WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessels assigned timber

  1. 46 CFR 42.13-10 - Freeboards assigned vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with mechanical means of propulsion, or lighters, barges, or other vessels without independent means of... Commandant under the procedure of paragraph (f) of this section. (d) Vessels of wood or of composite construction, or of other materials the use of which the Commandant has approved, or vessels whose...

  2. characterisation and grading of two selected timber species grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Timber is a complex building material owing to its heterogeneity and species diversity. Timber does not .... forming dense cluster, twisted bean-like pods, dark brown, cylindrical, 1.5-6 cm long and 4-7 mm thick; the ... (ii) Machine grading: This assigns stress grade to timber according to its stiffness. The grade is assigned by ...

  3. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  4. Development of Timber Property Classification Based on the End-Use with Reference to Twenty Sri Lankan Timber Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species.   Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.

  5. Timber in Missouri, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Burton L. Essex

    1976-01-01

    The third inventory of Missouri's timber resource shows a small gain in growing-stock volume and a somewhat larger gain in sawtimber volume since 1959. Area of commercial forest declined sharply between surveys. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, and forest management...

  6. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    of these crafts, until it was replaced by iron/steel. As the size of the vessels increased to accommodate more cargo and overseas trade became more frequent, superior quality timber was used in the construction of vessels. Among the timbers used, teak was mostly...

  7. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  8. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville... held annually on the last Saturday in June with a rain date of the first Saturday in July. This Safety... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber Creek...

  9. Mobile mine timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodous, J.; Kubac, J.; Novak, Z.; Skrobalek, J.; Zajic, K.

    1982-04-15

    A mobile timbering of enclosure-support type designed for reinforcing a cleaning space in deep coal mines is patented. The assembly consists of one frame to which a shield is hinged with the upper section, from one hydraulic stand attached to the frame and upper section or shield, and from the mobile device. The essence of the invention is that the extension lower part of each hydraulic stand is placed and hinged in the support, which on one side enters the profile guide, formed in the frame, and from the other side is attached to the adjustment (stopping) cylinder whose opposite part is hinged to the frame. Between the shield and the upper part there is a built-in resting device. The high effect of operation of the proposed element of the mobile timbering is that with comparatively small difference in height of the support places, there is a large range of element of the timbering even with the use of hydraulic stands with one telescope. The shaped guide and the support places are made so that there is optimal use of the bearing capacity of the stands, and as a result there is high support reaction and advantageous loading of individual parts of the timbering. The universal assembly design of the upper part makes it possible to use the timbering even with technology of working with timbering that is moved backwards.

  10. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    . Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical......The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber...

  11. Timber resources of southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.

  12. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  13. Round timbers and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    1999-01-01

    Round timbers and ties represent some of the most efficient uses of our forest resources. They require a minimum of processing between harvesting the tree and marketing the structural commodity. Poles and piles are debarked or peeled, seasoned, and often treated with preservative prior to use as structural members. Construction logs are usually shaped to facilitate...

  14. Timber Production and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Brian C. Murray

    2003-01-01

    Timber production has been the foundation of active forest management for over a century. The science and economics of forest management were developed 1.50 years ago, but for years, the focus was on activity at the stand level, with very little attention to market phenomena such as price behavior, demand factors, substitution, and market structure. That has changed as...

  15. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...... to integrate the behaviour of networked systems into structures made from wooden material....

  16. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  17. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  18. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  19. The Value of Timber Inventory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.E. Borders; W.M. Harrison; M.L. Clutter; B.D. Shiver; R.A. Souter

    2008-01-01

    Timber inventory data is the basis for many monetary transactions related to timber and timberland sale and (or) purchase as well as for development of timber management plans. The value of such data is well known and much appreciated for sale and (or) purchase of standing merchantable timber.  Unfortunatley, the value of timber inventory data for planning...

  20. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  1. Maine timber industries - a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Peter R. Lammert; Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on a survey of the primary wood manufacturing plants located in Maine in 1981. It contains statistics on industrial timber harvest and plant wood reciepts and on the production and disposition of the manufacturing residues for the year. The 438.7 million ft? (12.4 million m?) of industrial...

  2. Timber growth, mortality, and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Michael T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The previous section discussed trends in timber volume. Changes in volume often result from land-use change; that is, land entering or removed from the timber base. On those acres remaining forested, tree growth and mortality are the primary factors for volume change. Annual rates of growth and mortality often differ by species group, ownership, and geographic region....

  3. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    Publication: www.jcss.ethz.ch; 2001] and of the COST action E24 ‘Reliability of Timber Structures' [COST Action E 24, Reliability of timber structures. Several meetings and Publications, Internet Publication: http://www.km.fgg.uni-lj.si/coste24/coste24.htm; 2005]. The present proposal is based on discussions...

  4. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  5. Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...

  6. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  7. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  8. 46 CFR 67.237 - Requirements for assignments of mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for assignments of mortgages. 67.237... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.237 Requirements for assignments of mortgages. An assignment of...

  9. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  10. Compatability Determination for Timber Harvesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a compliance document which pertains to allowing commercial and non-commercial timber harvesting to conserve, restore and rehabilitate forest ecosystems at...

  11. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  12. Timber resources and the timber economy of Okanogan County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, forest industries in Okanogan County, Washington, accounted for 23 percent of total employment and 29 percent of wages paid. Total forest industrial employment has increased since 1953 but represents a smaller proportion of total employment in the county due to the increase in other industries, mainly construction and trade. Timber harvest has nearly doubled...

  13. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  14. Timber-concrete composite beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, M.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an easy-to-use design model for timber-concrete composite beams is discussed. The model is applicable for computer simulations as well as for hand calculations. A research programme was started in 1992 in co-operation with the University of Karlsruhe, to study the loadbearing

  15. probabilistic evaluation of eur robabilistic evaluation of eur a timber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    melted in fire, timber can still take a large load [10]. Timber has a high and predictable performance in because timber chars at a slow and known rate [5 one important aspect of performance, namely. 802-358-3817. IC EVALUATION OF EUROCODE 5 FIRE DESIGN CRITER. A TIMBER PORTAL FRAME. A TIMBER PORTAL ...

  16. Timber value—a matter of choice: a study of how end use assumptions affect timber values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.

  17. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility...

  18. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... to its illegal nature. Yet, when the likely incomes from illegal timber harvesting as estimated by other studies are compared with this study’s comprehensive livelihood data, it is obvious that an imagined full implementation of the VPA would have limited impact on the majority of rural households...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  19. Effective lateral resistance of timber-plywood-timber joints connected with nails

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, Okumu Gordon; Sawata, Kei; Hirai, Takuro; Koizumi, Akio; Sasaki, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an experimental study was conducted on the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints extended from the standard wall-floor joints of wooden light frame constructions, where the bottom plates of shear walls are nailed to the floors consisting of joists and floor sheathings nailed to them. The principal conclusions are as follows: The allowable lateral resistance of the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints can roundly be estimated by neglecting the plywood panels if their densities are ...

  20. The timber resources of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Joseph E. Barnard

    1968-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources in Vermont was made in 1965 and 1966...

  1. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  2. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  3. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  4. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the selection of Nepalese timber for development of small wind turbine blades on the basis of locally based low cost timbers, along with the selection of coatings to protect the timber from weathering. The selection criterion of timber includes timber mechanical properties......, weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...

  5. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  6. Load capacity of hollowed timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable load-rating methodology for timber piles based on the level of documented damage. Louisiana currently has over 4,000 timber bridges in its inventory of over 13,800 bridges. A quarter of these 4,000 tim...

  7. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  8. Timber resources of Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1973 timber resource inventory of Douglas County, Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and cut are presented. A discussion of the present resource situation highlights the condition of cutover lands and the opportunities for silvicultural treatment.

  9. Timber resource of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold J. Ostrom; Jerold T. Hahn

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows a substantial decline in the volumes of both growing stock and sawtimber between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area also declined substantially during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and...

  10. Timber resource of Missouri's Prairie, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1975-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Prairie Forest Survey Unit shows substantial declines in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area declined by one-fifth. Presents highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use in 1972.

  11. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  12. Operability and location of Wisconsin's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.

  13. Optimal control of raw timber production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Kolenka

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of optimal planning and control of timber harvesting activ-ities with mathematical optimization models. The separate phases of timber harvesting are represented by coordinated models which can be used to select the optimal decision for the execution of any given phase. The models form a system whose components are connected and...

  14. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...

  15. Simplified analysis of timber rivet connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Stahl; Marshall. Begel; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2000-01-01

    Timber rivets, fasteners for glulam and heavy timber construction, have been used in Canada for about thirty years and recently were adopted by the U.S. National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Rivet connections can exhibit two failure modes, one of which is fundamentally different from those of other dowel fasteners. Failure can occur when a volume...

  16. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  17. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  18. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  19. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...... of the structure' is considered....

  20. Vessel-Fibre Ratio, Specific Gravity And Durability Of Four Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the timbers ex-hibit major hardwood cell-types (e.g. vessels, fibres and parenchyma), intra-stem variability ex-ists with more vessels and greater V-F ratios at the crowns and in sapwoods than at the butts and in heartwoods, unlike for fibres. Inter-specific variation also shows A. toxicaria has the greatest vessel content ...

  1. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Struc......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  2. Forest Productivity and Timber Supply Modeling in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Cubbage; Jacek Siry; Robert Abt; David N. Wear; Steverson Moffat

    1998-01-01

    The South can increase forest productivity on industrial and nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. As timber markets have improved and timber prices have increased, returns from intensive management are more profitable. The interaction of timber markets, inventory, and prices are analyzed in new southern timber supply models sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  3. Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and

  4. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  5. Identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber managemnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Joseph E. Barnard; Samuel F. Gingrich; Samuel F. Gingrich

    1973-01-01

    Describes a procedure for identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber management and demonstrates its application. Results provide a basis for rational choices among alternative management strategies and permit meaningful micro- and macro-evaluations of treatment response.

  6. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  7. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont: a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Nicolas Engalichev; William C. Gove

    1986-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on canvasses of the primary wood manufacturing plants in New Hampshire and Vermont. The report contains statistics on industrial timber products and plant wood receipts in 1982, and the production and disposition of the manufacturing plant residues that resulted. The 129.4 million cubic feet (3.7...

  8. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  9. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1997-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projections are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the...

  10. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  11. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...

  12. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  13. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  14. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Structural analysis and deterministic design of a timber bridge ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ..... Nigerian Standard Organization, Federal.

  15. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  16. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  17. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  18. Deriving simple and adjusted financial rates of return on Mississippi timber lands by combining forest inventory and analysis and Timber Mart-South data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2007-01-01

    This study compares returns on investments in Mississippi timber lands with returns on alternative investments. The real annual rates of return from mature, undisturbed timber lands in Mississippi over a 17-year period (1977-94) were computed. Southern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) timber volume data and Timber Mart-South (TMS) data on timber...

  19. Systematic feature analysis on timber defect images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Rabaah Hashim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is unquestionably an important process in a pattern recognition system. A defined set of features makes the identification task more efficiently. This paper addresses the extraction and analysis of features based on statistical texture to characterize images of timber defects. A series of procedures including feature extraction and feature analysis was executed to construct an appropriate feature set that could significantly separate amongst defects and clear wood classes. The feature set aimed for later use in a timber defect detection system. For Accessing the discrimination capability of the features extracted, visual exploratory analysis and confirmatory statistical analysis were performed on defect and clear wood images of Meranti (Shorea spp. timber species. Results from the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant distinction between defect classes and clear wood utilizing the proposed set of texture features.

  20. Tropical Timber Identification using Backpropagation Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Andayani, U.; Fatihah, N.; Hakim, L.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Each and every type of wood has different characteristics. Identifying the type of wood properly is important, especially for industries that need to know the type of timber specifically. However, it requires expertise in identifying the type of wood and only limited experts available. In addition, the manual identification even by experts is rather inefficient because it requires a lot of time and possibility of human errors. To overcome these problems, a digital image based method to identify the type of timber automatically is needed. In this study, backpropagation neural network is used as artificial intelligence component. Several stages were developed: a microscope image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using gray level co-occurrence matrix and normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The results showed that the proposed method was able to identify the timber with an accuracy of 94%.

  1. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness ...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed.......The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...

  2. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the timber as determined by species, age, size, condition, etc.; (ii) The quantity of timber per acre... basis of general averages for regions; however, the value placed upon it, taking into consideration such... margin between the cost of production and the price realized for timber products, market value of stock...

  3. Fiber stress values for design of glulam timber utility structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody; R. H. Falk

    In this study, we developed a simple equation to calculate average fiber stress values for design of glued-laminated (glulam) timber utility structures as a function of design bending stress. We took design stress in bending values specified by the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) for various combinations of glulam timber, applied appropriate end-use...

  4. Assessment of rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber forest products in Kogi State, Nigeria, with specific focus on identifying some species of non-timber forest products present in the area, identifying reasons why they engaged in the gathering of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as well as ...

  5. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  6. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  7. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April 30...

  8. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  9. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  10. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  11. Projected US timber and primary forest product market impacts of climate change mitigation through timber set-asides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...

  12. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  13. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  14. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  15. Timber resource of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Vasilevsky; Burton L. Essex

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows substantial gains in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. The area of commercial forests declined during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timer volume, growth, mortality, ownership and use in 1972.

  16. Timber resource of Minnesota's Prairie unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Prairie Unit shows that although commercial forest area decreased 31.7% between 1962 and 1977, growing-stock volume increased 22%. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  17. Grading timber and glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez

    2006-01-01

    Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...

  18. (Eds.) Proceedings: Mass Timber Research Workshop 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Williamson; Robert J. Ross

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings, including key points and identified research needs, that evolved from the Mass Timber Research Workshop, which was held at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), November 3–4, 2015. The purpose of the workshop was to bring design professionals, researchers, and industry leaders together to examine the state-of-the-art in mass...

  19. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  20. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  1. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  2. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning...

  3. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  4. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  5. (Anogeissus Leiocarpus) Timber *BELLO, AA; JIMOH, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and Phytochemistry, p. 107. Jimoh, AA (1990). Fan palm as a Reinforcement in. Concrete Elements. M.Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,. Nigeria. Jimoh, AA (2005). Ultimate Strength Design of. Axially Loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus). Timber Columns. Journal of Applied Science ...

  6. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  7. Evaluation of Nondestructive Underwater Timber Inspection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    possible to codice their presnce. Figure 1. Characteristics of marine borers. 3 Table 1. Accuracy Requirements for Timber Piles [Nomenclature at end of...Athens GA NAVSEASYSCOM Code OOC-D. Washington. DC: Codk PMS 395 A 3. Washington. DC; Code PMS 395 A2. Wasi~ington. DC; Codic PMS 396.3311 (Rekas), Wash

  8. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  9. Geographic origin and individual assignment of Shorea platyclados (Dipterocarpaceae for forensic identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hong Ng

    Full Text Available The development of timber tracking methods based on genetic markers can provide scientific evidence to verify the origin of timber products and fulfill the growing requirement for sustainable forestry practices. In this study, the origin of an important Dark Red Meranti wood, Shorea platyclados, was studied by using the combination of seven chloroplast DNA and 15 short tandem repeats (STRs markers. A total of 27 natural populations of S. platyclados were sampled throughout Malaysia to establish population level and individual level identification databases. A haplotype map was generated from chloroplast DNA sequencing for population identification, resulting in 29 multilocus haplotypes, based on 39 informative intraspecific variable sites. Subsequently, a DNA profiling database was developed from 15 STRs allowing for individual identification in Malaysia. Cluster analysis divided the 27 populations into two genetic clusters, corresponding to the region of Eastern and Western Malaysia. The conservativeness tests showed that the Malaysia database is conservative after removal of bias from population subdivision and sampling effects. Independent self-assignment tests correctly assigned individuals to the database in an overall 60.60-94.95% of cases for identified populations, and in 98.99-99.23% of cases for identified regions. Both the chloroplast DNA database and the STRs appear to be useful for tracking timber originating in Malaysia. Hence, this DNA-based method could serve as an effective addition tool to the existing forensic timber identification system for ensuring the sustainably management of this species into the future.

  10. Geographic origin and individual assignment of Shorea platyclados (Dipterocarpaceae) for forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Hong; Lee, Soon Leong; Tnah, Lee Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Lee, Chai Ting; Diway, Bibian; Khoo, Eyen

    2017-01-01

    The development of timber tracking methods based on genetic markers can provide scientific evidence to verify the origin of timber products and fulfill the growing requirement for sustainable forestry practices. In this study, the origin of an important Dark Red Meranti wood, Shorea platyclados, was studied by using the combination of seven chloroplast DNA and 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) markers. A total of 27 natural populations of S. platyclados were sampled throughout Malaysia to establish population level and individual level identification databases. A haplotype map was generated from chloroplast DNA sequencing for population identification, resulting in 29 multilocus haplotypes, based on 39 informative intraspecific variable sites. Subsequently, a DNA profiling database was developed from 15 STRs allowing for individual identification in Malaysia. Cluster analysis divided the 27 populations into two genetic clusters, corresponding to the region of Eastern and Western Malaysia. The conservativeness tests showed that the Malaysia database is conservative after removal of bias from population subdivision and sampling effects. Independent self-assignment tests correctly assigned individuals to the database in an overall 60.60-94.95% of cases for identified populations, and in 98.99-99.23% of cases for identified regions. Both the chloroplast DNA database and the STRs appear to be useful for tracking timber originating in Malaysia. Hence, this DNA-based method could serve as an effective addition tool to the existing forensic timber identification system for ensuring the sustainably management of this species into the future.

  11. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  12. Assignment Tracking Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy

    2016-01-01

    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  13. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  14. Information transfer during the timber transaction period in West Virginia. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; Daniel J. Magill; James Kochenderfer; W. Mark Ford; Tom Schuler

    2006-01-01

    Timber harvesting has long-lasting impacts on the productivity and aesthetics of private forests. In many instances, landowners who possess high quality timber are at a competitive disadvantage during timber transactions--the time between a decision by the landowner to sell timber and the completion of the timber harvesting operation--as they may lack understanding of...

  15. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  16. Reliability Analysis of Structural Timber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2000-01-01

    types of redundancy and non-linearity are considered. The statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined by reliability analysis. Next, more complex systems are considered modelling the mechanical behaviour of timber roof elements I stressed skin panels made of timber. Using...... characteristics of the load-bearing capacity is estimated in the form of a characteristic value and a coefficient of variation. These two values are of primary importance for codes of practice based on the partial safety factor format since the partial safety factor is closely related to the coefficient...... the above stochastic models, statistical characteristics (distribution function, 5% quantile and coefficient of variation) are determined. Generally, the results show that taking the system effects into account the characteristic load bearing capacity can be increased and the partial safety factor decreased...

  17. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  18. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...... but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... versa. Further, a method for how to design with structure and joints from the very early stage of design is proposed. The architectural/engineering model of the joints will later be incorporated in the digital design environment of the designer. In this way, the conceptual design phase will not only...

  19. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....

  20. Timber value growth rates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A, Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in stand value between the two most recent forest inventories ranged from -12 to +43 percent. Faced with this kind of variation, forest managers can use help in determining financial rates of return for their woodland...

  1. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  2. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rubberwood timber decreasing, wither the wooden furniture industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fauzi Puasa; Rohana Abd Rahman; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Roda Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Will the Malaysian furniture industry wither amidst the decreasing local supply of rubberwood timber? Despite declining supply of local rubberwood timber, the wooden furniture industry has been able to sustain its production and trade. This means that the wooden furniture industry does not wither even though there is local shortage of rubberwood timber supply. The wooden furniture industry has adapted to the situation of declining rubberwood supply in various ways. First, lesser rubberwood ti...

  4. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  5. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  6. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  8. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  9. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  10. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  11. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  12. Michigan's fourth forest inventory: timber volumes and projections of timber supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Jerold T. Hahn

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows growing-stock volume increased 27% between 1966 and 1980, from 15.1 to 19.1 billion cubic feet. Presented are highlights and statistics on volume, growth, mortality, removals, biomass, and projections.

  13. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  14. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  15. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  16. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Timber seasoning and density characterstics of Cordia alliodora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shrinkage values of the timber at oven dry (0%) MC compared at 12% MC increased by about 1.7 times. Slight seasoning defects such as cup, bow, twist, end split and checks were observed. In general, the species revealed good timber properties and qualities. Therefore, the species has to be grown and well managed, ...

  5. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...

  6. Timber resources of western Oregon—highlights and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

  7. Powder-driven-nail connections for round timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; KugBo Shim; Marshall Begel

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the development of value-added engineered applications for small diameter round timber, research is being conducted at the US Forest Products Laboratory to develop and verify design guidelines for connections with specific application to round timbers. The objective of this work is to provide potential users with a number of viable connection...

  8. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  9. Economic feasibility of including game habitats in timber management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls

    1975-01-01

    Profits largely determine management decisions on commercial forest lands. Past decisions have therefore favored timber production over wildlife, and practices advantageous to wildlife were usually incidental. This paper explains how effective timber management on public and private lands can be coordinated with wildlife needs to obtain revenues from hunting as well...

  10. Public Timber Supply under Multiple-Use Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of the world, substantial shares of timber inventories are managed by government agencies. The objective of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of public timber production on market structure as well as on prices, harvest quantities, and economic welfare. National forest management in the United States is used as a tractable case study, but...

  11. Comparative durability of timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw

    2017-01-01

    As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...

  12. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  13. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ascertain its ... for timber bridge beams at depth of 400mm, breadth of 150mm and span of 5000mm under the ultimate limit state ..... of a Glue-Jointed Roof Truss" J.Eng.& Appl Sci,. Vol 17, Number 1, ...

  14. Cattle and elk responses to intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied...

  15. PROBABILISTIC FAILURE ANALYSIS OF A SOLID TIMBER COLUMN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... In this paper, a reliability evaluation of a solid timber column of square cross section subjected to axial and lateral loading in ... reliability evaluation, solid timber column, Eurocode, axial loading, slenderness ratio. 1. Introduction. The quality of an .... joint probability function. Fx(x) = P (nn i=1 {Xi ≤ xi}).

  16. Chapter 2: Manufacturing Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Dave Kretschmann; Brad (Jianhe) Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT) is defined as a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are laminated by gluing oflongitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof...

  17. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  18. Timber Management Opportunities for Nebraska 1983-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Tom D. Wardle

    1984-01-01

    Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Nebraska for the decade 1983 - 1992. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 52 percent of Nebraska''s commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.

  19. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  20. Live Load Testing of Historic Covered Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Hosteng; James Wacker; Brent Phares

    2013-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), is intended to preserve covered timber bridge structures nationwide. Today, less than 700 covered timber bridges still exist in the United States and of those many are closed to vehicular traffic. Furthermore, a large percentage of the remaining...

  1. Improving timber floors by adding a concrete slab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite floors are much stronger and show a higher bending stiffness than most traditional timber floors. The geometry and behaviour of these floors, as determined through bending tests, will be discussed. A FEM simulation program was developed to carry out sensitivity analyses and

  2. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  3. Alaska’s timber harvest and forest products industry, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the state’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...

  4. Epidemiology of Eye Diseases among Timber Workers in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anepidemiological studyof the Timber Industry in Owerri, Nigeria was carriedout. It assessed the burden of eye diseases among Timber workers in terms of magnitude, causes and time. Certain eye diseases, notably, conjunctivitis, foreign bodies/injuries/traumas, pterygia, pinguecula and uveitis, each, accounting for ...

  5. Timber resource statistics for the Juneau inventory unit, Alaska, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon J. LaBau; Willem W.S. Van Hees

    1983-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1970 timber inventory of the Juneau unit, Alaska. Estimates for commercial forest land area total 1.3 million acres (535 000 ha) with a net growing stock volume of 8.3 billion cubic feet (234 million m3), and annual net growth...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Ketchikan inventory unit, Alaska, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1974 timber inventory of the Ketchikan. unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 1.16 million acres (470 040 ha), net growing stock volume at 6.39 billion cubic feet (181.04 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  7. 36 CFR 219.29 - Limitation on timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on timber harvest. 219.29 Section 219.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... responsible official may sell timber from areas that are substantially affected by fire, wind, or other events...

  8. Product diversification in South Africa's commercial timber plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...

  9. Stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, Yu.N.; Aksenov, Yu.G.; Khazanov, Kh.I.; Khazin, V.A.; Radulov, V.Ye.; Vavilov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to bring the testing conditions closer to the operating with multiple loading. This goal is achieved because in the stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering which includes a power frame, loading device with support and hydraulic equipment, the loading device is made in the form of enclosure sprockets and infinite mobile gears surrounding them on which with variable spacing with the help of transverse planks there are supports attached. In this case the length of the enclosure of each gear is the aliquant to the spacing of its advance.

  10. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead.

  11. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of timber structures where the ductile behavior of joints of timber material is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a structural timber system...... as a parallel system. A measure of ductile behaviour is introduced. For different values of this measure the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation where correlation between the strength of structural elements and load models for permanent and live load are introduced. The results...... indicate the reliability of a structural timber ystem can be increased apprximately 20 % awarding the ductile behaviour. At last the paper discusses possible structural timber systems which have potential for providing ductility and redundancy....

  12. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  13. Interactive Assignments for Online Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Students can experience first hand through interactive assignments what is involved in teaching an online course. Most students develop a whole new appreciation for the student learning process. Faculty are beginning to realize that online instruction is more than a series of readings posted to a course management system. This paper summarizes the faculty member's instructional strategies involved when creating student interaction assignments. The paper also summarizes the assignments, discussion board, and trends in education from the student's perspective. In summary, it concludes with the faculty's overall perspective concerning these assignments and how the assignments could be more effective for the student.

  14. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber

  15. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  16. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  17. The performance of regional timber industry complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Aleksandrovich Shishelov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the economic evaluation of the performance of regional timber industry complex of the NorthWestern Federal District based on the calculation of the structural indicator. The position and the role of forestry in the economy are shown. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the regional forestry: volume of shipped products, industrial structure, product diversification, deep processing of wood is carried out. Structural economic performance timber for each subject Northwestern Federal District is designed the following factors that determine the high effectiveness of the system: the scale pulp and paper, wood diversification, export products are identified. The important methodological significance is the fact that the use of structural indicators will determine not only the effectiveness of forestry regions North-West in general, but their industries: forestry, woodworking, pulp and paper production, and the level of labor productivity and capital productivity. The presented results are of high practical and methodological value to determine the current state of forestry.

  18. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 7. Forest ecology and timber management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arland S. Harris; Wilbur A. Farr

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale use of the timber resource of southeast Alaska began in 1953 after long efforts to establish a timber industry. Development and present status of the industry and present management of the timber resource are summarized, stressing the biological basis for timber management activities in southeast Alaska today. Ecological and silvicultural considerations...

  19. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be prepared...

  20. Cutting drying costs by pre-grading green timber according to strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gard, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-grading of green timber can be used to reduce the costs of timber drying for applications where strong dry timber is required. An example is chosen (wood for glue lamination) where the potential drying cost saving from pre-sorting green timber is 35% of the total drying costs (or as much as 9%

  1. Round timber bolted joints reinforced with modified washers and self-drilling screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Lokaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Timber constructions made of round timber components are becoming more and more popular. Given that in the current European standards for the design of timber structures, timber-to-timber joint type is solved only for squared timber. This paper presents results of static tests in tension at an angle of 0°, 90°, 60° to the grain of round timber bolted joints. This research looks into reinforcement with modified washers or self-drilling screws, as these are the least labour-intensive (while economically advantageous. The joints samples were experimentally tested in the laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering VŠB TU Ostrava.

  2. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  3. The bicriterion multimodal assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...

  4. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  5. Tensile properties of machine strength graded timber for glued laminated timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge

    1999-01-01

    Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations...... for glulam, may be increased by basing the setting values on test results of the tensile properties rather than using the strength classes definen in EN338....

  6. Reliability Analysis of Timber Structures through NDT Data Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    The first part of this document presents, in chapter 2, a description of timber characteristics and common used NDT and MDT for timber elements. Stochastic models for timber properties and damage accumulation models are also referred. According to timber’s properties a framework is proposed...... for robustness are dealt in chapter 5. The second part of this document begins in chapter 6, where a practical application of the premise definitions and methodologies is given through the implementation of upgraded models with NDT and MDT data. Structural life-cycle is, therefore, assessed and reliability...

  7. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....

  8. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...

  9. System Reliability of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Čizmar, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The present paper considers the evaluation of timber structures with the focus on robustness due to connection ductility. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework applied to a simplified mechanical system. The structural timber system is depicted as a parallel system....... An evaluation method of the ductile behaviour is introduced. For different ductile behaviours, the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation. A correlation between the strength of the structural elements is introduced. The results indicate that the reliability of a structural timber system...

  10. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull. The......-parameter Weibull (and Normal) distributions give the best fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the LogNormal distribution generally gives poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used........ The statistical fits have generally been made using all data (100%) and the lower tail (30%) of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. 8 different databases are analysed. The results show that 2...

  11. A Comparative Study on Timber Productivity by Timber Firms in Ghana as Influenced by Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Martin Amoah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major problems that confront the timber industry in Ghana are: The industries inability to diversify value-added products for export as well as decline in export volumes, prices, and number of sawmills which are actively engaged in the production and exportation of wood products especially the locally-owned. Furthermore, the capacity of forest sector has also reduced. These developments present a challenge to the local entrepreneurs in the face of globalization; and for that matter, the need to conduct an empirical comparative study into the issues to find solutions to mitigate them is now.The average number of products exported ware 3 and 4 by the locally- and foreign-owned firms respectively. In general, both categories of firms showed declines in eight low export prices of wood products from 2000 to 2008. Air-dried and kiln-dried lumber were the dominant products exported by both categories of firms. The foreign-owned timber firms exported ten high-priced timber products and eight by their counterparts; this makes the foreign-owned firms more diversified than the locally-owned firms. It is also worthy of note that, more than half (59% of the foreign-owned firms exported between 4 and 6 products while less than one-fourth (23% of the locally-owned firms exported the same number of products. Only one foreign owned firm exported products of 10 and above. Again the foreign owned - firms concentrated more on value added products while the locally-owned - firms specialized on primary products. This suggests that the foreign-owned firms are more efficient than their local counterparts.Statistical analysis conducted on all the products using (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test indicated that the differences were not statistically significant. Finally, the timber firms in Ghana should take innovative measures to diversify and maximize the recovery rate of volume and value of timber products especially the locally owned–firms so that they can

  12. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W. Scott; Donovan, Therese; Keeton, William S.; Nunery, Jared S.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  13. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M; Keeton, William S; Nunery, Jared S

    2012-07-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  14. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  15. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.... Forest Service in its sales and forestry practices. U.S. Forest Service personnel may be available for...

  16. Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...

  17. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  18. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : volume ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  19. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...... communities. This is however mainly occurring in ‘‘ordinary’’ forest lands and not in formally gazetted forest lands. In this paper we briefly explore the major land-uses in the Congo Basin and their actual or potential for multiple-use. We then focus on the most extant production system (industrial logging...... concessions) and analyze the existing issues and options for managing actively both timber and biodiversity with a special emphasis on wildlife and the role of certification. A few promising but yet ‘unfinished’ examples do exist in the region and we review these cases to draw lessons and recommendations. We...

  20. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. Two types...

  1. T-section glulam timber bridge modules : modeling and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Morgan; Steven E. Taylor; Michael A. Ritter; John M. Franklin

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and testing of two portable timber bridges, each consisting of two noninterconnected longitudinal glued-laminated timber (glulam) deck panels 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. One bridge is 12.2 m (40 ft) long while the other bridge is 10.7 m (35 ft) long. The deck panels are fabricated in a unique double-tee cross section. The bridges...

  2. Addressing uncertainties about timber housing by whole life costing

    OpenAIRE

    Levander, Erika; Stehn, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Increased cost and declining quality has resulted in a growing interest in industrialised construction. During the last twelve years around 20000 apartments have been built in Sweden using industrialized timber housing techniques. Still, potential clients and building owners are uncertain of long-term financial costs and functional performance of timber houses. The idea in this paper is to investigate if the use of whole life costing calculations might become a tool for addressing these uncer...

  3. Timber resource statistics for the Yakutat inventory unit, Alaska, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net,timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1975 timber inventory of the Yakutat unit, Alaska. Area of timberland is estimated at 236.3 thousand acres (95.6 thousand ha), net volume of growing stock at 1.1 billion cubic feet (29.9 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  4. Timber resource statistics for the Yakataga inventory unit, Alaska, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1985-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1976 timber inventory of the Yakataga unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 209.3 thousand acres (84.7 thousand ha), net growing stock volume at 917.1 million cubic feet (26.0 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  5. Reinforcement of timber beams with carbon fibers reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugutsidze, G.; Draškovič, F.

    2010-06-01

    Wood is a polymeric material with many valuable features and which also lacks some negative features. In order to keep up with high construction rates and the minimization of negative effects, wood has become one of the most valuable materials in modern engineering. But the use of timber material economically is also an actual problem in order to protect the environment and improve natural surroundings. A panel of scientists is interested in solving these problems and in creating rational structures, where timber can be used efficiently. These constructions are as follows: glue-laminated (gluelam), composed and reinforced wooden constructions. Composed and reinforced wooden constructions are examined less, but according to researches already carried out, it is clear that significant work can be accomplished in creating rational, highly effective and economic timber constructions. The paper deals with research on the formation of composed fiber-reinforced beams (CFRP) made of timber and provide evidence of their effectiveness. The aim of the paper is to investigate cross-bending of CFRP-reinforced gluelaminated timber beams. According to the results we were able to determine the additional effectiveness of reinforcement with CFRP (which depends on the CFRP material's quality, quantity and module of elasticity) on the mechanical features of timber and a whole beam.

  6. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  13. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  14. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  15. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  1. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  2. Strategy-Proof Stochastic Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Erdil, A.

    2013-01-01

    I study strategy-proof assignment mechanisms where the agents reveal their preference rankings over the available objects. A stochastic mechanism returns lotteries over deterministic assignments, and mechanisms are compared according to first-order stochastic dominance. I show that non-wasteful strategy-proof mechanisms are not dominated by strategy-proof mechanisms, however nonwastefulness is highly restrictive when the mechanism involves randomization. In fact, the Random Priority mechanism...

  3. Earlywood vessels of Castanea sativa record temperature before their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; Solomonoff, Natalie; García-González, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the climatic signal contained in the earlywood vessel size of the ring-porous chestnut (Castanea sativa) and the physiological processes involved in the underlying mechanisms. In order to assign the encoded signal to a specific physiological process, bud phenology and vessel formation were monitored along an elevation transect and chronologies of the size of the first row of earlywood vessels were retrospectively correlated with 40 yr of early spring temperatures. The first vessels appeared in late April to early May, after encoding both a negative temperature signal in February-March (during tree quiescence) and a positive temperature signal in early April (at the time of resumption of shoot growth). We hypothesize that February and March temperatures affect cambial sensitivity to auxin, preconditioning tree responses later in the season. Furthermore, April temperature is related to tree activation whereby new hormone production fosters vessel expansion.

  4. The timber truss: The studying of the behaviour of the spatial framework joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rumlová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of timber in civil engineering is increasing at the moment. Main timber elements are used for main supporting structures, typically for buildings, roofs, footbridges or towers. This work studies unique timber trusses as a supporting roof structure of spatial timber building. Timber trusses are used as roof supporting construction for objects with open inside space, especially halls or office buildings. This paper resolved critical joint in roof construction which is created by four timber trusses. The FEM model monitored strain changes in critical places of resolved joint.

  5. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  6. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  7. Appropriateness of probit-9 in the development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schortemeyer, Marcus; Thomas, Ken; Haack, Robert A; Uzunovic, Adnan; Hoover, Kelli; Simpson, Jack A; Grgurinovic, Cheryl A

    2011-06-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment effectiveness that has its origin in fruit fly research, and has been adopted by the United States Department of Agriculture for fruit flies and several other pests. Following this, the probit-9 standard has been adopted as a benchmark for many quarantine treatments worldwide. This article discusses aspects of the application of this concept for a range of timber pests. Problematic issues include the often small pest populations available for testing, the limits of modeling pest responses to a treatment in the absence of sufficient numbers for treatment verification, the species diversity of pests and host materials and the physical and chemical conditions of host material or treatment conditions. Where treatment verification by killing large numbers of individuals is impossible, data collected from small populations or under specific conditions must be interpreted with caution. We discuss possible alternative approaches to probit-9 as a treatment efficacy standard.

  8. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  9. Alternative Assignment Incentive Pay Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    300 dollars there was a 52% increase in applications and a 115 % increase in fill rates. This is extremely important to the Navy because it “suggest...Congress.” E-mail to Michael.T.Jones@navy.mil. 01 April 2005. 7. Nimon , W. R. and Hall, D. R. “An Experimental Analysis of the Relative Efficiency of...Scores (60 + 55 = 115 ). Accordingly, Bidder 1 is assigned to Job 1, Bidder 2 is unassigned, and Bidder 3 is assigned to Job 2. Payout in the

  10. Study on Aseismic Characteristics of Tibetan Ancient Timber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ancient timber structure has great historical, cultural, artistic, and scientific values. The structural configuration of members such as wall, roof, slab, and timber skeleton with semirigid joints is studied in this paper based on field survey results. The aseismic characteristics of Tibetan ancient timber structure have been summarized and introduced. One of the unique features of the Tibetan ancient timber structure is its special beam-column joint which has a semirigid behavior. Numerical simulations of a typical 3-storey structural unit in the Potala Palace are studied. The acceleration responses of the structure under the action of El-Centro seismic waves are studied. Results show that the arrangement of the joints is helpful for seismic resistance of the structure. Most Tibetan ancient timber structures are suffering from different types of damage to certain extent which is vulnerable to seismic actions. Typical damage problems of the structural components are summarized and the main causes of this damage are analyzed. Different rehabilitation methods that can be implemented are discussed, providing references for maintenance of the structures.

  11. DTM models to enhance planning of timber harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuka Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of DTM with the resolution of 4 × 4 m for the analysis of macro-topographic factors (terrain slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness index and one part of micro-topographic factors (occasional and constant streams as features important for vehicle mobility during timber skidding. The analysis of directions of timber extraction in relation to the spatial position of primary forest traffic infrastructure of the study area was conducted in order to determine from which forest areas timber will be extracted up or down the slope (moving of loaded vehicle. Determination of water bodies (streams and the surrounding sensitive areas was carried out using GIS tool TauDEM. Unevenness of the terrain was determined based on the Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI which showed moderately to very rugged terrain on 60.1% of the research area where vehicle mobility could be difficult (if not impossible i.e. the necessity of a secondary forest road network is clear. DTM analysis of study area regarding vehicle (skidder mobility and possible planning of timber extraction indicated different availability and quality of data. Digital terrain models present a good basis for the analysis of key constraints for forestry vehicles mobility or terrain trafficability (slope and direction of timber extraction. Using DTM of higher resolution (e.g. LiDAR images, will increase the accuracy of the results and the quality of the analysis.

  12. Vessel Owner Affiliation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created from existing federal fishing permit databases maintained by GARFO. Fishing permit numbers are assigned an affiliation identification number...

  13. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  14. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  15. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  17. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  18. Device for leveling the front of a section timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, N.D.; Grebenkin, S.S.; Samoylov, A.V.

    1980-02-28

    The device for leveling the front section timbering contains winches for moving the sections, a cable arranged along the timbering and attached to the end sections, tension attachment arranged on one of the terminal sections, and hydraulic winches for moving the cable hinged by means of mobile bushings to the cable and by means of pins to the timbering sections. To compensate for the spacing errors of any sign during movement of the sections it has hydraulic distributors which are established in the hydraulic system of winches for moving the sections, and sensors for controlling the hydraulic distributors installed in the hydraulic winches for moving the cable and made in the form of sensors of terminal position.

  19. Experimental In-Plane Evaluation of Light Timber Walls Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Branco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the satisfactory seismic performance of timber buildings can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of the wood itself and to the lightness of its own structure. The aim of this paper is to analyze the in-plane behavior of light timber walls panels through a series of monotonic and cyclic tests, and to evaluate how the sheathing material and the fixation to the base influence the overall response of the wall. Five tests are presented and discussed while the reliability of an analytical method to predict the response of the walls is studied. The sheathing material revealed to be important in the overall response of the wall. Moreover, the type of fixation to the base also revealed to be important in the in-plane response of timber walls. In-plane stiffnesses, static ductility, energy dissipation and damping ratio have been quantified.

  20. The 1993 timber assessment market model: structure, projections, and policy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1996-01-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...

  1. Timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Gary J. Lettman; Mary A. Mei

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1992 timber resource inventory Of timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon. The report presents statistical tables of timberland area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. It also displays tables of revised 1986-87 timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests; the 1992 and 1986-87 tables may be...

  2. An economic analysis of mine-timber marketing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1956-01-01

    Coal mines have long provided a major outlet for the timber products of West Virginia. Although the structure and operation of mine-timber markets is little understood, the efficiency of the marketing system undoubtedly affects the decisions of most of the 130,000 farm and other private timber-growing enterprises in the state.

  3. Robustness Analysis of a Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....

  4. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Rainforest, Plants, Density, Non-Timber Products, Exploitation. Introduction. A forest is a natural resource of multiple values, but oftentimes, the value of a tract of forest is estimated from the population density or standing volume of timber tree species present, while much more valuable non-timber resources are ...

  5. SPATS: a model for projecting softwood timber inventories in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks

    1987-01-01

    The yield-table projection method for modeling the development of regional timber inventories is outlined, and its application to softwood timber types in the Southern United States is described. Problems of simulating forest management practices and natural succession are discussed. A computer model that projects softwood timber inventories using yield-table...

  6. Field investigation of a 100-year-old timber crib foundation at a historic copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, the authors conducted a comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber crib foundation at Alaska’s Historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building. The primary goal of the 6-day inspection was to assess the physical conditions of the existing timber crib foundation and identify timber members and areas that have structural deficiencies. The inspection...

  7. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  8. Using TPO data to estimate timber demand in support of planning on the Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...

  9. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  10. Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in

  11. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber is...

  12. Timber resource statistics for the Upper Yukon inventory unit, Alaska, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1987-01-01

    The 1980 inventory of the forest resources of the Upper Yukon unit was designed to produce inventory estimates of timberland area, volume of timber, and volumes of timber growth and mortality. Timberland area is estimated at 742,000 acres. Cubic-foot volume on all timberland is estimated at 475 million cubic feet. Timber growth and mortality are estimated at -615,000...

  13. 47 CFR 80.383 - Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) system frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geographic radio protected areas. (a) Assigned frequencies: Vessel Traffic Control Frequencies Carrier frequencies (MHz) Geographic areas 156.250 Seattle. 156.550 New York, New Orleans, 2 Houston, Prince William... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Vessel Traffic Services System (vts...

  14. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  15. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  16. Who benefits from homework assignments?

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Using Dutch data on pupils in elementary school this paper is the first empirical study that analyzes whether assigning homework has an heterogeneous impact on pupil achievement. Addressing potential biases that arise from unobserved school quality, pupil selection by exploiting different methods, I find that the test score gap is larger in classes where everybody gets homework than in classes where nobody gets homework. More precisely pupils belonging to the upper part of the so...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  18. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  6. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  8. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  9. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  10. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  11. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  12. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  13. Implementing timber legality assurance regime in Ghana: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the scope of stakeholders concern and current institutional constraints for legal timber verification in Ghana. The aim is to provide background information as input for a new institutional framework under the VLTP. The review has shown that the current institutional set-up is not suitable for implementing ...

  14. Spatial Allocation of Timber Product Output Roundwood Receipts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Data from Georgia timber product output studies were used to develop models that spatially allocate roundwood receipts data from primary wood-using mills. Mill receipts data were converted to a cumulative frequency based on a distance from the mill to a county center. Distances were calculated as either straight line or shortest road distance, and county centers were...

  15. Timber resource statistics for Oregon, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics as of January 1, 1973, for the State of Oregon show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973, as well as each Bureau of Land Management...

  16. Load rating and FRP retrofitting of bridge abutment timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report details Phase II of the study titled Strengthening of Bridge Wood Piling Retrofits for Moment Resistance. Phase I of the research (project : R27-082) was focused on developing a load rating method for timber piles under eccentric load and...

  17. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  18. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  19. economic assessment of two selected non-timber forest products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aladex

    restaurants, bakeries, curing tobacco, brick burning and barbecue, to name few. Key Words: Non-timber forest products, ... industrial sector, a large number of prepared-food vendors such as restaurants, vendors of barbecue, bakeries, makers of agidi ... the debate on sustainable development. Fuelwood no doubt provides a ...

  20. Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (India). Securing the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples necessitates good governance and sustainable management of common-pool resources. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of South India ...

  1. Steam bending qualities of eight timber species of Ghana | Ayarkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam bending qualities of eight lesser used timber species of Ghana have been studied and compared with the quality of Mahogany (Khaya spp), a fast diminishing noble species, with the view to providing information for the furniture and glulam industries. Wood samples collected from three ecological forest zones of ...

  2. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  3. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  4. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  5. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Central Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1985-01-01

    The timber resource of the Central Wisconsin Survey Unit increased 4.2% in commercial forest area and increased 75% in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Highlights and statistics from the fourth inventory of this unit are presented for area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  6. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  7. epidemiology of eye diseases among timber workers in owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The typical timber shade environment is damp, messy and untidy with odours oozing out from wood and other decomposing organic materials, thereby creating very good and favourable habitat for flies, bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae and other microoganisms. Worse still, the place lacked pipe-borne water and good toilet.

  8. Contributions of non-timber forest products to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the contributions of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to household income and food security in the adjoining villages of Gambari forest reserve Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents among the community members. 141 copies of questionnaires were administered among ...

  9. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines gender roles in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) utilization by adjoining communities to Cross River National Park (CRNP), Oban Division. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire administered on 110 respondents randomly selected from these communities. These were ...

  10. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  11. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  12. Contribution of timber exports to economic growth in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contribution of timber exports to the economic growth in Nigeria, using an econometric approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration techniques were respectively used to test for unit root and examine the relationship between the variables used. In addition, Granger ...

  13. Wood Removals and Timber Use in New York, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas D. Martin; Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates removals and timber output of New York. Results are based on survey of primary processing mills located in the state and of mills in other states that used wood from New York. Incorporates additional studies conducted during standard statewide forest inventories. Contains statistics of industrial roundwood production and the production and final end use of...

  14. Smart timber bridge on geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State University’s Bridge Engineering Center (ISU–BEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...

  15. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data used were obtained from 90 sellers of these forest products through purposive sampling of markets in the area. Results showed that the average age of sellers was 42 years, while 63.2% ...

  16. Determining modulus of elasticity of ancient structural timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...

  17. Historical trends of timber product output in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    Historical data of periodic canvasses of primary wood-using plants are presented for the 13 Southern States. They are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Cubic-foot and standard volume tables are presented for production only. Production is the sum of timber...

  18. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Millions of people, especially those living in rural areas in developing countries collect Non-Timber Forest products (NTFPs) daily. Women are known to play a prominent role in forestry and agricultural production in Nigeria despite not been captured as economically productive. This work looked into gender dimension ...

  19. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced to 20 tractors (4 x 4 and assembled shovel), 133 skidding winches, 5 tractors with equipment of snow cleaner, 38 forklifts, 18 loaders, 30 skylines, 61 agricultural tractors, 3 agricultural tractors with shovel, 67 trucks, 1 barking machines as at 2009. In spite of existence of ...

  20. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  1. Veneer, 1976 - a periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 veneer industry survey in the Northeast showed that since the 1972 survey: Veneer log production rose 5 percent to 132 million board feet. Veneer log receipts at northeastern veneer plants dropped less than 1 percent. There were seven fewer veneer plants operating in the Northeast; new softwood plywood plant will be consuming northeastern timber. Exports of...

  2. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  3. Timber resources of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 9% decline in commercial forest area and a 19% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  4. Chapter 1: CLT Introduction to cross-laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...

  5. Assessment of demand and supply of timber products in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timber supply and demand balance for Benue State showed a deficit in the major products and the deficit portends dangers in sawn wood and veneers for industrial development of the state. Incidence of encroachment, lack of support from government and inadequate inventory of the resource base in Benue State are ...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  7. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; James K. Agee; Gregory H. Aplet; Dennis P. Dykstra; Russell T. Graham; John F. Lehmkuhl; David S. Pilliod; Donald F. Potts; Robert F. Powers; John D. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Timber harvest following wildfire leads to different outcomes depending on the biophysical setting of the forest, pattern of burn severity, operational aspects of tree removal, and other management activities. Fire effects range from relatively minor, in which fire burns through the understory and may kill a few trees, to severe, in which fire kills most trees and...

  8. Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... raw materials for building and mining industries, energy and non wood products. Unfortunately, indiscriminate exploitation for timber, charcoal and other products, frequent destructive woodland fires and expansion of agricultural activities have of recent contributed to eroding the environmental importance and ecological ...

  9. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  10. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  11. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  12. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming’s 2010 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  13. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Jim Menlove

    2013-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana’s 2009 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana’s primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  14. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  15. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  16. Deriving fair incentives for management of hardwood timber stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.

  17. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  18. 125 Timber Dealers' Perception of their Knowledge of the Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    individuals' rights and privileges, while at the same time limiting those rights within the boundary of the common good ... unauthorized times and places or without adequate steps to prevent it from spreading, and unauthorized ... Timber dealers' perception of the forest law in the State is that it is ineffective and irrelevant, and ...

  19. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The preparation and implementation of mechanization plans requires knowledge not only of economic, technical and management characteristics of ..... 2435-1, October.5th-10th.2004, Lviv, Ukraine. Ozturk T, Demir M, Hasdemir M (2007). Work organization of timber production in Turkey.

  20. The residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  1. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of Plantation Grown. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria. *1A.A. Malami and 2B. Olufemi. 1Department of Forestry and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. 2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, ...

  2. California's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Joshua P. Meek; Micah G. Scudder; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2015-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California's 2012 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides a description of the structure, condition, and economic impacts of California's forest products sector. Historical forest products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, mill residue, and sales. Also...

  3. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National... claimant has failed to file a verified statement or has failed to establish the validity and effectiveness...) Timber on an unpatented claim may be cut by the claimant only for the actual development of the claim or...

  4. Theory of timber connections with slender dowel type fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive a su...

  5. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  6. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  7. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    According to Wilson. (2007) a major source of deforestation is the logging industry driven particularly by. China and Japan. Generally the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity (Wikipedia, 2007). In many countries massive timber extraction.

  8. Timber resource statistics of south-central Alaska, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of timber resources for south-central Alaska are presented. Data collection began in 2000 and was completed in 2003. All forest lands over all ownerships were considered for sampling. The inventory unit was, roughly, the region between Icy Bay to the east and Kodiak Island to the west. Forest lands within national forest wilderness study areas and recommended...

  9. From wood hygromechanical interactions to timber structure longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Cédric; Gril, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Architects face nowadays the challenge of raising buildings edifices matching functionality of structural design,sustainable raw materials, thrifty energy consumption and aesthetic integration within surrounding environmentinfluenced by human culture and civil engineering heritage considerations. They often specify wood for variousreasons: cost, ecological issues, design versatility, construction facilities, etc. To improve timber structures,material engineers develop ...

  10. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    significant reduction in plant and animal population and lead to reduction in their diversity. ... national emergency. Haileselassie (2004) reported that the major cause of desertification in Ethiopia is deforestation which lowered the chances of rainfall and enhanced wind .... studies showed that having a small number of timber ...

  11. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber harvesting activities. 292.46 Section 292.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., high winds, and disease or insect infestation. (2) Where authorized, trees may be harvested by...

  12. Removing other Tree Species does not benefit the Timber Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endemic canopy tree Cephalosphaera usambarensis is a valuable timber species in montane rainforest of Tanzania. Here we evaluate an experiment in which mature trees of species other than C. usambarensis were removed from an area in the East Usambara Mountains. We compared stage/size structure of the ...

  13. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  14. Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2004-01-01

    The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

  15. Managing logging residue under the timber sale contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams

    1980-01-01

    Management of logging residue is becoming an important part of timber sale planning. This involves controlling the amount of residue remaining on the ground and its distribution by diameter size class. Some residue is beneficial.An interdisciplinary team specified a desired residue level for one clearcutting unit of this trial. For comparison another cutting...

  16. Estimation of U.S. Timber Harvest Using Roundwood Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Howard

    2006-01-01

    This report details the procedure used to estimate the roundwood products portion of U.S. annual timber harvest levels by using roundwood equivalents. National-level U.S. forest products data published by trade associations and State and Federal Government organizations were used to estimate the roundwood equivalent of national roundwood products production. The...

  17. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  18. The timber resources of the Blue Mountain area, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; John M. Berger

    1975-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Blue Mountain Area of Oregon indicates that there are about 47 billion board feet of sawtimber on 4.6 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 76 percent of the area and hold 89 percent of the sawtimber volume; farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 16 percent of the...

  19. Factors That Determine The Uses Of Some Timber Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This indicates that sawmills are the major sources of producing various timber species needed for wood works in the study area. The result revealed ... Afzelia africana etc. .This paper recommended that research activities should be embarked upon to increase the quality of wood products so as to increase future utilization.

  20. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  1. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  2. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  3. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for their construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required...

  4. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  5. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  6. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  7. Simulation of liquid dynamics in a cryogenic mobile vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical gases becomes liquid in extremely low temperature ranging minus 200 °C and very high pressure what makes that transportationdevices have to perform very strict requirement. Presented paper shows selected aspect of simulation of liquefied gas sloshing in aspect of requirements that mobile vessels have to fulfill. Mobile vessel which is the object of simulation is a two shell tank with vacuum and layer insulation between shells adapted to 20 ft container. It is assigned for see, railway and road transport and have to follow all of requirements for such transportation systems. Requirements for such tank are enclosed in standard ISO 1496-3 which deals with freight containers and standard EN13530-2 that describes vacuum, cryogenic vessels. The standards EN13530-2 defines that vessels which are to be filled equal or less than 80% should be fitted with surge plates to provide vessel stability and limit dynamic loads. Additionally surge plates area has tobe at least 70% of cross section of the vessel and volume between surge plates shall be not higher than 7.5 m3. Structure of the vessel as well as the surge plate should resist of longitudinal acceleration of 2g. Additionally surge plates shall resists stresses caused by pressure distributed across the area of surge plate and the pressure shall be calculated as mass of liquid between plates and acceleration 2g. In this paper is presented way of simulation of dynamic behavior of liquefied Argon on vessel structure. A numerical methods likeComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and Finite Element Analysis (FEA were used for this purpose. Combination of both tools allowedto get pick value of dynamic pressure that arising during acceleration of 2g, which was assumed is 0.2 s and investigate resistance of vessel and container structure. Presented approach is called Fluid – Structure Interaction simulation. In CFD simulation was used Ansys CFX code, while for FEA calculations Pro/Mechanica package.

  8. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.

  9. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  10. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  11. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  12. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  13. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  14. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  15. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  16. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  17. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  18. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  19. Local timber firm looking forward to develop on medium term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCS Lorant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local timber company in struggle to resist on medium-term on the market. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing, and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of timber industry. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local and international market, pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will also be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  20. Beam to Column Timber Joints with Pretensioned Bolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashikawa T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretension in bolts on hysteretic response of timber joints exposed to a bending had been reported by the authors, but the cyclic tests were carried out at small displacement level which might not be applicable for earthquake-resistance design. In this study, similar cyclic tests but at large displacement levels were conducted. Beam to column timber joints with steel side plates were fabricated and continuously loaded until failure. At connection, the bolts were pretension in four different magnitudes: 0 kN, 5 kN, 10 kN and 15 kN. The results showed that frictional action between the steel side plates and wood member as a result of bolt pretensioning significantly increased the (frictional hysteretic damping and the equivalent viscous damping ratio. It is obvious from the test results that the pretension force in bolts has no influence on the maximum joint resistance but decreases the joint rotational deformation.

  1. A Probabilistic Approach for Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    A probabilistic based robustness analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with ‘removal of a limited part of the structure’ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  2. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  3. The effects of the Euro adoption on the timber market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonoaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential effects of adopting the Euro currency in Romania on the timber prices. We begin from the current situation of Romanian wood auctions (starting price, selling price, timber type, volume auctioned, volume sold and compare it to the situation in Slovakia. In this case, an in depth analysis on the effects of the currency change will be presented, focusing on the changes that have occurred in the prices of general goods and materials, especially on the timber market, taking into account the changes that have taken place on the Slovakian timber market. We will apply the same trend to Romania and set up a forecasting model and study the potential effects, both immediate and long term of adopting the Euro currency for the timber market (variation in price and timber volume.

  4. Numerical simulation on behaviour of timber-concrete composite beams in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Hu, Xiamin; Zhang, Bing; Minli, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper established sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical models of timber--concrete composite (TCC) beams by finite element software ANSYS to investigate the fire resistance of TCC beam. Existing experimental results were used to verify the coupled thermal-mechanical model. The influencing parameters consisted of the width of timber beam, the thickness of the concrete slab and the timber board. Based on the numerical results, the effects of these parameters on fire resistance of TCC beams were investigated in detail. The results showed that modeling results agreed well with test results, and verified the reliability of the finite element model. The width of the timber beam had a significant influence on the fire resistance of TCC beams. The fire resistance of TCC beams would be enhanced by increasing the width of timber beam, the thickness of concrete slab and the timber board.

  5. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jacob B; Cobb, Vincent A; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitogenome of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was completed using Sanger sequencing. It is 17,260 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs, two rRNAs and two control regions. Gene synteny is consistent with other snakes with the exception of a missing redundant tRNA (Ser) . This mitogenome should prove to be a useful addition of a well-known member of the Viperidae snake family.

  6. Chain of custody certification: an assessment of Ghanaian timber sector

    OpenAIRE

    Attah, A.; Ioras, F.; Ratnasingam, J.; Abrudan, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although Europe represents a major market for Ghana, information on how local companies are addressing chain of custody certification is scarce. A survey of 103 timber firms, in particular, was conducted in order to determine the current status of chain of custody certification in Ghana. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of stakeholders? awareness and price premium was cited as the primar...

  7. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  8. Timber resource statistics for the Sitka inventory unit, Alaska, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1971 timber resource inventory of the Sitka unit in southeast Alaska. Estimates for timberland total 821,700 acres (332 500 ha) with 4.8 billion cubic feet (137.6 million m3) of net growing stock volume. Annual net growth is estimated at -36.8 million cubic feet and mortality at 59.7 million cubic feet (-1.0 and 1.7...

  9. Wooden Facade and Determination of Strength of Bonded Timber Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Nečasová, Barbora; LIŠKA, Pavel; Šlanhof, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    A research case focused on vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail and verified through experimental measurements. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure and Wooden plastic composite façade sheeting for the cladding. Three types of industrial adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the prepar...

  10. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  11. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  12. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  13. Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Timber Element Using SBRA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Wood as a building material has a significant perspective in the context of nonrenewable energy sources and production of greenhouse gas emissions. The subject of this paper is to verify the carrying capacity of the timber element using the probabilistic method Simulation Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA). The simulation is performed for one million cycles. Key factors decreasing the strength of wooden material at the time include the duration of the loads, and combinations thereof. Inconsiderable factor affecting the strength of wood is also the humidity. Continuous beam with three fields (length 15 m, glued laminated timber, and strength class GL 36 according to the DIN EN 1194) is placed in an environment with a thermal-humidity regime of the 2nd class according to the EC 5. Average life of carrying timber structure is estimated to be 50 years. The simulation results show that there is no risk of failure of wood during the first year. The probability of failure is common in the 10 years of its life. Then, wooden element already meets only a reduced level of reliability.

  14. A cut above: building the market for fair trade timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2008-02-15

    Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.

  15. BOLTED TIMBER JOINTS WITH SELF-TAPPING SCREWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Echavarría

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-tapping screws with continuous threads in the joint area as a reinforcement to avoid splitting of timber members is studied. A theoretical model is developed to calculate the stress distribution around a pin-loaded hole in a timber joint, to predict brittle failure modes in bolted connections and to calculate the load in the reinforcing screws. Laboratory experiments on reinforced and non-reinforced timber joints with 15,9-mm bolts have shown good agreement with the model predictions.En este artículo se estudia el uso de tornillos autoperforantes como refuerzo para evitar rupturas frágiles en uniones de madera. Se presenta un modelo teórico para calcular la distribución de esfuerzos alrededor de un perno en una unión de madera, predecir las rupturas frágiles y evaluar el esfuerzo en los tornillos autoperforantes. Los experimentos de laboratorio con uniones de madera, con pernos de 15,9 mm de diámetro, reforzadas y no reforzadas mostraron la efectividad del modelo teórico propuesto.

  16. Robustness Analysis of a Wide-Span Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile be...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....

  17. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber p...

  18. Structural Response of Fire-Exposed Cross-Laminated Timber Beams under Sustained Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Lineham, Sean A.; Thomson, Daniel; Bartlett, Alastair I.; Bisby, Luke A.; Hadden, Rory M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a popular construction material for low and medium-rise construction. However an architectural aspiration exists for tall mass timber buildings, and this is currently hindered by knowledge gaps and perceptions regarding the fire behaviour of mass timber buildings. To begin to address some of the important questions regarding the structural response of fire-exposed CLT structures in real fires, this paper presents a series of novel fire tests on CLT beams subjec...

  19. Hardwood timber sales on state forests in Indiana: characteristics influencing costs and prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Vasievich; W. L., Jr. Mills; Heidi R. Cherry

    1997-01-01

    Timber sales conducted on State-owned forests in INdiana from 1982 to 1994 were analyzed to determine changes in costs and prices and the effect of sale conditions on costs and prices. The data set included 445 sales that ranged in size from less than 1 acre to more than 500 acres. Sales were predominantly partial cuts in mature hardwood timber. Marked timber volume...

  20. The statistical variability and length effects in the tensile transverse behavior of clear timber

    OpenAIRE

    Moshtaghin, Alireza Farajzadeh; Franke, Steffen; Keller, Thomas; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, clear timber specimens of different lengths with a small cross-sectional area were cut in the transverse direction of timber boards and tested under tensile loading. Regularly positioned and randomly positioned specimens were cut from different timber boards. Local deformations in each specimen were measured during the tests and the mechanical behavior of specimens of different lengths was compared. Statistics and size effects concerning the elastic modulus and strength were stu...

  1. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  2. Stora Enso Timber rajab Imaverre uue tehase Jaapani turu tarvis / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Metsatööstuskontsern Stora Enso Timber ehitab Imaverre liimpuidutehase, mis hakkab tootma liimpuittalasid peamiselt Jaapani turu jaoks. Diagramm. Lisa: Pankurid peavad Stora Enso sammu Eestile kasulikuks

  3. Comparison of behaviour of laterally loaded round and squared timber bolted joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Lokaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current European standards for design of timber structures, the issue of timber-to-timber joint type is addressed only to squared timber, which makes the pinpointing of the round timber bolted joints load carrying capacity near-unfeasible due to the insufficient support in the current standards. There have been made series of tests of round timber joints in different inclinations of the loading force and also the reference tests of squared timber joints to compare the behaviour of this type of joints. Mechanical behaviour of the round and the squared timber bolted joints was tested in the laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Ostrava. This paper presents results of static tests in tension at an angle of 0°, 90° and 60° to the grain of squared and round timber bolted joints. Load carrying capacity was determined according to the applicable standards and theories of fracture mechanics. The test results of laboratory tests were then compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  4. Finite element study of growth stress formation in wood and related distortion of sawn timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of straightness in timber is the most frequent complaint regarding solid (and laminated) timber products worldwide. Nowadays, customers demand higher quality in the shape stability of wood products than they did earlier. The final distortion of timber boards is caused mostly by moisture......-related stresses in wood (drying distortions) and growth-related stresses (distortions appearing when logs are split up to timber boards by sawing). To get more knowledge on how these distortions can be reduced in wooden products, there is a need for improved understanding of this material behaviour through good...

  5. Factors Affecting the Price of Beech Timber Sale by Auctions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet DAŞDEMİR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors affecting the auction price of timber in the state forest enterprises in Turkey. This studywas handled to determine the factors affecting the price of third class normal sized beech timber sale by auctions.It was carried out in two rival state forest enterprises (Bartın and Yenice of Zonguldak Regional ForestDirectorate in the Western Blacksea Region of Turkey. The data obtained from the total 149 timber auctions inthe period 1998-2002 were used as material in this study. The effects of seasonal and other factors on the auctionprice of beech timber were investigated by variance analysis, season and month indexes, and correlation,regression and factors analyses respectively. At the end of statistical analyses, it was determined that the seasonsaffected the beech timber prices at the 90% significant level. The most positive effect in spring and the mostnegative effect in winter were determined. The month most affecting timber price was April. Also, the factorsthe most affecting the price of beech timber sale by auctions were determined as follows: (1 Timing of theauctions, (2 Quantity of supply and size of timber stack, (3 Demand level, (4 Quality and appropriateness tostandardization in timber production. Furthermore, based on these conclusions, some suggestions were made inorder to plan marketing activities optimally and to improve the marketing policies and to ensure economicallysustainability in state forest enterprises.

  6. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  7. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis

    2010-01-01

    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.

  8. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  9. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  10. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  11. Library-Based Assignments That Enrich the Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the benefits of library work (and some cautions) before describing four assignments that exploit library resources: a business report assignment; a professional journal assignment; a style manual format assignment; and an international business communication assignment. (SG)

  12. Wood-based panel plant locations and timber availability in selected U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. McKeever; H. N. Spelter

    1998-01-01

    This report lists wood-based panel industry plant locations, production capacities, timber inventories, and wood costs for 24 U.S. states. Industry sectors covered include medium-density fiberboard, particleboard, softwood plywood, and oriented strandboard. Maps of major forest producing states show plant locations and the underlying density of timber stocking by...

  13. Residual timber values within Piedmont streamside management zones of different widths and harvest levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; Wallace Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Patrick D. Keyser

    2015-01-01

    Forested streamside management zones (SMZs) provide numerous societal benefits including protection of water quality and enhancement of in-stream and riparian habitats. However, values of residual timber in SMZs are often ignored, yet maintenance of unnecessarily wide SMZs can potentially reduce merchantable timber. Therefore, forestland owners, managers, and logging...

  14. Compatibility of intensive timber culture with recreation, water and wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel P. Shaw

    1977-01-01

    Two principles of ecology can be applied to make management for recreation, water, and wildlife habitat compatible with timber management. They are diversity within plant communities (i.e. timber types) and interspersion of these diverse communities in place and time. Intensive cultural operations can be the tool to create the...

  15. The production and consumption of minor timber products in Oregon and Washington, 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman M. Johnson

    1932-01-01

    A thorough canvass of the producers of minor timber products in Oregon and Washington has brought together or the first time authoritative statistics as to quantities of each currently produced. This information is valuable in gauging the importance of those industries, the trend in production and consumption, their relation to the major timber industries, and their...

  16. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  17. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...

  18. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  19. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  20. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  1. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  2. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service Electric and..., which amended its regulations on Electric and Telecommunications Standards and Specifications for..., wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and...

  3. Harvesting choices and timber supply among landowners in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Xing Sun; Brett J. Butler; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise of institutional timberland ownership has led to a significant change in the structure and conduct of the timber industry in the United States. In this study,we apply a two-period harvest model to assess the timber harvesting behavior of various landowners at the stand level by utilizing USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data for nine...

  4. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  5. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  6. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  7. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  8. Influences of upland timber harvest on aquatic invertebrate communities in seasonal ponds: efficacy of forested buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Hanson; Brian J. Palik; James O. Church; Anthony T. Miller

    2010-01-01

    We assessed community responses of aquatic invertebrates in 16 small, seasonal ponds in a forested region of north central Minnesota, USA, to evaluate potential influences of timber harvest and efficacy of uncut forested buffers in adjacent uplands. Invertebrate data gathered before (2000) and during the first 4 years following clearcut timber harvest (2001-2004)...

  9. NDE investigation of the timber foundation in the historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer; Bessie M. Woodward

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Park Service acquired the National Historic Copper Mine at Kennecott, Alaska, in 1998. There was uncertainty about the condition of the timber-cribbing foundation supporting the concentration mill, the largest building in the mine complex. A comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber cribbing foundation was performed in summer 2009. The inspection...

  10. Timber bridge evaluation : a global nondestructive approach using impact generated FRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus Morison; C.D. Van Karsen; H.A. Evensen; J.B. Ligon; J.R. Erickson; R.J. Ross; J.W. Forsman

    2002-01-01

    Bridges require periodic inspections to ensure the safety of those using the structure. A visual inspection has historically been the most common form of investigation for timber bridges. This poses many problems when inspecting bridge timbers since often the damage is internal, leaving no visible signs of decay on the surface. Localized nondestructive evaluation (NDE...

  11. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the economic and ecological potential of non-timber forest products. In the United States, much of this increased interest stems from drastic changes in forest practices and policies in the Pacific Northwest region, a region that produces many non-timber forest products. The forests of the eastern United States...

  12. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  13. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for subsistence uses, and the noncommerical gathering of dead or downed timber for firewood, shall... plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial...

  14. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...

  15. Service life assessment of timber highway bridges in USA climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw; Thomas G. Williamson; P. David Jones; Matthew S. Smith; Travis K. Hosteng; David L. Strahl; Lola E. Coombe; V.J. Gopu

    2014-01-01

    As engineers begin to estimate life-cycle costs and sustainable design approaches for timber bridges, there is a need for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This...

  16. Emergent lessons from a century of experience with Pacific Northwest timber markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2008-01-01

    Timber markets in the United States are areas where timber prices tend to be uniform because of the continuous interactions of buyers and sellers. These markets are highly competitive, volatile, and change relentlessly. This paper looks at how market interactions in the Pacific Northwest have responded to changes in underlying determinants of market behavior and...

  17. System Balance In Multi-Stage Timber Transportation: A Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber transportation is known to be the most important and expensive single component in timber harvesting. It is a crucial part in harvesting planning especially where difficulty terrain and long distances are involved. This paper presents a study of a skyline logging system, Mkumbara, Northeast Tanzania, where difficult ...

  18. 77 FR 11532 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... been transferred to Abenaki Timber Corporation. The project is located on the South Milton River in Stafford County, New Hampshire. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\ 15... Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of...

  19. Simplified Analytical Model for a Queen-Post Covered Timber Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    F Fanous; D. Rammer; T. Wipf

    2013-01-01

    During the 19th century, the economic material to build bridges was timber due to its abundant availability, cost, and ease of construction. Many of the well-known timber bridge types are the Burr arch, Town lattice, Howe, Queen and King type of trusses. This paper summarizes an investigation that was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the USDA Forest...

  20. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  1. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  2. Post-Fire Analysis of Solid-Sawn Heavy Timber Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Frank E. Woeste

    2013-01-01

    After fire exposure, design professionals are sometimes called upon to determine if the charred heavy timbers (Figure 1) are safe for future use without additional support or repairs. In this article, the authors present a sequence of reasoned steps that will help design professionals analyze charred timbers and gain the type of information needed to...

  3. trade on non-timber forest products (ntfps) between south west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    INTRODUCTION. Forest, apart from timber, forest contains many useful goods and services of subsistence and commercial value called Non-Timber Forest Products ... A. F. Nkwatoh, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South ... The study area has a humid tropical.

  4. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  5. A method for estimating operability and location of the timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Mark H. Hansen; Pamela J. Jakes

    1986-01-01

    Operability is the relative ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Using data collected during standard statewide forest inventories, we developed a method for classifying timber by operability class based on seven operability components.

  6. Development of a smart timber bridge girder with fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Ursula Deza; Brent M. Phares; Terry J. Wipf

    2010-01-01

    Past timber bridge evaluation and maintenance efforts in the USA have principally focused on the internal integrity of timber components using various non-destructive evaluation tools to supplement visual inspection data. This project is part of a comprehensive effort to develop smart structure concepts for improving the long-term performance, maintenance, and...

  7. Simple models for estimating local removals of timber in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Larsen; David A. Gansner

    1975-01-01

    Provides a practical method of estimating subregional removals of timber and demonstrates its application to a typical problem. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to develop equations for estimating removals of softwood, hardwood, and all timber from selected characteristics of socioeconomic structure.

  8. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this. 

  9. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this.

  10. Field performance of stress-laminated highway bridges constructed with glued laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Wacker

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir/red maple combination, and/or Douglas fir lumber species....

  11. The effects of population growth on timber management and inventories in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Rei Liu; J. Michael Foreman; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1999-01-01

    Expanding human populations may have important effects on the availability of timber from private lands in the South. To examine the effects of development on timber supply, the authors compared the density of populations and various site variables with expert opinions on the future location of commercial timberland for a study site in Virginia. Population density is a...

  12. Timber harvesting, processing, and employment in the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative region: changes and economic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Harriet H. Christensen

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest economic adjustment initiative (NWEAI) provides economic assistance to a region including western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California. Timber harvests have fallen markedly in this region since 1990. The forest products industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the region, and employment has followed the downward trend in timber...

  13. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... or designated by forest officers may be cut and removed for personal use for domestic purposes...

  14. Timber resource statistics for the Prince of Wales inventory unit, Alaska, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1983-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1973 timber inventory of the Prince of Wales unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 1.38 million acres (557 593 ha), net growing stock volume at 7.56 billion cubic feet (214 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  15. Timber resource statistics for the Tanana inventory unit, Alaska, 1971-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1971-75 timber inventory of the Tanana unit, Alaska. This report summarizes statistics previously published for the four inventory blocks of the unit: Fairbanks, Kantishna, Upper Tanana, and Wood-Salcha. Timberland area is estimated at 2.19 million...

  16. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE...) Permit the salvage of timber damaged by wind, insects, fire or other catastrophe, (d) Bring into use a...

  17. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  18. A Technique for Merging Areas in Timber Mart-South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    For over 20 yr, TimberMart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from southern forests. In the beginning of 1988, the reporting frequency changed from monthly to quarterly, a change readily addressed through a variety established statistical techniques. A more significant statistical challenge is Timber Mart-South's change in 1992 from...

  19. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  20. Designing of Timber Bolt Connection Subjected To Double Unequal Shears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilek, Josef; Plachy, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with load-carrying capacity of bolted connections subjected to unequal double shear with thin plates as outer members and inner timber member. This type of connection is usually widespread and in building support structures made of wood is commonly used. This may occur for example in skeletal structures which contain structural elements based on wood, but also for smaller wooden buildings. Specifically, this type of connection can be found in ceiling structures in the joint joists and beams. If one joist greater margin than the second, bringing the load on the side of the joists of a larger span greater loads than on the side with a smaller span joist. Structure engineer, who is designing such a connection, must use for the design of the connection design procedures and formulas from which he or she calculates the design resistance in order to carry out further assessment of the reliability of the connection in the ultimate limit state. The load-carrying capacity of this connections type can be calculated at present according to Johansen’s equations, which are also contained in present European standard for the design timber structures -Eurocode 5. These Johansen’s equations assume that the loads which act on the outer plates are equal. For this reason, the structure engineer is often forced to use formulas intended for the timber bolt connection subjected to double equal shear and he or she must find ways how to use them although the formulas are not suitable. This paper deals with the case, when the loads acting on the outer plates are unequal.

  1. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  2. Does damage accumulate in timber joints loaded at load levels below 50% of the average short term strength?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Joints govern the design of many types of timber structures. Knowledge about the long term strength is limited. The long term behaviour of joints in is not necessarily the same as for timber, although many design codes give the same load duration factors for timber and joints. This study is focussed

  3. Effects of long-term prescribed burning on timber value in hardwood forests of the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is commonly used for restoring and managing oak woodlands but raises concern over the risk of value loss to timber products. We used a long-term prescribed burning study to quantify standing timber volume and stumpage value, fire scar presence and size, and timber value loss in comparison to unburned stands. Three study treatments were initiated in 1949...

  4. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  5. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  6. Soil compaction in timber skidding in winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Šušnjar, Marijan; Horvat, Dubravko; Šešelj, Josip

    2006-01-01

    The research of soil compaction in timber skidding was carried out on two skid trails of uniform slope –15%and 30 %. The degree of soil compaction is shown by changes of water-air soil characteristics of the skid trail after a certain number of passes of a loaded skidder and by comparison between these values and the characteristics of untreaded soil during research. The research was carried out in winter conditions at low air and soil temperatures and with the research site covered with s...

  7. Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Christina

    was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......-dimensional fiber paradigm, variations of knot and knot-bump geometry and related fiber disturbance of eleven knots from two trees of Nordic Spruce (Picea Abies) grown in Southern Sweden were analysed. Results showed that the paradigm could be calibrated to describe measured projected fiber orientations...

  8. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  9. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  11. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  16. Transposition of the great vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  17. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  19. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  1. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  2. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  3. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  4. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products encoded in. MTB. These domain assignments have been made using a compendium of sequence and structural ...

  5. The Assessment of Students by Formal Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Michael

    New Zealand universities have been examining the possibilities of abolishing end-of-year examinations and placing more importance on coursework. This monograph offers the alternative of assessing students by formal assignments. The formal assignment system has 4 essential characteristics which distinguish it from other methods of assessment. (1) A…

  6. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  7. Integrating Online Assignments Checking in Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundak, David; Shacham, Miri; Herscovitz, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Web technology offers lecturers the option of checking students' assignments online. Several systems have evolved to deliver personal assignments to each student in a multi-participant course. These systems provide students with immediate feedback, allowing them to correct erroneous answers and referring them to relevant literary sources that can…

  8. Assigning Elementary Pupils to Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Examines variation in the methods used to assign students to classrooms and teachers in a small but highly diversified sample of elementary schools. Gives explicit attention to parental influence on pupil assignments as well as to effects of having an unusually incompetent or excellent teacher at a particular grade level. (NH)

  9. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  10. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  11. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  12. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business groups remained intact across various diplomas and large focus areas, which would act as a pivot for the major group assignments, were forged using scenarios from three core courses. Each general topic thus included at least three separate yet complementary portfolio assignments that differed in genre, ...

  13. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem is given. Here our algorithm outperforms all...

  14. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  15. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  16. Adhesives Based on Furan Resin for Structural Laminated Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia ZELENIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In wood laminated products manufacturing thephenol-based adhesives are especially used. Recentlyother adhesives such as polyurethanes were promotedon the market for structural applications withremarkable properties. Structural adhesives have tofulfil the requirements according to their uses, underwet or dry conditions as adhesive type I and type IIrespectively. Criteria for evaluating structuraladhesives, includes delamination resistance, shearstrength of bond and percent of wood failure. Thisstudy has the objective to evaluate the bondingperformance of furan based resin and its suitability forstructural purposes. There are some investigationsabout the possibility of incorporating the furan resin intowood adhesive formulations but their industrialexploitation is still modest. Three experimentaladhesive compositions based on furan and ureaformaldehyderesins, were used to cold-glue beechand spruce lamellas to form a structural timber likeglued laminated timber. Adhesive formulations includedmixed furan resin with furfuryl alcohol (FC2 and twomodified furan resins with urea-formaldehyde resin(UR/FC2 and UR/FC3 at 50% UR. Bond shearstrength by longitudinal tensile and resistance todelamination were performed according to SR EN302:2004. The best performance was obtained withadhesive FC2 which showed shear strength above thevalues indicated for structural adhesives in EN301:2004. FC2 adhesive performed significantly betterin delamination tests too, both in dry and wetconditions, compared to the other two adhesives,showing promise for its use in load-bearing timberstructures.

  17. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  18. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  19. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  20. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  1. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-02

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon.

  2. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo OWEN

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  3. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  4. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  5. Timbered Architecture in the Regions of the Walddeutsche Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrehorowicz – Gaber, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    The centuries-old Polish history, its complicated fortunes and borders changing over the centuries have caused the cultural heritage to be a reflection of the fate of the inhabitants, the intermingling of ethnic groups and the common formation of the culture of the region. The cultural area of southern Poland is particularly full of layers, where diverse historical and geographical influences blend together. That is why the presence of the common construction type for the wooden objects on the two ends of southern Poland, in two different geographical realms, is such an interesting testimony of the Polish cultural melting pot. The main area of the occurrence of the timbered architecture is the borderland of Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland. This type of houses was built for the first time in the Middle Ages in the area of Upper Lusatia, then this type of housing has spread to northern Czech Republic and the western part of Lower Silesia. In Poland, there are two main clusters of the occurrence of timbered structures: in Lower Silesia and in the Subcarpathian province, where this type of buildings has been rooted with the German settlers, called the Walddeutsche in this area. The colonisation was also accompanied by the model of settlement village systems moved from the west, the development of the plot, and this specific type of construction. The architecture of the Jasielsko-Sanockie Valleys and the Dynowskie foothills is an interesting, though a very poor form in relation to the Sudeten houses, as the architecture non-recurring in other Polish regions has been formed as a result of the intermingling of the cultures. In this area, the houses and farm buildings with the timbered structures were used most often by farmers and they were not too impressive, so that the residents did not notice their uniqueness. Today, in the natural landscape, they disappear one by one, as a result of lack of maintenance and the replacement of the old materials with objects of a

  6. Probabilistic Robustness Analysis of Timber Structures—Results from EU COST Action E55:WG3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from Working Group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55—‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental exposure...... scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  7. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  8. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  9. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M

    2002-05-01

    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  11. Economic benefit assignment in environmental cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a dirty product which has the potential to offer sales promotion services to other clean products in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model economic benefit assignment (eba) for apportionment of direct waste costs where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other clean products of the same company, which proposes that benefiting products should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost of the polluting product...

  12. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  13. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  14. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  15. Creep Properties of Walikukun (Schouthenia ovata Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of creep constants of Walikukun (Schoutheniaovata timber beams when rheological model of four solid elements, which is obtained byassembling Kelvin and Maxwell bodies in parallel configuration, was adopted. Creep behaviorobtained by this method was further discussed and compared with creep behavior developedusing phenomenological model of the previous study. Creep data of previous study was deformationmeasurement of Walikukun beams having cross-section of 15 mm by 20 mm with a clearspan of 550 mm loaded for three weeks period under two different room conditions: with andwithout Air Conditioner. Creep behavior given by both four solid elements model and phenomenological(in this case are power functions had good agreement during the period of creepmeasurement, but they give different prediction of creep factor beyond this period. The powerfunction of phenomenological model could give a reasonable creep prediction, while for the foursolid elements model a necessary modification is required to adjust its long-term creep behavior.

  16. Sertifikat Lestari PT. Diamond Raya Timber: Aset atau Beban?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2007-01-01

    Several environmental non-government organizations and green parties pursue various strategies to promote sustainable management of forest resource. Due to the increasing environment awareness of some segments of timber users, they have established a certification body and developed a set of criteria and indicators, against which the performance of participating forest companies will be assessed. Early experiences in Indonesia showed that certification received warm welcome from several forest companies, as there is no question that they saw the attraction of being certified. However, it appears that their enthusiasm was dampened by the experience of a certified company. Certification might have been seen as more of a liability than an asset as the economic benefits from market access became less clear, while the costs became more apparent. The use of rigid standards might result in “negative” responses from forest companies. More proactive approaches might encourage the companies to join certification.

  17. On the Architectural Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2010-01-01

    glued together crosswise, possesses structural capacities which are out of woods nature. Several research studies have clarified that CLT has many qualities within the engineering field but knowledge regarding its applications and aesthetics is more insufficient. Thus, the purpose of this paper......In resent years wood as a building material has gain renewed focus and with that new production methods and wooden products have been developed. One of these products is Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) which, by means of high-technology production and a distinctive construction with layers of lamellae...... is to look into in what way this material is interesting seen from an architectural point of view. The paper deals with aspects like workability and accuracy as result of high-technology production, architectural freedom due to the materials technical properties, its tactile and visual qualities when exposed...

  18. A Constraint Programming Model for Fast Optimal Stowage of Container Vessel Bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Janstrup, Kira

    Container vessel stowage is a combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. The most successful approaches to tackle this problem use hierarchical decompositions in which the sub-problems of these decompositions assign containers to slots in individual vesse...

  19. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  20. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.