fluence of 1.45 x 10 18 n/cm 2 ) in the TRIGA MARK lll reactor and separately with Ni +3 ions in a Tandetrom accelerator, E = 4.8 MeV and range of the ionic flow of 0.1 to 53 iones/A 2 . (Author)

  9. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, carrying the activating mutation D849N, accelerates the establishment of B16 melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shioto; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Heuchel, Rainer Lothar

    2007-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β are mainly expressed in the developing vasculature, where PDGF-BB is produced by endothelial cells and PDGFR-β is expressed by mural cells, including pericytes. PDGF-BB is produced by most types of solid tumors, and PDGF receptor signaling participates in various processes, including autocrine stimulation of tumor cell growth, recruitment of tumor stroma fibroblasts, and stimulation of tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-producing tumors are characterized by increased pericyte abundance and accelerated tumor growth. Thus, there is a growing interest in the development of tumor treatment strategies by blocking PDGF/PDGFR function. We have recently generated a mouse model carrying an activated PDGFR-β by replacing the highly conserved aspartic acid residue (D) 849 in the activating loop with asparagine (N). This allowed us to investigate, in an orthotopic tumor model, the role of increased stromal PDGFR-β signaling in tumor-stroma interactions. B16 melanoma cells lacking PDGFR-β expression and either mock-transfected or engineered to express PDGF-BB, were injected alone or in combination with matrigel into mice carrying the activated PDGFR-β (D849N) and into wild type mice. The tumor growth rate was followed and the vessel status of tumors, i.e. total vessel area/tumor, average vessel surface and pericyte density of vessels, was analyzed after resection. Tumors grown in mice carrying an activated PDGFR-β were established earlier than those in wild-type mice. In this early phase, the total vessel area and the average vessel surface were higher in tumors grown in mice carrying the activated PDGFR-β (D849N) compared to wild-type mice, whereas we did not find a significant difference in the number of tumor vessels and the pericyte abundance around tumor vessels between wild type and mutant mice. At later phases of tumor progression, no significant difference in tumor growth rate was

  10. After-operating properties of nuclear reactor vessel materials of Lenin atomic ice breaker and prospective of reactor vessels radiation life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, P.A.; Shtrombakh, Ya.I.; Amaev, A.D.; Krasikov, E.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Zabusov, O.O.; Glushakov, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    A post-operational state of the icebreaker Lenin reactor vessel metal is investigated. It is shown that a base metal of the icebreaker Lenin reactor vessel is of high quality as by an initial value of critical temperature of embrittlement, so by its radiation resistance. The weld metal possesses a sufficient radiation resistance but has an insufficient initial ductile-brittle transition temperature (approximately 63 Deg C). It is necessary to note that the final stage of operation for nuclear steam-generating plant should be carried out at the coolant temperature as high as possible [ru

  11. Radiation embrittlement of PWR vessel supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Robinson, G.C.; Pennell, W.E.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Several studies pertaining to radiation damage of PWR vessel supports were conducted between 1978 and 1987. During this period, apparently there was no reason to believe that low-temperature (<100 degree C) MTR embrittlement data were not appropriate for evaluating embrittlement of PWR vessel supports. However, late in 1986, data from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel surveillance program indicated that the embrittlement rates of the several HFIR vessel materials (A212-B, A350-LF3, A105-II) were substantially greater than anticipated on the basis of MTR data. Further evaluation of the HFIR data suggested that a fluence-rate effect was responsible for the apparent discrepancy, and shortly thereafter it became apparent that this rate effect was applicable to the evaluation of LWR vessel supports. As a result, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) evaluate the impact of the apparent embrittlement rate effect on the integrity of light-water-reactor (LWR) vessel supports. The purpose of the study was to provide an indication of whether the integrity of reactor vessel supports is likely to be challenged by radiation-induced embrittlement. The scope of the evaluation included correlation of the HFIR data for application to the evaluation of LWR vessel supports; a survey and cursory evaluation of all US LWR vessel support designs, selection of two plants for specific-plant evaluation, and a specific-plant evaluation of both plants to determine critical flaw sizes for their vessel supports. 19 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R ampersand D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993)

  13. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    For determination of stability, wheat germ oil obtained by ethanolysis reactants was characterized by ... extract non polar lipids with lipid soluble bioactive com- pounds from different sources (Esquivel et al., 1997; ... thin layer of cotton was placed at the bottom of the extraction vessel. Before plugging with cap another layer of ...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provides the organizational structure and procedures to prepare for and respond to oil discharges. Nothing... structures, equipment, or device (other than a vessel) which is used for one or more of the following... plans and agreements, security regulations and responsibilities based on international agreements...

  15. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  16. Reactor pressure vessel. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, B.J.; Hackett, E.M.; Lee, A.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the issues raised as a result of the staffs review of Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, Revision 1, responses and plant-specific reactor pressure vessel (RPV) assessments and the actions taken or work in progress to address these issues. In addition, the report describes actions taken by the staff and the nuclear industry to develop a thermal annealing process for use at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. This process is intended to be used as a means of mitigating the effects of neutron radiation on the fracture toughness of RPV materials. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements and licensee commitments regarding RPV integrity. GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, was issued as a result of generic issues that were raised in the NRC staff's reviews of licensee responses to GL 92-01, Revision 1, and plant-specific RPV evaluations. In particular, an integrated review of all data submitted in response to GL 92-01, Revision 1, indicated that licensees may not have considered all relevant data in their RPV assessments. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1996. An update of this report will be issued at a later date

  17. Process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1920-07-14

    A process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, bitumen from oil-chalk, oil shale, and coal is characterized in that the material to be separated feeds, by a self-acting feeding arrangement, to a system with slowly rotating drums alternating in different directions and thereby it is exposed to the action of hot water running opposite to the rotation, direction of the drum, with addition of extraction-medium, so that the light material is washed out and rises to the top. It is carried off, while the heavy material sinks to the bottom and, by bucket-conveyor is removed.

  18. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  19. Pressure vessels dossier restoration according to NR-13 requirements; Enquadramento de vasos de pressao a norma NR-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose L. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Osorio C. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Pressure vessels are static pressurized equipment typical in oil industry facilities. In TRANSPETRO terminals and stations as well as in the whole PETROBRAS, these equipment can be found in the form of condenser accumulators, separators, heat exchangers, storage spheres and others. Because they work sustaining pressure and, many times flammable fluids, pressure vessels have a reasonable potential for hazard. For this reason, the NR-13 regulation was created. It deals with the safety in maintenance, operation and inspection of pressure vessels and boilers. During the compliance to the NR- 13 rules, a problem usually found is the lack of documents for different reasons. In this case, the NR-13 obligates the owner to recreate the vessel documentation under the responsibility of a chartered professional. This paper presents a case study where NR-13 rules were conformed by tasks involving documentation reconstruction based on information collected by means of inspection and tests performed on the field. (author)

  20. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two