WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessel wall inflammation

  1. Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165836.html Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation Drug will treat adults with a condition called ... to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). In a media ...

  2. Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study With tocilizumab's approval, there's an alternative ... treating the most common form of blood vessel inflammation known as giant cell arteritis, a new study ...

  3. Coagulation and the vessel wall in thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Ten Cate, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is a key survival mechanism that has developed to protect man against lethal bleeding. A second function of blood coagulation is its close interaction with immunity. The immune-mediated coagulation responses may broadly be regarded as an element of response to injury. Pathological coagulation responses, including thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), could therefore be regarded as excessive immune responses to a vessel wall injury. Virchow's triad, which comprises changes in the components of the blood, the state of the vessel wall, and the blood flow, was originally proposed for venous thrombosis. However, lately it appears that the same principles can be applied to arterial thrombosis and even DIC. It has even been postulated that all forms of thrombosis may be part of a continuous spectrum of the same disease. Over the past few years, an accumulation of evidence has shown that the etiopathogenetic mechanisms behind venous and arterial thrombosis are quite similar. The traditional elements of Virchow's triad are found to apply to both arterial and venous thrombosis. Yet, nowadays more emphasis is placed on the vessel wall and vascular bed specificity and the interaction with inflammation and hypercoagulability. This narrative review will discuss recent advances in research on the possible interactions between coagulation, the vascular endothelium, and atherosclerosis as well as the consequences of such interactions for venous and arterial thrombosis.

  4. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  5. High-Resolution Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Varicella-Zoster Virus Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Lachanis, Stefanos; Magoufis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Stamboulis, Elefterios

    2016-06-01

    Varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy is a rare but potentially treatable condition. Diagnosis has been based on angiography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. High-resolution vessel wall MRI may aid to the diagnosis by differentiating inflammation from other vessel wall pathologies. We present the characteristic MRI findings of this condition in a young patient presenting with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  7. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis

    2010-01-01

    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.

  8. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  9. Vessel wall characterization using quantitative MRI: what's in a number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Bram F; Calcagno, Claudia; van Ooij, Pim; Fayad, Zahi A; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nederveen, Aart J

    2018-02-01

    The past decade has witnessed the rapid development of new MRI technology for vessel wall imaging. Today, with advances in MRI hardware and pulse sequences, quantitative MRI of the vessel wall represents a real alternative to conventional qualitative imaging, which is hindered by significant intra- and inter-observer variability. Quantitative MRI can measure several important morphological and functional characteristics of the vessel wall. This review provides a detailed introduction to novel quantitative MRI methods for measuring vessel wall dimensions, plaque composition and permeability, endothelial shear stress and wall stiffness. Together, these methods show the versatility of non-invasive quantitative MRI for probing vascular disease at several stages. These quantitative MRI biomarkers can play an important role in the context of both treatment response monitoring and risk prediction. Given the rapid developments in scan acceleration techniques and novel image reconstruction, we foresee the possibility of integrating the acquisition of multiple quantitative vessel wall parameters within a single scan session.

  10. Intracranial vessel wall imaging at 7.0 tesla MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke. Current conventional imaging techniques assessing intracranial arterial disease in vivo only visualize the vessel wall lumen instead of the pathological vessel wall itself. Therefore, not much is known about the imaging

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of vessel wall morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröner, Eleanore Sophie Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis evaluates morphological and functional vessel wall properties measured by magnetic resonance imaging techniques in healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases (i.e. Marfan syndrome patients (MFS), patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and patients with a previous myocardial

  12. Walled Carotid Bifurcation Phantoms for Imaging Investigations of Vessel Wall Motion and Blood Flow Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Adrian J Y; Ho, Chung Kit; Yiu, Billy Y S; Yu, Alfred C H

    2016-07-18

    As a major application domain of vascular ultrasound, the carotid artery has long been the subject of anthropomorphic phantom design. It is nevertheless not trivial to develop walled carotid phantoms that are compatible for use in integrative imaging of carotid wall motion and flow dynamics. In this paper, we present a novel phantom design protocol that can enable efficient fabrication of walled carotid bifurcation phantoms with: (i) high acoustic compatibility, (ii) artery-like vessel elasticity, and (iii) stenotic narrowing feature. Our protocol first involved direct fabrication of the vessel core and an outer mold using computer-aided design tools and 3-D printing technology; these built parts were then used to construct an elastic vessel tube through investment casting of a polyvinyl alcohol containing mixture, and an agar-gelatin tissue mimicking slab was formed around the vessel tube. For demonstration, we applied our protocol to develop a set of healthy and stenosed (25%, 50%, 75%) carotid bifurcation phantoms. Plane wave imaging experiments were performed on these phantoms using an ultrasound scanner with channel-level configurability. Results show that the wall motion dynamics of our phantoms agreed with pulse wave propagation in an elastic vessel (pulse wave velocity of 4.67±0.71 m/s measured at the common carotid artery), and their flow dynamics matched the expected ones in healthy and stenosed bifurcation (recirculation and flow jet formation observed). Integrative imaging of vessel wall motion and blood flow dynamics in our phantoms was also demonstrated, from which we observed fluid-structure interaction differences between healthy and diseased bifurcation phantoms. These findings show that the walled bifurcation phantoms developed with our new protocol are useful in vascular imaging studies that individually or jointly assess wall motion and flow dynamics.

  13. Force acting on spheres adhered to a vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara-Seki, M; Skalak, R

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the force and torque acting on leukocytes attached to the vessel wall, we numerically study the flow field around the leukocytes by using rigid spherical particles adhered to the wall of a circular cylindrical tube as a model of adherent leukocytes. The adherent particles are assumed to be placed regularly in the flow direction with equal spacings, in one row or two rows. The flow field of the suspending fluid is analyzed by a finite element method applied to the Stokes equations, and the drag force and torque acting on each particle, as well as the apparent viscosity, are evaluated as a function of the particle to tube diameter ratio and the particle arrangements. For two-row arrangements of adhered particles where neighboring particles are placed alternately on opposite sides of the vessel, the drag and the torque exerted on each particle are higher than those for single-row arrangements, for constant particle to tube diameter ratio and axial spacing between neighboring particles. This is enhanced for larger particles and smaller axial spacings. The apparent viscosity of the flow through vessels with adhered particles is found to be significantly higher than that without adhered particles or when the particles are freely floating through the vessels.

  14. Automated image segmentation and registration of vessel wall MRI for quantitative assessment of carotid artery vessel wall dimensions and plaque composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Ronald van 't

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop methods for automated segmentation, registration and classification of the carotid artery vessel wall and plaque components using multi-sequence MR vessel wall images to assess atherosclerosis. First, a general introduction into atherosclerosis and

  15. Bacterial Cell Wall Polymer-Induced Granulomatous Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor; Herfarth; Van Tol EAF

    1996-04-01

    Local or systemic injection of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide polymers, which are the primary structural components of cell walls of nearly all bacteria, leads to acute inflammation, which can develop into chronic, spontaneously relapsing, granulomatous inflammation in a number of organs. Evolution into chronic granulomatous inflammation is dependent upon persistence of poorly biodegradable cell wall polymers within tissues, genetically determined host susceptibility, and generation of a T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response. Intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide fragments from group A streptococci or selected intestinal bacteria into susceptible Lewis rats leads to chronic, spontaneously reactivating erosive arthritis and hepatic granulomas. Subserosal (intramural) injection of poorly biodegradable cell wall fragments into the distal intestine of Lewis rats induces chronic, spontaneously relapsing granulomatous enterocolitis with associated arthritis, hepatic granulomas, anemia, and leukocytosis. Chronic inflammation does not occur in T-lymphocyte-deficient rats and is prevented by cyclosporin-A therapy and degradation of peptidoglycan by the muralytic enzyme, mutanolysin. Moreover, resistant Buffalo and Fischer F344 rats, the latter sharing identical MHC antigens with Lewis rats, develop only acute inflammation with no chronic granulomatous response. Peptidoglycan-polysaccharide polymers activate almost every limb of the inflammatory response. Blockade of specific pathways suggests that interleukin-1, transforming growth factor-beta, plasma kallikrein, and T lymphocytes are dominant mediators of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide-induced arthritis, hepatic granulomas, and enterocolitis. Because of the similarity of immune mechanisms of these rat models to human disease, bacterial cell wall-induced inflammation provides unique opportunities to study pathogenic mechanisms of granuloma formation in response to ubiquitous microbial agents and to test

  16. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Interventional Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Spaeth, Maya [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States); Prasad, Vinay [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States); McConnell, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  17. In vivo and ex vivo vessel wall MRI of the circle of Willis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413650286

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several MRI sequences have been developed for direct evaluation of the intracranial vessel wall and its pathology in vivo. These MRI sequences enable detection of intracranial vessel wall abnormalities, including those that have not yet caused luminal narrowing. The research field

  18. Estrogen receptor expression and vessel density in the vagina wall in postmenopausal women with prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva; Ribeiro da Silva, Alfredo; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2014-04-01

    After menopause, critically estrogen low levels result in modifications in vaginal wall. This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether there is a change in the number of vessels in the lamina propria of the vagina after menopause in parallel to the ER-alpha expression on the vaginal wall. Twelve women who underwent a genital surgery for genital prolapse up to grade II were selected. They were divided into two groups: a premenopausal group (PG) consisting of six women who were 18-40 years old with FSH levels =12 mIU/ml and regular cycles, and a menopausal group (MG) consisting of six women at least one year after menopause who were <65 years old with FSH levels =40 mIU/ml. Slides were stained for ER-alpha immunohistochemistry, and an endothelial cell marker CD3 was used to label vessels which were identified by using a system for morphometry. The number of vessels was significantly higher in the PG than in the MG both on the anterior wall (PG: 1.055 ± 145.8 vessels/mm(2), MG: 346.6 ± 209.9 vessels/mm(2), p<0.0001) and on the posterior wall (PG: 1064 ± 303.3 vessels/mm(2), MG: 348.6 ± 167.3 vessels/mm(2), p=0.0005). The ER-alpha score was significantly higher in the PG than the score for the MG on both the anterior and posterior walls (PG: 6.0 ± 0.52, MG: 2.5 ± 0.89, p=0.007; PG: 5.8 ± 0.79, MG: 2.7 ± 0.95, p=0.03, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the ER-alpha score and the vessel concentration on the anterior (r=0.6656, p=0.018) and posterior (r=0.6738, p=0.016) vaginal walls. Age was strongly negatively correlated with vessel concentration on the vaginal walls (respectively r=-0.9033, p<0.0001, r=-0.7440, p=0.0055). Therefore, postmenopausal women with genital prolapse have a smaller number of vessels on the vaginal wall compared to normoestrogenic controls with the same pathological condition. Hypoestrogenism and advancing age are factors that are associated to these changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-resolution intracranial vessel wall MRI in an elderly asymptomatic population: comparison of 3T and 7T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harteveld, Anita A.; Kolk, Anja G. van der; Dieleman, Nikki; Siero, Jeroen C.W.; Luijten, Peter R.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Worp, H.B. van der; Frijns, Catharina J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuijf, Hugo J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Several intracranial vessel wall sequences have been described in recent literature, with either 3-T or 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the current study, we compared 3-T and 7-T MRI in visualising both the intracranial arterial vessel wall and vessel wall lesions. Twenty-one elderly asymptomatic volunteers were scanned by 3-T and 7-T MRI with an intracranial vessel wall sequence, both before and after contrast administration. Two raters scored image quality, and presence and characteristics of vessel wall lesions. Vessel wall visibility was equal or significantly better at 7 T for the studied arterial segments, even though there were more artefacts hampering assessment. The better visualisation of the vessel wall at 7 T was most prominent in the proximal anterior cerebral circulation and the posterior cerebral artery. In the studied elderly asymptomatic population, 48 vessel-wall lesions were identified at 3 T, of which 7 showed enhancement. At 7 T, 79 lesions were identified, of which 29 showed enhancement. Seventy-one percent of all 3-T lesions and 59 % of all 7-T lesions were also seen at the other field strength. Despite the large variability in detected lesions at both field strengths, we believe 7-T MRI has the highest potential to identify the total burden of intracranial vessel wall lesions. (orig.)

  20. Could the heat sink effect of blood flow inside large vessels protect the vessel wall from thermal damage during RF-assisted surgical resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Suárez, Ana; Trujillo, Macarena; Burdío, Fernando; Andaluz, Anna; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    To assess by means of computer simulations whether the heat sink effect inside a large vessel (portal vein) could protect the vessel wall from thermal damage close to an internally cooled electrode during radiofrequency (RF)-assisted resection. First,in vivo experiments were conducted to validate the computational model by comparing the experimental and computational thermal lesion shapes created around the vessels. Computer simulations were then carried out to study the effect of different factors such as device-tissue contact, vessel position, and vessel-device distance on temperature distributions and thermal lesion shapes near a large vessel, specifically the portal vein. The geometries of thermal lesions around the vessels in the in vivo experiments were in agreement with the computer results. The thermal lesion shape created around the portal vein was significantly modified by the heat sink effect in all the cases considered. Thermal damage to the portal vein wall was inversely related to the vessel-device distance. It was also more pronounced when the device-tissue contact surface was reduced or when the vessel was parallel to the device or perpendicular to its distal end (blade zone), the vessel wall being damaged at distances less than 4.25 mm. The computational findings suggest that the heat sink effect could protect the portal vein wall for distances equal to or greater than 5 mm, regardless of its position and distance with respect to the RF-based device.

  1. Increased coronary vessel wall thickness in HIV-infected young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z; Unsal, Aylin B; Eshera, Sarah; Matta, Jatin R; Muldoon, Nancy; McAreavey, Dorothea; Purdy, Julia B; Hazra, Rohan; Hadigan, Colleen; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2014-12-15

    Individuals with long-term human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at risk for premature vasculopathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated coronary vessel wall thickening, coronary plaque, and epicardial fat in patients infected with HIV early in life compared with healthy controls. This is a prospective cross-sectional study of 35 young adults who acquired HIV in early life and 11 healthy controls, free of CVD. Time resolved phase-sensitive dual inversion recovery black-blood vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (TRAPD) was used to measure proximal right coronary artery (RCA) wall thickness, and multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography was used to quantify coronary plaque and epicardial fat. RCA vessel wall thickness was significantly increased in HIV-infected patients compared with sex- and race-matched controls (1.32 ± 0.21 mm vs 1.09 ± 0.14 mm, P = .002). No subject had discrete plaque on CT sufficient to cause luminal narrowing, and plaque was not related to RCA wall thickness. In multivariate regression analyses, smoking pack-years (P = .004) and HIV infection (P = .007) were independently associated with thicker RCA vessel walls. Epicardial fat did not differ between groups. Among the HIV-infected group, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = .02), duration of stavudine exposure (P ART, hyperlipidemia, and smoking contributed to proximal RCA thickening, independent of atherosclerotic plaque quantified by CT. These modifiable risk factors appear to influence early atherogenesis as measured by coronary wall thickness and may be important targets for CVD risk reduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography and vessel wall imaging in children with Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Gerald F.; Hofbeck, Michael; Sieverding, Ludger [University of Tuebingen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Seeger, Achim; Miller, Stephan; Claussen, Claus D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Munich (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) serial evaluation of the distribution and size of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) is necessary for risk stratification and therapeutic management. To apply whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) and black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging in children with KD. Six children (mean age 4.6 years, range 2.5-7.8 years) with KD underwent CMRA using a free-breathing, T2-prepared, three-dimensional steady-state free-precession (3D-SSFP), whole-heart approach with navigator gating and tracking. Vessel walls were imaged with an ECG-triggered and navigator-gated double inversion recovery (DIR) black-blood segmented turbo spin-echo sequence. There was complete agreement between CMRA and conventional angiography (n=6) in the detection of CAA (n=15). Excellent agreement was found between the two techniques in determining the maximal diameter (mean difference 0.2{+-}0.7 mm), length (mean difference 0.1{+-}0.8 mm) and distance from the ostium (mean difference -0.8{+-}2.1 mm) of the CAAs. In all subjects with a CAA, abnormally thickened vessel walls were found (2.5{+-}0.5 mm). CMRA accurately defines CAA in free-breathing sedated children with KD using the whole-heart approach and detects abnormally thickened vessel walls. This technique may reduce the need for serial X-ray coronary angiography, and improve risk stratification and monitoring of therapy. (orig.)

  3. Learning-based automated segmentation of the carotid artery vessel wall in dual-sequence MRI using subdivision surface fitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Shan; van't Klooster, Ronald; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Coolen, Bram F.; van den Berg, Alexandra M.; Smits, Loek P.; Shahzad, Rahil; Shamonin, Denis P.; de Koning, Patrick J. H.; Nederveen, Aart J.; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The quantification of vessel wall morphology and plaque burden requires vessel segmentation, which is generally performed by manual delineations. The purpose of our work is to develop and evaluate a new 3D model-based approach for carotid artery wall segmentation from dual-sequence MRI.

  4. Effects of dynamic shear and transmural pressure on wall shear stress sensitivity in collecting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Gasheva, Olga Y; Mukherjee, Anish; Zawieja, David C; Dixon, J Brandon

    2015-11-01

    Given the known mechanosensitivity of the lymphatic vasculature, we sought to investigate the effects of dynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on collecting lymphatic vessels while controlling for transmural pressure. Using a previously developed ex vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling both transaxial pressure gradient and average transmural pressure on an isolated lymphatic vessel, we imposed a multitude of flow conditions on rat thoracic ducts, while controlling for transmural pressure and measuring diameter changes. By gradually increasing the imposed flow through a vessel, we determined the WSS at which the vessel first shows sign of contraction inhibition, defining this point as the shear stress sensitivity of the vessel. The shear stress threshold that triggered a contractile response was significantly greater at a transmural pressure of 5 cmH2O (0.97 dyne/cm(2)) than at 3 cmH2O (0.64 dyne/cm(2)). While contraction frequency was reduced when a steady WSS was applied, this inhibition was reversed when the applied WSS oscillated, even though the mean wall shear stresses between the conditions were not significantly different. When the applied oscillatory WSS was large enough, flow itself synchronized the lymphatic contractions to the exact frequency of the applied waveform. Both transmural pressure and the rate of change of WSS have significant impacts on the contractile response of lymphatic vessels to flow. Specifically, time-varying shear stress can alter the inhibition of phasic contraction frequency and even coordinate contractions, providing evidence that dynamic shear could play an important role in the contractile function of collecting lymphatic vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Noncoding RNAs regulate NF-κB signaling to modulate blood vessel inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, which include heart attack and stroke, occur several decades after initiation of the disease and become more severe with age. Inflammation of blood vessels plays a prominent role in atherogenesis. Activation of the endothelium by inflammatory mediators leads to the recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells, which drives atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. Inflammatory signaling within the endothelium is driven predominantly by the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-κB. Interestingly, activation of NF-κB is enhanced during the normal aging process and this may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, studies utilizing mouse models of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis are uncovering a network of noncoding RNAs, particularly microRNAs, which impinge on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here we summarize the literature regarding the control of vascular inflammation by microRNAs, and provide insight into how these microRNA-based pathways might be harnessed for therapeutic treatment of disease. We also discuss emerging areas of endothelial cell biology, including the involvement of long noncoding RNAs and circulating microRNAs in the control of vascular inflammation.

  6. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, Marcus R. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Christian H.P. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, Ullrich; Spector, Tim D. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Mangino, Massimo [King' s College London, Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, London (United Kingdom); National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Guy' s and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Greil, Gerald F. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. (orig.)

  7. Nanoparticle motion near a blood vessel wall in targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoshkin, Helena; Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Eckmann, David M.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.

    2014-11-01

    A computational study of the motion of a spherical nanoparticle close to the bounding wall of a blood vessel in targeted drug delivery is presented. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian algorithm has been carried out, taking into account both the Brownian and the hydrodynamic effects. Pertinent to targeted drug delivery, we focus on the condition when the particle is in the lubrication layer. The velocity auto-correlation function (VACF) is seen to initially decay faster by a factor of particle radius divided by the fluid gap thickness compared to that in an unbounded medium. Long time decay is found to be algebraic. Focusing on hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the wall, effects of wall curvature, particle size, and variations in density of the particle are investigated. We also study adhesive interactions of a nanoparticle with an endothelial cell located on the vessel wall by the modeling the nanoparticle tethered by a harmonic spring with varying spring constants. It is shown that the particle velocity is affected by hydrodynamic and harmonic spring forces leading to VACF oscillations which decay algebraically at long times. The results agree with those predicted by earlier theories for particle VACF near a wall. These findings have applications in medication administration and in the colloidal sciences. Supported by NIH Grant U01 EB016027.

  8. Gadolinium Enhanced MR Coronary Vessel Wall Imaging at 3.0 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We evaluated the influence of the time between low-dose gadolinium (Gd contrast administration and coronary vessel wall enhancement (LGE detected by 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods. Four healthy subjects (4 men, mean age 29  ±  3 years and eleven CAD patients (6 women, mean age 61±10 years were studied on a commercial 3.0 Tesla (T whole-body MR imaging system (Achieva 3.0 T; Philips, Best, The Netherlands. T1-weighted inversion-recovery coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was repeated up to 75 minutes after administration of low-dose Gadolinium (Gd (0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Results. LGE was seen in none of the healthy subjects, however in all of the CAD patients. In CAD patients, fifty-six of 62 (90.3% segments showed LGE of the coronary artery vessel wall at time-interval 1 after contrast. At time-interval 2, 34 of 42 (81.0% and at time-interval 3, 29 of 39 evaluable segments (74.4% were enhanced. Conclusion. In this work, we demonstrate LGE of the coronary artery vessel wall using 3.0 T MRI after a single, low-dose Gd contrast injection in CAD patients but not in healthy subjects. In the majority of the evaluated coronary segments in CAD patients, LGE of the coronary vessel wall was already detectable 30–45 minutes after administration of the contrast agent.

  9. Growth Description for Vessel Wall Adaptation: A Thick-Walled Mixture Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytsan, Andrii; Eriksson, Thomas S E; Watton, Paul N; Gasser, T Christian

    2017-08-25

    (1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods: The present study investigates the plausibility of different growth kinematics in modeling Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) evolution in time. A structurally motivated constitutive description for the vessel wall is coupled to multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions; Constituent deposition preserved either the constituent's density or its volume, and Isotropic Volume Growth (IVG), in-Plane Volume Growth (PVG), in-Thickness Volume Growth (TVG) and No Volume Growth (NVG) describe the kinematics of the growing vessel wall. The sensitivity of key modeling parameters is explored, and predictions are assessed for their plausibility; (3) Results: AAA development based on TVG and NVG kinematics provided not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively different results compared to IVG and PVG kinematics. Specifically, for IVG and PVG kinematics, increasing collagen mass production accelerated AAA expansion which seems counterintuitive. In addition, TVG and NVG kinematics showed less sensitivity to the initial constituent volume fractions, than predictions based on IVG and PVG; (4) Conclusions: The choice of tissue growth kinematics is of crucial importance when modeling AAA growth. Much more interdisciplinary experimental work is required to develop and validate vascular tissue adaption models, before such models can be of any practical use.

  10. Remnant Cholesterol Elicits Arterial Wall Inflammation and a Multilevel Cellular Immune Response in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; Schnitzler, Johan G; Stiekema, Lotte C A; Bos, Merijn; Langsted, Anne; Kuijk, Carlijn; Bekkering, Siroon; Voermans, Carlijn; Verberne, Hein J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Stroes, Erik S G; Kroon, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall inflammation, circulating monocytes, and bone marrow in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). Arterial wall inflammation and bone marrow activity were measured using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Monocyte phenotype was assessed with flow cytometry. The correlation between remnant levels and hematopoietic activity was validated in the CGPS (Copenhagen General Population Study). We found a 1.2-fold increase of 18 F-FDG uptake in the arterial wall in patients with FD (n=17, age 60±8 years, remnant cholesterol: 3.26 [2.07-5.71]) compared with controls (n=17, age 61±8 years, remnant cholesterol 0.29 [0.27-0.40]; P cholesterol accumulates in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells coinciding with myeloid skewing. Patients with FD have increased arterial wall and cellular inflammation. These findings imply an important inflammatory component to the atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol, contributing to the increased cardiovascular disease risk in patients with FD. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Detecting inflammation and fibrosis in bowel wall with photoacoustic imaging in a Crohn's disease animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Johnson, Laura A.; Hu, Jack; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting 700,000 people in the United States. This condition may cause obstructing intestinal narrowings (strictures) due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Utilizing the unique strong optical absorption of hemoglobin at 532 nm and collagen at 1370 nm, this study investigated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Three normal controls, ten pure inflammation and 9 inflammation plus fibrosis rat bowel wall samples were imaged. Statistical analysis of the PA measurements has shown the capability of discriminating the purely inflammatory from mixed inflammatory and fibrotic strictures.

  12. Conditioning of the vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks, a preliminary look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.

    1976-03-01

    The main features and operating characteristics of the primary vacuum system of many of the presently operating tokamak devices are presented. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to condition and clean the vessel walls in situ. For the devices discussed, a combination of a high-temperature bakeout and/or discharge cleaning is employed. In addition, discussions of the vacuum systems and wall conditioning methods anticipated for the next generation of tokamaks are presented. Since this report was written during a limited time period, it should be considered as preliminary and is not intended to be a general review. Much of the information that is presented was obtained by private communication and there is no bibliography. This study was initiated to aid in the design of TFTR. As presently envisioned, the TFTR vacuum system and methods for wall conditioning are consistent with what is presently practiced.

  13. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Misato; Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Uy, Abigail Loren Tung; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Nakano, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Demura, Taku

    2016-11-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell's metabolic

  14. Statistical Permutation-based Artery Mapping (SPAM): a novel approach to evaluate imaging signals in the vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Robert; Scherzinger, Aaron; Kiefer, Friedemann; Hermann, Sven; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Schäfers, Michael A

    2017-05-26

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. A prominent cause of cardiovascular events is atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arterial wall that leads to the formation of so called atherosclerotic plaques. There is a strong clinical need to develop new, non-invasive vascular imaging techniques in order to identify high-risk plaques, which might escape detection using conventional methods based on the assessment of the luminal narrowing. In this context, molecular imaging strategies based on fluorescent tracers and fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) seem well suited to assess molecular and cellular activity. However, such an analysis demands a precise and standardized analysis method, which is orientated on reproducible anatomical landmarks, ensuring to compare equivalent regions across different subjects. We propose a novel method, Statistical Permutation-based Artery Mapping (SPAM). Our approach is especially useful for the understanding of complex and heterogeneous regional processes during the course of atherosclerosis. Our method involves three steps, which are (I) standardisation with an additional intensity normalization, (II) permutation testing, and (III) cluster-enhancement. Although permutation testing and cluster enhancement are already well-established in functional magnetic resonance imaging, to the best of our knowledge these strategies have so far not been applied in cardiovascular molecular imaging. We tested our method using FRI images of murine aortic vessels in order to find recurring patterns in atherosclerotic plaques across multiple subjects. We demonstrate that our pixel-wise and cluster-enhanced testing approach is feasible and useful to analyse tracer distributions in FRI data sets of aortic vessels. We expect our method to be a useful tool within the field of molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques since cluster-enhanced permutation testing is a powerful approach for finding significant differences

  15. Quantification and Statistical Analysis Methods for Vessel Wall Components from Stained Images with Masson's Trichrome: e0146954

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pablo Hernández-Morera; Irene Castaño-González; Carlos M Travieso-González; Blanca Mompeó-Corredera; Francisco Ortega-Santana

    2016-01-01

    ... (smooth muscle fibers and extracellular matrix) in the vessel wall stained with Masson's trichrome, and a statistical method suitable for small sample sizes to analyze the results previously obtained...

  16. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J

    2017-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  17. Recording of unexpectedly high frequency vibrations of blood vessel walls in experimental arteriovenous fistulae of rabbits using a laser vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, W E; Liepsch, D W; Poll, A; Erhardt, W

    1995-01-01

    Because arteriovenous fistulae are associated with a palpable thrill and an audible murmur, the vibrational activity of the blood vessel walls about experimental arteriovenous fistulae in rabbits was investigated using, for the first time, a high-resolution laser vibrometer. Frequencies of mural vibrations up to 2200 Hz were recorded at different sites about the fistulae. The relationship of this vibratory activity of blood vessel walls to physiological and pathological conditions warrants further investigation.

  18. An Ultrasound Simulation Model for the Pulsatile Blood Flow Modulated by the Motion of Stenosed Vessel Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghui; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Kexin; Gao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound simulation model for pulsatile blood flow, modulated by the motion of a stenosed vessel wall. It aims at generating more realistic ultrasonic signals to provide an environment for evaluating ultrasound signal processing and imaging and a framework for investigating the behaviors of blood flow field modulated by wall motion. This model takes into account fluid-structure interaction, blood pulsatility, stenosis of the vessel, and arterial wall movement caused by surrounding tissue's motion. The axial and radial velocity distributions of blood and the displacement of vessel wall are calculated by solving coupled Navier-Stokes and wall equations. With these obtained values, we made several different phantoms by treating blood and the vessel wall as a group of point scatterers. Then, ultrasound echoed signals from oscillating wall and blood in the axisymmetric stenotic-carotid arteries were computed by ultrasound simulation software, Field II. The results show better consistency with corresponding theoretical values and clinical data and reflect the influence of wall movement on the flow field. It can serve as an effective tool not only for investigating the behavior of blood flow field modulated by wall motion but also for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of new ultrasound imaging technology and estimation method of blood velocity.

  19. A completely noninvasive method of dissolved oxygen monitoring in disposable small-scale cell culture vessels based on diffusion through permeable vessel walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka A; Ge, Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Disposable cell culture vessels are extensively used at small scales for process optimization and validation, but they lack monitoring capabilities. Optical sensors that can be easily adapted for use in small-scale vessels are commercially available for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved carbon dioxide (DCO2 ). However, their use has been limited due to the contamination and compatibility issues. We have developed a novel solution to these problems for DO monitoring. Oxygen diffusion through permeable vessel wall can be exploited for noninvasive monitoring. An optical oxygen sensor can be placed outside the oxygen permeable vessel wall thereby allowing oxygen diffusing through the vessel wall to be detected by the sensor. This way the sensor stays separate from the cell culture and there are no concerns about contaminants or leachants. Here we implement this method for two cell culture devices: polystyrene-made T-75 tissue culture flask and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)-made Vuelife(®) cell culture bag. Additionally, mammalian and microbial cell cultures were performed in Vuelife(®) cell culture bags, proving that a sensor placed outside can be used to track changes in cell cultures. This approach toward noninvasive monitoring will help in integrating cell culture vessels with sensors in a seamless manner. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Upper and Lower Bound Limit Loads for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Used for Aerosol Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic compensation method proposed by Mackenzie and Boyle is used to estimate the upper and lower bound limit (collapse loads for one-piece aluminium aerosol cans, which are thin-walled pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure loading. Elastic-plastic finite element predictions for yield and collapse pressures are found using axisymmetric models. However, it is shown that predictions for the elastic-plastic buckling of the vessel base require the use of a full three-dimensional model with a small unsymmetrical imperfection introduced. The finite element predictions for the internal pressure to cause complete failure via collapse fall within the upper and lower bounds. Hence the method, which involves only elastic analyses, can be used in place of complex elastic-plastic finite element analyses when upper and lower bound estimates are adequate for design purposes. Similarly, the lower bound value underpredicts the pressure at which first yield occurs.

  1. [The exogenous and genetic components of some vessel wall characteristics in the pig (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, W

    1975-01-01

    Insufficiencies of the circulatory system and increasing transport losses in pigs as well as analogies with respect to atherosclerosis of men and swine were the motives for a broad statistical investigation of important characteristics of the circulatory system in a big population of female German landrace pigs, fattened as progeny groups under identical conditions in a testing station and slaughtered at 100 kg weight. As the most essential results, highly significant seasonal and genetical influences on several traits are to be mentioned, and some meaningful correlations between them: Plasma cholesterol, ceruloplasmin and hematocrit showed markedly lower levels in the summer and increased values in the cold season; the thickness of the intima (aorta and arteria pulmonalis) was quite distinctly greatest in the spring, this phenomenon being almost exactly paralleled by augmented amounts of copper and iron in the aortic wall. Increased heart weights were again found in the cold, decreased ones in the warm seasons. On average, bigger hearts and vessels were accompanied by higher elastin contents of the aorta, but these contents stood in very significant negative correlation to the ash content and the amounts of certain mineral components (Ca, Mg and P) of the vessel wall, especially to the ash percentage of the elastic fibers. This indicates that calcifying and mineralizing processes in the wall obviously take place at the cost of the elastic components. The estimation of heritabilities in half and full sibs revealed with h2 = 60% high henetic influences on the elastin content of the aorta and equally so on the ash percentage of elastic fibers. Future investigations must correlate these findings with direct measurements of biomechanical and rheological properties of the vessels.

  2. Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Imaging with Quantitative Vessel Wall T1 Mapping: Technical Development and Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Sun, Jie; Qiao, Huiyu; Chen, Shuo; Zhou, Zechen; Pan, Xinlei; Wang, Yishi; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun

    2017-11-08

    Purpose To develop a three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution time-efficient sequence for use in quantitative vessel wall T1 mapping. Materials and Methods A previously described sequence, simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging, was extended by introducing 3D golden angle radial k-space sampling (GOAL-SNAP). Sliding window reconstruction was adopted to reconstruct images at different inversion delay times (different T1 contrasts) for voxelwise T1 fitting. Phantom studies were performed to test the accuracy of T1 mapping with GOAL-SNAP against a two-dimensional inversion recovery (IR) spin-echo (SE) sequence. In vivo studies were performed in six healthy volunteers (mean age, 27.8 years ± 3.0 [standard deviation]; age range, 24-32 years; five male) and five patients with atherosclerosis (mean age, 66.4 years ± 5.5; range, 60-73 years; five male) to compare T1 measurements between vessel wall sections (five per artery) with and without intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). Statistical analyses included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with data permutation by subject. Results Phantom T1 measurements with GOAL-SNAP and IR SE sequences showed excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.99), with a mean bias of -25.8 msec ± 43.6 and a mean percentage error of 4.3% ± 2.5. Minimum T1 was significantly different between sections with IPH and those without it (mean, 371 msec ± 93 vs 944 msec ± 120; P = .01). Estimated T1 of normal vessel wall and muscle were 1195 msec ± 136 and 1117 msec ± 153, respectively. Conclusion High-spatial-resolution (0.8 mm isotropic) time-efficient (5 minutes) vessel wall T1 mapping is achieved by using the GOAL-SNAP sequence. This sequence may yield more quantitative reproducible biomarkers with which to characterize IPH and monitor its progression. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  3. Remote through-wall sampling of the Trawsfynydd reactor pressure vessel: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, A.; Clayton, R. [Magnox Electric, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the application of robotic equipment for gaining access to, and removing through-wall samples, from, welds of the reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfyndd power station. The environment, which presents hazards due to ionising radiation, radioactive contamination and asbestos-bearing materials is described. The means of access, by use of remote vehicles with robotic manipulators supported by additional vehicles, it reviewed. The use of abrasive water jet cutting for sample removal is introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed. (Author).

  4. Remote through-wall sampling of the Trawsfynydd reactor pressure vessel: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, A.; Clayton, R. [Magnox Electric, Dartford (United Kingdom). Remote Operations

    1996-12-31

    This paper summarises the application of robotic equipment for gaining access to and removing through-wall samples from welds of the reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd power station. The environment, which presents hazards due to ionising radiation, radioactive contamination and asbestos bearing materials is described. The means of access, by use of remote vehicles complete with robotic manipulators supported by additional vehicles, is reviewed. The use of Abrasive Water Jet Cutting for sample removal is introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed. (UK).

  5. Estimation of the radial force on the tokamak vessel wall during fast transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovitov-vd@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The radial force balance in a tokamak during fast transient events with a duration much shorter than the resistive time of the vacuum vessel wall is analyzed. The aim of the work is to analytically estimate the resulting integral radial force on the wall. In contrast to the preceding study [Plasma Phys. Rep. 41, 952 (2015)], where a similar problem was considered for thermal quench, simultaneous changes in the profiles and values of the pressure and plasma current are allowed here. Thereby, the current quench and various methods of disruption mitigation used in the existing tokamaks and considered for future applications are also covered. General formulas for the force at an arbitrary sequence or combination of events are derived, and estimates for the standard tokamak model are made. The earlier results and conclusions are confirmed, and it is shown that, in the disruption mitigation scenarios accepted for ITER, the radial forces can be as high as in uncontrolled disruptions.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression changes during rotating wall vessel suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Lewis, Fawn; Cubano, Luis A.; Hyman, Linda E.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study genetic responses to suspension culture. The suspension culture system used in this study is the high-aspect-ratio vessel, one type of the rotating wall vessel, that provides a high rate of gas exchange necessary for rapidly dividing cells. Cells were grown in the high-aspect-ratio vessel, and DNA microarray and metabolic analyses were used to determine the resulting changes in yeast gene expression. A significant number of genes were found to be up- or downregulated by at least twofold as a result of rotational growth. By using Gibbs promoter alignment, clusters of genes were examined for promoter elements mediating these genetic changes. Candidate binding motifs similar to the Rap1p binding site and the stress-responsive element were identified in the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. This study shows that, as in higher order organisms, S. cerevisiae changes gene expression in response to rotational culture and also provides clues for investigations into the signaling pathways involved in gravitational response.

  7. Ex vivo blood vessel bioreactor for analysis of the biodegradation of magnesium stent models with and without vessel wall integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Liu, Lumei; Wu, Yifan; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Zhihong; Koo, Youngmi; Zhao, Ansha; Sankar, Jagannathan; Kong, Deling; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2017-03-01

    Current in vitro models fail in predicting the degradation rate and mode of magnesium (Mg) stents in vivo. To overcome this, the microenvironment of the stent is simulated here in an ex vivo bioreactor with porcine aorta and circulating medium, and compared with standard static in vitro immersion and with in vivo rat aorta models. In ex vivo and in vivo conditions, pure Mg wires were exposed to the aortic lumen and inserted into the aortic wall to mimic early- and long-term implantation, respectively. Results showed that: 1) Degradation rates of Mg were similar for all the fluid diffusion conditions (in vitro static, aortic wall ex vivo and in vivo); however, Mg degradation under flow condition (i.e. in the lumen) in vivo was slower than ex vivo; 2) The corrosion mode in the samples can be mainly described as localized (in vitro), mixed localized and uniform (ex vivo), and uniform (in vivo); 3) Abundant degradation products (MgO/Mg(OH)2 and Ca/P) with gas bubbles accumulated around the localized degradation regions ex vivo, but a uniform and thin degradation product layer was found in vivo. It is concluded that the ex vivo vascular bioreactor provides an improved test setting for magnesium degradation between static immersion and animal experiments and highlights its promising role in bridging degradation behavior and biological response for vascular stent research. Magnesium and its alloys are candidates for a new generation of biodegradable stent materials. However, the in vitro degradation of magnesium stents does not match the clinical degradation rates, corrupting the validity of conventional degradation tests. Here we report an ex vivo vascular bioreactor, which allows simulation of the microenvironment with and without blood vessel integration to study the biodegradation of magnesium implants in comparison with standard in vitro test conditions and with in vivo implantations. The bioreactor did simulate the corrosion of an intramural implant very well, but

  8. Segmentation of elastic fibres in images of vessel wall sections stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Morera, Pablo; Travieso-González, Carlos M; Castaño-González, Irene; Mompeó-Corredera, Blanca; Ortega-Santana, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The elastic fibres are an essential component of the extracellular matrix in blood vessel walls that allows a long-range of deformability and passive recoil without energy input. The quantitative determination of elastic fibres will provide information on the state of the vascular wall and to determine the role and behaviour of this key structural element in different physiological and pathological vascular processes. We present a segmentation method to identify and quantify elastic fibres based on a local threshold technique and some morphological characteristics measured on the segmented objects that facilitate the discrimination between elastic fibres and other image components. The morphological characteristics analysed are the thickness and the length of an object. The segmentation method was evaluated using an image database of vein sections stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin. The performance results are based on a ground truth generated manually resulting in values of sensitivity greater than 80% with the exception in two samples, and specificity values above 90% for all samples. Medical specialists carried out a visual evaluation where the observations indicate a general agreement on the segmentation results' visual quality, and the consistency between the methodology proposed and the subjective observation of the doctors for the evaluation of pathological changes in vessel wall. The proposed methodology provides more objective measurements than the qualitative methods traditionally used in the histological analysis, with a significant potential for this method to be used as a diagnostic aid for many other vascular pathological conditions and in similar tissues such as skin and mucous membranes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "Sausage-string" appearance of arteries and arterioles can be caused by an instability of the blood vessel wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Beierholm, Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Rene

    2002-01-01

    Vascular damage induced by acute hypertension is preceded by a peculiar pattern where blood vessels show alternating regions of constrictions and dilations ("sausages on a string"). The pattern occurs in the smaller blood vessels, and it plays a central role in causing the vascular damage....... A related vascular pattern has been observed in larger vessels from several organs during angiography. In the larger vessels the occurrence of the pattern does not appear to be related to acute hypertension. A unifying feature between the phenomenon in large and small vessels seems to be an increase...... observed experimentally. Most importantly, it suggests that the "sausaging" phenomenon is neither caused by a mechanical failure of the vessel wall due to a high blood pressure nor is it due to standing pressure waves caused by the beating of the heart. Rather, it is the expression of a general instability...

  10. Dynamic vessel wall properties and their reproducibility in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; Thien, T

    1998-06-01

    To determine reproducibility figures of dynamic arterial wall properties such as cross-sectional compliance (CC) and distensibility (DC) in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, in comparison with healthy adults. A total of 34 persons were divided into three groups with varying cardiovascular risk factors. Diameters (D) and diameter changes (deltaD) during the heart cycle of both common carotid (CCA) and right common femoral (CFA) arteries were measured by a vessel wall movement detector system. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded non-invasively by a semi-automated oscillometric device. CC (=piD(deltaD/2deltaP) in unit mm2/kPa) and DC (=2deltaD/D)/deltaP in unit 10(-3)/kPa) were calculated from the above-mentioned parameters. Measurements were performed twice during one visit and twice again with a time interval of at least 3 days to determine intra-observer intra- and intersession variability. Reproducibility figures of CC and DC of the CCA varied between 8 and 12%, and between 13 and 22% for the CFA. Intra-observer intra- and intersession variability were similar in the three groups. In our studies the reproducibility of dynamic vascular wall properties determined by ultrasound was good. Despite differences in the absolute values for CC and DC in groups with increased cardiovascular risk, mean reproducibility figures remained at a similar level (8-12%) as in healthy volunteers.

  11. Intra-specific trends of lumen and wall resistivities of vessels within the stem xylem vary among three woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2018-02-01

    Water flow through xylem vessels encounters hydraulic resistance when passing through the vessel lumen and end wall. Comparative studies have reported that lumen and end wall resistivities co-limit water flow through stem xylem in several angiosperm woody species that have vessels of different average diameter and length. This study examined the intra-specific relationship between the lumen and end wall resistivities (Rlumen and Rwall) for vessels within the stem xylem using three deciduous angiosperm woody species found in temperate forest. Morus australis Poir. and Acer rufinerve Siebold et Zucc. are early- and late-successional species, and Vitis coignetiae Pulliat ex Planch is a woody liana. According to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, Rlumen is proportional to the fourth power of vessel diameter (D), whereas vessel length (L) and inter-vessel pit area (Apit) determine Rwall. To estimate Rlumen and Rwall, the scaling relationships between the L and D and between Apit and D were measured. The scaling exponents between L and D were 1.47, 3.19 and 2.86 for A. rufinerve, M. australis and V. coignetiae, respectively, whereas those between Apit and D were 0.242, 2.11 and 2.68, respectively. Unlike the inter-specific relationships, the wall resistivity fraction (Rwall/(Rlumen + Rwall)) within xylem changed depending on D. In M. australis and V. coignetiae, this fraction decreased with increasing D, while in A. rufinerve, it increased with D. Vessels with a high wall resistivity fraction have high Rwall and total resistivity but are expected to have low susceptibility to xylem cavitation due to a small cumulative Apit. In contrast, vessels with a low wall resistivity fraction have low Rwall and total resistivity but high susceptibility to xylem cavitation. Because the wall resistivity fraction varies with D, the stem xylem contains vessels with different hydraulic efficiencies and safety to xylem cavitation. These features produce differences in the hydraulic properties

  12. The VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling pathway contributes to resolving chronic skin inflammation by activating lymphatic vessel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Asami; Asai, Jun; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Takenaka, Hideya; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2014-02-01

    The functions of lymphatic vessels are to drain the protein-rich lymph from the extracellular space, to maintain normal tissue pressure, and to mediate the immune response, particularly in inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the function of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in chronic skin inflammation. We used adenovirus-mediated VEGF-C or VEGFR3-immunoglobulin (Ig) production and investigated the effects of VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling on the resolution of inflammation using the experimental chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction mouse model. VEGF-C gene transfer promoted significant reduction of ear swelling and ear weight in CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Although, there was no significant difference in the number of lymphatic vessels, the number of infiltrating CD11b-positive inflammatory cells was significantly reduced in the VEGF-C group, which suggested that VEGF-C upregulated the drainage of interstitial fluid and inflammatory cells via lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, blockade of VEGFR3 expression resulted in a significant delay in the recovery from CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Lymphatic vessel size was enlarged and a significant increase of infiltrating CD11b inflammatory cells was observed in mice with VEGFR3-Ig gene transfer compared to control mice. These results suggested that blockade of VEGFR3 inhibited the drainage function of the lymphatic system. This study provides evidence that VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling plays an important role in the resolution of skin inflammation; the regulation of lymphatic function may have a great therapeutic potential in inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VEGFR-3 blocking deteriorates inflammation with impaired lymphatic function and different changes in lymphatic vessels in acute and chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Li; Cao, Jing-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) pathway has a close relationship with chronic intestinal inflammation, and antilymphatic signaling pathways may repress IAL. However, whether the biologic function of lymphatic vessel is the same in severe acute intestinal inflammation still remain unknown. C57BL/6 mice were administered with 5% of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to establish severe acute colitis (SAC) model. Chronic colitis (CC) model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS for 5 days following water for 5 days. Mice were treated with VEGFR-3 antibody once daily in SAC group, or once every 3 days in CC group. The colon inflammation, submucosal edema, lymphatic vessel (LV) density, LV size, lymph flow, cytokines and immune cells infiltration were detected. Both acute and chronic colitis resulted in a significant aggravation of colon inflammation in anti-VEGFR-3-treated mice, compared with PBS-treated colitis mice. Meanwhile, this was accompanied with decreased lymph drainage, increased submucosal edema, inflammatory cells infiltration and cytokines levels. In acute intestinal inflammation, significantly distorted and enlarged lymphatics were found but the LV number remained unchanged; not only significantly distorted and enlarged lymphatics but reduced LV number were found in chronic colitis. Blocking VEGFR-3 in acute and chronic colitis leads to deterioration of colon inflammation with impaired lymphatic function and different changes in LVs. In the therapy targeting VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway for lymphangiogenesis, the phrase and severity of intestinal inflammation should be taken into account.

  14. Novel role of immature myeloid cells in formation of new lymphatic vessels associated with inflammation and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Sophia; Wilber, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Inflammation triggers an immune cell-driven program committed to restoring homeostasis to injured tissue. Central to this process is vasculature restoration, which includes both blood and lymphatic networks. Generation of new vessels or remodeling of existing vessels are also important steps in metastasis-the major cause of death for cancer patients. Although roles of the lymphatic system in regulation of inflammation and cancer metastasis are firmly established, the mechanisms underlying the formation of new lymphatic vessels remain a subject of debate. Until recently, generation of new lymphatics in adults was thought to occur exclusively through sprouting of existing vessels without help from recruited progenitors. However, emerging findings from clinical and experimental studies show that lymphoendothelial progenitors, particularly those derived from immature myeloid cells, play an important role in this process. This review summarizes current evidence for the existence and significant roles of myeloid-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECPs) in generation of new lymphatics. We describe specific markers of M-LECPs and discuss their biologic behavior in culture and in vivo, as well as currently known molecular mechanisms of myeloid-lymphatic transition (MLT). We also discuss the implications of M-LECPs for promoting adaptive immunity, as well as cancer metastasis. We conclude that improved mechanistic understanding of M-LECP differentiation and its role in adult lymphangiogenesis may lead to new therapeutic approaches for correcting lymphatic insufficiency or excessive formation of lymphatic vessels in human disorders. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Histological study on the influences of an ultrasonic scalpel on skeletonized vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Yoshio; Horike, Kazuya; Kano, Masashi

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to histologically clarify the difference of vascular wall damage when an ultrasonic scalpel is used in varied ways in the vicinity of a vessel. 1) The surface of sodium carbonate-containing jelly was manually brushed with the edge of a dissecting hook type Harmonic Scalpel (HS), and the thickness of the air bubble layer was measured to investigate the range to which the vibrations of the instrument reached. 2) The internal thoracic artery (ITA), radial artery (RA) and vein skeletonized were cut bluntly or brushed using HS ex vivo, and tissue damages were observed histologically. 3) The depth of thermal degeneration (TD) of residual stumps of ITAs skeletonized by HS using an output power level (level) of 2 and the quick touch method at the time of coronary arterial bypass grafting (CABG) were investigated histologically. 1) The mean thickness of the air bubble layers by single brushing was 3.7, 3.7 and 3.1 mm at level 4, 3 and 2, and no significant difference. When brushed 5 times, it was 6.9, 5.5 and 6.7 mm, respectively, showing marked increases compared with single brushing. 2) A: One side of the RA stump cut with a dissecting hook at level 2 was nicely occluded by a degenerated protein coagulum, but the contralateral had no coagulum. An ITA cut by a shear type blade at level 3 showed that both stumps were nicely occluded, but the vessel wall was introverted and fragmented. B: ITAs brushed 5 or 10 times at level 2 showed that TD occurred in tunica externa, the mean depth of 100 or 203 microm, and never exceeded the external elastic lamella. RAs brushed 10 times at level 2 and 3 showed that TD and air bubble generation occurred in the tunica externa, and the mean depth was 203 and 203 microm. However, TD exceeded the external lamella in some cases at level 3. Veins brushed 10 times at level 3 showed that TD spread to all layers. 3) The depth of TD in ITAs skeletonized clinically by HS was 400 to 530 microm, and apart from the

  16. Evaluation of acoustic emission signals during monitoring of thick-wall vessels operating at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasopoulos, A.; Tsimogiannis, A. [Envirocoustics S.A., El. Venizelou 7 and Delfon, Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    Acoustic Emission testing of thick wall vessels, operating at elevated temperatures is discussed and pattern recognition methodologies for AE data evaluation are presented. Two different types of testing procedures are addressed: Cool Down monitoring and semi-continuous periodic monitoring. In both types of tests, temperature variation is the driving force of AE as opposed to traditional AE testing where controlled pressure variation is used as AE stimulus. Representative examples of reactors cool down testing as well as in-process vessel monitoring are given. AE activity as a function of temperature and pressure variation is discussed. In addition to the real-time limited criteria application, unsupervised pattern recognition is applied as a post-processing tool for multidimensional sorting, noise discrimination, characterizing defects and/or damage. On the other hand, Supervised Pattern Recognition is used for data classification in repetitive critical tests, leading to an objective quantitative comparison between repeated tests. Results show that damage sustained by the equipment can be described by the plotting the cumulative energy of AE, from critical signal classes, versus temperature. Overall, the proposed methodology can reduce the complexity of AE tests in many cases leading to higher efficiency. The possibility for real time signals classification, during permanent AE installations and continuous monitoring is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Rupture Properties of Blood Vessel Walls Measured by Pressure-Imposed Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshiro; Sugita, Syukei; Matsumoto, Takeo; Kumagai, Kiichiro; Akimoto, Hiroji; Tabayashi, Koichi; Sato, Masaaki

    It is expected to be clinically useful to know the mechanical properties of human aortic aneurysms in assessing the potential for aneurysm rupture. For this purpose, a newly designed experimental setup was fabricated to measure the rupture properties of blood vessel walls. A square specimen of porcine thoracic aortas is inflated by air pressure at a rate of 10mmHg/s (≈1.3MPa/s) until rupture occurs. Mean breaking stress was 1.8±0.4 MPa (mean±SD) for the specimens proximal to the heart and 2.3±0.8MPa for the distal specimens, which are not significantly different to those values obtained longitudinally from conventional tensile tests. Moreover, the local breaking stretch ratio in the longitudinal direction was significantly higher at the ruptured site (2.7±0.5) than at the unruptured site (2.2±0.4). This testing system for studying the rupture properties of aortic walls is expected to be applicable to aortic aneurysms. Experimental verification of the present technique for the homogeneous, isotropic material is also presented.

  18. Added Value of Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiation of Nonocclusive Intracranial Vasculopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa-Basha, Mahmud; Shibata, Dean K; Hallam, Danial K; de Havenon, Adam; Hippe, Daniel S; Becker, Kyra J; Tirschwell, David L; Hatsukami, Thomas; Balu, Niranjan; Yuan, Chun

    2017-11-01

    Our goal is to determine the added value of intracranial vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (IVWI) in differentiating nonocclusive vasculopathies compared with luminal imaging alone. We retrospectively reviewed images from patients with both luminal and IVWI to identify cases with clinically defined intracranial vasculopathies: atherosclerosis (intracranial atherosclerotic disease), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and inflammatory vasculopathy. Two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical data reviewed the luminal imaging of defined luminal stenoses/irregularities and evaluated the pattern of involvement to make a presumed diagnosis with diagnostic confidence. Six weeks later, the 2 raters rereviewed the luminal imaging in addition to IVWI for the pattern of wall involvement, presence and pattern of postcontrast enhancement, and presumed diagnosis and confidence. Analysis was performed on per-lesion and per-patient bases. Thirty intracranial atherosclerotic disease, 12 inflammatory vasculopathies, and 12 reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome patients with 201 lesions (90 intracranial atherosclerotic disease, 64 reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and 47 inflammatory vasculopathy lesions) were included. For both per-lesion and per-patient analyses, there was significant diagnostic accuracy improvement with luminal imaging+IVWI when compared with luminal imaging alone (per-lesion: 88.8% versus 36.1%; Pimprove the differentiation of nonocclusive intracranial vasculopathies when combined with traditional luminal imaging modalities. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.H.N.; Ashcroft, B.A.; Beenakker, J.-W.M.; Es, M. van; Koekkoek, N.B.R.; Prins, F.A.; Tielemans, J.F.; Abdul-Hussien, H.; Bank, R.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmentalweakeningof the artery.Althoughit isgenerally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type

  20. Effect of Heat Flux on Creep Stresses of Thick-Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayeb Davoudi Kashkoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that the thermo-creep response of the material is governed by Norton’s law, an analytical solution is presented for the calculation of time-dependent creep stresses and displacements of homogeneous thick-walled cylindrical pressure vessels. For the stress analysis in a homogeneous pressure vessel, having material creep behavior, the solutions of the stresses at a time equal to zero (i.e. the initial stress state are needed. This corresponds to the solution of materials with linear elastic behavior. Therefore, using equations of equilibrium, stress-strain and strain-displacement, a differential equation for displacement is obtained and then the stresses at a time equal to zero are calculated. Using Norton’s law in the multi-axial form in conjunction with the above-mentioned equations in the rate form, the radial displacement rate is obtained and then the radial, circumferential and axial creep stress rates are calculated. When the stress rates are known, the stresses at any time are calculated iteratively. The analytical solution is obtained for the conditions of plane strain and plane stress. The thermal loading is as follows: inner surface is exposed to a uniform heat flux, and the outer surface is exposed to an airstream. The heat conduction equation for the one-dimensional problem in polar coordinates is used to obtain temperature distribution in the cylinder. The pressure, inner radius and outer radius are considered constant. Material properties are considered as constant. Following this, profiles are plotted for the radial displacements, radial stress, circumferential stress and axial stress as a function of radial direction and time.

  1. Numerical modeling of the pulse wave propagation in large blood vessels based on liquid and wall interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rup, K.; Dróżdż, A.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a non-linear, one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in the arterial cardiovascular system. The model includes partial differential equations resulting from the balance of mass and momentum for the fluid-filled area and the balance equation for the area of the wall and vessels. The considered mathematical model of pulse wave propagation in the thoracic aorta section takes into account the viscous dissipation of fluid energy, realistic values of parameters describing the physicochemical properties of blood and vessel wall. Boundary and initial conditions contain the appropriate information obtained from in vivo measurements. As a result of the numerical solution of the mass and momentum balance equations for the blood and the equilibrium equation for the arterial wall area, time- dependent deformation, respective velocity profiles and blood pressure were determined.

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Knudsen, Kristina B.; Skaug, Vidar; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Thomsen, Birthe L.; Clausen, Per Axel; Atluri, Rambabu; Berthing, Trine; Bengtson, Stefan; Wolff, Henrik; Jensen, Keld A.; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lung deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces pulmonary toxicity. Commercial MWCNT vary greatly in physicochemical properties and consequently in biological effects. To identify determinants of MWCNT-induced toxicity, we analyzed the effects of pulmonary exposure to 10 commercial MWCNT (supplied in three groups of different dimensions, with one pristine and two/three surface modified in each group). We characterized morphology, chemical composition, surface area and functionalization levels. MWCNT were deposited in lungs of female C57BL/6J mice by intratracheal instillation of 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg/mouse. Pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and genotoxicity were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Histopathology of the lungs was performed on day 28 and 92. All MWCNT induced similar histological changes. Lymphocytic aggregates were detected for all MWCNT on day 28 and 92. Using adjusted, multiple regression analyses, inflammation and genotoxicity were related to dose, time and physicochemical properties. The specific surface area (BET) was identified as a positive predictor of pulmonary inflammation on all post-exposure days. In addition, length significantly predicted pulmonary inflammation, whereas surface oxidation (–OH and –COOH) was predictor of lowered inflammation on day 28. BET surface area, and therefore diameter, significantly predicted genotoxicity in BAL fluid cells and lung tissue such that lower BET surface area or correspondingly larger diameter was associated with increased genotoxicity. This study provides information on possible toxicity-driving physicochemical properties of MWCNT. The results may contribute to safe-by-design manufacturing of MWCNT, thereby minimizing adverse effects. PMID:27323647

  3. Atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of vessel wall in rabbit model--comparison of gadofosveset and gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbes, Marc B I; Miserus, Robbert-Jan J H M; Heeneman, Sylvia; Passos, Valeria Lima; Mutsaers, Peter H A; Debernardi, Nicola; Misselwitz, Bernd; Post, Mark; Daemen, Mat J A P; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Leiner, Tim; Kooi, Marianne E

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the potential of gadofosveset for contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of plaque in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. All experiments were approved by the animal ethics committee. Thirty-one New Zealand White rabbits were included in one of four study groups: animals with atherosclerosis imaged with gadofosveset (n = 10) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 7) and control animals imaged with gadofosveset (n = 7) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 7). Aortic atherosclerosis was induced through endothelial denudation combined with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Control rabbits underwent a sham surgical procedure and received a regular diet. After 8 weeks, pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted MR images of the aortic vessel wall were acquired. Relative signal enhancement was determined with dedicated software. Statistical analysis was performed by using a generalized linear mixed model. Immunohistochemical staining with CD31 and albumin was used to assess microvessel density and the albumin content of the vascular wall. Group differences were analyzed by using a chi(2) test. Gadofosveset spatial distribution and content within the vessel wall were determined with proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Postcontrast signal enhancement was significantly greater for atherosclerotic than for control animals imaged with gadofosveset (P = .022). Gadopentetate dimeglumine could not enable discrimination between normal and atherosclerotic vessel walls (P = .428). PIXE analysis showed higher amounts of gadopentetate dimeglumine than gadofosveset in both atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aortas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of albumin and increased microvessel density in the vascular walls of atherosclerotic rabbits. These results suggest that gadofosveset can be used to differentiate between atherosclerotic and normal rabbit vessel walls. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/250/3/682/DC1. RSNA, 2009

  4. Manufacturing and maintenance technologies developed for a thick-wall structure of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. E-mail: onozukm@itereu.de; Alfile, J.P.; Aubert, Ph.; Dagenais, J.-F.; Grebennikov, D.; Ioki, K.; Jones, L.; Koizumi, K.; Krylov, V.; Maslakowski, J.; Nakahira, M.; Nelson, B.; Punshon, C.; Roy, O.; Schreck, G

    2001-09-01

    Development of welding, cutting and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, and development of remotized systems have been carried out for on-site manufacturing and maintenance of the thick-wall structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV). Conventional techniques, including tungsten inert gas welding, plasma cutting, and ultrasonic inspection, have been improved and optimized for the application to thick austenitic stainless steel plates. In addition, advanced methods have been investigated, including reduced-pressure electron-beam and multi-pass neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (NdYAG) laser welding, NdYAG laser cutting, and electro-magnetic acoustic transducer inspection, to improve cost and technical performance. Two types of remotized systems with different payloads have been investigated and one of them has been fabricated and demonstrated in field joint welding, cutting, and NDT tests on test mockups and full-scale ITER VV sector models. The progress and results of this development to date provide a high level of confidence that the manufacturing and maintenance of the ITER VV is feasible.

  5. Preliminary electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design for first wall and vacuum vessel of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucca, F., E-mail: Flavio.Lucca@LTCalcoli.it [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Bertolini, C. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Crescenzi, F.; Crisanti, F. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Labate, C. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Acton 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy); Manzoni, M.; Marconi, M.; Pagani, I. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Ramogida, G. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Renno, F. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, M. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Roccella, S. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Viganò, F. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The fusion advanced study torus (FAST), with its compact design, high toroidal field and plasma current, faces many of the problems met by ITER, and at the same time anticipates much of the DEMO relevant physics and technology. The conceptual design of the first wall (FW) and the vacuum vessel (VV) has been defined on the basis of FAST operative conditions and of “Snow Flakes” (SF) magnetic topology, which is also relevant for DEMO. The EM loads are one of the most critical load components for the FW and the VV during plasma disruptions and a first dimensioning of these components for such loads is mandatory. During this first phase of R&D activities the conceptual design of the FW and VV have been assessed estimating, by means of FE simulations, the EM loads due to a typical vertical disruption event (VDE) in FAST. EM loads were then transferred on a FE mechanical model of the FAST structures and the mechanical response of the FW and VV design for the analyzed VDE event was assessed. The results indicate that design criteria are not fully satisfied by the current drawing of the VV and FW components. The most critical regions have been individuated and the effect of some geometrical and material changes has been checked in order to improve the structure.

  6. Human elastic cartilage engineering from cartilage progenitor cells using rotating wall vessel bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kan, H; Suzuki, H; Yabuki, Y; Mizuno, M; Adegawa, T; Yoshioka, T; Tanaka, J; Maegawa, J; Taniguchi, H

    2012-05-01

    Transplantation of bioengineered elastic cartilage is considered to be a promising approach for patients with craniofacial defects. We have previously shown that human ear perichondrium harbors a population of cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs). The aim of this study was to examine the use of a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor for CPCs to engineer 3-D elastic cartilage in vitro. Human CPCs isolated from ear perichondrium were expanded and differentiated into chondrocytes under 2-D culture conditions. Fully differentiated CPCs were seeded into recently developed pC-HAp/ChS (porous material consisted of collagen, hydroxyapatite, and chondroitinsulfate) scaffolds and 3-D cultivated utilizing a RWV bioreactor. 3-D engineered constructs appeared shiny with a yellowish, cartilage-like morphology. The shape of the molded scaffold was maintained after RWV cultivation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed engraftment of CPCs inside pC-HAp/ChS. Alcian blue and Elastica Van Gieson staining showed of proteoglycan and elastic fibers, which are unique extracellular matrices of elastic cartilage. Thus, human CPCs formed elastic cartilage-like tissue after 3-D cultivation in a RWV bioreactor. These techniques may assist future efforts to reconstruct complicate structures composed of elastic cartilage in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "Choke" vessels between vascular territories of the abdominal wall: literature review and rare case of Leriche's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Rozen, Warren M; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Ashton, Mark W

    2012-11-01

    We undertook a review of the anatomical changes of "choke" vessels between the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), as highlighted by a case of aortoiliac occlusive disease (Leriche's syndrome), and discuss the physiological concepts observed with regard to surgical delay procedures within the abdominal wall performed prior to abdominal cutaneous free flaps and coronary artery bypass grafting. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was undertaken on a patient with a rare case of Leriche's syndrome and a literature review of over 200 references on the anatomy, physiology and clinical uses of choke vessels in the abdominal wall was undertaken. The CTA demonstrated that in patients with Leriche's syndrome, there is a marked dilatation of all ITA-DIEA pathways and increased flow through choke vessels. If these changes can be surgically replicated in the form of a delay procedure for patients seeking to undergo autologous breast construction, this could improve the outcomes of abdominal cutaneous free flaps and coronary artery bypass grafting. We accordingly propose three surgical methods for augmenting blood flow to the abdominal wall: a) ligation of the DIEA; b) ligation of the distal ITA; and c) creation of an arterio-venous fistulae in the DIEA. Our review of the literature confirmed the viability of these propositions. The dilatation of choke vessels in response to increased haemodynamic stress may thus be utilised to enhance blood supply to tissues prior to transfer and can be achieved through simple and minimally invasive methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cell culture for three-dimensional modeling in rotating-wall vessels: an application of simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R. P.; Goodwin, T. J.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    High-density, three-dimensional cell cultures are difficult to grow in vitro. The rotating-wall vessel (RWV) described here has cultured BHK-21 cells to a density of 1.1 X 10(7) cells/ml. Cells on microcarriers were observed to grow with enhanced bridging in this batch culture system. The RWV is a horizontally rotated tissue culture vessel with silicon membrane oxygenation. This design results in a low-turbulence, low-shear cell culture environment with abundant oxygenation. The RWV has the potential to culture a wide variety of normal and neoplastic cells.

  9. Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node-homing adipose tissue DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Emma L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Victora, Gabriel; Wang, Wei; Childs, Ed W.; Platt, Andrew M.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Mason, Robert J.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Nussenzweig, Michel; Swartz, Melody A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Zawieja, David C.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting lymphatic vessels (CLVs), surrounded by fat and endowed with contractile muscle and valves, transport lymph from tissues after it is absorbed into lymphatic capillaries. CLVs are not known to participate in immune responses. Here, we observed that the inherent permeability of CLVs allowed broad distribution of lymph components within surrounding fat for uptake by adjacent macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that actively interacted with CLVs. Endocytosis of lymph-derived antigens by these cells supported recall T cell responses in the fat and also generated antigen-bearing DCs for emigration into adjacent lymph nodes. Enhanced recruitment of DCs to inflammation-reactive lymph nodes significantly relied on adipose tissue DCs to maintain sufficient numbers of antigen-bearing DCs as the lymph node expanded. Thus, CLVs coordinate inflammation and immunity within adipose depots and foster the generation of an unexpected pool of APCs for antigen transport into the adjacent lymph node. PMID:25917096

  10. Endogenous TNF? orchestrates the trafficking of neutrophils into and within lymphatic vessels during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Arokiasamy, Samantha; Zakian, Christian; Dilliway, Jessica; Wang, Wen; Nourshargh, Sussan; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are recognised to play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and acquired immunities following their recruitment to inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs. While neutrophil trafficking through blood vessels has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating their migration into the lymphatic system are still poorly understood. Here, we have analysed neutrophil-lymphatic vessel interactions in real time and in vivo using intravital confocal microscopy applied ...

  11. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  12. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  13. Suitability of pharmacokinetic models for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of abdominal aortic aneurysm vessel wall: a comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Lai Nguyen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Increased microvascularization of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA vessel wall has been related to AAA progression and rupture. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of three pharmacokinetic models to describe AAA vessel wall enhancement using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with AAA underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5 Tesla. The volume transfer constant (K(trans , which reflects microvascular flow, permeability and surface area, was calculated by fitting the blood and aneurysm vessel wall gadolinium concentration curves. The relative fit errors, parameter uncertainties and parameter reproducibilities for the Patlak, Tofts and Extended Tofts model were compared to find the most suitable model. Scan-rescan reproducibility was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV. Further, the relationship between K(trans and AAA size was investigated. RESULTS: DCE-MRI examinations from thirty-nine patients (mean age±SD: 72±6 years; M/F: 35/4 with an mean AAA maximal diameter of 49±6 mm could be included for pharmacokinetic analysis. Relative fit uncertainties for K(trans based on the Patlak model (17% were significantly lower compared to the Tofts (37% and Extended Tofts model (42% (p<0.001. K(trans scan-rescan reproducibility for the Patlak model (ICC = 0.61 and CV = 22% was comparable with the Tofts (ICC = 0.61, CV = 23% and Extended Tofts model (ICC = 0.76, CV = 22%. K(trans was positively correlated with maximal AAA diameter (Spearman's ρ = 0.38, p = 0.02 using the Patlak model. CONCLUSION: Using the presented imaging protocol, the Patlak model is most suited to describe DCE-MRI data of the AAA vessel wall with good K(trans scan-rescan reproducibility.

  14. Computerized flow and vessel wall analyses of coronary arteries for detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2016-03-01

    The buildup of non-calcified plaques (NCP) that are vulnerable to rupture in coronary arteries is a risk for myocardial infarction. We are developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system to assist radiologists in detecting NCPs in cCTA. A major challenge of NCP detection is the large number of false positives (FPs) caused by the small sized coronary arteries, image noise and artifacts. In this study, our purpose is to design new image features to reduce FPs. A data set of 98 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from patient files. We first used vessel wall analysis, in which topological features were extracted from vessel wall and fused with a support-vector machine, to identify the NCP candidates from the segmented coronary tree. Computerized flow dynamic (CFD) features that characterize the change in blood flow due to the presence of plaques and a vascular cross-sectional (VCS) feature that quantifies the presence of low attenuation region at the vessel wall were designed for FP reduction. Using a leave-one-out resampling method, a support vector machine classifier was trained to merge the features into a NCP likelihood score using the vessel wall features alone or in combination with the new CDF and VCS features. The performance of the new features in classification of true NCPs and FPs was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Without the new CFD and VCS features, the test AUC was 0.84+/-0.01. The AUC was improved to 0.88+/-0.01 with the addition of the new features. The improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The study indicated that the new flow dynamic and vascular cross-sectional features were useful for differentiation of NCPs from FPs in cCTA.

  15. Endogenous TNFα orchestrates the trafficking of neutrophils into and within lymphatic vessels during acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Samantha; Zakian, Christian; Dilliway, Jessica; Wang, Wen; Nourshargh, Sussan; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are recognised to play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and acquired immunities following their recruitment to inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs. While neutrophil trafficking through blood vessels has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating their migration into the lymphatic system are still poorly understood. Here, we have analysed neutrophil-lymphatic vessel interactions in real time and in vivo using intravital confocal microscopy applied to inflamed cremaster muscles. We show that antigen sensitisation of the tissues induces a rapid but transient entry of tissue-infiltrated neutrophils into lymphatic vessels and subsequent crawling along the luminal side of the lymphatic endothelium. Interestingly, using mice deficient in both TNF receptors p55 and p75, chimeric animals and anti-TNFα antibody blockade we demonstrate that tissue-release of TNFα governs both neutrophil migration through the lymphatic endothelium and luminal crawling. Mechanistically, we show that TNFα primes directly the neutrophils to enter the lymphatic vessels in a strictly CCR7-dependent manner; and induces ICAM-1 up-regulation on lymphatic vessels, allowing neutrophils to crawl along the lumen of the lymphatic endothelium in an ICAM-1/MAC-1-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a new role for TNFα as a key regulator of neutrophil trafficking into and within lymphatic system in vivo. PMID:28287124

  16. Vessel Wall Enhancement and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Disruption After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renú, Arturo; Laredo, Carlos; Lopez-Rueda, Antonio; Llull, Laura; Tudela, Raúl; San-Roman, Luis; Urra, Xabier; Blasco, Jordi; Macho, Juan; Oleaga, Laura; Chamorro, Angel; Amaro, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Less than half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy obtain permanent clinical benefits. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify mechanisms implicated in the limited efficacy of early reperfusion. We evaluated the predictors and prognostic significance of vessel wall permeability impairment and its association with blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) disruption after acute stroke treated with thrombectomy. A prospective cohort of acute stroke patients treated with stent retrievers was analyzed. Vessel wall permeability impairment was identified as gadolinium vessel wall enhancement (GVE) in a 24- to 48-hour follow-up contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and severe BCSFB disruption was defined as subarachnoid hemorrhage or gadolinium sulcal enhancement (present across >10 slices). Infarct volume was evaluated in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale at day 90. A total of 60 patients (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 18) were analyzed, of whom 28 (47%) received intravenous alteplase before mechanical thrombectomy. Overall, 34 (57%) patients had GVE and 27 (45%) had severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was significantly associated with alteplase use before thrombectomy and with more stent retriever passes, along with the presence of severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was associated with poor clinical outcome, and both GVE and severe BCSFB disruption were associated with increased final infarct volume. These findings may support the clinical relevance of direct vessel damage and BCSFB disruption after acute stroke and reinforce the need for further improvements in reperfusion strategies. Further validation in larger cohorts of patients is warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  18. Transient Non-Newtonian Blood Flow under Magnetic Targeting Drug Delivery in an Aneurysm Blood Vessel with Porous Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, Haleh; Imani, Mohsen

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation deals with numerical solution of blood flow patterns through an aneurysm artery under the applied magnetic field. Transient extended Navier-Stokes, Brinkman, continuity, and heat conduction equations govern this phenomenon and unsteady pulsatile inlet velocity varies by human heart-beating frequency. Our simulation demonstrates applying 105 magnetic field intensity (MnF) to recirculate flow and increase fluid flux and maximum blood temperature by 62.5x and 3.5%, respectively, in the aneurysm region. It is also shown that the vessel's wall porosity plays an important role in magnetic targeting of drug delivery performance, as this parameter can noticeably change maximum blood temperature and pressure.

  19. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  20. Gain-of-function somatic mutations contribute to inflammation and blood vessel damage that lead to Alzheimer dementia: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid deposits are a characteristic feature of advanced Alzheimer dementia (AD), but whether they initiate the disease or are a consequence of it remains an unsettled question. To explore an alternative pathogenic mechanism, I propose that the triggering events that begin the pathogenic cascade are not amyloid deposits but damaged blood vessels caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to ischemia, amyloid accumulation, axonal degeneration, synaptic loss, and eventually irreversible neuronal cell death. Inflammation and blood vessel damage are well recognized complications of AD, but what causes them and why the cerebral microvasculature is affected have never been adequately addressed. Because heritable autosomal dominant mutations of NLRP3, APP, TREX1, NOTCH3, and Col4A1 are known to provoke inflammatory reactions and damage the brain in a wide variety of diseases, I propose that one or more low abundant, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the same 5 gene families damage the microvasculature of the brain that leads to dementia. This implies that the pathogenic triggers that lead to AD are derived not from external invaders or amyloid but from oxidative damage of our own genes. © FASEB.

  1. An in vivo pilot study of a microporous thin film nitinol-covered stent to assess the effect of porosity and pore geometry on device interaction with the vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngjae; Kealey, Colin P; Levi, Daniel S; Rigberg, David A; Chen, Yanfei; Tillman, Bryan W; Mohanchandra, K P; Shayan, Mahdis; Carman, Gregory P

    2017-03-01

    Sputter-deposited thin film nitinol constructs with various micropatterns were fabricated to evaluate their effect on the vessel wall in vivo when used as a covering for commercially available stents. Thin film nitinol constructs were used to cover stents and deployed in non-diseased swine arteries. Swine were sacrificed after approximately four weeks and the thin film nitinol-covered stents were removed for histopathologic evaluation. Histopathology revealed differences in neointimal thickness that correlated with the thin film nitinol micropattern. Devices covered with thin film nitinol with a lateral × vertical length = 20 × 40 µm diamond pattern had minimal neointimal growth with well-organized cell architecture and little evidence of ongoing inflammation. Devices covered with thin film nitinol with smaller fenestrations exhibited a relatively thick neointimal layer with inflammation and larger fenestrations showed migration of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells through the micro fenestrations. This "proof-of-concept" study suggests that there may be an ideal thin film nitinol porosity and pore geometry to encourage endothelialization and incorporation of the device into the vessel wall. Future work will be needed to determine the optimal pore size and geometry to minimize neointimal proliferation and in-stent stenosis.

  2. Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas

    Inflammation is an intricate response relying on the activation and response of both the innate immune system and the infected tissue to remove a threat. The pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB pathway has been studied extensively, among others because of its key role in regulation of inflammation. However...

  3. A simulation environment for validating ultrasonic blood flow and vessel wall imaging based on fluid-structure interaction simulations: ultrasonic assessment of arterial distension and wall shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Lovstakken, Lasse; Segers, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a commonly used vascular imaging tool when screening for patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, current blood flow and vessel wall imaging methods are hampered by several limitations. When optimizing and developing new ultrasound modalities, proper validation is required before clinical implementation. Therefore, the authors present a simulation environment integrating ultrasound and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations, allowing construction of synthetic ultrasound images based on physiologically realistic behavior of an artery. To demonstrate the potential of the model for vascular ultrasound research, the authors studied clinically relevant imaging modalities of arterial function related to both vessel wall deformation and arterial hemodynamics: Arterial distension (related to arterial stiffness) and wall shear rate (related to the development of atherosclerosis) imaging. An in-house code ("TANGO") was developed to strongly couple the flow solver FLUENT and structural solver ABAQUS using an interface quasi-Newton technique. FIELD II was used to model realistic transducer and scan settings. The input to the FSI-US model is a scatterer phantom on which the US waves reflect, with the scatterer displacement derived from the FSI flow and displacement fields. The authors applied the simulation tool to a 3D straight tube, representative of the common carotid artery (length: 5 cm; and inner and outer radius: 3 and 4 mm). A mass flow inlet boundary condition, based on flow measured in a healthy subject, was applied. A downstream pressure condition, based on a noninvasively measured pressure waveform, was chosen and scaled to simulate three different degrees of arterial distension (1%, 4%, and 9%). The RF data from the FSI-US coupling were further processed for arterial wall and flow imaging. Using an available wall tracking algorithm, arterial distensibility was assessed. Using an autocorrelation estimator, blood velocity and shear

  4. Endothelial junction regulation: a prerequisite for leukocytes crossing the vessel wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Anna E.; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2013-01-01

    The leukocytes of the innate immune system, especially neutrophils and monocytes, exit the circulation early in the response to local inflammation and infection. This is necessary to control and prevent the spread of infections before an adaptive immune response can be raised. The endothelial cells

  5. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Díez, Marta Calvo; Fernando Val-Bernal, José; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography images of human thoracic aorta from aneurysms reveal elastin disorders and smooth muscle cell alterations when visualizing the media layer of the aortic wall. These disorders can be employed as indicators for wall degradation and, therefore, become a hallmark for diagnosis of risk of aneurysm under intraoperative conditions. Two approaches are followed to evaluate this risk: the analysis of the reflectivity decay along the penetration depth and the textural analysis of a two-dimensional spatial distribution of the aortic wall backscattering. Both techniques require preprocessing stages for the identification of the air-sample interface and for the segmentation of the media layer. Results show that the alterations in the media layer of the aortic wall are better highlighted when the textural approach is considered and also agree with a semiquantitative histopathological grading that assesses the degree of wall degradation. The correlation of the co-occurrence matrix attains a sensitivity of 0.906 and specificity of 0.864 when aneurysm automatic diagnosis is evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic curve.

  6. Construction and characterisation of MRI coils for vessel wall imaging at 7 tesla

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques in the bifurcation of the carotid artery vessels can pose a significant stroke risk from stenosis, thrombosis and emboli, or plaque rupture. However, the possibility of the latter depends on the structure of the plaque and its stability. So far, the assessment of such depositions, and the evaluation of the risk they pose, is not satisfactory with 3 Tesla black blood imaging. It is expected that the SNR increase at 7 Tesla, together with an appropriate and patient-safe ...

  7. Distribution and natural course of intracranial vessel wall lesions in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA at 7.0 tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, Anja G. van der; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brundel, Manon; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies using intracranial vessel wall MRI techniques showed that over 50 % of patients with ischemic stroke or TIA had one or more intracranial vessel wall lesions. In the current study, we assessed the preferential location of these lesions within the intracranial arterial tree and their potential changes over time in these patient groups. Forty-nine patients with ischemic stroke (n = 25) or TIA (n = 24) of the anterior cerebral circulation underwent 7.0 T MRI, including a T{sub 1}-weighted magnetization-preparation inversion recovery turbo-spin-echo (MPIR-TSE) sequence within one week and approximately one month after symptom onset. Intracranial vessel wall lesions were scored for multiple locations within the arterial tree and differences between one-week and one-month images. At baseline, 132 intracranial vessel wall lesions were found in 41 patients (84 %), located primarily in the anterior cerebral circulation (74 %), with a preferential location in the distal internal carotid artery and M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery. During follow-up, presence or enhancement patterns changed in 14 lesions (17 %). A large burden of intracranial vessel wall lesions was found in both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Most lesions were found to be relatively stable, possibly indicating a more generalized atherosclerotic process. (orig.)

  8. Netrin-1 Promotes Inflammation Resolution to Achieve Endothelialization of Small-Diameter Tissue Engineering Blood Vessels by Improving Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhao; Wan, Simin; Liu, Ge; Cai, Wang; Huo, Da; Li, Gang; Yang, Mingcan; Wang, Yuxin; Guan, Ge; Ding, Ning; Liu, Feila; Zeng, Wen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2017-12-01

    The transplant of small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessels (small-diameter TEBVs) (vascular replacement therapy often fails because of early onset thrombosis and long-standing chronic inflammation. The specific inflammation state involved in small-diameter TEBVs transplants remains unclear, and whether promoting inflammation resolution would be useful for small-diameter TEBVs therapy need study. The neural protuberant orientation factor 1 (Netrin-1) is found present in endothelial cells of natural blood vessels and has anti-inflammatory effects. This work generates netrin-1-modified small-diameter TEBVs by using layer-by-layer self-assembly to resolve the inflammation. The results show that netrin-1 reprograms macrophages (MΦ) to assume an anti-inflammatory phenotype and promotes the infiltration and subsequent efflux of MΦ from inflamed sites over time, which improves the local microenvironment and the function of early homing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Small-diameter TEBVs modified by netrin-1 achieve endothelialization after 30 d and retain patency at 14 months. These findings suggest that promoting the resolution of inflammation in time is necessary to induce endothelialization of small-diameter TEBVs and prevent early thrombosis and problems associated with chronic inflammation. Furthermore, this work finds that the MΦ-derived exosomes can target and regulate EPCs, which may serve as a useful treatment for other inflammatory diseases.

  9. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changwu [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei; Du, Fang [Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Li, Cheng, E-mail: cjr.licheng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Xihai, E-mail: xihaizhao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  10. Accelerated whole brain intracranial vessel wall imaging using black blood fast spin echo with compressed sensing (CS-SPACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Tian, Bing; Chen, Luguang; Eisenmenger, Laura; Raithel, Esther; Forman, Christoph; Ahn, Sinyeob; Laub, Gerhard; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping; Liu, Jing; Hess, Christopher; Saloner, David

    2017-12-05

    Develop and optimize an accelerated, high-resolution (0.5 mm isotropic) 3D black blood MRI technique to reduce scan time for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall imaging. A 3D accelerated T 1 -weighted fast-spin-echo prototype sequence using compressed sensing (CS-SPACE) was developed at 3T. Both the acquisition [echo train length (ETL), under-sampling factor] and reconstruction parameters (regularization parameter, number of iterations) were first optimized in 5 healthy volunteers. Ten patients with a variety of intracranial vascular disease presentations (aneurysm, atherosclerosis, dissection, vasculitis) were imaged with SPACE and optimized CS-SPACE, pre and post Gd contrast. Lumen/wall area, wall-to-lumen contrast ratio (CR), enhancement ratio (ER), sharpness, and qualitative scores (1-4) by two radiologists were recorded. The optimized CS-SPACE protocol has ETL 60, 20% k-space under-sampling, 0.002 regularization factor with 20 iterations. In patient studies, CS-SPACE and conventional SPACE had comparable image scores both pre- (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 3.54 ± 0.65, p = 0.13) and post-contrast (3.72 ± 0.58 vs. 3.53 ± 0.57, p = 0.15), but the CS-SPACE acquisition was 37% faster (6:48 vs. 10:50). CS-SPACE agreed with SPACE for lumen/wall area, ER measurements and sharpness, but marginally reduced the CR. In the evaluation of intracranial vascular disease, CS-SPACE provides a substantial reduction in scan time compared to conventional T 1 -weighted SPACE while maintaining good image quality.

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    , 6, 18 or 54g/mouse. Pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and genotoxicity were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Histopathology of the lungs was performed on day 28 and 92. All MWCNT induced similar histological changes. Lymphocytic aggregates were detected for all...... MWCNT on day 28 and 92. Using adjusted, multiple regression analyses, inflammation and genotoxicity were related to dose, time and physicochemical properties. The specific surface area (BET) was identified as a positive predictor of pulmonary inflammation on all post-exposure days. In addition, length...... significantly predicted pulmonary inflammation, whereas surface oxidation (-OH and -COOH) was predictor of lowered inflammation on day 28. BET surface area, and therefore diameter, significantly predicted genotoxicity in BAL fluid cells and lung tissue such that lower BET surface area or correspondingly larger...

  12. Rôle of contrast media viscosity in altering vessel wall shear stress and relation to the risk of contrast extravasations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Sophia; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh C; Roditi, Giles

    2016-12-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. A range of different media are commercially available, combining various physical and chemical characteristics (ionic state, osmolality, viscosity) and thus exhibiting distinct in vivo behaviour and safety profiles. In this paper, numerical simulations of blood flow with contrast media were conducted to investigate the effects of contrast viscosity on generated vessel wall shear stress and vessel wall pressure to elucidate any possible relation to extravasations. Five different types of contrast for Iodine fluxes ranging at 1.5-2.2gI/s were modelled through 18G and 20G cannulae placed in an ideal vein at two different orientation angles. Results demonstrate that the least viscous contrast media generate the least maximum wall shear stress as well as the lowest total pressure for the same flow rate. This supports the empirical clinical observations and hypothesis that more viscous contrast media are responsible for a higher percentage of contrast extravasations. In addition, results support the clinical hypothesis that a catheter tip directed obliquely to the vein wall always produces the highest maximum wall shear stress and total pressure due to impingement of the contrast jet on the vessel wall. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins Stimulate Crosstalk between Leukocytes and Vessel Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Griet; Schepers, Eva; Cohen, Gerald; Gondouin, Bertrand; Van Landschoot, Maria; Eloot, Sunny; Rops, Angelique; Van de Voorde, Johan; De Vriese, An; van der Vlag, Johan; Brunet, Philippe; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte activation and endothelial damage both contribute to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Experimental in vitro data link several protein-bound uremic retention solutes to the modulation of inflammatory stimuli, including endothelium and leukocyte responses and cardiovascular damage, corroborating observational in vivo data. However, the impact of these uremic toxins on the crosstalk between endothelium and leukocytes has not been assessed. This study evaluated the effects of acute and continuous exposure to uremic levels of indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), and p-cresylglucuronide (pCG) on the recruitment of circulating leukocytes in the rat peritoneal vascular bed using intravital microscopy. Superfusion with IS induced strong leukocyte adhesion, enhanced extravasation, and interrupted blood flow, whereas pCS caused a rapid increase in leukocyte rolling. Superfusion with pCS and pCG combined caused impaired blood flow and vascular leakage but did not further enhance leukocyte rolling over pCS alone. Intravenous infusion with IS confirmed the superfusion results and caused shedding of heparan sulfate, pointing to disruption of the glycocalyx as the mechanism likely mediating IS-induced flow stagnation. These results provide the first clear in vivo evidence that IS, pCS, and pCG exert proinflammatory effects that contribute to vascular damage by stimulating crosstalk between leukocytes and vessels. PMID:24009240

  14. Detection of vessel wall calcifications in vertebral arteries using susceptibility weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Lisa C.; Boeker, Sarah M.; Bender, Yvonne Y.; Fallenberg, Eva M.; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R. [Department of Radiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Liebig, Thomas [Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Calcification of the brain supplying arteries has been linked to an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to test the potential of susceptibility weighted MR imaging (SWMR) for the detection of vertebral artery calcifications, based on CT as a reference standard. Four hundred seventy-four patients, who had received head CT and 1.5 T MR scans with SWMR, including the distal vertebral artery, between January 2014 and December 2016, were retrospectively evaluated and 389 patients were included. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of focal calcifications and intra- and interobserver agreement were calculated for SWMR and standard MRI, using CT as a standard of reference. The diameter of vertebral artery calcifications was used to assess correlations between imaging modalities. Furthermore, the degree of vessel stenosis was determined in 30 patients, who had received an additional angiography. On CT scans, 40 patients showed a total of 52 vertebral artery calcifications. While SWMR reached a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI 84-99%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI 94-98%), standard MRI yielded a sensitivity of 33% (95% CI 20-46%), and a specificity of 93% (95% CI 90-96%). Linear regression analysis of size measurements confirmed a close correlation between SWMR and CT measurements (R {sup 2} = 0.74, p < 0.001). Compared to standard MRI (ICC = 0.52; CI 0.45-0.59), SWMR showed a higher interobserver agreement for calcification measurements (ICC = 0.84; CI 0.81-0.87). For detection of distal vertebral artery calcifications, SWMR demonstrates a performance comparable to CT and considerably higher than conventional MRI. (orig.)

  15. Three-Dimensional Rotating Wall Vessel-Derived Cell Culture Models for Studying Virus-Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson K. Gardner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The key to better understanding complex virus-host interactions is the utilization of robust three-dimensional (3D human cell cultures that effectively recapitulate native tissue architecture and model the microenvironment. A lack of physiologically-relevant animal models for many viruses has limited the elucidation of factors that influence viral pathogenesis and of complex host immune mechanisms. Conventional monolayer cell cultures may support viral infection, but are unable to form the tissue structures and complex microenvironments that mimic host physiology and, therefore, limiting their translational utility. The rotating wall vessel (RWV bioreactor was designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA to model microgravity and was later found to more accurately reproduce features of human tissue in vivo. Cells grown in RWV bioreactors develop in a low fluid-shear environment, which enables cells to form complex 3D tissue-like aggregates. A wide variety of human tissues (from neuronal to vaginal tissue have been grown in RWV bioreactors and have been shown to support productive viral infection and physiological meaningful host responses. The in vivo-like characteristics and cellular features of the human 3D RWV-derived aggregates make them ideal model systems to effectively recapitulate pathophysiology and host responses necessary to conduct rigorous basic science, preclinical and translational studies.

  16. Accelerated and Improved Differentiation of Retinal Organoids from Pluripotent Stem Cells in Rotating-Wall Vessel Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler DiStefano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into 3D retinal organoids, with major cell types self-patterning into a polarized, laminated architecture. In static cultures, organoid development may be hindered by limitations in diffusion of oxygen and nutrients. Herein, we report a bioprocess using rotating-wall vessel (RWV bioreactors to culture retinal organoids derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Organoids in RWV demonstrate enhanced proliferation, with well-defined morphology and improved differentiation of neurons including ganglion cells and S-cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, RWV organoids at day 25 (D25 reveal similar maturation and transcriptome profile as those at D32 in static culture, closely recapitulating spatiotemporal development of postnatal day 6 mouse retina in vivo. Interestingly, however, retinal organoids do not differentiate further under any in vitro condition tested here, suggesting additional requirements for functional maturation. Our studies demonstrate that bioreactors can accelerate and improve organoid growth and differentiation for modeling retinal disease and evaluation of therapies.

  17. Neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel wall - a comparison of French and German procedures and strategies in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricot, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/DES/SECCA, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Jendrich, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    While the neutrons within the core may take part in the chain reaction, those neutrons emitted from the core are basically lost for the energy production. This 'neutron leakage' represents a loss of fuel efficiency and causes neutron embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall. The latter raises safety concerns, needs to be monitored closely and may necessitate mitigating measures. There are different strategies to deal with these two undesirable effects: The neutron emission may be reduced to some extent all around the core or just at the 'hot spots' of RPV embrittlement by tailored core loading patterns. A higher absorption rate of neutrons may also be achieved by a larger water gap between the core and the RPV. In this paper the inter-relations between the distribution of neutron flux, core geometry, core loading strategy, RPV embrittlement and its surveillance are discussed at first. Then the different strategies followed by the German and French operators are described. Finally the conclusions will highlight the communalities and differences between these strategies as different approaches to the same problem of safety as well as economy. (authors)

  18. Structural Properties of EB-Welded AlSi10Mg Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Produced by AM-SLM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmany, Moshe; Stern, Adin; Aghion, Eli; Frage, Nachum

    2017-09-01

    Additive manufacturing of metals by selective laser melting (AM-SLM) is hampered by significant limitations in product size due to the limited dimensions of printing trays. Electron beam welding (EBW) is a well-established process that results in relatively minor metallurgical modifications in workpieces due to the ability of EBW to pass high-density energy to the related substance. The present study aims to evaluate structural properties of EB-welded AlSi10Mg thin-walled pressure vessels produced from components prepared by SLM technology. Following the EB welding process, leak and burst tests were conducted, as was fractography analysis. The welded vessels showed an acceptable holding pressure of 30 MPa, with a reasonable residual deformation up to 2.3% and a leak rate better than 1 × 10-8 std-cc s-1 helium. The failures that occurred under longitudinal stresses reflected the presence of two weak locations in the vessels, i.e., the welded joint region and the transition zone between the vessel base and wall. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces of broken vessels displayed the ductile mode of the rupture, with dimples of various sizes, depending on the failure location.

  19. Structural Properties of EB-Welded AlSi10Mg Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Produced by AM-SLM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmany, Moshe; Stern, Adin; Aghion, Eli; Frage, Nachum

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing of metals by selective laser melting (AM-SLM) is hampered by significant limitations in product size due to the limited dimensions of printing trays. Electron beam welding (EBW) is a well-established process that results in relatively minor metallurgical modifications in workpieces due to the ability of EBW to pass high-density energy to the related substance. The present study aims to evaluate structural properties of EB-welded AlSi10Mg thin-walled pressure vessels produced from components prepared by SLM technology. Following the EB welding process, leak and burst tests were conducted, as was fractography analysis. The welded vessels showed an acceptable holding pressure of 30 MPa, with a reasonable residual deformation up to 2.3% and a leak rate better than 1 × 10-8 std-cc s-1 helium. The failures that occurred under longitudinal stresses reflected the presence of two weak locations in the vessels, i.e., the welded joint region and the transition zone between the vessel base and wall. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces of broken vessels displayed the ductile mode of the rupture, with dimples of various sizes, depending on the failure location.

  20. Oxidized Phospholipids on Lipoprotein(a) Elicit Arterial Wall Inflammation and an Inflammatory Monocyte Response in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Fleur M; Bekkering, Siroon; Kroon, Jeffrey; Yeang, Calvin; Van den Bossche, Jan; van Buul, Jaap D; Ravandi, Amir; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Scipione, Corey; Nieuwdorp, Max; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Riksen, Niels P; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-23

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a prevalent, independent cardiovascular risk factor, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for its pathogenicity are poorly defined. Because Lp(a) is the prominent carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), part of its atherothrombosis might be mediated through this pathway. In vivo imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography were used to measure subsequently atherosclerotic burden, arterial wall inflammation, and monocyte trafficking to the arterial wall. Ex vivo analysis of monocytes was performed with fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, inflammatory stimulation assays, and transendothelial migration assays. In vitro studies of the pathophysiology of Lp(a) on monocytes were performed with an in vitro model for trained immunity. We show that subjects with elevated Lp(a) (108 mg/dL [50-195 mg/dL]; n=30) have increased arterial inflammation and enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cells trafficking to the arterial wall compared with subjects with normal Lp(a) (7 mg/dL [2-28 mg/dL]; n=30). In addition, monocytes isolated from subjects with elevated Lp(a) remain in a long-lasting primed state, as evidenced by an increased capacity to transmigrate and produce proinflammatory cytokines on stimulation (n=15). In vitro studies show that Lp(a) contains OxPL and augments the proinflammatory response in monocytes derived from healthy control subjects (n=6). This effect was markedly attenuated by inactivating OxPL on Lp(a) or removing OxPL on apolipoprotein(a). These findings demonstrate that Lp(a) induces monocyte trafficking to the arterial wall and mediates proinflammatory responses through its OxPL content. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which Lp(a) mediates cardiovascular disease. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR

  1. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  2. Differentiation of deep subcortical infarction using high-resolution vessel wall MR imaging of middle cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Sunwoo, Leonard; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) of middle cerebral artery (MCA), and to compare HR-VWI findings between striatocapsular infarction (SC-I) and lenticulostriate infarction (LS-I). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. From July 2009 to February 2012, 145 consecutive patients with deep subcortical infarctions (SC-I, n = 81; LS-I, n = 64) who underwent HR-VWI were included in this study. The degree of MCA stenosis and the characteristics of MCA plaque (presence, eccentricity, location, extent, T2-high signal intensity [T2-HSI], and plaque enhancement) were analyzed, and compared between SC-I and LS-I, using Fisher's exact test. Stenosis was more severe in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.040). MCA plaque was more frequent in SC-I than in LS-I (p = 0.028), having larger plaque extent (p = 0.001), more T2-HSI (p = 0.001), and more plaque enhancement (p = 0.002). The eccentricity and location of the plaque showed no significant difference between the two groups.Both SC-I and LS-I have similar HR-VWI findings of the MCA plaque, but SC-I had more frequent, larger plaques with greater T2-HSI and enhancement. This suggests that HR-VWI may have a promising role in assisting the differentiation of underlying pathophysiological mechanism between SC-I and LS-I.

  3. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  4. Assessment of influence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation on arterial wall structural characteristics in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Korotaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of influence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation on arterial wall structural characteristics in psoriatic arthritis. Objective. To assess possibility of traditional cardiovascular risk (CVR factors application as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA. Material and methods. 130 pts with PA (51 male and 79 female without clinical signs of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke. were included. Mean age was 43 years (39-48 years, mean PA duration – 7 years (2 months-42 years, mean psoriasis duration – 15 years (5,5 – 26 years. PA activity was assessed with DAS4. Age, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDLP, low density lipoprotein (LDLP, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, atherogenity coefficient (AC, relative risk of CHD development, presence of diabetes and smoking were evaluated. Mean and maximal intima-media complex thickness (IMCT of common carotid arteries was examined with duplex scanning. Results. TC, LDLP and AC elevation was revealed in all and BMI elevation – in one third of pts. In 55% of pts CVR was mean and higher, in 23,5% CVR was absent and in 21,5% CVR was below mean. CVR significantly correlated with mean and maximal carotid arteries IMCT (R=0,48, p<0,00001 and R=0,41, p<0,00001 and fibrinogen (R=0,22, p<0,011. In women CVR correlated with fibrinogen (R=0,27, p<0,16, BMI (R=0,35, p<0,16, mean and maximal carotid arteries IMCT (R=0,50, p<0,00001 and R=0,38, p<0,0005 respectively and psoriasis duration (R=0,30, p<0,006. In men CVR did not correlated with fibrinogen. CVR did not correlated with DAS4 and CRP. Conclusion. CVR in PA is not connected with traditional markers of inflammation andindex of clinical disease activity.

  5. High-resolution 3D coronary vessel wall imaging with near 100% respiratory efficiency using epicardial fat tracking: reproducibility and comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the performance and reproducibility of 3D spiral coronary artery wall imaging with beat-to-beat respiratory-motion-correction (B2B-RMC) compared to navigator gated 2D spiral and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisitions. High-resolution (0.7 × 0.7 mm) cross-sectional right coronary wall acquisitions were performed in 10 subjects using four techniques (B2B-RMC 3D spiral with alternate (2RR) and single (1RR) R-wave gating, navigator-gated 2D spiral (2RR) and navigator-gated 2D TSE (2RR)) on two occasions. Wall thickness measurements were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In all, 91% (73/80) of acquisitions were successful (failures: four TSE, two 3D spiral (1RR) and one 3D spiral (2RR)). Respiratory efficiency of the B2B-RMC was less variable and substantially higher than for navigator gating (99.6 ± 1.2% vs. 39.0 ± 7.5%, P B2B-RMC permits coronary vessel wall assessment over multiple thin contiguous slices in a clinically feasible duration. Excellent reproducibility of the technique potentially enables studies of disease progression/regression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  7. Vascular wall-resident CD44+ multipotent stem cells give rise to pericytes and smooth muscle cells and contribute to new vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Klein

    Full Text Available Here, we identify CD44(+CD90(+CD73(+CD34(-CD45(- cells within the adult human arterial adventitia with properties of multipotency which were named vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs. VW-MPSCs exhibit typical mesenchymal stem cell characteristics including cell surface markers in immunostaining and flow cytometric analyses, and differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes under culture conditions. Particularly, TGFß1 stimulation up-regulates smooth muscle cell markers in VW-MPSCs. Using fluorescent cell labelling and co-localisation studies we show that VW-MPSCs differentiate to pericytes/smooth muscle cells which cover the wall of newly formed endothelial capillary-like structures in vitro. Co-implantation of EGFP-labelled VW-MPSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells into SCID mice subcutaneously via Matrigel results in new vessels formation which were covered by pericyte- or smooth muscle-like cells generated from implanted VW-MPSCs. Our results suggest that VW-MPSCs are of relevance for vascular morphogenesis, repair and self-renewal of vascular wall cells and for local capacity of neovascularization in disease processes.

  8. Formation of three-dimensional cell/polymer constructs for bone tissue engineering in a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; Bancroft, Gregory N.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the cell culture conditions of three-dimensional polymer scaffolds seeded with rat marrow stromal cells (MSCs) cultured in different bioreactors concerning the ability of these cells to proliferate, differentiate towards the osteoblastic lineage, and generate mineralized extracellular matrix. MSCs harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats were culture expanded, seeded on three-dimensional porous 75:25 poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days under static conditions or in two model bioreactors (a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel) that enhance mixing of the media and provide better nutrient transport to the seeded cells. The spinner flask culture demonstrated a 60% enhanced proliferation at the end of the first week when compared to static culture. On day 14, all cell/polymer constructs exhibited their maximum alkaline phosphatase activity (AP). Cell/polymer constructs cultured in the spinner flask had 2.4 times higher AP activity than constructs cultured under static conditions on day 14. The total osteocalcin (OC) secretion in the spinner flask culture was 3.5 times higher than the static culture, with a peak OC secretion occurring on day 18. No considerable AP activity and OC secretion were detected in the rotating wall vessel culture throughout the 21-day culture period. The spinner flask culture had the highest calcium content at day 14. On day 21, the calcium deposition in the spinner flask culture was 6.6 times higher than the static cultured constructs and over 30 times higher than the rotating wall vessel culture. Histological sections showed concentration of cells and mineralization at the exterior of the foams at day 21. This phenomenon may arise from the potential existence of nutrient concentration gradients at the interior of the scaffolds. The better mixing provided in the spinner flask, external to the outer surface of the scaffolds, may explain the

  9. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Otolith Growth of Larval Zebrafish using a Rotating-Wall Vessel: Appropriate Rotation Speed and Fish Developmental Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Anken, Ralf; Liu, Liyue; Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding

    2017-02-01

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of developing animal sensory systems. In this respect, it has extensively been shown earlier that fish inner ear otoliths can act as test masses as their growth is strongly affected by altered gravity such as hypergravity obtained using centrifuges, by (real) microgravity achieved during spaceflight or by simulated microgravity using a ground-based facility. Since flight opportunities are scarce, ground-based simulators of microgravity, using a wide variety of physical principles, have been developed to overcome this shortcoming. Not all of them, however, are equally well suited to provide functional weightlessness from the perspective of the biosystem under evaluation. Therefore, the range of applicability of a particular simulator has to be extensively tested. Earlier, we have shown that a Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) can be used to provide simulated microgravity for developing Zebrafish regarding the effect of rotation on otolith development. In the present study, we wanted to find the most effective speed of rotation and identify the appropriate developmental stage of Zebrafish, where effects are the largest, in order to provide a methodological basis for future in-depth analyses dedicated to the physiological processes underlying otolith growth at altered gravity. Last not least, we compared data on the effect of simulated microgravity on the size versus the weight of otoliths, since the size usually is measured in related studies due to convenience, but the weight more accurately approximates the physical capacity of an otolith. Maintaining embryos at 10 hours post fertilization for three days in the RWV, we found that 15 revolutions per minute (rpm) yielded the strongest effects on otolith growth. Maintenance of Zebrafish staged at 10 hpf, 1 day post fertilization (dpf), 4 dpf, 7 dpf and 14 dpf for three days at 15 rpm resulted in the most prominent effects in 7 dpf larvae. Weighing versus measuring the size of otoliths

  10. In-vessel calibration of the imaging diagnostics for the real-time protection of the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, V., E-mail: V.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Supercomputing Centre, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Huber, A.; Mertens, Ph.; Sergienko, G. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung—Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kinna, D.; Balboa, I.; Collins, S.; Conway, N.; Maggi, C. F.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A. G.; Price, M.; Silburn, S.; Zastrow, K.-D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Drewelow, P. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Wynn, A. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The in situ absolute calibration of the JET real-time protection imaging system has been performed for the first time by means of radiometric light source placed inside the JET vessel and operated by remote handling. High accuracy of the calibration is confirmed by cross-validation of the near infrared (NIR) cameras against each other, with thermal IR cameras, and with the beryllium evaporator, which lead to successful protection of the JET first wall during the last campaign. The operation temperature ranges of NIR protection cameras for the materials used on JET are Be 650-1600 °C, W coating 600-1320 °C, and W 650-1500 °C.

  11. {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in arterial vessel walls and cardiovascular risk factors. Correlation in a PET-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Stefan; Rominger, A.; Cumming, P.; Bartenstein, P.; Hacker, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (TUM) (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Saam, T.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.F. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology; Wolpers, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (TUM) (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology

    2010-07-01

    Fluorine-labelled choline derivatives were recently suggested as agents for visualizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between {sup 18}F-fluorethylcholine (FEC) uptake in the wall of large arteries, where calcification was also measured, with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and occurrence of prior cardiovascular events. Detailed clinical information, including common cardiovascular risk factors, was obtained retrospectively in 60 prostate cancer patients examined with whole-body FEC PET-CT. In each patient, we calculated the mean blood pool-corrected SUV, as well as the mean target-to-background ratio (TBR), in addition to the sum of calcified plaques (CP{sub sum}) from six major vessels: ascending and descending aorta, aortic arch, abdominal aorta, and both iliac arteries. As reported previously, the CP{sub sum} correlated significantly with cardiovascular risk factors, in contrast to mean SUV or TBR scores, which did not show any significance with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. There was no correlation between CP{sub sum}, mean TBR or SUV, nor was there any significant association of CP{sub sum}, mean TBR or SUV with the prior occurrence of cardio- or cerebrovascular events. Contrary to a recent report, we found in our rather large cohort of elderly prostate cancer patients no significant association between FEC uptake in large vessels and atherosclerotic plaque burden, or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. In line with prior reports on structural changes in vessels, increased calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden was strongly associated with the occurrence of common cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  12. Whole-brain vessel wall MRI: A parameter tune-up solution to improve the scan efficiency of three-dimensional variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Deng, Zixin; Bi, Xiaoming; Song, Shlee S; Schlick, Konrad H; Gonzalez, Nestor R; Li, Debiao; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-09-01

    To propose and evaluate a parameter tune-up solution to expedite a three-dimensional (3D) variable-flip-angle turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall (IVW) imaging. Elliptical k-space sampling and prolonged echo train length (ETL), were used to expedite a 3D variable-flip-angle TSE-based sequence. To compensate for the potential loss in vessel wall signal, optimal combination of prescribed T 2 and ETL was experimentally investigated on 22 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla. The optimized protocol (7-8 min) was then compared with a previous protocol (reference protocol, 11-12 min) in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), vessel wall sharpness, and wall delineation quality on a 4-point scale (0:poor; 3:excellent) in 10 healthy volunteers. A pilot study of five patients was performed and lesion delineation score was used to demonstrate the diagnostic quality. A protocol with ETL = 52 and prescribed T 2  = 170 ms was deemed an optimized one, which, compared with the reference protocol, provided significantly improved wall SNR (12.0 ± 1.3 versus 10.0 ± 1.1; P = 0.002), wall-lumen CNR (9.7 ± 1.2 versus 8.0 ± 0.9; P = 0.002), wall-CSF CNR (2.8 ± 1.0 versus 1.7 ± 1.0; P = 0.026), similar vessel wall sharpness at both inner (1.59 ± 0.18 versus 1.58 ± 0.14, P = 0.87) and outer (1.71 ± 0.25 versus 1.83 ± 0.30; P = 0.18) boundaries, and comparable vessel wall delineation score for individual segments (1.95-3; P > 0.06). In all patients, atherosclerotic plaques (10) or wall dissection (5) were identified with a delineation score of 3 or 2. A parameter tune-up solution can accelerate 3D variable-flip-angle TSE acquisitions, particularly allowed for expedited whole-brain IVW imaging with preserved wall delineation quality. 2. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:751-757. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  13. Inflammation and coagulation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, K A; Kastl, S P; Speidl, W S; Wojta, J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain to be the leading cause of death in Western societies. Despite major findings in vascular biology that lead to a better understanding of the pathomechanisms involved in atherosclerosis, treatment of the disease has only changed slightly within the last years. A big body of evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. Accumulation and peroxidation of LDL-particles within the vessel wall trigger a strong inflammatory response, causing macrophage and T-cell accumulation within the vessel wall. Additionally, B-cells and specific antibodies against LDL-particles, as well as the complement system are implicated in atherogenesis. Besides data from clinical trials and autopsy studies it was the implementation of mouse models of atherosclerosis and the emerging field of direct gen-modification that lead to a thorough description of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease and created overwhelming evidence for a participation of the immune system. Recently, the cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation in atherogenesis has gained attention. Serious limitations and disparities in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in mice and men complicated the translation of experimental data into clinical practice. Despite these limitations, new anti-inflammatory medical therapies in cardiovascular disease are currently being tested in clinical trials.

  14. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Nahid, E-mail: nsedighi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmard, Amir Reza, E-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmehr, Ali, E-mail: radmehr@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Pari, E-mail: phtums@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud, E-mail: mroomezi@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi, E-mail: hashemip@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT < 0.6 mm without plaque, medium-risk: 0.6 mm {<=} IMT {<=} 0.8 mm without plaque and high-risk: IMT > 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT < 0.6 mm, those with 0.6 mm {<=} IMT{<=} 0.8 mm and IMT > 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  15. {sup 18}F-FDG PET reveals unique features of large vessel inflammation in patients with Takayasu's arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, Elena; Fallanca, Federico; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tombetti, Enrico; Sartorelli, Silvia; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A. [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Milan (Italy); Baldissera, Elena M. [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Milan (Italy); Tombolini, Elisabetta [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); Papa, Maurizio [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, Francesco [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Mason, Justin C. [Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Vascular Science and Rheumatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    The object of this study was to assess whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) provides novel information in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA) in addition to that provided by current activity assessment, to analyse the effects of possible confounders, such as arterial grafts, and to verify whether PET/CT could be informative in lesions <4 mm thick. We studied 30 patients with TA, evaluated from October 2010 to April 2014 by both PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All arterial lesions were evaluated by PET both qualitatively (positive/negative) and semiquantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value, SUV{sub max}), and the thickness of lesions in the MRI field of view was evaluated. In a per-patient analysis, the relationships between the PET data and acute-phase reactants and NIH criteria for active TA were evaluated. In a per-lesion analysis, the relationships between the PET features of each lesion and MRI morphological data were evaluated. The effects of the presence of arterial grafts were also evaluated. Increased FDG uptake was seen in 16 of 30 patients (53%) and in 46 of 177 vascular lesions (26%). Significant periprosthetic FDG uptake was seen in 6 of 7 patients (86%) with previous vascular surgery and in 10 of 11 of grafts (91%). Graft-associated uptake influenced the PET results in three patients (10%) and the SUV{sub max} values in five patients (17%). Of 39 lesions with significant FDG uptake, 15 (38%) were <4 mm thick. Lesion thickness was correlated with lesion SUV{sub max} in FDG-avid lesions only. FDG arterial uptake was not associated with systemic inflammation or NIH criteria. PET/CT reveals unique and fundamental features of arterial involvement in TA. PET/CT may be useful in the assessment of local inflammatory and vascular remodelling events independent of systemic inflammation during follow-up, even in lesions in which the arterial wall is <4 mm. The presence of arterial grafts is a potential confounder

  16. Investigation of radial shear in the wall-base juncture of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Construction of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is underway as part of a cooperative containment research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work is co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Preliminary analyses of the Sandia 1:4 Scale PCCV Model have determined axisymmetric global behavior and have estimated the potential for failure in several areas, including the wall-base juncture and near penetrations. Though the liner tearing failure mode has been emphasized, the assumption of a liner tearing failure mode is largely based on experience with reinforced concrete containments. For the PCCV, the potential for shear failure at or near the liner tearing pressure may be considerable and requires detailed investigation. This paper examines the behavior of the PCCV in the region most susceptible to a radial shear failure, the wall-basemat juncture region. Prediction of shear failure in concrete structures is a difficult goal, both experimentally and analytically. As a structure begins to deform under an applied system of forces that produce shear, other deformation modes such as bending and tension/compression begin to influence the response. Analytically, difficulties lie in characterizing the decrease in shear stiffness and shear stress and in predicting the associated transfer of stress to reinforcement as cracks become wider and more extensive. This paper examines existing methods for representing concrete shear response and existing criteria for predicting shear failure, and it discusses application of these methods and criteria to the study of the 1:4 scale PCCV.

  17. Deciphering the key molecular and cellular events in neutrophil transmigration during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Krishnamurthy, Kandamaran; Manikandan, Jayapal; Pakeerappa, Praveen N; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes circulating in our blood to the sites of infection or tissue damage is the key phenomenon in the acute inflammatory response(s). Among the leukocytes, neutrophils are primarily recruited into the areas of acute inflammation. When neutrophils interact with activated endothelium of the blood vessels, they become migratory and cross the endothelial layer of the blood vessel wall in a process called as leukocyte extravasation. Identifying and understanding the gene regul...

  18. GM-CSF neutralisation suppresses inflammation and protects cartilage in acute streptococcal cell wall arthritis of mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plater-Zyberk, C.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Helsen, M.M.A.; Hepp, J.; Baeuerle, P.A.; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pathogenic involvement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in arthritis has been put forward. We have investigated the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF neutralisation in the streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis model in mice. In this model, the pathogenic

  19. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vivo Clearance of Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Is Influenced by the Extent of Its N-Linked Glycosylation and by Its Interaction with the Vessel Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. McCurdy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP is a highly glycosylated plasma protein that exerts vasoprotective effects. We hypothesized that AGP’s N-linked glycans govern its rate of clearance from the circulation, and followed the disappearance of different forms of radiolabeled human AGP from the plasma of rabbits and mice. Enzymatic deglycosylation of human plasma-derived AGP (pdAGP by Peptide: N-Glycosidase F yielded a mixture of differentially deglycosylated forms (PNGase-AGP, while the introduction of five Asn to Gln mutations in recombinant Pichia pastoris-derived AGP (rAGP-N(5Q eliminated N-linked glycosylation. PNGase-AGP was cleared from the rabbit circulation 9-fold, and rAGP-N(5Q, 46-fold more rapidly than pdAGP, primarily via a renal route. Pichia pastoris-derived wild-type rAGP differed from pdAGP in expressing mannose-terminated glycans, and, like neuraminidase-treated pdAGP, was more rapidly removed from the rabbit circulation than rAGP-N(5Q. Systemic hyaluronidase treatment of mice transiently decreased pdAGP clearance. AGP administration to mice reduced vascular binding of hyaluronic acid binding protein in the liver microcirculation and increased its plasma levels. Our results support a critical role of N-linked glycosylation of AGP in regulating its in vivo clearance and an influence of a hyaluronidase-sensitive component of the vessel wall on its transendothelial passage.

  1. A pilot trial to examine the effect of high-dose niacin on arterial wall inflammation using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGoma, Emil M; Salavati, Ali; Shinohara, Russell T; Saboury, Babak; Pollan, Laura; Schoen, Marisa; Torigian, Drew A; Mohler, Emile R; Dunbar, Richard L; Litt, Harold I; Woo, John; Rader, Daniel J; Alavi, Abass; Mehta, Nehal N

    2015-05-01

    Although studies have reported direct inhibition of inflammatory pathways with niacin, the effect of niacin on arterial wall inflammation remains unknown. We examined the effect of niacin on arterial (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Nine statin-treated patients with coronary disease were randomized to niacin 6000 mg/day or placebo. FDG-PET/CT and lipids were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. FDG was quantified in the aorta, right carotid artery, and left carotid artery as the target-to-background ratio (TBR) and target-to-background difference (TBD). Eight patients completed the study. No significant changes in FDG measured by aortic, left carotid, or right carotid TBR or TBD were seen in either group. Compared to baseline, niacin-treated subjects exhibited a significant 29% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 95% confidence interval [CI], -50% to 8%; P = .01) and a nonsignificant 29% reduction in LDL particle number (LDL-P; 95% CI, -58% to 0.2%; P = .07). A nonsignificant 11% increase in HDL-C (95% CI, -15% to 37%; P = .30) and 8% decrease in HDL-P (95% CI, -44% to 28%; P = .51) were observed with niacin treatment. In a pooled analysis, changes in LDL-P were positively correlated with FDG uptake in the aorta (TBR r = 0.66, P = .08; TBD r = 0.75, P = .03), left carotid (TBR r = 0.65, P = .08; TBD r = 0.74, P = .03), and right carotid (TBR r = 0.54, P = .17; TBD r = 0.61, P = .11). In this pilot study, adding niacin to statin therapy did not affect arterial wall inflammation measured by FDG-PET/CT. However, an association between changes in arterial FDG uptake and LDL-P was observed. Larger studies are needed to definitively examine the effect of niacin on arterial wall inflammation. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulated Microgravity Regulates Gene Transcript Profiles of 2T3 Preosteoblasts: Comparison of the Random Positioning Machine and the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mamta J.; Liu, Wenbin; Sykes, Michelle C.; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Risin, Diana; Hanjoong, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. We have previously examined the microgravity-induced changes in gene expression profiles in 2T3 preosteoblasts using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity conditions. Here, we hypothesized that exposure of preosteoblasts to an independent microgravity simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), induces similar changes in differentiation and gene transcript profiles, resulting in a more confined list of gravi-sensitive genes that may play a role in bone formation. In comparison to static 1g controls, exposure of 2T3 cells to RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 genes and upregulated 45 genes by more than two-fold as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed with real time PCR for downregulated genes osteomodulin, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), runx2, and parathyroid hormone receptor 1. Western blot analysis validated the expression of three downregulated genes, BMP4, peroxiredoxin IV, and osteoglycin, and one upregulated gene peroxiredoxin I. Comparison of the microarrays from the RPM and the RWV studies identified 14 gravi-sensitive genes that changed in the same direction in both systems. Further comparison of our results to a published database showing gene transcript profiles of mechanically loaded mouse tibiae revealed 16 genes upregulated by the loading that were shown to be downregulated by RWV and RPM. These mechanosensitive genes identified by the comparative studies may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets of countermeasure against decreased bone formation both in astronauts and in general patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

  3. Inflammation response at the transcriptional level of HepG2 cells induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Vankoningsloo, Sebastien; Noel, Florence; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier [Research Unit in Cellular Biology (URBC), Narilis, University of Namur, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Mendoza, Jorge Mejia; Lucas, Stephane, E-mail: olivier.toussaint@fundp.ac.be [Research Center for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Narilis, University of Namur, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2011-07-06

    Poor information are currently available about the biological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the liver. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MWCNT at the transcriptional level on the classical in vitro model of HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of 96 transcript species implicated in the inflammatory and immune responses was studied after a 24h incubation of HepG2 cells in presence of raw MWCNT dispersed in water by stirring. Among the 46 transcript species detected, only a few transcripts including mRNA coding for interleukine-7, chemokines receptor of the C-C families CCR7, as well as Endothelin-1, were statistically more abundant after treatment with MWCNT. Altogether, these data indicate that MWCNT can only induce a weak inflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

  4. Inflammation response at the transcriptional level of HepG2 cells induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Vankoningsloo, Sébastien; Noël, Florence; Mejia Mendoza, Jorge; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Poor information are currently available about the biological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the liver. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MWCNT at the transcriptional level on the classical in vitro model of HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of 96 transcript species implicated in the inflammatory and immune responses was studied after a 24h incubation of HepG2 cells in presence of raw MWCNT dispersed in water by stirring. Among the 46 transcript species detected, only a few transcripts including mRNA coding for interleukine-7, chemokines receptor of the C-C families CCR7, as well as Endothelin-1, were statistically more abundant after treatment with MWCNT. Altogether, these data indicate that MWCNT can only induce a weak inflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

  5. Immunological and inflammatory processes in systemic autoimmune disease may not only cause pericardium inflammation, but may also cause mitral valve deterioration and left ventricular wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Atsushi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Ozawa, Koya; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-15

    Systemic autoimmune disease (SAD) frequently affects the pericardium, and pathology is characterized by both immunological and inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that these processes simultaneously influence mitral-valve (MV) deterioration and left-ventricular (LV) wall thickening in SAD subjects. 101 SAD subjects were selected (76 female; 53±17years; systemic-lupus-erythematosus, 26%; vasculitis, 20%; scleroderma, 14%; polymyositis/dermatomyositis complex, 10%; mixed connective tissue disease, 11% and rheumatoid-arthritis, 2%). MV anterior-mitral-leaflet (AML) length, AML thickness index, AML doming height and LV mass index (LVMI) were measured using transthoracic-echocardiography (TTE) and the presence of MV calcification, MV sub-valvular thickening and pericardial effusion (PE) were estimated. AML thickness index was calculated as the ratio of AML thickness to aortic posterior wall thickness. The correlation between LVMI and ECG V1S+V5R voltage was used to assess the etiology of LV wall thickening. 19 subjects (19%) had significant PE. PE subjects had a significantly greater AML thickness index (1.55±0.48 vs. 1.14±0.32, P<0.001), AML doming height (1.26±1.54mm vs. 0.03±0.91mm, P<0.001), more frequent MV sub-valvular thickening (26% vs. 5%, P=0.003) and greater LVMI (104.7±34.6g/m2 vs. 80.6±21.0g/m2, P=0.002). Significant correlation was observed between LVMI and ECG V1S+V5R voltage in 79 subjects without PE (R=0.39, P<0.001). However, in 18 subjects with PE, no such correlation was observed (R=0.30, P=0.23). MV, MV sub-valvular deterioration and increased LVMI, unrelated to high voltage ECG criteria, were frequently detected in SAD subjects with PE. Immunological and inflammatory processes in SAD may not only cause pericardium inflammation, but may also cause MV deterioration and LV wall thickening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  7. Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Amenta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and inflammatory cells. Dysfunction of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs promotes a chronic pathological inflammatory response that progressively weakens the vessel wall. We review the literature pertaining to the cellular and chemical mechanisms of inflammation that contribute to aneurysm development. Hemodynamic stress and alterations in blood flow are discussed regarding their role in promoting chronic inflammation. Endothelial cell and VSMC dysfunction are examined concerning vascular remodeling. The contribution of inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α is illustrated. Inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly macrophage-mediated deterioration of vascular integrity, is reviewed. We discuss the inflammation as a means to determine aneurysms at greatest risk of rupture. Finally, future therapeutic implications of pharmacologic modulation of the inflammation are discussed.

  8. Alzheimer's dementia begins as a disease of small blood vessels, damaged by oxidative-induced inflammation and dysregulated amyloid metabolism: implications for early detection and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2011-01-01

    There is a widely shared view among Alzheimer's disease (AD) investigators that the amyloid hypothesis best describes the pathogenic cascade that leads, ultimately, to neuronal degeneration and irreversible dementia. The most persuasive evidence comes from studies of damaged brains of patients in the late stages of AD and from animal studies that attempt to mimic the hereditary forms of early-onset dementia. Despite this impressive body of knowledge, we still lack the means to either arrest or prevent this horrible contagion. This essay attempts to describe what we know, and do not know, about the earliest stages of the disease, focusing on the possibility that the initial pathological changes involve oxidative-induced inflammatory damage to small blood vessels. The resulting ischemia activates amyloid-processing enzymes and other proinflammatory factors that eventually compromise neuronal functions, leading, over time, to the complex lesions that characterize advanced disease. The idea that blood vessel damage is primary has a long history and many prior advocates. The novel addition offered here is the speculation that low-abundance, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the amyloid precursor protein may be part of the triggering mechanism.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction analysis on the effect of vessel wall hypertrophy and stiffness on the blood flow in carotid artery bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyoung Gwon; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2012-11-01

    The effect of artery wall hypertrophy and stiffness on the flow field is investigated using three-dimensional finite element method for simulating the blood flow. To avoid the complexity due to the necessity of additional mechanical constraints, we use the combined formulation which includes both the fluid and structural equations of motion into single coupled variational equation. A P2P1 Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used to achieve mesh movement. The Newmark method is employed for solving the dynamic equilibrium equations for linear elastic solid mechanics. The pulsatile, incompressible flows of Newtonian fluids constrained in the flexible wall are analyzed with Womersley velocity profile at the inlet and constant pressure at the outlet. The study shows that the stiffness of carotid artery wall affects significantly the flow phenomena during the pulse cycle. Similarly, it is found that the flow field is also strongly influenced by wall hypertrophy. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program and Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2009-0079936 & 2011-0029613).

  10. Estimate of radiation-induced steel embrittlement in the BWR core shroud and vessel wall from reactor-grade MOX/UOX fuel for the nuclear power plant at Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Lisa Rene

    The government of Mexico has expressed interest to utilize the Laguna Verde boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant for the disposition of reprocessed spent uranium oxide (UOX) fuel in the form of reactor-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. MOX fuel would replace spent UOX fuel as a fraction in the core from 18--30% depending on the fuel loading cycle. MOX fuel is expected to increase the neutron fluence, flux, fuel centerline temperature, reactor core pressure, and yield higher energy neutrons. There is concern that a core with a fraction of MOX fuel (i.e., increased 239Pu wt%) would increase the radiation-induced steel embrittlement within the core shroud and vessel wall as compared to only conventional, enriched UOX fuel in the core. The evaluation of radiation-induced steel embrittlement within the core shroud and vessel wall is a concern because of the potentially adverse affect to plant and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor. This dissertation provides computational results of the neutron fluence, flux, energy spectrum, and radiation damage displacements per atom per second (dpa-s-1) in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 BWR. The results were computed using the nuclear data processing code NJOY99 and the continuous energy Monte Carlo Neutral Particle transport code MCNP4B. The MCNP4B model of the reactor core was for maximum core loading fractions of ⅓ MOX and ⅔ UOX reactor-grade fuel in an equilibrium core. The primary conclusion of this dissertation was that the addition of the maximum fraction of ⅓ MOX fuel to the LV1 BWR core did significantly accelerate the radiation-induced steel embrittlement such that without mitigation of steel embrittlement by periodic thermal annealing or reduction in operating parameters such as, neutron fluence, core temperature and pressure, it posed a potentially adverse affect to the plant and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor.

  11. Effects of High-sugar and High-fat Diet on Fat Deposition and Blood Vessel Wall on Sprague Dawley Rats Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Citra Setiawan Hoei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People nowadays tend to consume more fast food and sweetened beverages. These foods usually contain high amount sugar and fat that have effects on the body including liver.This study was conducted to explore the effects of extensive intake of sugar and fat on blood glucose and  cholesterol level as well as changes in liver. Research was conducted with experimental method using 20 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 4 groups; 2 controls and 2 treatments. Rats were given 5 ml sugar or lard alternatively every 2 consecutive days for 1-month and 2-month respectively. Data was retrieved include blood glucose and cholesterol level, fatty liver percentage and blood vessel thickening after intervention through HE staining. The results showed that both 1-month and 2-month intervention group has significant increase in blood glucose and cholesterol level. However, the enhancement of fatty liver percentage and number of thickened blood vessels (p<0.05 were only foundsignificant (p<0.05 in 1-month intervention group.  We concluded that high intake of sugar and fat within 1-monthintervention have significant effects on the rat body including liver. Nevertheless, it was not found significant in 2-months intervention. Further studies are still needed to analyze this incongruent result.Key words: high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, fatty liver, atherosclerosis 

  12. Purified cell wall from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus gasseri activates systemic inflammation and, at higher doses, produces lethality in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhui; Hicks, Caitlin; Li, Yan; Su, Junwu; Shiloach, Joseph; Kaufman, Jeanne B; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q; Cui, Xizhong

    2014-07-02

    One proposed benefit of probiotic therapy is that probiotic bacterial cell-wall binding to intestinal cell pathogen-recognition receptors activates protective innate immunity. However, in critically ill patients, intestinal epithelium disruption by shock or other insults may compromise this compartmentalized response and cause systemic bacteria and cell-wall translocation. The effects of intravascular introduction of probiotic bacterial cell wall are unclear. We investigated 24-hour infusions of purified cell wall from Lactobacillus gasseri ATC33323 (L. gasseri), a probiotic bacterium, in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 49). Increasing cell-wall doses (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg over 24 hours) produced dose-ordered decreases in survival measured after 168 hours (11 survivors/11 total (100%), seven of seven (100%), seven of seven (100%), six of eight (75%), five of eight (63%), and one of nine (11%), respectively, P gasseri cell wall was equally or more lethal than Staphylococcus aureus cell wall, which was previously studied (100% to 88% survival with the same increasing doses). During challenge, compared with controls, L. gasseri cell wall produced increases in blood IL-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, migratory inhibitory protein-1α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and nitric oxide, and decreases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets that were greater with higher versus lower doses (P ≤ 0.05). Medium-dose cell wall (40 and 80 mg/kg combined) progressively decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate, and all doses increased lactate, hepatic transaminases, and creatinine phosphokinase (P ≤ 0.05). Although L. gasseri, like other probiotic bacteria, is considered safe, its cell wall can stimulate the maladaptive inflammatory response associated with pathogenic bacteria. Such effects deserve study, especially regarding critically ill patients.

  13. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha

    2017-04-01

    The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  14. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisya Agita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  15. Behavior of platelets stained by 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes after laser irradiation of vessel wall: an in-vivo model for studying site-selective delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Buys, Bruno; Tourne-Peteilh, Corine; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie

    2001-05-01

    platelets using 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes injected intravenously presents the following advantages: i) in-situ labeling, ii) use of hydrophilic marker located in an aqueous compartment within the platelet, iii) as the release of the fluorescence marker is slow due to the formulation of liposomes, labeling of platelets could be observed during the whole experiment. Laser irradiation of blood vessels in vivo can induce the different phases of platelet activation: i) recruitment, ii) adhesion, iii) detachment, iv) transmigration. The combination of these techniques (platelet staining with PEGylated liposomes, intravital fluorescence microscopy, laser irradiation) provides a powerful tool to study local inflammation, platelet activation and behavior of liposomes in situ and in real time at an inflammation site. These observations could be considered as a preliminary approach to study the targeting of drugs to an endothelium under inflammation environment.

  16. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  17. An exploratory pathways analysis of temporal changes induced by spinal cord injury in the rat bladder wall: insights on remodeling and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wognum

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCI can lead to severe bladder pathologies associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and increased susceptibility to urinary tract infections. We sought to characterize the complex pathways of remodeling, inflammation, and infection in the urinary bladder at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of SCI, using pathways analysis bioinformatics.Experimental data were obtained from the study of Nagatomi et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334: 1159. In this study, bladders from rats subjected to surgical SCI were obtained at 3, 7 or 25 days post-surgery, and Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome U34A arrays were used for cRNA hybridizations. In the present study, Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, www.ingenuity.com of differentially expressed genes was performed. Analysis of focus genes in networks, functional analysis, and canonical pathway analysis reinforced our previous findings related to the presence of up-regulated genes involved in tissue remodeling, such as lysyl oxidase, tropoelastin, TGF-beta1, and IGF-1. This analysis also highlighted a central role for inflammation and infection, evidenced by networks containing genes such as CD74, S100A9, and THY1.Our findings suggest that tissue remodeling, infection, inflammation, and tissue damage/dysfunction all play a role in the urinary bladder, in the complex response to SCI.

  18. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  19. Mechanisms of VIP-induced inhibition of the lymphatic vessel pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Rehal, Sonia; Dyrda, Peter; Lee, Stewart; Mathias, Ryan; Rahman, Mozibur; Roizes, Simon; Imtiaz, Mohammad S

    2012-06-01

    Lymphatic vessels serve as a route by which interstitial fluid, protein and other macromolecules are returned to the blood circulation and immune cells and antigens gain access to lymph nodes. Lymph flow is an active process promoted by rhythmical contraction-relaxation events occurring in the collecting lymphatic vessels. This lymphatic pumping is an intrinsic property of the lymphatic muscles in the vessel wall and consequent to action potentials. Compromised lymphatic pumping may affect lymph and immune cell transport, an action which could be particularly detrimental during inflammation. Importantly, many inflammatory mediators alter lymphatic pumping. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuro- and immuno-modulator thought to be released by nerve terminals and immune cells in close proximity to lymphatic vessels. We demonstrated the presence of the peptide in lymphatic vessels and in the lymph and examined the effects of VIP on mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels of the guinea pig using pharmacological bioassays, intracellular microelectrode electrophysiology, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR. We showed that VIP alters lymphatic pumping by decreasing the frequency of lymphatic contractions and hyperpolarizing the lymphatic muscle membrane potential in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data further suggest that these effects are mainly mediated by stimulation of the VIP receptor VPAC2 located on the lymphatic muscle and the downstream involvement of protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-sensitive K⁺ (KATP) channels. Inhibition of lymphatic pumping by VIP may compromise lymph drainage, oedema resolution and immune cell trafficking to the draining lymph nodes.

  20. Extracellular matrix inflammation in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Gary A

    2017-03-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Elasticity is lost in fibrotic cerebral vessels, reducing the response of stiffened blood vessels in times of increased metabolic need. Intermittent hypoxia/ischaemia activates a molecular injury cascade, producing an incomplete infarction that is most damaging to the deep WM, which is a watershed region for cerebral blood flow. Neuroinflammation caused by hypoxia activates microglia/macrophages to release proteases and free radicals that perpetuate the damage over time to molecules in the ECM and the neurovascular unit (NVU). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted in an attempt to remodel the blood vessel wall have the undesired consequences of opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attacking myelinated fibres. This dual effect of the MMPs causes vasogenic oedema in WM and vascular demyelination, which are the hallmarks of the subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD), which is the SVD form of VCID also called Binswanger's disease (BD). Unravelling the complex pathophysiology of the WM injury-related inflammation in the small vessel form of VCID could lead to novel therapeutic strategies to reduce damage to the ECM, preventing the progressive damage to the WM. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Vessel wall reactions to endovascular stent implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn order to gain insight in the effects of stenting, we studied the process of wound healing and the short- and long-term effect of these permanently present foreign bodies. Both thrombogenic and less thrombogenic metals were evaluated with respect to thrombogenicity and tissue response.

  2. Retroperitoneal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001255.htm Retroperitoneal inflammation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. ...

  3. Exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes results in aggravation of airway inflammation and remodeling and in increased production of epithelium-derived innate cytokines in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzani, Carole; Casset, Anne; Pons, Françoise

    2014-02-01

    With the development of nanotechnologies, the potential adverse effects of nanomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the respiratory tract of asthmatics are questioned. Furthermore, investigations are necessary to understand how these effects might arise. In the present study, we hypothesized that epithelium-derived innate cytokines that are considered as important promoting factors in allergy may contribute to an aggravating effect of MWCNT on asthma. We investigated in the mouse the effect of MWCNT on systemic immune response and airway inflammation and remodeling induced by the most frequent allergen so far associated with asthma, house dust mite (HDM), and we examined the production of the innate cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF. Mice exposed to HDM exhibited specific IgG1 in serum and inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased Th2 cytokine production, mucus hyperproduction, and collagen deposition in the airways when compared to naïve animals. Levels of total IgG1 and HDM-specific IgG1, influx of macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, production of collagen, TGF-β1, and mucus, as well as levels of IL-13, eotaxin, and TARC, were dose-dependently increased in mice exposed to HDM and MWCNT compared to HDM alone. These effects were associated with an increased production of TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF in the airways. Our data demonstrate that MWCNT increase in a dose-dependent manner systemic immune response, as well as airway allergic inflammation and remodeling induced by HDM in the mouse. Our data suggest also a role for airway epithelium and innate cytokines in these effects.

  4. Extracellular vesicles as mediators of vascular inflammation in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Alexandra; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle

    2016-03-06

    Vascular inflammation is a common cause of renal impairment and a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with kidney disease. Current studies consistently show an increase of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in acute vasculitis and in patients with atherosclerosis. Recent research has elucidated mechanisms that mediate vascular wall leukocyte accumulation and differentiation. This review addresses the role of EVs in this process. Part one of this review addresses functional roles of EVs in renal vasculitis. Most published data address anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis and indicate that the number of EVs, mostly of platelet origin, is increased in active disease. EVs generated from neutrophils by activation by ANCA can contribute to vessel damage. While EVs are also elevated in other types of autoimmune vasculitis with renal involvement such as systemic lupus erythematodes, functional consequences beyond intravascular thrombosis remain to be established. In typical hemolytic uremic syndrome secondary to infection with shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, EV numbers are elevated and contribute to toxin distribution into the vascular wall. Part two addresses mechanisms how EVs modulate vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis, a process that is aggravated in uremia. Elevated numbers of circulating endothelial EVs were associated with atherosclerotic complications in a number of studies in patients with and without kidney disease. Uremic endothelial EVs are defective in induction of vascular relaxation. Neutrophil adhesion and transmigration and intravascular thrombus formation are critically modulated by EVs, a process that is amenable to therapeutic interventions. EVs can enhance monocyte adhesion to the endothelium and modulate macrophage differentiation and cytokine production with major influence on the local inflammatory milieu in the plaque. They significantly influence lipid phagocytosis and antigen presentation by

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON INFLAMMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth Pauline

    1923-01-01

    1. None of the salts tested produce a marked inflammation in vivo in concentrations under 10 per cent. Potassium salts and the different citrates produced atypical inflammatory reactions in mice, but not in frogs. There was no true inflammation, however, characterized by blood vessel changes, migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes, and fluid exudation. 2. Synergistic action occurs when equal parts of strontium and magnesium salts are employed. There is a change in the appearance of the mesentery without a true inflammation, and this change does not occur with either salt alone. 3. Amino-acids and amines as a class do not produce inflammation, but histamine produces a marked inflammatory reaction in frogs and mice. 4. Tyramine does not cause an inflammatory reaction but has other marked effects; agglutination thrombi occur within the smaller blood vessels, both veins and arteries; in frogs there is a rapid clumping of the white blood cells followed by a true coagulation with strands of fibrin and entanglement of erythrocytes. This is very widespread and often kills the animal within an hour after injection. In mice it is the erythrocytes that clump and coagulation occurs very much later, usually at the end of 24 hours; still later there is complete absorption of the coagulated masses and the mesenteric circulation returns to normal. None of the mice died during the stage of clumping, and the clots never extended up the larger vessels as they did in the frogs. These effects are similar to the phenomena observed in the in vitro work, in which clumping of the cells appeared constantly. 5. Cantharidinum, histamine, and turpentine produced the most rapid and marked inflammation of any substances tried. These substances are all strongly positively chemotactic in vitro. The differences occurring when these substances are used in different species is a quantitative rather than a qualitative one, the body temperature being of some importance. Papain acted

  6. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was sensitive to transfer coefficient, climatic conditions within the growth chamber, evaporation and condensation of water vapor on the walls of the vessel. The variations in water vapor pressure deficits (VPD) (low during the nyctiperiod and high during ...

  7. LYMPHATIC VESSELS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T.; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature plays vital roles in tissue fluid balance, immune defense, metabolism and cancer metastasis. In adults, lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling occurs primarily during inflammation, development of the corpus luteum, wound healing, and tumor growth. Unlike the blood circulation, where unidirectional flow is sustained by the pumping actions of the heart, pumping actions intrinsic to the lymphatic vessels themselves are important drivers of lymphatic flow. This review summarizes critical components that control lymphatic physiology. PMID:23209022

  8. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on how inflammatory cytokines affect lymphangiogenesis and the roles of lymphatic vessels in modulating immune responses.

  9. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinke Stienstra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin resistance and may stimulate inflammation, as in steatohepatitis. In addition, obesity changes the morphology and composition of adipose tissue, leading to changes in protein production and secretion. Some of these secreted proteins, including several proinflammatory mediators, may be produced by macrophages resident in the adipose tissue. The changes in inflammatory status of adipose tissue and liver with obesity feed a growing recognition that obesity represents a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Various molecular mechanisms have been implicated in obesity-induced inflammation, some of which are modulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and overall energy homeostasis. Importantly, PPARs also modulate the inflammatory response, which makes them an interesting therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced inflammation and its consequences. This review will address the role of PPARs in obesity-induced inflammation specifically in adipose tissue, liver, and the vascular wall.

  10. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  11. Annonaceae: Breaking the Wall of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiq, Ali; Jalil, Juriyati; Husain, Khairana

    2017-01-01

    Inventories of tropical forests have listed Annonaceae as one of the most diverse plant families. For centuries, it is employed in traditional medicines to cure various pathological conditions including snakebite, analgesic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, arthritis pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, and weight loss etc. Phytochemical analysis of Annonaceae family have reported the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene flavone glycosides, sterols, lignans, and annonaceous acetogenin characteristically affiliated with Annonaceae sp. Numerous past studies have underlined the pleotropic pharmacological activities of the crude extracts and isolated compounds from Annonaceae species. This review is an effort to abridge the ethnobotany, morphology, phytochemistry, toxicity, and particularly focusing on the anti-inflammatory activity of the Annonaceae species.

  12. Annonaceae: Breaking the Wall of Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Attiq; Juriyati Jalil; Khairana Husain

    2017-01-01

    Inventories of tropical forests have listed Annonaceae as one of the most diverse plant families. For centuries, it is employed in traditional medicines to cure various pathological conditions including snakebite, analgesic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, arthritis pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, and weight loss etc. Phytochemical analysis of Annonaceae family have reported the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene flavone glycosides, sterols, lignans, and ...

  13. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  14. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Melatonin reduces changes to small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Maren Oude; Patyk, Vivien; de Groot, Herbert; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to impair the microcirculation in intestine and other organs as a result of multifactorial events. Here, we show that melatonin selectively reduces changes to the small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose: 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered before as well as 120 and 240 min after the beginning of the LPS infusion. Systemic parameters were determined in regular intervals. Small intestine, liver, and kidney were histologically (structure of the microvessels, intravascular blood accumulation, and hemorrhages) and immunohistochemically (mast cells, granulocytes, and macrophages) analyzed. Continuous infusion of LPS resulted in dilated microvessels with intravascular blood accumulation (congestion) in liver and small intestine, the latter being particularly pronounced. Blood vessel walls remained intact, there were no hemorrhages. Melatonin significantly reduced these changes to the microvasculature in small intestine, but not in liver. It further reduced mast cell and granulocytes count in small intestine enhanced by LPS. However, except for the systemic blood pressure, melatonin neither improved LPS-dependent changes to systemic parameters nor mortality. Changes to the microvasculature during systemic inflammation are most pronounced in small intestine. Melatonin selectively diminishes these changes to small intestinal microvasculature, probably by reducing the local immune cells recruitment. However, changes to the small intestine are not decisive for the survival. We assume that the therapeutic benefit of melatonin is more likely in local intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  17. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  18. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  19. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  20. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations ...

  1. Vasculites dos médios e grandes vasos Medium and large vessel vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Roberto Clivati Brandt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As vasculites são constituídas por um grande grupo de síndromes caracterizadas por inflamação e necrose da parede dos vasos sangüíneos, resultando em estreitamento ou oclusão do lúmen. A distribuição dos vasos envolvidos varia consideravelmente e serve de base para a classificação das síndromes vasculíticas: grandes vasos (arterite de Takayasu, arterite temporal; pequenos e médios vasos (poliarterite nodosa, síndrome de Churg-Strauss, granulomatose de Wegener, vasculites nas doenças reumáticas; e pequenos vasos (vasculite de hipersensibilidade, púrpura de Henoch-Schonlein, poliangeíte microscópica, crioglobulinemia. Este artigo revisa as vasculites dos médios e grandes vasos e opções terapêuticas atuais; além de oferecer orientação sobre abordagem diagnóstica e tratamento dos pacientes com suspeita de vasculite cutânea.Vasculitis comprises a broad group of syndromes characterized by inflammation and necrosis on the walls of blood vessels, resulting in narrowing or occlusion of the lumen. The distribution of involved blood vessel varies considerably and serves as the basis for one classification of vasculitic syndromes: large vessels (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis; medium and small muscular arteries (polyarteritis nodosa, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, vasculitis in rheumatic diseases; and small vessels ("hypersensitivity" vasculitis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, microscopic polyangiitis, cryoglobulinemia. This article reviews medium and large vessel vasculitis and current treatment options; it also presents a comprehensive approach to diagnosing and treating patients with suspected cutaneous vasculitis.

  2. On-line monitoring and analysis of reactor vessel integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerson, D.S.; Impink, A.J. Jr.; Balkey, K.R.; Andreychek, T.S.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for on-line monitoring and analysis of nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity in a unit in which reactor coolant is circulated along the inner wall of the pressure vessel, the method comprising the steps of: generating on an on-line basis, temperature signals representative of the temperature of the reactor coolant circulating along the inner wall of the pressure vessel; generating on an on-line basis, a pressure signal representative of the reactor coolant pressure; generating a signal representative of fast neutron fluence to which the reactor pressure vessel has been subjected; generating as a function of the fluence signal a visual representation of the actual real time reference nil-ductibility transition temperature (RT/sub ndt/) across the entire pressure vessel wall thickness at a preselected critical location in the wall; generating as a function of transients in the reactor coolant temperature and pressur signals, a visual representation of the real time required RT/sub ndt/, across the entire pressure vessel wall thickness at the selected critical location, the required RT/sub ndt/ being the RT/sub ndt/ that would be required in the pressure vessel wall for flaw initiation to occur as a result of stresses set-up by the transients; and superimposing the visual representations of the real-time actual and required RT/sub ndt's/ for flaw initiation across the entire pressure vessel wall thickness for the selected critical location to generate a visual representation of the difference in value between the actual and required RT/sub ndt/ presented as an RT/sub ndt/ margin.

  3. Leukoaraiosis is associated with arterial wall thickness: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriel, Eitan; Csiba, Laszlo; Berenyi, Ervin; Varkonyi, Ildiko; Mehes, Gabor; Kardos, Laszlo; Karni, Arnon; Bornstein, Natan M

    2012-06-01

    Leukoaraiosis refers to an age-related, abnormal appearance of the brain white matter on neuroimaging. The association between leukoaraiosis and cerebrovascular disease suggests that ischemia may be an important contributing factor; however, the pathogenesis of the condition remains controversial. We hypothesized that physical abnormalities of blood vessels might be culpable and compared the external and internal measurements of blood vessel walls between brains that demonstrated leukoaraiosis on imaging and normal control brains. Fourteen brains of individuals who had been diagnosed as having severe leukoaraiosis and five non-leukoaraiosis control brains were studied. Arterial cross-sections were evaluated by length measurements with an image analysis device. Arterial wall thickness and the ratio of the outer and inner diameters of the vessel were measured. We measured a total of 108 vessels in the leukoaraiosis group and 95 vessels in the control group. The vessel walls of the leukoaraiosis patients were an average of 5.5 µm thicker than the walls of control vessels of the same inside diameter (P = 0.0000, 95% CI 3.01-8.08) and an average of 2.3 µm thicker than walls of control vessels of the same outside diameter (P = 0.016, 95% CI 0.48-4.17). Our data provide evidence that leukoaraiosis is associated with vessel wall thickening in an additive fashion and indicate that structural vascular abnormalities are associated with leukoaraiosis. © 2011 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  6. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  7. Stents Eluting 6-Mercaptopurine Reduce Neointima Formation and Inflammation while Enhancing Strut Coverage in Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs S Ruiter

    Full Text Available The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES has dramatically reduced restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents, but in-stent thrombosis remains a safety concern, necessitating prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy. The drug 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP has been shown to have beneficial effects in a cell-specific fashion on smooth muscle cells (SMC, endothelial cells and macrophages. We generated and analyzed a novel bioresorbable polymer coated DES, releasing 6-MP into the vessel wall, to reduce restenosis by inhibiting SMC proliferation and decreasing inflammation, without negatively affecting endothelialization of the stent surface.Stents spray-coated with a bioresorbable polymer containing 0, 30 or 300 μg 6-MP were implanted in the iliac arteries of 17 male New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were euthanized for stent harvest 1 week after implantation for evaluation of cellular stent coverage and after 4 weeks for morphometric analyses of the lesions.Four weeks after implantation, the high dose of 6-MP attenuated restenosis with 16% compared to controls. Reduced neointima formation could at least partly be explained by an almost 2-fold induction of the cell cycle inhibiting kinase p27Kip1. Additionally, inflammation score, the quantification of RAM11-positive cells in the vessel wall, was significantly reduced in the high dose group with 23% compared to the control group. Evaluation with scanning electron microscopy showed 6-MP did not inhibit strut coverage 1 week after implantation.We demonstrate that novel stents coated with a bioresorbable polymer coating eluting 6-MP inhibit restenosis and attenuate inflammation, while stimulating endothelial coverage. The 6-MP-eluting stents demonstrate that inhibition of restenosis without leaving uncovered metal is feasible, bringing stents without risk of late thrombosis one step closer to the patient.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON INFLAMMATION : II. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMICAL INFLAMMATION IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E P

    1923-03-31

    1. None of the salts tested produce a marked inflammation in vivo in concentrations under 10 per cent. Potassium salts and the different citrates produced atypical inflammatory reactions in mice, but not in frogs. There was no true inflammation, however, characterized by blood vessel changes, migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes, and fluid exudation. 2. Synergistic action occurs when equal parts of strontium and magnesium salts are employed. There is a change in the appearance of the mesentery without a true inflammation, and this change does not occur with either salt alone. 3. Amino-acids and amines as a class do not produce inflammation, but histamine produces a marked inflammatory reaction in frogs and mice. 4. Tyramine does not cause an inflammatory reaction but has other marked effects; agglutination thrombi occur within the smaller blood vessels, both veins and arteries; in frogs there is a rapid clumping of the white blood cells followed by a true coagulation with strands of fibrin and entanglement of erythrocytes. This is very widespread and often kills the animal within an hour after injection. In mice it is the erythrocytes that clump and coagulation occurs very much later, usually at the end of 24 hours; still later there is complete absorption of the coagulated masses and the mesenteric circulation returns to normal. None of the mice died during the stage of clumping, and the clots never extended up the larger vessels as they did in the frogs. These effects are similar to the phenomena observed in the in vitro work, in which clumping of the cells appeared constantly. 5. Cantharidinum, histamine, and turpentine produced the most rapid and marked inflammation of any substances tried. These substances are all strongly positively chemotactic in vitro. The differences occurring when these substances are used in different species is a quantitative rather than a qualitative one, the body temperature being of some importance. Papain acted

  9. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  10. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on h...

  11. What are the residual stresses doing in our blood vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y C

    1991-01-01

    We show that the residual strain and stress in the blood vessels are not zero, and that the zero-stress state of a blood vessel consists of open-sector segments whose opening angles vary along the longitudinal axis of the vessel. When the homeostatic state of the blood vessel is changed, e.g., by a sudden hypertension, the opening angle will change. The time constant of the opening angle change is a few hours (e.g., in the pulmonary artery) or a few days (e.g., in the aorta). From a kinematic point of view, a change of opening angle is a bending of the blood vessel wall, which is caused by a nonuniformly distributed residual strain. From a mechanics point of view, changes of blood pressure and residual strain cause change of stress in the blood vessel wall. Correlating the stress with the change of residual strain yields a fundamental biological law relating the rate of growth or resorption of tissue with the stress in the tissue. Thus, residual stresses are related to the remodeling of the blood vessel wall. Our blood vessel remodels itself when stress changes. The stress-growth law provides a biomechanical foundation for tissue engineering.

  12. [Bladder injury by penetration of artificial vessel graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Tamaki, Gaku; Kura, Tatsuhiko; Saga, Yuji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bladder injury by artificial vessel graft is extremely rare and only 3 cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of bladder injury by penetration of artificial vessel graft. An 80-year-old male underwent a femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery for arteriosclerosis obliterans in our hospital. Postoperatively he complained of urinary incontinence and was referred to the urology department. Ultrasonography for evaluating microscopic hematuria revealed a high echoic linear structure in the bladder and subsequent cystoscopy found an artificial vessel graft penetrating bladder wall. Vascular surgeons reconstructed femoro-femoral bypass and we removed the artificial vessel graft and repaired the injured bladder wall. This is the fourth case of bladder penetrating injury by artificial vessel graft and we summarize the reported cases.

  13. A key role for the endothelium in NOD1 mediated vascular inflammation: comparison to TLR4 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gatheral

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which pathogens induce vascular inflammation and dysfunction may reveal novel therapeutic targets in sepsis and related conditions. The intracellular receptor NOD1 recognises peptidoglycan which features in the cell wall of gram negative and some gram positive bacteria. NOD1 engagement generates an inflammatory response via activation of NFκB and MAPK pathways. We have previously shown that stimulation of NOD1 directly activates blood vessels and causes experimental shock in vivo. In this study we have used an ex vivo vessel-organ culture model to characterise the relative contribution of the endothelium in the response of blood vessels to NOD1 agonists. In addition we present the novel finding that NOD1 directly activates human blood vessels. Using human cultured cells we confirm that endothelial cells respond more avidly to NOD1 agonists than vascular smooth muscle cells. Accordingly we have sought to pharmacologically differentiate NOD1 and TLR4 mediated signalling pathways in human endothelial cells, focussing on TAK1, NFκB and p38 MAPK. In addition we profile novel inhibitors of RIP2 and NOD1 itself, which specifically inhibit NOD1 ligand induced inflammatory signalling in the vasculature. This paper is the first to demonstrate activation of whole human artery by NOD1 stimulation and the relative importance of the endothelium in the sensing of NOD1 ligands by vessels. This data supports the potential utility of NOD1 and RIP2 as therapeutic targets in human disease where vascular inflammation is a clinical feature, such as in sepsis and septic shock.

  14. Inflammation drives thrombosis after Salmonella infection via CLEC-2 on platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jessica R; Cook, Charlotte N; Bobat, Saeeda; Ross, Ewan A; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Lowe, Kate L; Khan, Mahmood; Dominguez-Medina, C Coral; Lax, Sian; Carvalho-Gaspar, Manuela; Hubscher, Stefan; Rainger, G Ed; Cobbold, Mark; Buckley, Christopher D; Mitchell, Tim J; Mitchell, Andrea; Jones, Nick D; Van Rooijen, N; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Henderson, Ian R; Adams, David H; Watson, Steve P; Cunningham, Adam F

    2015-12-01

    Thrombosis is a common, life-threatening consequence of systemic infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of infection-associated thrombi are poorly understood. Here, using a mouse model of systemic Salmonella Typhimurium infection, we determined that inflammation in tissues triggers thrombosis within vessels via ligation of C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) on platelets by podoplanin exposed to the vasculature following breaching of the vessel wall. During infection, mice developed thrombi that persisted for weeks within the liver. Bacteria triggered but did not maintain this process, as thrombosis peaked at times when bacteremia was absent and bacteria in tissues were reduced by more than 90% from their peak levels. Thrombus development was triggered by an innate, TLR4-dependent inflammatory cascade that was independent of classical glycoprotein VI-mediated (GPVI-mediated) platelet activation. After infection, IFN-γ release enhanced the number of podoplanin-expressing monocytes and Kupffer cells in the hepatic parenchyma and perivascular sites and absence of TLR4, IFN-γ, or depletion of monocytic-lineage cells or CLEC-2 on platelets markedly inhibited the process. Together, our data indicate that infection-driven thrombosis follows local inflammation and upregulation of podoplanin and platelet activation. The identification of this pathway offers potential therapeutic opportunities to control the devastating consequences of infection-driven thrombosis without increasing the risk of bleeding.

  15. Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches.

  16. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  17. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  18. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  19. Arterial and fat tissue inflammation are highly correlated: a prospective {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Stephanie; Moncrieff, Colin; Izquierdo-Garcia, David [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease might relate to inflammation in both fat tissue and the arterial wall. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET is a surrogate marker of vessel wall inflammation. The aim of the study was to measure FDG uptake in both regions using PET and identify links between adipose and arterial inflammation. Included in the study were 173 cardiovascular patients who were prospectively imaged with FDG PET/CT. Arterial FDG uptake was measured in the carotid arteries and ascending aorta. The same was done in fat tissue in the neck, the presternal region (both subcutaneous) and the pericardium. FDG uptake was quantified as average maximal target-to-background ratio ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify significant associations between arterial and adipose tissue FDG uptake and clinical variables as given by the standardized correlation coefficient (β). FDG uptake values in all fat tissue regions were highly predictive of vascular FDG uptake in both the carotids (β 0.262, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region) and aorta (β 0.22, p = 0.008, in the chest pericardial region; β 0.193, p = 0.019, in the chest subcutaneous region). Obesity was significantly associated with elevated FDG uptake in adipose tissue (β 0.470, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region; β 0.619, p = 0.028, in the chest subcutaneous region; β 0.978, p = 0.035, in the chest pericardial region). FDG uptake in diverse fat tissue regions was significantly associated with arterial FDG uptake, a reasonable surrogate of inflammation. Increasing body weight significantly predicted the level of fatty inflammation. FDG PET therefore provides imaging evidence of an inflammatory link between fat tissue and the vasculature in patients with cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  20. Lymphatic vessels in osteoarthritic human knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Verghese, P; Cook, G J; McWilliams, D F; Mapp, P I; Ashraf, S; Wilson, D

    2012-05-01

    The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely. This study aimed to investigate whether lymphatic density is associated with clinical, histological or radiographic parameters in osteoarthritis (OA). Sections of synovium from 60 knees from patients with OA were compared with 60 post mortem control knees (from 37 individuals). Lymphatic vessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for podoplanin, and quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fractional area. Effusion status was determined by clinical examination, radiographs were scored for OA changes, and inflammation grading used haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of synovium. Lymphatic vessels were present in synovia from both disease groups, but were not identified in subchondral bone. Synovial lymphatic densities were independent of radiological severity and age. Synovia from patients with OA displayed lower LVD (z=-3.4, P=0.001) and lower LEC fractional areas (z=-4.5, Plymphatics and OA/effusion appeared to be independent of other measured confounders. Lymphatic vessels are present in lower densities in OA synovia. Abnormalities of synovial fluid drainage may confound the value of effusion as a clinical sign of synovitis in OA. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  2. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that inflammation causes ...

  3. Evaluation of inflammatory cells in abdominal aortic aneurysmal wall by tomography emission positron; Anevrisme de l aorte abdominale et inflammation vasculaire: place de la tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalihasan, N. [Service de chirurgie cardiovasculaire et thoracique, CHU de liege, domaine universitaire du Sart Tilman, batimant B-35, 4000 liege 1, (Belgium); Hustinx, R. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Liege, (Belgium); Gomez, P.; Defraigne, J.O. [Departement de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Liege, (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    The objective was to identify the methods of functional imaging and the molecular markers that could help to predict the imminence of a rupture in abdominal aortic aneurysm. The potential of the PET was studied to detect a hyper-metabolic state in the aneurysm wall and this information was connected with the evolution of the disease. An uptake of F.D.G. in the aneurysm wall reflects the presence of a great density of inflammatory cells (macrophages, lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear cells). It has been observed an accumulation of polymorphonuclear cells accompanying a dense infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes only in the site of break. Our preliminary study and our most recent observations (not yet published) suggest a possible relationship between the F.G.D. captation by the aneurysm wall and the start of the activity of the matrix metallo-proteinases leading to the break. The PET scan could be useful for high risk patients because a positive PET imaging stigmatizes a greater risk of break. consequently, the positive PET imaging represents a diagnosis argument to proceed to a surgical operation, despite the age of the patient, the size of the abdominal aorta aneurysm and the higher operative risk. however, more data to better define the criteria of using the PET/T.D.M. in the evaluation of abdominal aorta aneurysm and to determine its exact contribution in the treatment determination. (N.C.)

  4. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  5. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  6. [The macrophage contribution for maintaining lymphatic vessel in cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi

    2014-11-01

    The presence of antigen-presenting cells and hem- and lymphangiogenesis in the cornea are risk factors for the rejection of corneal transplants. We previously reported that antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages (MPs) play an important role in the induction of lymphatic endothelial cells during inflammation. This prompted us to inquire whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the cornea is associated with the activation of MPs during inflammation. To investigate this question, we performed suture placement on the cornea to induce inflammation. We found that a large number of MPs were recruited and that lymphatic vessels were formed in response. Next, as C57BL/6 mice have a higher rejection rate after corneal transplantation than BALB/c mice, we compared the corneas of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice under normal and inflamed conditions. We found that the number of spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels in the C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in the BALB/c corneas, and that there were more activated MPs in the C57BL/6 corneas than in the BALB/c corneas. Additionally, to confirm that activated MPs induced and maintained lymphatic vessels in the cornea, we depleted the number of MPs in C57BL/6 mice via clodronate liposomes. We found that MP depletion reduced the spontaneous formation of lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Finally, we found that mice deficient in MP markers had fewer spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. The evidence gathered in this study leads us to conclude that activated MPs appear to play an important role in the formation of new lymphatic vessels and in their maintenance.

  7. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  8. Impact of interleukin-6 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and lung inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izziki Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Recent studies in patients with idiopathic PH or PH associated with underlying diseases suggest a role for interleukin-6 (IL-6. Methods To determine whether endogenous IL-6 contributes to mediate hypoxic PH and lung inflammation, we studied IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/- and wild-type (IL-6+/+ mice exposed to hypoxia for 2 weeks. Results Right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and the number and media thickness of muscular pulmonary vessels were decreased in IL-6-/- mice compared to wild-type controls after 2 weeks' hypoxia, although the pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar in IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Hypoxia exposure of IL-6+/+ mice led to marked increases in IL-6 mRNA and protein levels within the first week, with positive IL-6 immunostaining in the pulmonary vessel walls. Lung IL-6 receptor and gp 130 (the IL-6 signal transducer mRNA levels increased after 1 and 2 weeks' hypoxia. In vitro studies of cultured human pulmonary-artery smooth-muscle-cells (PA-SMCs and microvascular endothelial cells revealed prominent synthesis of IL-6 by PA-SMCs, with further stimulation by hypoxia. IL-6 also markedly stimulated PA-SMC migration without affecting proliferation. Hypoxic IL-6-/- mice showed less inflammatory cell recruitment in the lungs, compared to hypoxic wild-type mice, as assessed by lung protein levels and immunostaining for the specific macrophage marker F4/80, with no difference in lung expression of adhesion molecules or cytokines. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-6 may be actively involved in hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

  9. Vessel discoloration detection in malarial retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Harding, S.; Lewallen, S.; Joshi, V.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome associated with malarial infection. It affects approximately 200 million people, mostly sub-Saharan African children under five years of age. Malarial retinopathy (MR) is a condition in which lesions such as whitening and vessel discoloration that are highly specific to CM appear in the retina. Other unrelated diseases can present with symptoms similar to CM, therefore the exact nature of the clinical symptoms must be ascertained in order to avoid misdiagnosis, which can lead to inappropriate treatment and, potentially, death. In this paper we outline the first system to detect the presence of discolored vessels associated with MR as a means to improve the CM diagnosis. We modified and improved our previous vessel segmentation algorithm by incorporating the `a' channel of the CIELab color space and noise reduction. We then divided the segmented vasculature into vessel segments and extracted features at the wall and in the centerline of the segment. Finally, we used a regression classifier to sort the segments into discolored and not-discolored vessel classes. By counting the abnormal vessel segments in each image, we were able to divide the analyzed images into two groups: normal and presence of vessel discoloration due to MR. We achieved an accuracy of 85% with sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 67%. In clinical practice, this algorithm would be combined with other MR retinal pathology detection algorithms. Therefore, a high specificity can be achieved. By choosing a different operating point in the ROC curve, our system achieved sensitivity of 67% with specificity of 100%.

  10. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  11. [Polyurethane vessels for microvascular surgical training to reduce animal use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sonja A; Lang, Axel; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Systematic training of the manual skills is inevitable in learning microsurgery. Generally, first exercises are done on two-dimensional models, then the training continues on animals. With the growing ethical awareness, the obligation to protect animals and the stricter animal protection laws, realistic three-dimensional models have become necessary for training of microsurgery. However, the available alternatives all have certain disadvantages. We tested vessels made of polyurethane for microvascular surgical training and compared them to the available three-dimensional synthetic alternatives. Rose-coloured (arteries) or blue (veins), opaque vessels with a minimal wall thickness of 0.12 mm and a minimal internal diameter of 1 mm are used. To mimic the surgical access and the depth of the operative field, the vessels can be embedded in a synthetic box with or without a cap. The completed anastomosis is checked by injection of a coloured fluid. The consistency and the variable relation of the thickness of the wall to the internal diameter very closely reflect the biological situation. Even training on very fragile venous walls is possible in all manners. After completion of anastomosis the vessels can be opened longitudinally to check the patency of the anastomotic site. The described polyurethane vessels are very suitable for microsurgical training as a useful step between the two-dimensional model and the animal. The number of animals required for microsurgical training can clearly be reduced by the use of such synthetic polyurethane vessels.

  12. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  19. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  20. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  1. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  5. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  6. Correlations of coronary plaque wall thickness with wall pressure and wall pressure gradient: a representative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Biyue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT with wall pressure (WP, blood pressure on the lumen wall and spatial wall pressure gradient (WPG in a human atherosclerotic right coronary artery were studied. The pulsatile blood flow was simulated using a three dimensional mathematical model. The blood was treated as an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid. The geometry of the artery was re-constructed using an in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS 44-slice dataset obtained from a patient with consent obtained. The WT, the WP and the WPG were averaged on each slice, respectively, and Pearson correlation analysis was performed on slice averaged base. Each slice was then divided into 8 segments and averaged vessel WT, WP and WPG were collected from all 352 segments for correlation analysis. Each slice was also divided into 2 segments (inner semi-wall of bend and outer semi-wall of bend and the correlation analysis was performed on the 88 segments. Results Under mean pressure, the Pearson coefficient for correlation between WT and WP was r = − 0.52 (p  Conclusions Results from this representative case report indicated that plaque wall thickness correlated negatively with wall pressure (r = −0.81 by slice and positively with wall pressure gradient (r = 0.45. The slice averaged WT has a strong linear relationship with the slice averaged WP. Large-scale patient studies are needed to further confirm our findings.

  7. Studies on in-vessel debris coolability in ALPHA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yu; Yamano, Norihiro; Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    In-vessel debris coolability experiments have been performed in ALPHA Program at JAERI. Aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) produced by a thermite reaction was applied as a debris simulant. Two scoping experiments using approximately 30 kg or 50 kg of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were conducted. In addition to post-test observations, temperature histories of the debris simulant and the lower head experimental vessel were evaluated. Rapid temperature reduction observed on the outer surface of the experimental vessel may imply that water penetration into a gap between the solidified debris and the experimental vessel occurred resulting in an effective cooling of once heated vessel wall. Preliminary measurement of a gap width was made with an ultrasonic device. Signals to show the existence of gaps, ranging from 0.7 mm to 1.4 mm, were detected at several locations.

  8. [COPD and inflammation: statement from a French expert group. Phenotypes related to inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T; Mal, H; Aguilaniu, B; Brillet, P-Y; Chaouat, A; Louis, R; Muir, J-F; Similowski, T; Berger, P; Burgel, P-R; Chambellan, A; Chanez, P; Devillier, P; Escamilla, R; Marthan, R; Wallaert, B; Aubier, M; Roche, N

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present article is to review available data on possible links between phenotypes and inflammatory profiles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic bronchitis is associated with proximal bronchial inflammation and small airway inflammation with remodeling at the site of obstruction. CT scanning enables patients to be phenotyped according to the predominantly bronchial or emphysematous nature of the morphological abnormality. Exacerbations, in a context of persistently elevated baseline inflammation, are associated with increased inflammation and a poor prognosis. Long-term studies have correlated inflammatory markers (and anti-inflammatory drug effects) with dynamic hyperinflation, possibly confirming that inflammation promotes hyperinflation. The inflammatory cell count in the pulmonary arterial walls correlates with the severity of endothelial dysfunction. The risk of developing pulmonary hypertension would seem to increase with low-grade systemic inflammation. The role of low-grade systemic inflammation in COPD co-morbidities, and in nutritional and muscular involvement in particular, remains a matter of debate. Regular physical exercise may help reduce this inflammation. In COPD, many aspects of the clinical phenotype are related to inflammation. Better knowledge of these relationships could help optimize current and future treatments. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel.

  10. Wall reflection modeling for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements on Textor and ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Vasu, P.; von Hellermann, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of optical signals by reflections from the tokamak vessel wall is a matter of great concern. For machines such as ITER and future reactors, where the vessel wall will be predominantly metallic, this is potentially a risk factor for quantitative optical emission spectroscopy. This is,

  11. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Sydney, Australia. December 6, 1990. Lumley, J. L. A dynamical-systems-theory approach to the wall region. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, CSIRO...Nonlinear Science. Holmes, P. Editor in Chief, Nonlinear Scinece Today. Holmes, P. Reviewer for Physica D, J. Sound Vib., J. Phys., Q. Appl. Math, Phys...Spring, 1994; Organizing committee member. Holmes, P. Editorial Board Member: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis; Journal of Nonlinear Scinece

  12. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  13. Impact of inflammation on vascular disease in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Agostino; Dell'Agnello, Umberto; Taddei, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    Low grade inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A large body of evidence indicates that innate and adaptive immune systems, and in particular T cells, are involved. A balance between T-effector lymphocytes and Treg lymphocytes represents a crucial regulatory mechanism that, when altered, favours blood pressure elevation and organ damage development. Of note, Treg lymphocytes exert important anti-inflammatory properties, whose activities guarantees vascular homeostasis and protects the vessel wall from the development of atherosclerosis. In humans, most of evidence ascertaining essential hypertension as a condition of chronic low-grade inflammatory status revealed a strict and independent association between CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 or adhesion molecules and vascular changes in essential hypertensive patients. Evidence of involvement of the immune system in vasculature from patients with hypertension or cardiovascular disease starts to appear in literature. Further investigation on immunity, including the role of T-lymphocytes, will help develop of new therapeutic targets that may improve outcomes in hypertension and cardiovascular disease and discover novel approaches in the treatment of hypertension and vascular disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second group of 20 (the experimental group) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. Rats were sacrificed after ten days, two months, and four months. Five rats at two months of age with hyperglycemia were treated with insulin for eight weeks. Renal tissues were ...

  15. Microsurgical Training using Reusable Human Vessels from Discarded Tissues in Lymph Node Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Ishii

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of human vessels at the beginning of microsurgery training is highly recommended. But vessels with the appropriate length for training are not often obtained. Whether these vessels may be reused for training has not been reported. Accordingly, we harvested vessels from discarded tissues in lymph node dissection and demonstrated that vascular anastomosis training using the same human vessels several times is possible by placing the vessels in a freezer and defrosting them with hot water. Vascular walls can be stored for microsurgical training until about 4 years after harvest, as shown in the gross appearance and histologic findings of our preserved vessels. We recommend the technique presented here for the longterm reuse of human vessels for microsurgery training that closely resembles real procedures.

  16. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  17. Multiple large vessel aneurysmal formation in HIV-infected patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... HIV proteins are noted within these lymphocytes, but the exact significance of this abnormality is yet to be defined. Transmural necrosis of the vessel wall occurs because of the probable ischemia and results in weakness and aneurysmal formation. The exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Theories such as ...

  18. Inflammation of the Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shrinks Testicles in Mice Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Penis (Balanitis; Posthitis; Balanoposthitis) By Patrick ... Penile and Testicular Disorders Epididymitis and Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of the Penis Orchitis Peyronie Disease Phimosis and ...

  19. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  20. Inflammation and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular

  1. Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Arrojo e Drigo, Rafael; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Jeon, Won Bae; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islets secrete hormones that play a key role in regulating blood glucose levels (glycemia). Age-dependent impairment of islet function and concomitant dysregulation of glycemia are major health threats in aged populations. However, the major causes of the age-dependent decline of islet function are still disputed. Here we demonstrate that aging of pancreatic islets in mice and humans is notably associated with inflammation and fibrosis of islet blood vessels but does not affect glucose sensing and the insulin secretory capacity of islet beta cells. Accordingly, when transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of young mice with diabetes, islets from old mice are revascularized with healthy blood vessels, show strong islet cell proliferation, and fully restore control of glycemia. Our results indicate that beta cell function does not decline with age and suggest that islet function is threatened by an age-dependent impairment of islet vascular function. Strategies to mitigate age-dependent dysregulation in glycemia should therefore target systemic and/or local inflammation and fibrosis of the aged islet vasculature. PMID:25404292

  2. Optimal Branching Structure of Fluidic Networks with Permeable Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Pepe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological and engineering studies of Hess-Murray’s law are focused on assemblies of tubes with impermeable walls. Blood vessels and airways have permeable walls to allow the exchange of fluid and other dissolved substances with tissues. Should Hess-Murray’s law hold for bifurcating systems in which the walls of the vessels are permeable to fluid? This paper investigates the fluid flow in a porous-walled T-shaped assembly of vessels. Fluid flow in this branching flow structure is studied numerically to predict the configuration that provides greater access to the flow. Our findings indicate, among other results, that an asymmetric flow (i.e., breaking the symmetry of the flow distribution may occur in this symmetrical dichotomous system. To derive expressions for the optimum branching sizes, the hydraulic resistance of the branched system is computed. Here we show the T-shaped assembly of vessels is only conforming to Hess-Murray’s law optimum as long as they have impervious walls. Findings also indicate that the optimum relationship between the sizes of parent and daughter tubes depends on the wall permeability of the assembled tubes. Our results agree with analytical results obtained from a variety of sources and provide new insights into the dynamics within the assembly of vessels.

  3. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  4. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  6. Integral experiments on in-vessel coolability and vessel creep: results and analysis of the FOREVER-C1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Vaeg., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the first FOREVER-C1 test. During this experiment, the 1/10th scale pressure vessel, heated to about 900degC and pressurized to 26 bars, was subjected to creep deformation in a non-stop 24-hours test. The vessel wall displacement data clearly shows different stages of the vessel deformation due to thermal expansion, elastic, plastic and creep processes. The maximum displacement was observed at the lowermost region of the vessel lower plenum. Information on the FOREVER-C1 measured thermal characteristics and analysis of the observed thermal and structural behavior is presented. The coupled nature of thermal and mechanical processes, as well as the effect of other system conditions (such as depressurization) on the melt pool and vessel temperature responses are analyzed. (author)

  7. Aged Lymphatic Vessels and Mast Cells in Perilymphatic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sarit; Meininger, Cynthia J; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2017-05-03

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of research on aging-associated alterations in lymphatic vessels and mast cells in perilymphatic tissues. Aging alters structure (by increasing the size of zones with low muscle cell investiture), ultrastructure (through loss of the glycocalyx), and proteome composition with a concomitant increase in permeability of aged lymphatic vessels. The contractile function of aged lymphatic vessels is depleted with the abolished role of nitric oxide and an increased role of lymphatic-born histamine in flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic phasic contractions and tone. In addition, aging induces oxidative stress in lymphatic vessels and facilitates the spread of pathogens from these vessels into perilymphatic tissues. Aging causes the basal activation of perilymphatic mast cells, which, in turn, restricts recruitment/activation of immune cells in perilymphatic tissues. This aging-associated basal activation of mast cells limits proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis that is essential for the regulation of lymphatic vessel transport and barrier functions as well as for both the interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within lymphatic collecting vessels. Cumulatively, these changes play important roles in the pathogenesis of alterations in inflammation and immunity associated with aging.

  8. Lymphatic vessels: new targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Seidel, Catharina D; Detmar, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in the physiological control of the tissue fluid balance and in the initiation of immune responses. Recent studies have shown that lymphangiogenesis, the growth of new lymphatic vessels and/or the expansion of existing lymphatic vessels, is a characteristic feature of acute inflammatory reactions and of chronic inflammatory diseases. In these conditions, lymphatic vessel expansion occurs at the tissue level but also within the draining lymph nodes. Surprisingly, activation of lymphatic vessel function by delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor-C exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several models of cutaneous and joint inflammation. These effects are likely mediated by enhanced drainage of extravasated fluid and inflammatory cells, but also by lymphatic vessel-mediated modulation of immune responses. Although some of the underlying mechanisms are just beginning to be identified, lymphatic vessels have emerged as important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory conditions. In this context, it is of great interest that some of the currently used anti-inflammatory drugs also potently activate lymphatic vessels.

  9. Increased migration of antigen presenting cells to newly-formed lymphatic vessels in transplanted kidneys by glycol-split heparin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Ditmer T.; Katta, Kirankumar; Boersema, Miriam; Adepu, Saritha; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Stegeman, Coen; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Yazdani, Saleh; van den Born, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is characterized by loss of renal function and tissue remodeling, including chronic inflammation and lymph vessel formation. Proteoglycans are known for their chemokine presenting capacity. We hypothesize that interruption of the lymphatic

  10. Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Signorelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic processes. In particular, inflammation takes a central role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs. The common pathway for aneurysm formation involves endothelial dysfunction and injury, a mounting inflammatory response, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs phenotypic modulation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and subsequent cell death and vessel wall degeneration. We conducted a literature review (1980-2014 by Medline and EMBASE databases using the searching terms "IA" and "cerebral aneurysm" and further search was performed to link the search terms with the following key words: inflammation, hemodynamic(s, remodeling, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, complement, VSMCs, mast cells, cytokines, and inflammatory biomarkers. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent and pertinent evidences regarding the articulated processes of aneurysms formation, growth, and rupture. Knowledge of these processes may guide the diagnosis and treatment of these vascular malformations, the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, which prognosis remains dismal.

  11. Inflammation - Cause or Consequence of Heart Failure or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Linthout, Sophie; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    With the intention to summarize the currently available evidence on the pathophysiological relevance of inflammation in heart failure, this review addresses the question whether inflammation is a cause or consequence of heart failure, or both. This review discusses the diversity (sterile, para-inflammation, chronic inflammation) and sources of inflammation and gives an overview of how inflammation (local versus systemic) can trigger heart failure. On the other hand, the review is outlined how heart failure-associated wall stress and signals released by stressed, malfunctioning, or dead cells (DAMPs: e.g., mitochondrial DNA, ATP, S100A8, matricellular proteins) induce cardiac sterile inflammation and how heart failure provokes inflammation in various peripheral tissues in a direct (inflammatory) and indirect (hemodynamic) manner. The crosstalk between the heart and peripheral organs (bone marrow, spleen, gut, adipose tissue) is outlined and the importance of neurohormonal mechanisms including the renin angiotensin aldosteron system and the ß-adrenergic nervous system in inflammation and heart failure is discussed. Inflammation and heart failure are strongly interconnected and mutually reinforce each other. This indicates the difficulty to counteract inflammation and heart failure once this chronic vicious circle has started and points out the need to control the inflammatory process at an early stage avoiding chronic inflammation and heart failure. The diversity of inflammation further addresses the need for a tailored characterization of inflammation enabling differentiation of inflammation and subsequent target-specific strategies. It is expected that the characterization of the systemic and/or cardiac immune profile will be part of precision medicine in the future of cardiology.

  12. From inflammation to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniluk, A; Koper, O; Kemona, H; Dymicka-Piekarska, V

    2017-02-01

    The participation of inflammation in the progression of cancer for many years have been the subject of research. In the 19th century, there was evidence that an acute inflammation may inhibit the development of cancer. However, chronic inflammation affects the progression of the disease. Today, it is known that inflammation and cancer use similar mechanisms of development such as severe cell proliferation or angiogenesis. It has been shown that prolonged presence of inflammatory cells and factors in the tumor microenvironment can accelerate its growth and inhibit apoptosis of transformed cells. In this article we present a brief history of the discovery mechanisms and potential links between acute and chronic inflammation and cancer.

  13. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  15. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  3. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  6. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  7. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  8. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  9. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  10. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  11. Osteocalcin expression in pulp inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmeguid, Ashraf; Abdeldayem, Marwa; Kline, Loren W; Moqbel, Redwan; Vliagoftis, Harrisios; Yu, Donald C

    2013-07-01

    Dental pulp inflammation and repair are closely related. Osteocalcin (OCN), a glycoprotein present in dentin matrix, is expressed by odontoblasts. Although OCN is considered a reparative molecule inside the dental pulp, it is not clear if it is involved in pulpal inflammation. The objective of this study was to localize OCN in reversible and irreversible pulpitis and to describe its possible function in inflammation. Pulp tissues in the form of reversible and irreversible pulpitis were collected from the endodontic clinic. Those from impacted teeth were used as controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize OCN. Samples were analyzed for OCN and inflammatory mediator expression using multiplex assay. OCN in inflamed tissues was localized in cells and matrix around calcification areas and in cells around blood vessels but not in normal tissues. The plex assay (Bio-Plex 200, Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd, Mississauga, ON, Canada) showed OCN expression in reversible pulpitis significantly higher than in irreversible pulpitis, and both were significantly higher than in the controls. A panel of inflammatory mediators showed an increase in reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Another panel was decreased in both stages compared with the controls. OCN expression in reversible pulpitis was positively correlated to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, monocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-17, and soluble IL-2 receptor α and negatively correlated to that of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Profound understanding of the pulp inflammatory process would lead to new molecular treatment strategies. Our data indicate that OCN expression in reversible pulpitis is associated with angiogenic markers, suggesting its potential use in regenerative treatment. Copyright © 2013 American

  12. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  13. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  14. The evaluation of pressure effects on the ex-vessel cooling for KNGR with MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the effect of external vessel cooling on debris coolability and vessel integrity for the KNGR were examined from the two typical pressure range of high(170 bar) and low(5 bar)case using the lower plenum model in MELCOR1.8.4. As the conditions of these calculations, 80 ton of debris was relocated simultaneously into the lower vessel head and the debris relocation temperature from the core region was 2700 K. The decay heat has been assumed to be that of one hour after reactor shutdown. The creep failure of the vessel wall was simulated with 1-D model, which can consider the rapid temperature gradient over the wall thickness during the ex-vessel cooling. From the calculation results, both the coolant temperature and the total amount of coolant mass injected into the cavity are known to be the important factors in determining the time period to keep the external vessel cool. Therefore, a long-term strategy to keep the coolant temperature subcooled throughout the transient is suggested to sustain or prolong the effect of external vessel cooling. Also, it is expected that to keep the primary side at low pressure and to perform the ex-vessel flooding be the essential conditions to sustain the vessel integrity. From MELCOR, the penetration failure always occurs after relocation regardless of the RCS pressure or availability of the external vessel cooling. Therefore, It is expected that the improvement of the model for the penetration tube failure will be necessary.

  15. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-05-15

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  16. ITER Vacuum Vessel design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jones, L. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Jun, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC ' Sintez' , Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector -25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J.; Reich, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    After implementing a few design modifications (referred to as the 'Modified Reference Design') in 2009, the Vacuum Vessel (VV) design had been stabilized. The VV design is being finalized, including interface components such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils. It is necessary to make adjustments to the locations of the blanket supports and manifolds to accommodate design modifications to the in-vessel coils. The VV support design is also being finalized considering a structural simplification. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. The detailed layout of ferritic steel plates and borated steel plates was optimized based on the toroidal field ripple analysis. A dynamic test on the inter-modular key to support the blanket modules was performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An R and D program has started to select and qualify the welding and cutting processes for the port flange lip seal. The ITER VV material 316 L(N) IG was already qualified and the Modified Reference Design was approved by the Agreed Notified Body (ANB) in accordance with the Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  17. Transport of divalent cations: cation exchange capacity of intact xylem vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Geijn, S C; Petit, C M

    1979-12-01

    The cation exchange capacity of the intact xylem vessels in cut shoots of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus spec.) has been determined. The cation exchange capacity is independent of the cation concentration in the transpiration stream, and is equal for Ca and Co. The high value of the cation exchange capacity (0.6 to 1 x 10(-7) equivalents per square centimeter vessel wall surface) leads to the hypothesis that the porous structure of the vessel wall, and not only the inner vessel wall surface, acts as a cation exchanger.Differences between anion ([(32)P]phosphate, [(45)Ca]EDTA(2-), [(115)Cd(m)]-EDTA(2-)), and cation ([(45)Ca](2+), [(115)Cd(m)](2+)) movement are explained in terms of transport with the transpiration flux or by exchange reactions. The competition between exchange sites and natural or synthetic ligands for the divalent cations is discussed.

  18. Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Levitt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms.

  19. Lymphatic vessels: an emerging actor in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkut, Issa; Meens, Merlijn J; McKee, Thomas A; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Kwak, Brenda R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large- to medium-sized arteries and is the main underlying cause of death worldwide. The lymphatic vasculature is critical for processes that are intimately linked to atherogenesis such as the immune response and cholesterol metabolism. However, whether lymphatic vessels truly contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is less clear despite increasing research efforts in this field. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. In addition, key review articles were screened for relevant original publications. Current knowledge about lymphatic vessels in the arterial wall came from studies that examined the presence and location of such vessels in human atherosclerotic plaque specimens, as well as in a variety of arteries in animal models for atherosclerosis (e.g. rabbits, dogs, rats and mice). Generally, three experimental approaches have been used to investigate the functional role of plaque-associated lymphatic vessels; experimental lymphostasis was used to investigate lymphatic drainage of the arterial wall, and more recently, studies with genetic interventions and/or surgical transplantation have been performed. Lymphatic vessels seem to be mostly present in the adventitial layer of the arterial walls of animals and humans. They are involved in reverse cholesterol transport from atherosclerotic lesions, and arteries with a dense lymphatic network seem naturally protected against atherosclerosis. Lymphangiogenesis is a process that is an important part of the inflammatory loop in atherosclerosis. However, how augmenting or impeding the distribution of lymphatic vessels impacts disease progression remains to be investigated in future studies. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. Influence of cerebral blood vessel movements on the position of perivascular synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic activity is regulated and limited by blood flow, which is controlled by blood vessel dilation and contraction. Traditionally, the study of neurovascular coupling has mainly focused on energy consumption and oxygen delivery. However, the mechanical changes that blood vessel movements induce in the surrounding tissue have not been considered. We have modeled the mechanical changes that movements of blood vessels cause in neighboring synapses. Our simulations indicate that synaptic densities increase or decrease during vascular dilation and contraction, respectively, near the blood vessel walls. This phenomenon may alter the concentration of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall and thus may have an influence on local blood flow. PMID:28199396

  1. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  2. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  3. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  4. Lymphatic vessels regulate immune microenvironments in human and murine melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Amanda W; Wagner, Marek; Fankhauser, Manuel; Steinskog, Eli S; Broggi, Maria A; Spranger, Stefani; Gajewski, Thomas F; Alitalo, Kari; Eikesdal, Hans P; Wiig, Helge; Swartz, Melody A

    2016-09-01

    Lymphatic remodeling in tumor microenvironments correlates with progression and metastasis, and local lymphatic vessels play complex and poorly understood roles in tumor immunity. Tumor lymphangiogenesis is associated with increased immune suppression, yet lymphatic vessels are required for fluid drainage and immune cell trafficking to lymph nodes, where adaptive immune responses are mounted. Here, we examined the contribution of lymphatic drainage to tumor inflammation and immunity using a mouse model that lacks dermal lymphatic vessels (K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice). Melanomas implanted in these mice grew robustly, but exhibited drastically reduced cytokine expression and leukocyte infiltration compared with those implanted in control animals. In the absence of local immune suppression, transferred cytotoxic T cells more effectively controlled tumors in K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice than in control mice. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of human melanoma samples revealed that patient immune parameters are markedly stratified by levels of lymphatic markers. This work suggests that the establishment of tumor-associated inflammation and immunity critically depends on lymphatic vessel remodeling and drainage. Moreover, these results have implications for immunotherapies, the efficacies of which are regulated by the tumor immune microenvironment.

  5. EFFECT OF 2,6-DICHLOROBENZONITRILE (DCB ON SECONDARY WALL DEPOSITION AND LIGNIFICATION IN THE STEM OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAMOD Sivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Light and electron microscopic studies were carried out on the secondary xylem of actively growing shoots of Hibiscus cannabinus treated with cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB. Treatment with 20µM DCB induced differentiation of xylem fibres with thin secondary walls and parenchyma cells with abnormal wall thickening and lignification. At concentration above 50 µM resulted in the disappearance of cambial zone, inhibition of secondary wall deposition, lignification of primary walls, deformed vessel walls and dispersed lignin distribution in secondary walls. Transmission electron microscopic study revealed the initiation and formation of large intercellular spaces between the walls of differentiating xylem elements. Abnormal pattern of wall deposition and inhomogeneous lignin distribution was evident in fibres and vessel. The length and width of both fibres and vessel elements were reduced significantly even with lower concentrations of DCB.

  6. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  8. Vascular wall proteoglycan synthesis and structure as a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter J; Ballinger, Mandy L; Osman, Narin

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular disease and it represents the major cause of premature death in modern societies. Current therapies target risk factors being hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia when diabetes is present however the maximum efficacy of these strategies is often 30% or less. Areas of vascular biology that may lead to the development of a complementary vascular wall directed therapy are: inflammation, oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes-specific factors—hyperglycemia and advanced glycation endproducts and lipid retention by vascular matrix specifically proteoglycans. The major structural features of proteoglycans that determine low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binding are the length and sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Emerging data discussed in this review indicates that these structural properties are subject to considerable regulation by vasoactive substances possibly using novel signaling pathways. For example, GAG elongation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor is not blocked by the receptor tyrosine kinase antagonist, genistein suggesting that there may be a previously unknown signaling pathway involved in this response. Thus, modifying proteoglycan synthesis and structure may represent a prime target to prevent LDL binding and entrapment in the vessel wall and thus prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:17583182

  9. Vascular wall proteoglycan synthesis and structure as a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter J; Ballinger, Mandy L; Osman, Narin

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular disease and it represents the major cause of premature death in modern societies. Current therapies target risk factors being hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia when diabetes is present however the maximum efficacy of these strategies is often 30% or less. Areas of vascular biology that may lead to the development of a complementary vascular wall directed therapy are: inflammation, oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes-specific factors--hyperglycemia and advanced glycation endproducts and lipid retention by vascular matrix specifically proteoglycans. The major structural features of proteoglycans that determine low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binding are the length and sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Emerging data discussed in this review indicates that these structural properties are subject to considerable regulation by vasoactive substances possibly using novel signaling pathways. For example, GAG elongation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor is not blocked by the receptor tyrosine kinase antagonist, genistein suggesting that there may be a previously unknown signaling pathway involved in this response. Thus, modifying proteoglycan synthesis and structure may represent a prime target to prevent LDL binding and entrapment in the vessel wall and thus prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Inflammation and axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Larry I; Popovich, Phillip G

    2011-12-01

    The inflammatory response that accompanies neural injury involves multiple cell types and effector molecules with both positive and negative effects. Inflammation is essential for normal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system, and here we review evidence that augmenting inflammation can enhance regeneration in areas of the central nervous system in which it normally does not occur. Within the spinal cord, inflammation enables transplanted sensory neurons to regenerate lengthy axons and enhances the ability of a trophic factor to promote corticospinal tract sprouting. Induction of inflammation in the eye supports survival of retinal ganglion cells and enables them to regenerate injured axons through the optic nerve. These effects are linked to an atypical trophic factor, oncomodulin, along with other, better known molecules. Induction of inflammation within dorsal root ganglia, when combined with other treatments, enables peripheral sensory neurons to regenerate axons into the spinal cord. However, inflammation also has negative effects that impede recovery. In light of the importance of inflammation for neural repair, it is important to identify the specific cell types and molecules responsible for the positive and negative effects of inflammation and to develop treatments that tip the balance to favor repair.

  11. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  12. Heat-pipes-based first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. [Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Institute`, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Antipenkov, A. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Ulianov, A. [State Enterprise `Krasnaya Zvezda`, Electrolytny pr-d., 1a, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Feasibilities of heat pipes application for the heat transfer out of plasma facing components in test and power fusion reactors are discussed. Based on the space technology and practice the ``hot`` ITER first wall with liquid metal and water heat pipes are proposed in two options: heat-pipes and vapor-chamber options. Other high heat loading in-vessel elements such as divertor target and limiter can be provided by effective and reliable heat pipe cooling systems. (orig.).

  13. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Steven; Gortan, Emmanuelle; Lens, Frederic; Lo Gullo, Maria Assunta; Salleo, Sebastiano; Scholz, Alexander; Stein, Anke; Trifilò, Patrizia; Nardini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the 'ionic effect' was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six Lauraceae species. • A positive correlation was found between ionic effect and vessel grouping parameters, especially the portion of vessel walls in contact with neighbouring vessels. Species with intervessel contact fraction (F(C)) values 0.1 exhibited a response between 10% and 32%. The ionic effect increased linearly with the mean fraction of the total vessel wall area occupied by intervessel pits as well as with the intervessel contact length. However, no significant correlation occurred between the ionic effect and total intervessel pit membrane area per vessel, vessel diameter, vessel length, vessel wall area, and intervessel pit membrane thickness. • Quantitative vessel and pit characters are suggested to contribute to interspecific variation of the ionic effect, whereas chemical properties of intervessel pit membranes are likely to play an additional role. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. Oral inflammatory diseases and systemic inflammation: role of the macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex reaction to injurious agents and includes vascular responses, migration, and activation of leukocytes. Inflammation starts with an acute reaction, which evolves into a chronic phase if allowed to persist unresolved. Acute inflammation is a rapid process characterized by fluid exudation and emigration of leukocytes, primarily neutrophils, whereas chronic inflammation extends over a longer time and is associated with lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, blood vessel proliferation, and fibrosis. Inflammation is terminated when the invader is eliminated, and the secreted mediators are removed; however, many factors modify the course and morphologic appearance as well as the termination pattern and duration of inflammation. Chronic inflammatory illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease are now seen as problems that might have an impact on the periodontium. Reciprocal effects of periodontal diseases are potential factors modifying severity in the progression of systemic inflammatory diseases. Macrophages are key cells for the inflammatory processes as regulators directing inflammation to chronic pathological changes or resolution with no damage or scar tissue formation. As such, macrophages are involved in a remarkably diverse array of homeostatic processes of vital importance to the host. In addition to their critical role in immunity, macrophages are also widely recognized as ubiquitous mediators of cellular turnover and maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. In this review, our objective is to identify macrophage-mediated events central to the inflammatory basis of chronic diseases, with an emphasis on how control of macrophage function can be used to prevent or treat harmful outcomes linked to uncontrolled inflammation.

  15. Hypoxia and Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Sean P.; Campbell, Eric L.; Kominsky, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sites of inflammation are defined by significant changes in metabolic activity. Recent studies have suggested that O2 metabolism and hypoxia play a prominent role in inflammation so-called “inflammatory hypoxia,” which results from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils and monocytes), the local proliferation of multiple cell types, and the activation of multiple O2-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These shifts in energy supply and demand result in localized regions of hypoxia and have revealed the important function off the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) in the regulation of key target genes that promote inflammatory resolution. Analysis of these pathways has provided multiple opportunities for understanding basic mechanisms of inflammation and has defined new targets for intervention. Here, we review recent work addressing tissue hypoxia and metabolic control of inflammation and immunity. PMID:27193451

  16. Novel Method for Vessel Cross-Sectional Shear Wave Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Li, Guo-Yang; Lee, Fu-Feng; Zhang, Qihao; Cao, Yanping; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have investigated the applications of shear wave imaging (SWI) to vascular elastography, mainly on the longitudinal section of vessels. It is important to investigate SWI in the arterial cross section when evaluating anisotropy of the vessel wall or complete plaque composition. Here, we proposed a novel method based on the coordinate transformation and directional filter in the polar coordinate system to achieve vessel cross-sectional shear wave imaging. In particular, ultrasound radiofrequency data were transformed from the Cartesian to the polar coordinate system; the radial displacements were then estimated directly. Directional filtering was performed along the circumferential direction to filter out the reflected waves. The feasibility of the proposed vessel cross-sectional shear wave imaging method was investigated through phantom experiments and ex vivo and in vivo studies. Our results indicated that the dispersion relation of the shear wave (i.e., the guided circumferential wave) within the vessel can be measured via the present method, and the elastic modulus of the vessel can be determined. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Through-wall sampling of the Trawsfynydd RPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-01

    Four large, highly irradiated through-wall weld samples are to be removed from the Trawsfynydd Magnox reactor pressure vessel. The reactor was shut down in 1993 after 28 years of operation. The samples will be tested to investigate the integrity of steel pressure vessels. The choice of specialised tooling for the operation and its deployment are discussed. A Ultra High Power Pressure Water Jet cutting method has been selected to meet the demanding remote robotic requirements. (UK).

  18. Cells, walls, and endless forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monniaux, Marie; Hay, Angela

    2016-12-01

    A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve. Similarly, the iridescence of Hibiscus trionum petals relies on regular striations formed by cuticular folds. Moreover, NAC transcription factors regulate the differentiation of lignified xylem vessels but also the water-conducting cells of moss that lack a lignified secondary cell wall, pointing to the origin of vascular systems. Other novel forms are associated with modified cell growth patterns, including oriented cell expansion or division, found in the long petal spurs of Aquilegia flowers, and the Sarracenia purpurea pitcher leaf, respectively. Another good example is the regulation of dissected leaf shape in C. hirsuta via local growth repression, controlled by the REDUCED COMPLEXITY HD-ZIP class I transcription factor. These studies in non-model species often reveal as much about fundamental processes of development as they do about the evolution of form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  20. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  1. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  2. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  3. Simulation of the electromagnetic wall response to plasma wall-touching kink and vertical modes with application to ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasiu, Calin; Zakharov, Leonid; Lackner, Karl; Hoelzl, Matthias; Strumberger, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Realistic simulations of electric current excitation in three-dimensional vessel structures by the plasma touching the walls are necessary to understand plasma disruptions in tokamak. In large tokamaks like ITER, the wall-touching kink modes cause large sideway forces on the vacuum vessel determined by the sharing of asymmetric electric current between the plasma and the wall. Our model covers both eddy currents, excited inductively by vertical modes, and source/sink currents due to current sharing between the plasma and the thin conducting wall. The developed finite element approach calculates the electromagnetic wall response to perturbation of magnetic fields and to current sharing between the plasma and the wall. The current density entering/exiting the wall surface from the plasma and the time derivative of the magnetic vector potential of the plasma are the input values. The magnetic field and the vector potential from the wall currents are returned as output. Our model has been checked against analytical examples of a multiply-connected domain of a real ITER wall.

  4. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  5. [The application of ultrasonography to estimate blood vessel injury of upper limbs sustaining electric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Li-gen; Chen, Yue-xiu; Hu, Xiao-juan; Yang, Yong-ming

    2003-12-01

    To explore a new method in estimating extent and degree of arterial injury in upper limbs sustaining high tension electric burns. Eighteen patients (twenty-four upper limbs) with high tension electricity injury were admitted from December 1998 to September 2002, The damaged limbs consisted of four parts: wrist wound part, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm parts around wrist wound, where the radial and ulnar arteries were detected using B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination. The changes of endangium, vessel diameter, thickness of the vessel wall and volume of blood flow were recorded respectively. The parameters of normal radial and ulnar arteries were also determined as normal control. B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination showed that the endangium in radial and ulnar arteries become coarse, edema or exfoliation. The vessel wall was thicker than that of the normal control and the thickness was heterogeneity. The vessel wall could be necrosis in severe patient and the vessel cavity was stricture or beaded. Thrombosis or occlusion could occur at the site of severe injury area in vessel. The decrease in volume of blood flow was observed. The condition of the radial and ulnar arteries become well apart from 10 - 15 cm of wrist wound. The ultrasonography can be used to detect the changes in endangium, diameter, thickness of the vessel wall, blood flow volume in injury blood vessel caused by electric burn injury. It is helpful in judging the degree and extent of injury vessel and could be a safe, non-invasive diagnostic method and is worth popularizing.

  6. Numerical model study of radio frequency vessel sealing thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John

    2015-03-01

    Several clinically successful clinical radio frequency vessel-sealing devices are currently available. The dominant thermodynamic principles at work involve tissue water vaporization processes. It is necessary to thermally denature vessel collagen, elastin and their adherent proteins to achieve a successful fusion. Collagens denature at middle temperatures, between about 60 and 90 C depending on heating time and rate. Elastin, and its adherent proteins, are more thermally robust, and require temperatures in excess of the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to thermally fuse. Rapid boiling at low apposition pressures leads to steam vacuole formation, brittle tissue remnants and frequently to substantial disruption in the vessel wall, particularly in high elastin-content arteries. High apposition pressures substantially increase the equilibrium boiling point of tissue water and are necessary to ensure a high probability of a successful seal. The FDM numerical models illustrate the beneficial effects of high apposition pressures.

  7. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578±154, 530±171, and 426±174 mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0±0.4 mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4 mm outer diameter).

  8. In vivo mapping of vascular inflammation using multimodal imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Jarrett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Plaque vulnerability to rupture has emerged as a critical correlate to risk of adverse coronary events but there is as yet no clinical method to assess plaque stability in vivo. In the search to identify biomarkers of vulnerable plaques an association has been found between macrophages and plaque stability--the density and pattern of macrophage localization in lesions is indicative of probability to rupture. In very unstable plaques, macrophages are found in high densities and concentrated in the plaque shoulders. Therefore, the ability to map macrophages in plaques could allow noninvasive assessment of plaque stability. We use a multimodality imaging approach to noninvasively map the distribution of macrophages in vivo. The use of multiple modalities allows us to combine the complementary strengths of each modality to better visualize features of interest. Our combined use of Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI allows high sensitivity PET screening to identify putative lesions in a whole body view, and high resolution MRI for detailed mapping of biomarker expression in the lesions.Macromolecular and nanoparticle contrast agents targeted to macrophages were developed and tested in three different mouse and rat models of atherosclerosis in which inflamed vascular plaques form spontaneously and/or are induced by injury. For multimodal detection, the probes were designed to contain gadolinium (T1 MRI or iron oxide (T2 MRI, and Cu-64 (PET. PET imaging was utilized to identify regions of macrophage accumulation; these regions were further probed by MRI to visualize macrophage distribution at high resolution. In both PET and MR images the probes enhanced contrast at sites of vascular inflammation, but not in normal vessel walls. MRI was able to identify discrete sites of inflammation that were blurred together at the low resolution of PET. Macrophage content in the lesions was confirmed by histology.The multimodal

  9. Inflammation and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noemí Eiró Francisco J Vizoso

    2012-01-01

    ... to cancer.An unresolved inflammation due to any failure in the precise control of the immune response can continue to perturb the cellular microenvironment, thereby leading to alterations in cancer-related...

  10. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arisya Agita; M Thaha Alsagaff

    2017-01-01

    The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage...

  11. Fundamentals of inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serhan, Charles N; Ward, Peter A; Gilroy, Derek W

    2010-01-01

    .... Uncontrolled inflammation has emerged as a pathophysiologic basis for many widely occurring diseases in the general population that were not initially known to be linked to the inflammatory response...

  12. Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    de Luca, Carl; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the Metabolic syndrome. In this review, we focus on the interconnection between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause insulin resistance in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver by inhibiting insulin signal transduction. The sources of cytokines in insulin resistant states are the insulin target tissue themselves, primarily fat and liver, but t...

  13. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J.; Bergin, Stephen; Michael A. Caligiuri; Hsueh, Willa A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and ob...

  14. Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Andy K. H.; Tesch, Gregory H.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide but current treatments remain suboptimal. This review examines the evidence for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in both experimental and human diabetes, and provides an update on recent novel experimental approaches targeting inflammation and the lessons we have learned from these approaches. We highlight the important role of inflammatory cells in the kidney, particularly i...

  15. The extended abdominal wall flap for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, S T; Senghaas, A; Turley, R; Ravindra, K V; Zenn, M R; Levin, L S; Erdmann, D

    2011-06-01

    Patients with extensive loss of the abdominal wall tissue have few options for restoring the abdominal cavity. Composite tissue allotransplantation has been used for limited abdominal wall reconstruction in the setting of visceral transplantation, yet replacement of the entire abdominal wall has not been described. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal abdominal skin surface available through an external iliac/femoral cuff-based pedicle. Five human cadaveric abdominal walls were injected with methylene blue to analyze skin perfusion based on either the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA; n = 5) or a cuff of external iliac/femoral artery (n = 5) containing the deep circumflex iliac, deep inferior epigastric, and superficial inferior epigastric, and superficial circumflex iliac arteries. Abdominal wall flaps were taken full thickness from the costal margin to the midaxillary line and down to the pubic tubercle and proximal thigh. In all specimens, the deep inferior epigastric, deep circumflex iliac, superficial inferior epigastric, and superficial circumflex iliac arteries were found to originate within a 4-cm cuff of the external iliac/femoral artery. Abdominal wall flaps injected through a unilateral external iliac/femoral segment had a significantly greater degree of total flap perfusion than those injected through the DIEA alone (76.5% ± 4% vs 57.2% ± 5%; Student t test, P DIEA vessel alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Method to Detect Corneal Lymphatic Vessels In Vivo by Intrastromal Injection of Fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Viet Nhat Hung; Hou, Yanhong; Horstmann, Jens; Bock, Felix; Cursiefen, Claus

    2017-11-09

    Corneal lymphatic vessels are clinically invisible because of their thin walls and clear lymph fluid. There is no easy and established method for in vivo imaging of corneal lymphatic vessels so far. In this study, we present a novel approach to visualize corneal lymphatic vessels in vivo by injecting intrastromal fluorescein sodium. Six- to eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were used in the mouse model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization. Two weeks after the suture placement, fluorescein sodium was injected intrastromally. The fluorescein, taken up by the presumed lymphatic vessels, was then tracked using a clinically used Spectralis HRA + OCT device. Immunohistochemistry staining with specific lymphatic marker LYVE-1 and pan-endothelial marker CD31 was used to confirm the indirect lymphangiography findings. By injecting fluorescein intrastromally, both corneal blood and lymphatic vessels were detected. While the lymphatic vessels were visible as bright vessel-like structures using HRA, the blood vessels appeared as dark networks. Fluorescein-labeled lymphatic vessels were colocalized with LYVE-1 in immunohistochemically stained sections of the same specimen. Corneal lymphatic vessels can be easily imaged in vivo in the murine model using intrastromal fluorescein injection.

  17. Fast blood-flow simulation for large arterial trees containing thousands of vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre; Clarke, Richard; Ho, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Blood flow modelling has previously been successfully carried out in arterial trees to study pulse wave propagation using nonlinear or linear flow solvers. However, the number of vessels used in the simulations seldom grows over a few hundred. The aim of this work is to present a computationally efficient solver coupled with highly detailed arterial trees containing thousands of vessels. The core of the solver is based on a modified transmission line method, which exploits the analogy between electrical current in finite-length conductors and blood flow in vessels. The viscoelastic behaviour of the arterial-wall is taken into account using a complex elastic modulus. The flow is solved vessel by vessel in the frequency domain and the calculated output pressure is then used as an input boundary condition for daughter vessels. The computational results yield pulsatile blood pressure and flow rate for every segment in the tree. This solver is coupled with large arterial trees generated from a three-dimensional constrained constructive optimisation algorithm. The tree contains thousands of blood vessels with radii spanning ~1 mm in the root artery to ~30 μm in leaf vessels. The computation takes seconds to complete for a vasculature of 2048 vessels and less than 2 min for a vasculature of 4096 vessels on a desktop computer.

  18. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  20. Intrapulmonary administration of a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor partially prevents pulmonary inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, Arie Johan; Pinhanços, Sandra Sofia; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are common causative agents of respiratory tract infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the gram-negative cell wall and a strong inducer of inflammation. The main proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall is

  1. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Endothelial cell-borne platelet bridges selectively recruit monocytes in human and mouse models of vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckleburg, Christopher J; Yates, Clara M; Kalia, Neena; Zhao, Yan; Nash, Gerard B; Watson, Steve P; Rainger, George Ed

    2011-07-01

    Cells of the monocyte lineage are the most abundant inflammatory cells found in atherosclerotic lesions. Dominance of the inflammatory infiltrate by monocytes indicates that there is a disease-driven mechanism supporting their selective recruitment. Previous studies have demonstrated that interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets may promote monocyte recruitment. In this study, we sought to expand on this knowledge using a complex coculture model of the diseased vessel wall. Using primary human cells in an in vitro flow-based adhesion assay, we found that secretory arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cocultured with ECs, promote preferential recruitment of monocytes from blood in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Approximately 85% of leucocytes recruited to the endothelium were CD14(+). Formation of adhesive platelet bridges on ECs was essential for monocyte recruitment as platelet removal or inhibition of adhesion to the ECs abolished monocyte recruitment. Monocytes were recruited from flow by platelet P-selectin and activated by EC-derived CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), although the presentation of CCL2 to adherent monocytes was dependent upon platelet activation and release of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4). In an intravital model of TGF-β1-driven vascular inflammation in mice, platelets were also necessary for efficient leucocyte recruitment to vessels of the microcirculation in the cremaster muscle. In this study, we have demonstrated that stromal cells found within the diseased artery wall may promote the preferential recruitment of monocytes and this is achieved by establishing a cascade of interactions between SMCs, ECs, platelets, and monocytes.

  3. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  4. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  5. Lymphangiogenesis: fuel, smoke, or extinguisher of inflammation's fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelkheir, Gabriella R; Upchurch, Bradley D; Rutkowski, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain. Depending on the tissue site, lymphangiogenic mechanism, or induction timeframe, however, evidence shows that inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) may worsen the pathology. Recent studies have identified lymphatic endothelial cells themselves to be local regulators of immune cell activity and its consequential phenotypes - a more active role in inflammation regulation than previously thought. Indeed, results focusing on the immunocentric roles of peripheral lymphatic function have revealed that the basic drainage task of lymphatic vessels is a complex balance of locally processed and transported antigens as well as interstitial cytokine and immune cell signaling: an interplay that likely defines the function of IAL. This review will summarize the latest findings on how IAL impacts a series of disease states in various tissues in both preclinical models and clinical studies. This discussion will serve to highlight some emerging areas of lymphatic research in an attempt to answer the question relevant to an array of scientists and clinicians of whether IAL helps to fuel or extinguish inflammation. Impact statement Inflammatory progression is present in acute and chronic tissue pathologies throughout the body. Lymphatic vessels play physiological roles relevant to all medical fields as important regulators of fluid balance, immune cell trafficking, and immune

  6. Where Does Inflammation Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasucci, Luigi M; La Rosa, Giulio; Pedicino, Daniela; D'Aiello, Alessia; Galli, Mattia; Liuzzo, Giovanna

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the complex relationship between inflammation and the onset of acute coronary syndrome and heart failure. In the last few years, two important lines of research brought new and essential information to light in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome: a) the understanding of the immune mediate mechanisms of inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and b) evidence that the inflammatory mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis and its complications can be modulated by anti-inflammatory molecules. A large amount of data also suggests that inflammation is a major component in the development and exacerbation of heart failure (HF), in a symbiotic relationship. In particular, recent evidence underlies peculiar aspects of the phenomenon: oxidative stress and autophagy; DAMPS and TLR-4 signaling activation; different macrophages lineage and the contribution of NLRP-3 inflammasome; adaptive immune system. A possible explanation that could unify the pathogenic mechanism of these different conditions is the rising evidence that increased bowel permeability may allow translation of gut microbioma product into the circulation. These findings clearly establish the role of inflammation as the great trigger for two of the major cardiovascular causes of death and morbidity. Further studies are needed, to better clarify the issue and to define more targeted approaches to reduce pathological inflammation while preserving the physiological one.

  7. Obesity, inflammation, and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vidya; Ferrante, Anthony W

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that since 1980 the prevalence of obesity has increased more than threefold throughout much of the world, and this increase is not limited to developed nations. Indeed, the incidence of obesity is increasing most rapidly among rapidly industrializing countries raising the spectre of a burgeoning epidemic in obesity-associated diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Reducing the rates of obesity and its attendant complications will require both coordinated public health policy and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity. Obesity is associated with low grade chronic inflammation, a common feature of many complications of obesity that appears to emanate in part from adipose tissue. In obese individuals and rodents adipose tissue macrophage accumulation is a critical component in the development of obesity-induced inflammation. The macrophages in adipose tissue are bone marrow-derived and their number is strongly correlated with bodyweight, body mass index and total body fat. The recruited macrophages in adipose tissue express high levels of inflammatory factors that contribute to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Interventions aimed at either reducing macrophage numbers or decreasing their inflammatory characteristics improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammation. Macrophage accumulation and adipose tissue inflammation are dynamic processes under the control of multiple mechanisms. Investigating the role of macrophages in adipose tissue biology and the mechanisms involved in their recruitment and activation in obesity will provide useful insights for developing therapeutic approaches to treating obesity-induced complications. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Charged Domain Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  9. Collaborative investigations of in-service irradiated material from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suzuki, M.; Kohsaka, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel that has been irradiated during normal service. Just such an evaluation is currently being conducted on material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The research is being jointly performed at the Tokai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  10. Thinner regions of intracranial aneurysm wall correlate with regions of higher wall shear stress: a 7.0 tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankena, Roos; Kleinloog, Rachel; Verweij, Bon H.; van Ooij, Pim; ten Haken, Bennie; Luijten, Peter R.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a method for semi-quantitative wall thickness assessment on in vivo 7.0 tesla (7T) MRI images of intracranial aneurysms for studying the relation between apparent aneurysm wall thickness and wall shear stress. Materials and Methods Wall thickness was analyzed in 11 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients, who underwent 7T MRI with a TSE based vessel wall sequence (0.8 mm isotropic resolution). A custom analysis program determined the in vivo aneurysm wall intensities, which were normalized to signal of nearby brain tissue and were used as measure for apparent wall thickness (AWT). Spatial wall thickness variation was determined as the interquartile range in AWT (the middle 50% of the AWT range). Wall shear stress was determined using phase contrast MRI (0.5 mm isotropic resolution). We performed visual and statistical comparisons (Pearson’s correlation) to study the relation between wall thickness and wall shear stress. Results 3D colored AWT maps of the aneurysms showed spatial AWT variation, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.53, with a mean variation of 0.22 (a variation of 1.0 roughly means a wall thickness variation of one voxel (0.8mm)). In all aneurysms, AWT was inversely related to WSS (mean correlation coefficient −0.35, P<0.05). Conclusions A method was developed to measure the wall thickness semi-quantitatively, using 7T MRI. An inverse correlation between wall shear stress and AWT was determined. In future studies, this non-invasive method can be used to assess spatial wall thickness variation in relation to pathophysiologic processes such as aneurysm growth and –rupture. PMID:26892986

  11. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  12. Feeling Wall Tension in an Interactive Demonstration of Laplace's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letic, Milorad

    2012-01-01

    Laplace's Law plays a major role in explanations of the wall tension of structures like blood vessels, the bladder, the uterus in pregnancy, bronchioles, eyeballs, and the behavior of aneurisms or the enlarged heart. The general relation of Laplace's law, expressing that the product of the radius of curvature (r) and pressure (P) is equal to wall…

  13. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  14. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  16. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  19. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  1. Transposition of the great vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  2. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  4. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  6. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  7. Osteoporosis, inflammation and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Benedetto Maria

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility, putting patients at risk of fractures, which are major causes of morbidity substantially in older people. Osteoporosis is currently attributed to various endocrine, metabolic and mechanical factors. However, emerging clinical and molecular evidence suggests that inflammation also exerts significant influence on bone turnover, inducing osteoporosis. Numerous proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and a shift towards an activated immune profile has been hypothesized as important risk factor. Chronic inflammation and the immune system remodelling characteristic of ageing, as well as of other pathological conditions commonly associated with osteoporosis, may be determinant pathogenetic factors. The present article will review the current perspectives on the interaction between bone and immune system in the elderly, providing an interpretation of osteoporosis in the light of inflamm-ageing.

  8. Iron deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Phil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perivenular inflammation is a common early pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS. A recent hypothesis stated that CNS inflammation is induced by perivenular iron deposits that occur in response to altered blood flow in MS subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, an animal model was developed, called cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE, which presents with CNS perivascular iron deposits. This model was used to investigate the relationship of iron deposition to inflammation. Methods In order to generate cEAE, mice were given an encephalitogen injection followed by a stereotactic intracerebral injection of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Control animals received encephalitogen followed by an intracerebral injection of saline, or no encephalitogen plus an intracerebral injection of saline or cytokines. Laser Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow. MRI and iron histochemistry were used to localize iron deposits. Additional histological procedures were used to localize inflammatory cell infiltrates, microgliosis and astrogliosis. Results Doppler analysis revealed that cEAE mice had a reduction in cerebral blood flow compared to controls. MRI revealed T2 hypointense areas in cEAE animals that spatially correlated with iron deposition around vessels and at some sites of inflammation as detected by iron histochemistry. Vessels with associated iron deposits were distributed across both hemispheres. Mice with cEAE had more iron-labeled vessels compared to controls, but these vessels were not commonly associated with inflammatory cell infiltrates. Some iron-laden vessels had associated microgliosis that was above the background microglial response, and iron deposits were observed within reactive microglia. Vessels with associated astrogliosis were more commonly observed without colocalization of iron deposits. Conclusion The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of

  9. Fluid-Structure Simulations of a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Constant versus Patient-Specific Wall Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Voß

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics is intensively used to deepen the understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture in order to support physicians during therapy planning. However, numerous studies considering only the hemodynamics within the vessel lumen found no satisfactory criteria for rupture risk assessment. To improve available simulation models, the rigid vessel wall assumption has been discarded in this work and patient-specific wall thickness is considered within the simulation. For this purpose, a ruptured intracranial aneurysm was prepared ex vivo, followed by the acquisition of local wall thickness using μCT. The segmented inner and outer vessel surfaces served as solid domain for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI simulation. To compare wall stress distributions within the aneurysm wall and at the rupture site, FSI computations are repeated in a virtual model using a constant wall thickness approach. Although the wall stresses obtained by the two approaches—when averaged over the complete aneurysm sac—are in very good agreement, strong differences occur in their distribution. Accounting for the real wall thickness distribution, the rupture site exhibits much higher stress values compared to the configuration with constant wall thickness. The study reveals the importance of geometry reconstruction and accurate description of wall thickness in FSI simulations.

  10. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  11. Sinonasal inflammation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Konge, Lars; Thomsen, Sf

    2013-01-01

    In this review we demonstrate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently report sinonasal symptoms. Furthermore, we present evidence that smoking on its own can cause nasal disease, and that in COPD patients, nasal inflammation mimics that of the bronchi. All...... this evidence suggests that COPD related sinonasal disease does exist and that smoking on its own rather than systemic inflammation triggers the condition. However, COPD related sinonasal disease remains to be characterized in terms of symptoms and endoscopic findings. In addition, more studies are needed...... to quantify the negative impact of sinonasal symptoms on the quality of life in COPD patients....

  12. The composition of collagen in the aneurysm wall of men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villard, C.; Eriksson, P.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Lindeman, J.H.; Hultgren, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Loss of vessel wall integrity by degradation is essential for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and ultimately its rupture. The observed greater rupture rate in women with AAA might be related to gender differences in the biomechanical properties of the aneurysm wall.

  13. Probabilistic Structural Integrity Analysis of Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Vessel under Low Temperature Overpressure Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsoung-Wei Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic structural integrity of a Taiwan domestic boiling water reactor pressure vessel has been evaluated by the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. First, the analysis model was built for the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel considering the plant specific data. Meanwhile, the flaw models which comprehensively simulate all kinds of preexisting flaws along the vessel wall were employed here. The low temperature overpressure transient which has been concluded to be the severest accident for a boiling water reactor pressure vessel was considered as the loading condition. It is indicated that the fracture mostly happens near the fusion-line area of axial welds but with negligible failure risk. The calculated results indicate that the domestic reactor pressure vessel has sufficient structural integrity until doubling of the present end-of-license operation.

  14. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  15. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J; Bergin, Stephen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Hsueh, Willa A

    2016-05-23

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment. Excessive adipose expansion during obesity causes adipose dysfunction and inflammation to increase systemic levels of proinflammatory factors. Cells from adipose tissue, such as cancer-associated adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells, enter the cancer microenvironment to enhance protumoral effects. Dysregulated metabolism that stems from obesity, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, can further impact tumor growth and development. This review describes how adipose tissue becomes inflamed in obesity, summarizes ways these mechanisms impact cancer development, and discusses their role in four adipose-associated cancers that demonstrate elevated incidence or mortality in obesity.

  16. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  17. Immunsystemet ved kronisk inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved as a defence against infections and as an important repair mechanism after physical injury. If elimination of microbes and healing is not achieved, or if the immune system is dysregulated, chronic inflammation ensues. Immune cells become engaged in prolonged...

  18. Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurier, Robert B; Burstein, Sumner H

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis. A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented. Mention is also made of the noncannabinoid plant components and pyrolysis products, followed by a discussion of 3 synthetic preparations-Cesamet (nabilone; Meda Pharmaceuticals, Somerset, NJ, USA), Marinol (dronabinol; THC; AbbVie, Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA), and Sativex (Cannabis extract; GW Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge United Kingdom)-that have anti-inflammatory effects. A fourth synthetic cannabinoid, ajulemic acid (AJA; CT-3; Resunab; Corbus Pharmaceuticals, Norwood, MA, USA), is discussed in greater detail because it represents the most recent advance in this area and is currently undergoing 3 phase 2 clinical trials by Corbus Pharmaceuticals. The endogenous cannabinoids, including the closely related lipoamino acids, are then discussed. The review concludes with a presentation of a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions of these substances. Thus, several cannabinoids may be considered candidates for development as anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic agents. Of special interest is their possible use for treatment of chronic inflammation, a major unmet medical need.-Zurier, R. B., Burstein, S. H. Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis. © FASEB.

  19. Cytokines and intraocular inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, R.; Murray, P. I.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although new endogenous mediators of inflammatory and immune responses are reported almost on a monthly basis, the cytokines IL-1, TNF, and IL-6 have emerged as the primary regulators of local inflammation in man. In this paper, uveitogenic and other properties of these particular cytokines are

  20. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  1. inflammation and iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dzedzej

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OHD3 assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r=0.61; 90% CL ±0.31, but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96% and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131% and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3% at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5, but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r=0.43 was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.

  2. Advanced in-vessel retention design for next generation risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately twenty (20) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. Early advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs assumed a lower head failure and incorporated various measures for ex-vessel accident mitigation. However,one of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 deg C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident/risk management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, this work presents the COrium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) that are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in-vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) are demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  3. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  4. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  5. Shock-induced collapse of a bubble inside a deformable vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Shockwave lithotripsy repeatedly focuses shockwaves on kidney stones to induce their fracture, partially through cavitation erosion. A typical side effect of the procedure is hemorrhage, which is potentially the result of the growth and collapse of bubbles inside blood vessels. To identify the mechanisms by which shock-induced collapse could lead to the onset of injury, we study an idealized problem involving a preexisting bubble in a deformable vessel. We utilize a high-order accurate, shock- and interface-capturing, finite-volume scheme and simulate the three-dimensional shock-induced collapse of an air bubble immersed in a cylindrical water column which is embedded in a gelatin/water mixture. The mixture is a soft tissue simulant, 10% gelatin by weight, and is modeled by the stiffened gas equation of state. The bubble dynamics of this model configuration are characterized by the collapse of the bubble and its subsequent jetting in the direction of the propagation of the shockwave. The vessel wall, which is defined by the material interface between the water and gelatin/water mixture, is invaginated by the collapse and distended by the impact of the jet. The present results show that the highest measured pressures and deformations occur when the volumetric confinement of the bubble is strongest, the bubble is nearest the vessel wall and/or the angle of incidence of the shockwave reduces the distance between the jet tip and the nearest vessel surface. For a particular case considered, the 40 MPa shockwave utilized in this study to collapse the bubble generated a vessel wall pressure of almost 450 MPa and produced both an invagination and distention of nearly 50% of the initial vessel radius on a 𝒪(10) ns timescale. These results are indicative of the significant potential of shock-induced collapse to contribute to the injury of blood vessels in shockwave lithotripsy. PMID:24015027

  6. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  7. Motion of red blood cells near microvessel walls: effects of a porous wall layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARIPRASAD, DANIEL S.; SECOMB, TIMOTHY W.

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is used to simulate the motion and deformation of a single mammalian red blood cell (RBC) flowing close to the wall of a microvessel, taking into account the effects of a porous endothelial surface layer (ESL) lining the vessel wall. Migration of RBCs away from the wall leads to the formation of a cell-depleted layer near the wall, which has a large effect on the resistance to blood flow in microvessels. The objective is to examine the mechanical factors causing this migration, including the effects of the ESL. The vessel is represented as a straight parallel-sided channel. The RBC is represented as a set of interconnected viscoelastic elements, suspended in plasma, a Newtonian fluid. The ESL is represented as a porous medium, and plasma flow in the layer is computed using the Brinkman approximation. It is shown that an initially circular cell positioned close to the ESL in a shear flow is deformed into an asymmetric shape. This breaking of symmetry leads to migration away from the wall. With increasing hydraulic resistivity of the layer, the rate of lateral migration increases. It is concluded that mechanical interactions of RBCs flowing in microvessels with a porous wall layer may reduce the rate of lateral migration and hence reduce the width of the cell-depleted zone external to the ESL, relative to the cell-depleted zone that would be formed if the interface between the ESL and free-flowing plasma were replaced by an impermeable boundary. PMID:23493820

  8. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  9. Arterial and Cellular Inflammation in Patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; van der Valk, Fleur M; van Capelleveen, Julian C; Kroon, Jeffrey; Versloot, Miranda; Verberne, Hein J; Marquering, Henk A; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Vogt, Liffert; Stroes, Erik S G

    2017-04-01

    CKD associates with a 1.5- to 3.5-fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Both diseases are characterized by increased inflammation, and in patients with CKD, elevated C-reactive protein level predicts cardiovascular risk. In addition to systemic inflammation, local arterial inflammation, driven by monocyte-derived macrophages, predicts future cardiovascular events in the general population. We hypothesized that subjects with CKD have increased arterial and cellular inflammation, reflected by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) of the arterial wall and a migratory phenotype of monocytes. We assessed 18 F-FDG uptake in the arterial wall in 14 patients with CKD (mean±SD age: 59±5 years, mean±SD eGFR: 37±12 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) but without cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or inflammatory conditions and in 14 control subjects (mean age: 60±11 years, mean eGFR: 86±16 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ). Compared with controls, patients with CKD showed increased arterial inflammation, quantified as target-to-background ratio (TBR) in the aorta (TBR max : CKD, 3.14±0.70 versus control, 2.12±0.27; P =0.001) and the carotid arteries (TBR max : CKD, 2.45±0.65 versus control, 1.66±0.27; P inflammation, observed in patients with CKD but without overt atherosclerotic disease and with few traditional risk factors, may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with CKD. The concomitant elevation of monocyte activity may provide novel therapeutic targets for attenuating this inflammation and thereby preventing CKD-associated cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Oral Inflammatory Diseases and Systemic Inflammation: Role of the Macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice eHasturk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex reaction to injurious agents and includes vascular responses, migration and activation of leukocytes. Inflammation starts with an acute reaction, which evolves into a chronic phase if allowed to persist unresolved. Acute inflammation is a rapid onset; relatively short process characterized by fluid exudation and emigration of leukocytes, primarily neutrophils, whereas chronic inflammation extends over a longer time and is associated with lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, blood vessel proliferation, and fibrosis. Inflammation is terminated when the invader is eliminated and the secreted mediators are removed; however, many factors modify the course and morphologic appearance as well as the termination pattern and duration of inflammation. Chronic inflammatory illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease are now seen as problems that might have an impact on the periodontium. Reciprocal effects of periodontal diseases are potential factors modifying severity in the progression of systemic inflammatory diseases. Macrophages are key cells for the inflammatory processes as regulators directing inflammation to chronic pathological changes or resolution with no damage or scar tissue formation. As such, macrophages are involved in a remarkably diverse array of homeostatic processes of vital importance to the host. In addition to their critical role in immunity, macrophages are also widely recognized as ubiquitous mediators of cellular turnover and maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. In this review, our objective is to identify macrophage-mediated events central to the inflammatory basis of chronic diseases, with an emphasis on how extrinsic and intrinsic control of macrophage function can be used to prevent or treat harmful outcomes linked to uncontrolled inflammation.

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  12. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  13. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque of carotid arteries with histopathological correlation: Vascular wall MR imaging vs. color Doppler ultrasonography (US)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako; Suga, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Yamagata, Sen; Okumura, Akira; Amoh, Yoshiki; Nakashita, Satoru; Van Cauteren, Marc; Dodo, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether the vessel wall MRI of carotid arteries would differentiate at-risk soft plaque from solid fibrous plaque by identifying liquid components more accurately than color Doppler ultrasonography (US...

  14. Histological Analysis of Aneurysm Wall Occluded with Clip Blades. A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takatoshi; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Reports on histological changes of vascular wall following clipping surgery have been scarce. The authors experienced a case of unruptured cerebral aneurysm in which the tissue occluded by clip blades for 6 years was obtained and histologically examined. The aneurysmal wall following clipping showed granulomatous inflammation with necrosis, and occluded aneurysmal walls were found with collagenous fibrous tissue. Mild infiltration by lymphocytes and fibrous thickened intima occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exact Thermal Analysis of Functionally Graded Cylindrical and Spherical Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebil Yıldırım

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analyses of radially functionally graded (FG thick-walled a spherical vessel and an infinite cylindrical vessel or a circular annulus are conducted analytically by the steady-state 1-D Fourier heat conduction theory under Dirichlet’s boundary conditions. By employing simple-power material grading pattern the differential equations are obtained in the form of Euler-Cauchy types. Analytical solution of the differential equations gives the temperature field and the heat flux distribution in the radial direction in a closed form. Three different physical metal-ceramic pairs first considered to study the effect of the aspect ratio, which is defined as the inner radius to the outer radius of the structure, on the temperature and heat flux variation along the radial coordinate. Then a parametric study is performed with hypothetic inhomogeneity indexes for varying aspect ratios.

  16. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  17. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Molin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.

  18. Nanoparticles and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stevenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanoscale molecular probes capable of diagnosis, characterization, and clinical treatment of disease is leading to a new generation of imaging technologies. Such probes are particularly relevant to inflammation, where the detection of subclinical, early disease states could facilitate speedier detection that could yield enhanced, tailored therapies. Nanoparticles offer robust platforms capable of sensitive detection, and early research has indicated their suitability for the detection of vascular activation and cellular recruitment at subclinical levels. This suggests that nanoparticle techniques may provide excellent biomarkers for the diagnosis and progression of inflammatory diseases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs, and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS probes being just some of the new methodologies employed. Development of these techniques could lead to a range of sensitive probes capable of ultrasensitive, localized detection of inflammation. This article will discuss the merits of each approach, with a general overview to their applicability in inflammatory diseases.

  19. Midkine in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig T. Weckbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 13 kDa heparin-binding growth factor midkine (MK was originally identified as a molecule involved in the orchestration of embryonic development. Recent studies provided evidence for a new role of MK in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Accordingly, several inflammatory diseases including nephritis, arthritis, atherosclerosis, colitis, and autoimmune encephalitis have been shown to be alleviated in the absence of MK in animal models. Reduced leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation was found to be one important mechanism attenuating chronic inflammation when MK was absent. Furthermore, MK was found to modulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the expansion of regulatory T-cells. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MK in different inflammatory disorders and summarize the knowledge of MK biology.

  20. Characteristics of blood vessels forming “sausages-on-a-string” patterns during hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsborg Beierholm, Ulrik; Christian Brings Jacobsen, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Alstrøm, Preben

    2007-03-01

    A phenomenon of alternate constrictions and dilatations in blood vessels has been studied for over 50 years. Recently, a theory has been presented involving a Rayleigh type instability. We analyze the model in terms of the lengths of the deformations in relation to the wall thickness, blood pressure and stress. Analytical and numerical results obtained are consistent with experimental data.

  1. Inflammation in Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandra, Oleksii; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2017-01-01

    West syndrome (WS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy that manifests with infantile spasms (IS), hypsarrhythmia (in ~60% of infants), and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The etiologies of WS can be structural-metabolic pathologies (~60%), genetic (12%-15%), or of unknown origin. The current treatment options include hormonal treatment (adrenocorticotropic hormone and high-dose steroids) and the GABA aminotransferase inhibitor vigabatrin, while ketogenic diet can be given as add-on treatment in refractory IS. There is a need to identify new therapeutic targets and more effective treatments for WS. Theories about the role of inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of WS have emerged, being supported by both clinical and preclinical data from animal models of WS. Ongoing advances in genetics have revealed numerous genes involved in the pathogenesis of WS, including genes directly or indirectly involved in inflammation. Inflammatory pathways also interact with other signaling pathways implicated in WS, such as the neuroendocrine pathway. Furthermore, seizures may also activate proinflammatory pathways raising the possibility that inflammation can be a consequence of seizures and epileptogenic processes. With this targeted review, we plan to discuss the evidence pro and against the following key questions. Does activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain cause epilepsy in WS and does it contribute to the associated comorbidities and progression? Can activation of certain inflammatory pathways be a compensatory or protective event? Are there interactions between inflammation and the neuroendocrine system that contribute to the pathogenesis of WS? Does activation of brain inflammatory signaling pathways contribute to the transition of WS to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome? Are there any lead candidates or unexplored targets for future therapy development for WS targeting inflammation? © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An in situ optical imaging system for measuring lipid uptake, vessel contraction, and lymph flow in small animal lymphatic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Weiler, Michael J.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    All dietary lipids are transported to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Understanding how the lymphatics functionally respond to changes in lipid load is important in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid and lymphatic related diseases such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lymphedema. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. A custom-built optical set-up provides us with the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. This is achieved by dividing the light path into two optical bands. Utilizing high-speed and back-illuminated CCD cameras and post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we have the potential quantify correlations between vessel contraction, lymph flow and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. Local flow velocity is measured through lymphocyte tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel walls and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for both scientists studying lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatic system with orally delivered drugs.

  3. Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andy K. H.; Tesch, Gregory H.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide but current treatments remain suboptimal. This review examines the evidence for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in both experimental and human diabetes, and provides an update on recent novel experimental approaches targeting inflammation and the lessons we have learned from these approaches. We highlight the important role of inflammatory cells in the kidney, particularly infiltrating macrophages, T-lymphocytes and the subpopulation of regulatory T cells. The possible link between immune deposition and diabetic nephropathy is explored, along with the recently described immune complexes of anti-oxidized low-density lipoproteins. We also briefly discuss some of the major inflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, including the role of adipokines. Lastly, we present the latest data on the pathogenic role of the stress-activated protein kinases in diabetic nephropathy, from studies on the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase cell signalling pathways. The genetic and pharmacological approaches which reduce inflammation in diabetic nephropathy have not only enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease but shown promise as potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:22969168

  4. Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy K. H. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide but current treatments remain suboptimal. This review examines the evidence for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in both experimental and human diabetes, and provides an update on recent novel experimental approaches targeting inflammation and the lessons we have learned from these approaches. We highlight the important role of inflammatory cells in the kidney, particularly infiltrating macrophages, T-lymphocytes and the subpopulation of regulatory T cells. The possible link between immune deposition and diabetic nephropathy is explored, along with the recently described immune complexes of anti-oxidized low-density lipoproteins. We also briefly discuss some of the major inflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, including the role of adipokines. Lastly, we present the latest data on the pathogenic role of the stress-activated protein kinases in diabetic nephropathy, from studies on the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase cell signalling pathways. The genetic and pharmacological approaches which reduce inflammation in diabetic nephropathy have not only enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease but shown promise as potential therapeutic strategies.

  5. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  6. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  7. Bidomain Predictions of Virtual Electrode-Induced Make and Break Excitations around Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Adam J; Vigmond, Edward; Bishop, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    Virtual electrodes formed by field stimulation during defibrillation of cardiac tissue play an important role in eliciting activations. It has been suggested that the coronary vasculature is an important source of virtual electrodes, especially during low-energy defibrillation. This work aims to further the understanding of how virtual electrodes from the coronary vasculature influence defibrillation outcomes. Using the bidomain model, we investigated how field stimulation elicited activations from virtual electrodes around idealized intramural blood vessels. Strength-interval curves, which quantify the stimulus strength required to elicit wavefront propagation from the vessels at different states of tissue refractoriness, were computed for each idealized geometry. Make excitations occurred at late diastolic intervals, originating from regions of depolarization around the vessel. Break excitations occurred at early diastolic intervals, whereby the vessels were able to excite surrounding refractory tissue due to the local restoration of excitability by virtual electrode-induced hyperpolarizations. Overall, strength-interval curves had similar morphologies and underlying excitation mechanisms compared with previous experimental and numerical unipolar stimulation studies of cardiac tissue. Including the presence of the vessel wall increased the field strength required for make excitations but decreased the field strength required for break excitations, and the field strength at which break excitations occurred was generally greater than 5 V/cm. Finally, in a more realistic ventricular slice geometry, the proximity of virtual electrodes around subepicardial vessels was seen to cause break excitations in the form of propagating unstable wavelets to the subepicardial layer. Representing the blood vessel wall microstructure in computational bidomain models of defibrillation is recommended as it significantly alters the electrophysiological response of the vessel to

  8. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  9. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  10. Genetic Factors in Animal Models of Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Balfour Sartor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical importance of host genetic susceptibility in determining chronicity, aggressiveness and complications of intestinal inflammation is clearly demonstrated by studies of inbred rodents, transgenic rats and spontaneous mutants. Inbred Lewis rats challenged by purified bacterial cell wall polymers, indomethacin or small bowel bacterial overgrowth develop chronic granulomatous intestinal inflammation with fibrosis and extraintestinal manifestations, whereas Fischer (major histocompatibility complex identical to Lewis and Buffalo rats identically stimulated demonstrate only self-limited enterocolitis with no chronic inflammation, fibrosis, granulomas or extraintestinal inflammation. Similar differential patterns of intestinal inflammation are apparent in inbred mouse strains challenged with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid, Citrobacter freundii or backcrossed with T cell receptor deficient (knockout mice. The dominant role of genetic background in induction of intestinal inflammation is further documented by spontaneous colitis which develops in spontaneously mutant mice, cotton-top tamarins, human leukocyte antigen-B27/ β2 microglobulin transgenic rats and mice with targeted deletions of certain immunoregulatory cytokine and T lymphocyte genes. Identification of the immunological mechanisms of host genetic susceptibility and the genetic basis of spontaneous colitis should provide new insights into the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Experimental ileitis alters prostaglandin biosynthesis in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important mediators responsible for many changes that occur during the inflammatory response. Specifically, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), prostaglandins are key players in maintenance of blood flow and mucosal defense. In blood vessels, prostaglandins modulate and inhibit transmigration. In lymphatic vessels, on the other hand, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) have been shown to potently inhibit lymphatic contractility. Inhibition of lymphatic contractility could impair proper tissue fluid drainage during inflammation, consequently leading to the submucosal oedema observed in IBD. Alterations in production of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation could have severe implications on lymphatic and vascular functions within the small intestine. Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ileitis guinea pig and rat models, we assessed by quantitative PCR changes in mRNA transcript of enzymes and receptors involved in the production and actions of prostaglandins in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels as well as in the affected ileum. Furthermore, we also assessed lymphatic tissue levels of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation. We observed significant changes in lymphatic mRNA expression of COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP4 and IP and increases in PGE2 and PGI2 in tissues of TNBS-treated animals. Changes in mRNA in blood vessels from TNBS-treated animals included differences in COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP1, EP2 and IP expression. Prostaglandin metabolites are differentially regulated in both lymphatic and blood vessels during intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  13. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  14. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  15. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  16. Invasion of lymphatic vessels into the eye after open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Julia M; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2012-06-20

    We analyzed whether lymphatic vessels can be detected in eyes enucleated after an open globe injury. The presence of lymphatic vessels was analyzed immunohistochemically using podoplanin as a specific lymphatic endothelial marker in 21 globes that had been enucleated after open globe injury. The localization of pathologic lymphatic vessels (within the eye wall or inside the eye) was correlated with the mechanism of trauma, anatomic site of perforation or rupture, and time interval between trauma and enucleation. Pathologic lymphatic vessels were detected in 15 of 21 eyes (71%) enucleated after an open globe injury. In 5 globes (24%) they were found within the eye, located in retrocorneal membranes, underneath the sclera, and adjacent to uveal tissue (ciliary body, iris). No significant association was observed between the presence of pathologic lymphatic vessels and the mechanism of trauma (P = 0.598), anatomic site of perforation or rupture (P = 0.303), and time interval between trauma and enucleation (P = 0.145). The human eye can be invaded secondarily by lymphatic vessels if the eye wall is opened by trauma. This mechanism could be important for wound healing, immunologic defense against intruding microorganisms, and autoimmune reactions against intraocular antigens.

  17. Compressibility measurements of gases using externally heated pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnall, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    Most of the data collected under conditions of high temperature and pressure have been determined using a thick-walled bomb of carefully measured and fixed volume which is externally heated by an electric furnace or a thermostatically controlled bath. There are numerous variations on the basic method depending on the pressure-temperature range of interest, and the particular gas or gas mixture being studied. The construction and calibration of the apparatus is discussed, giving attention to the pressure vessel, the volume of the bomb, the measurement of pressure, the control and measurement of temperature, and the measurement of the amount and composition of gas in the bomb.

  18. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  19. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  20. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  1. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin Sensitivity and Inflammation Mediate the Impact of Fitness on Cerebrovascular Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Po Lai; Ross, Naima; Tirsi, Andrew; Arif, Arslan; Ozinci, Zeynep; Convit, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate in adolescents the relationships between retinal vessel diameter, physical fitness, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. We evaluated 157 adolescents, 112 with excessive weight and 45 lean, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All received detailed evaluations, including measurements of retinal vessel diameter, insulin sensitivity, levels of inflammation, and physical fitness. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar and wider venular diameters, significantly lower insulin sensitivity, and physical fitness. They also had decreased levels of anti-inflammatory and increased levels of proinflammatory markers as well as an overall higher inflammation balance score. Fitness was associated with larger retinal arteriolar and narrower venular diameters and these relationships were mediated by insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that inflammation also mediates the relationship between fitness and retinal venular, but not arterial diameter; insulin sensitivity and inflammation balance score jointly mediate this relationship with little overlap in their effects. Increasing fitness and insulin sensitivity and reducing inflammation among adolescents carrying excess weight may improve microvascular integrity. Interventions to improve physical fitness and insulin function and reduce inflammation in adolescents, a group likely to benefit from such interventions, may reduce not only cardiovascular disease in middle age, but also improve cerebrovascular function later in life.

  3. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

    2010-09-22

    Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cell’s secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a

  4. EphA2 Expression Regulates Inflammation and Fibroproliferative Remodeling in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Alexandra C; Funk, Steven D; Green, Jonette M; Yurdagul, Arif; Rana, Mohammad Atif; Pistorius, Rebecca; Henry, Miriam; Yurochko, Andrew; Pattillo, Christopher B; Traylor, James G; Chen, Jin; Woolard, Matthew D; Kevil, Christopher G; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-08-08

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation results from chronic inflammation and fibroproliferative remodeling in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques show elevated expression of EphA2, a guidance molecule involved in cell-cell interactions and tumorigenesis. Here, we assessed the role of EphA2 in atherosclerosis by deleting EphA2 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (Apoe - /- ) and by assessing EphA2 function in multiple vascular cell culture models. After 8 to 16 weeks on a Western diet, male and female mice were assessed for atherosclerotic burden in the large vessels, and plasma lipid levels were analyzed. Despite enhanced weight gain and plasma lipid levels compared with Apoe -/- controls, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- knockout mice show diminished atherosclerotic plaque formation, characterized by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and plaque macrophage content. Although plaque macrophages express EphA2, EphA2 deletion does not affect macrophage phenotype, inflammatory responses, and lipid uptake, and bone marrow chimeras suggest that hematopoietic EphA2 deletion does not affect plaque formation. In contrast, endothelial EphA2 knockdown significantly reduces monocyte firm adhesion under flow. In addition, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- mice show reduced progression to advanced atherosclerotic plaques with diminished smooth muscle and collagen content. Consistent with this phenotype, EphA2 shows enhanced expression after smooth muscle transition to a synthetic phenotype, and EphA2 depletion reduces smooth muscle proliferation, mitogenic signaling, and extracellular matrix deposition both in atherosclerotic plaques and in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Together, these data identify a novel role for EphA2 in atherosclerosis, regulating both plaque inflammation and progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Cell culture studies suggest that endothelial EphA2 contributes to atherosclerotic inflammation by promoting

  5. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstabl...

  6. Vascular wall proteoglycan synthesis and structure as a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Little

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Little1, 2, 3, Mandy L. Ballinger1, Narin Osman1,31Cell Biology of Diabetes Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Monash University, Departments of 2Medicine and 3Immunology, Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular disease and it represents the major cause of premature death in modern societies. Current therapies target risk factors being hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia when diabetes is present however the maximum efficacy of these strategies is often 30% or less. Areas of vascular biology that may lead to the development of a complementary vascular wall directed therapy are: inflammation, oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes-specific factors —hyperglycemia and advanced glycation endproducts and lipid retention by vascular matrix specifically proteoglycans. The major structural features of proteoglycans that determine low-density lipoprotein (LDL binding are the length and sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains. Emerging data discussed in this review indicates that these structural properties are subject to considerable regulation by vasoactive substances possibly using novel signaling pathways. For example, GAG elongation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor is not blocked by the receptor tyrosine kinase antagonist, genistein suggesting that there may be a previously unknown signaling pathway involved in this response. Thus, modifying proteoglycan synthesis and structure may represent a prime target to prevent LDL binding and entrapment in the vessel wall and thus prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.Keywords: proteoglycans, signaling, lipoproteins, atherosclerosis

  7. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  8. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  9. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  10. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  11. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  12. Easy Come, Easy Go: Capillary Forces Enable Rapid Refilling of Embolized Primary Xylem Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Vivien; Bergstrom, Dana M; Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Chen, Hua; Wolfe, Joe; Holbrook, N Michele; Stanton, Daniel E; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-08-01

    Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    Vascular aging, a determinant factor for cardiovascular disease and health status in the elderly, is now viewed as a modifiable risk factor. Impaired endothelial vasodilation is a early hallmark of arterial aging that precedes the clinical manifestations of vascular dysfunction, the first step to cardiovascular disease and influencing vascular outcomes in the elderly. Accordingly, the preservation of endothelial function is thought to be an essential determinant of healthy aging. With special attention on the effects of aging on the endothelial function, this review is focused on the two main mechanisms of aging-related endothelial dysfunction: oxidative stress and inflammation. Aging vasculature generates an excess of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, that compromise the vasodilatory activity of nitric oxide (NO) and facilitate the formation of the deleterious radical, peroxynitrite. Main sources of ROS are mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH oxidases, although NOS uncoupling could also account for ROS generation. In addition, reduced antioxidant response mediated by erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downregulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) contributes to the establishment of chronic oxidative stress in aged vessels. This is accompanied by a chronic low-grade inflammatory phenotype that participates in defective endothelial vasodilation. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), is upregulated in vascular cells from old subjects and drives a proinflammatory shift that feedbacks oxidative stress. This chronic NF-κB activation is contributed by increased angiotensin-II signaling and downregulated sirtuins and precludes adequate cellular response to acute ROS generation. Interventions targeted to recover endogenous antioxidant capacity and cellular stress response rather than exogenous antioxidants could reverse oxidative stress-inflammation vicious cycle in

  14. Extrapleural Inner Thoracic Wall Lesions: Multidetector CT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shik [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The extrapleural space is external to the parietal pleura in the thorax. The structures within and adjacent to this region include the fat pad, endothoracic fascia, intercostal muscles, connective tissue, nerves, vessels, and ribs. Further, the space is divided into the inner and outer thoracic wall by the innermost intercostal muscle. Extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall are classified as air-containing lesions, fat-containing lesions, and soft tissue-containing lesions according on their main component. Air-containing lesions include extrapleural air from direct chest trauma and extrapleural extension from pneumomediastinum. Prominent extrapleural fat is seen in decreased lung volume conditions, and can also be seen in normal individuals. Soft tissue-containing lesions include extrapleural extensions from a pleural or chest wall infection as well as tumors and extrapleural hematoma. We classify extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall and illustrate their imaging findings

  15. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-12-11

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.

  16. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  17. Wall enhancement on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may predict an unsteady state of an intracranial saccular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Peng; Zhang, Hong-Qi [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Yang, Qi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Dan-Dan [Capital Medical University, Department of Clinical Pathology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Guan, Shao-Chen [Capital Medical University, Department of Evidence-Based Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The aneurysm wall has been reported to play a critical role in the formation, development, and even rupture of an aneurysm. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) to investigate the aneurysm wall in an effort to identify evidence of inflammation invasion and define its relationship with aneurysm behavior. Patients with intracranial aneurysms who were prospectively evaluated using HRMRI between July 2013 and June 2014 were enrolled in this study. The aneurysm's wall enhancement and evidence of inflammation invasion were determined. In addition, the relationship between aneurysm wall enhancement and aneurysm size and symptoms, including ruptured aneurysms, giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) presenting as mass effect, progressively growing aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with neurological symptoms, was statistically analyzed. Twenty-five patients with 30 aneurysms were available for the current study. Fourteen aneurysms showed wall enhancement, including 6 ruptured and 8 unruptured aneurysms. Evidence of inflammation was identified directly through histological studies and indirectly through intraoperative investigations and clinical courses. The statistical analysis indicated no significant correlation between aneurysm wall enhancement and aneurysm size. However, there was a strong correlation between wall enhancement and aneurysm symptoms, with a kappa value of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.68-1). Aneurysm wall enhancement on HRMRI might be a sign of inflammatory change. Symptomatic aneurysms exhibited wall enhancement on HRMRI. Wall enhancement had a high consistent correlation of symptomatic aneurysms. Therefore, wall enhancement on HRMRI might predict an unsteady state of an intracranial saccular aneurysm. (orig.)

  18. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  19. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  3. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  5. PCs and networking for oceanographic research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    This paper, first describes briefly the evolution of data acquisition techniques and different system implementation, on board research vessels. A data acquisition system being developed for a coastal research vessel is then described which is based...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  7. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  8. Effect of a tunnel-structured β-tricalcium phosphate graft material on periodontal regeneration: a pilot study in a canine one-wall intrabony defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, T; Akizuki, T; Hoshi, S; Ikawa, T; Kinoshita, A; Sunaga, M; Oda, S; Kuboki, Y; Izumi, Y

    2015-06-01

    Tissue regeneration is affected by the porosity, chemical properties and geometric structure of graft materials. Regeneration of severe periodontal defects, such as one-wall intrabony defects, is difficult because of reduced tissue support, and bone grafts are commonly used in such cases. In the present study, a tunnel-structured β-tricalcium phosphate (tunnel β-TCP) graft material designed to stimulate bone formation was fabricated. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of this graft material on periodontal regeneration in one-wall intrabony defects in dogs. Six male beagle dogs were used in this study. First, the mandibular second and third incisors were extracted. Experimental surgery was performed 12 wk after tooth extraction. Bilateral 4 × 8 mm (width × depth) one-wall intrabony defects were created in the mesial side of the mandibular canines. At the experimental sites, the defects were filled with tunnel β-TCP, whereas the control defects were left empty. Twelve weeks after surgery, qualitative and quantitative histological analyses were performed. There were no signs of clinical inflammation 12 wk after surgery. Coronal extension indicative of new bone formation was higher at the experimental sites than at the control sites, although the differences between both the sites in the newly formed cementum and connective tissue attachment were not significant. Newly formed periodontal ligament and cementum-like tissue were evident along the root surface at the experimental sites. The inner surface of the tunnels was partially resorbed and replaced with new bone. New blood vessels were observed inside the lumens of tunnel β-TCP. Tunnel β-TCP serves as a scaffold for new bone formation in one-wall intrabony defects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  10. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  11. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-11-10

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  12. 50 CFR 660.305 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.305 Section 660.305 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.305 Vessel identification. (a) Display. The operator of a vessel that is over 25 ft (7.6 m...

  13. 50 CFR 660.704 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.704 Section 660.704 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.704 Vessel identification. (a) General. This section only applies to commercial fishing vessels...

  14. 50 CFR 660.504 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.504 Section 660.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.504 Vessel identification. (a) Official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this subpart must...

  15. 50 CFR 665.16 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 665.16 Section 665... identification. (a) Applicability. Each fishing vessel subject to this part, except those identified in paragraph (e) of this section, must be marked for identification purposes, as follows: (1) A vessel that is...

  16. Heme oxygenase-1, oxidation, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Araujo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the vascular wall characterized by the infiltration of lipids and inflammatory cells. Oxidative modifications of infiltrating low density lipoproteins and induction of oxidative stress play a major role in lipid retention in the vascular wall, uptake by macrophages and generation of foam cells, a hallmark of this disorder. The vasculature has a plethora of protective resources against oxidation and inflammation, many of them regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a Nrf2-regulated gene that plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. It is the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, responsible for the oxidative cleavage of heme groups leading to the generation of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and release of ferrous iron. HO-1 has important antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, most of which play a significant role in the protection against atherogenesis. HO-1 may also be an important feature in macrophage differentiation and polarization to certain subtypes. The biological effects of HO-1 are largely attributable to its enzymatic activity, which can be conceived as a system with three arms of action, corresponding to its three enzymatic byproducts. HO-1 mediated vascular protection may be due to a combination of systemic and vascular local effects. It is usually expressed at low levels but can be highly upregulated in the presence of several proatherogenic stimuli. The HO-1 system is amenable for use in the development of new therapies, some of them currently under experimental and clinical trials. Interestingly, in contrast to the HO-1 antiatherogenic actions, the expression of its transcriptional regulator Nrf2 leads to proatherogenic effects instead. This article reviews the evidence that supports the antiatherogenic role of HO-1, potential pathways and mechanisms mediating

  17. The maintenance of lymphatic vessels in the cornea is dependent on the presence of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Nakazawa, Toru; Cursiefen, Claus; Maruyama, Yuko; Van Rooijen, Nico; D'Amore, Patricia A; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-05-31

    It has been shown previously that the presence in the cornea of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as macrophages (MPS) and lymphangiogenesis, is a risk for corneal transplantation. We sought to determine whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the non-inflamed cornea is associated with the presence of MPS. Flat mounts were prepared from corneas of untreated C57BL/6, CD11b(-/-), F4/80(-/-), and BALB/c mice, and after suture placement or corneal transplantation, observed by immunofluorescence for the presence of lymphatic vessels using LYVE-1 as a marker of lymphatic endothelium. Innate immune cells were detected in normal mouse corneas using CD11b, F4/80, CD40, as well as MHC-class II. Digital images of the flat mounts were taken using a spot image analysis system, and the area covered by lymphatic vessels was measured using NIH Image software. The number of spontaneous lymphatic vessels in C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in BALB/c corneas (P = 0.03). There were more CD11b(+) (P lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Mice deficient in CD11b or F4/80 had fewer spontaneous lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mouse corneas have more endogenous CD11b(+) cells and lymphatic vessels. The endogenous lymphatic vessels, along with pro-inflammatory MPS, account for the high risk of corneal graft rejection in C57BL/6 mice. CD11b(+) and F4/80(+) MPS appear to have an important role in of the formation of new lymphatic vessels.

  18. A continuum damage analysis of hydrogen attack in a 2.25Cr-1Mo pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M.W.D. van der; Giessen, E. van der [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tvergaard, V. [Danmarks Tekniske Hoejskole, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Solid Mechanics

    1998-01-30

    A micromechanically based continuum damage model is presented to analyze the stress, temperature and hydrogen pressure dependent material degradation process termed hydrogen attack, inside a pressure vessel. Hydrogen attack (HA) is the damage process of grain boundary facets due to a chemical reaction of carbides with hydrogen, thus forming cavities with high pressure methane gas. Driven by the methane gas pressure, the cavities grow, while remote tensile stresses can significantly enhance the cavitation rate. The damage model gives the strain-rate and damage rate as a function of the temperature, hydrogen pressure and applied stresses. The model is applied to study HA in a vessel wall, where nonuniform distributions lf hydrogen pressure, temperature and stresses result in a nonuniform damage distribution over the vessel wall. Stresses inside the vessel wall first tend to accelerate and later decelerate the cavitation rate significantly. Numerical studies for different material parameters and different stress conditions demonstrate the HA process inside a vessel in time. Also, the lifetime of the pressure vessel is determined. The analyses underline that the general applicability of the Nelson curve is questionable. (orig.) 30 refs.

  19. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  20. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  1. Cutaneous Small Vessel Vasculitis Accompanied by Pustulosis Palmaris et Plantaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kosaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who has suffered from pustulosis palmaris et plantaris for 10 years. At the first examination, many erythematous lesions with purpura, blood crusts, and blisters were present in the lower legs and dorsum of the feet. Painful swelling in the sternal region and dorsal pain were also noted. Elevation of the CRP and myogenic enzyme levels, and liver and renal dysfunctions were noted on blood testing. Histopathologically, leukocytoclastic vasculitis was noted in small blood vessels in the whole dermal layers, and deposition of IgM and C3 in the vascular wall was detected by the direct immunofluorescence techniques. Based on these findings, cutaneous small vessel vasculitis was diagnosed. Because the patient complained of a toothache during the clinical course, an X-ray examination was performed. On pantomography, a radicular cyst and apical periodontitis were noted. The tooth symptoms changed with exacerbation and remission of the skin symptoms. These findings indicate that odontogenic infection is very likely to be a cause of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis in a manner similar to pustulosis palmaris et plantaris.

  2. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  3. Arterial Wall Properties and Womersley Flow in Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriadis Emilios

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting in the cellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide particularly globotriaosylceramide. The disease is characterized by a dilated vasculopathy with arterial ectasia in muscular arteries and arterioles. Previous venous plethysomographic studies suggest enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Fabry disease indicating a functional abnormality of resistance vessels. Methods We examined the mechanical properties of the radial artery in Fabry disease, a typical fibro-muscular artery. Eight control subjects and seven patients with Fabry disease had a right brachial arterial line placed allowing real time recording of intra-arterial blood pressure. Real time B-mode ultrasound recordings of the right radial artery were obtained simultaneously allowing calculation of the vessel wall internal and external diameter, the incremental Young's modulus and arterial wall thickness. By simultaneously measurement of the distal index finger-pulse oximetry the pulse wave speed was calculated. From the wave speed and the internal radial artery diameter the volume flow was calculated by Womersley analysis following truncation of the late diastolic phase. Results No significant difference was found between Fabry patients and controls for internal or external arterial diameters, the incremental Young's modulus, the arterial wall thickness, the pulse wave speed and the basal radial artery blood flow. Further, no significant difference was found for the radial artery blood flow in response to intra-arterial acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside. Both drugs however, elevated the mean arterial flow. Conclusions The current study suggests that no structural or mechanical abnormality exists in the vessel wall of fibro-muscular arteries in Fabry disease. This may indicate that a functional abnormality downstream to the conductance vessels is the dominant feature in

  4. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  5. Vasculite cutânea de pequenos vasos: etiologia, patogênese, classificação e critérios diagnósticos - Parte I Small vessel cutaneous vasculitis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification and diagnostic criteria - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Roberto Clivati Brandt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasculite é a inflamação da parede dos vasos. Pode variar em gravidade desde doença autolimitada de um único órgão até doença grave com risco de morte por falência de múltiplos órgãos. Existem várias causas, embora só se apresente por poucos padrões histológicos de inflamação vascular. Vasos de qualquer tipo e em qualquer órgão podem ser afetados, resultando em ampla variedade de sinais e sintomas. Diferentes vasculites com apresentações clínicas indistinguíveis têm evolução e tratamento muito diferentes. Essa condição representa desafio para o médico, incluindo classificação, diagnóstico, exames laboratoriais pertinentes, tratamento e seguimento adequado. Neste artigo são revistos a classificação, a etiologia, a patogênese e os critérios diagnósticos das vasculites cutâneas.Vasculitis is an inflammation of vessel walls. It may range in severity from a self-limited disorder in one single organ to a life-threatening disease due to multiple-organ failure. It has many causes, although they result in only a few histological patterns of vascular inflammation. Vessels of any type in any organ can be affected, a fact that results in a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Different vasculitides with indistinguishable clinical presentations have very different prognosis and treatments. This condition presents many challenges to physicians in terms of classification, diagnosis, appropriate laboratory workup, treatment, and the need for careful follow-up. This article reviews the classification, etiology, pathology and diagnostic criteria of cutaneous vasculitis.

  6. Microbiota, inflammation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda; Moya-Pérez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between metabolism and immunity play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated chronic co-morbidities. Obesity involves impairment of immune function affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system. This leads to increased risk of infections as well as chronic low-grade inflammation, which in turn causes metabolic dysfunction (e.g. insulin resistance) and chronic disease (e.g. type-2 diabetes). Gut microbiota has emerged as one of the key factors regulating early events triggering inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. This effect seems to be related to diet- and obesity-associated changes in gut microbiota composition and to increased translocation of immunogenic bacterial products, which activate innate and adaptive immunity in the gut and beyond, contributing to an increase in inflammatory tone. Innate immune receptors, like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are known to be up-regulated in the tissue affected by most inflammatory disorders and activated by both specific microbial components and dietary lipids. This triggers several signaling transduction pathways (e.g. JNK and IKKβ/NF-κB), leading to inflammatory cytokine and chemokine (TNF-α, IL-1, MCP1) production and to inflammatory cell recruitment, causing insulin resistance. T-cell differentiation into effector inflammatory or regulatory T cells also depends on the type of TLR activated and on cytokine production, which in turn depends upon gut microbiota-diet interactions. Here, we update and discuss our current understanding of how gut microbiota could contribute to defining whole-body metabolism by influencing diverse components of the innate and adaptive immune system, both locally and systemically.

  7. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  8. Evaluation and comparison of {sup 11}C-choline uptake and calcification in aortic and common carotid arterial walls with combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuhiko [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Schober, Otmar; Kies, Peter; Stegger, Lars [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Schaefers, Michael [University of Muenster, European Institute of Molecular Imaging, Muenster (Germany); Ishigaki, Takeo; Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Inflamed atherosclerotic plaques may rupture and cause acute myocardial infarction, stroke and other thrombotic events. Early detection of these unstable plaques could, in many cases, prevent such potentially fatal events. {sup 11}C-choline or {sup 18}F-labelled choline derivatives for visualizing the synthesis of phospholipids, are promising markers of plaque inflammation with potential advantages over {sup 18}F-FDG. Their potential for plaque characterization in humans is, however, unclear. In this study the prevalence and distribution of {sup 11}C-choline uptake in the aortic and common carotid arterial walls of elderly male patients was evaluated with combined PET/CT. Additionally, the localization of radiotracer uptake and calcification was correlated in various vessel segments. Image data from 93 consecutive male patients between 60 and 80 years old who had undergone whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT assessment for prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively. {sup 11}C-choline uptake and calcification were analysed qualitatively and semiquantitatively and compared. {sup 11}C-choline uptake was found in 95% of patients, calcification in 94% throughout all vessel segments. In 6% of the patients radiotracer uptake was colocalized with calcifications, whereas less than 1% of calcification sites showed increased radiotracer uptake. Both {sup 11}C-choline uptake and calcification in the aortic and common carotid arterial walls are common in elderly men. Radiotracer uptake and calcification are, however, only rarely colocalized. {sup 11}C-choline has the potential to provide information about atherosclerotic plaques independent of calcification measurement. (orig.)

  9. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk. 18. Vol 52 No 1. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(1): 18. Much evidence points towards inflammation as a key regulatory process linking cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications to an altered arterial biology.1 Systemic inflammatory ...

  11. Beyond corticosteroids: future prospects in the management of inflammation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Roche

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and stimulates innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Airway inflammation is involved in increased bronchial wall thickness, increased bronchial smooth muscle tone, mucus hypersecretion and loss of parenchymal elastic structures. Oxidative stress impairs tissue integrity, accelerates lung ageing and reduces the efficacy of corticosteroids by decreasing levels of histone deacetylase-2. Protease–antiprotease imbalance impairs tissues and is involved in inflammatory processes. Inflammation is also present in the pulmonary artery wall and at the systemic level in COPD patients, and may be involved in COPD-associated comorbidities. Proximal airways inflammation contributes to symptoms of chronic bronchitis while distal and parenchymal inflammation relates to airflow obstruction, emphysema and hyperinflation. Basal levels of airways and systemic inflammation are increased in frequent exacerbators. Inhaled corticosteroids are much less effective in COPD than in asthma, which relates to the intrinsically poor reversibility of COPD-related airflow obstruction and to molecular mechanisms of resistance relating to oxidative stress. Ongoing research aims at developing new drugs targeting more intimately COPD-specific mechanisms of inflammation, hypersecretion and tissue destruction and repair. Among new anti-inflammatory agents, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors have been the first to emerge.

  12. Key Role of DAMP in Inflammation, Cancer, and Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Franco; Altamura, Simona; Frosali, Simona; Conti, Pio

    2016-05-01

    This review aimed to take stock of the current status of research on damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein. We discuss the Janus-faced role of DAMP molecules in inflammation, cancer, and tissue repair. The high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1 and adenosine triphosphate proteins are well-known DAMP molecules and have been primarily associated with inflammation. However, as we shall see, recent data have linked these molecules to tissue repair. HMGB1 is associated with cancer-related inflammation. It activates nuclear factor kB, which is involved in cancer regulation via its receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Proinflammatory activity and tissue repair may lead to pharmacologic intervention, by blocking DAMP RAGE and Toll like receptor 2 and 4 role in inflammation and by increasing their concentration in tissue repair, respectively. We conducted a MEDLINE search for articles pertaining to the various issues related to DAMP, and we discuss the most relevant articles especially (ie, not only those published in journals with a higher impact factor). A cluster of remarkable articles on DAMP have appeared in the literature in recent years. Regarding inflammation, several strategies have been proposed to target HMGB1, from antibodies to recombinant box A, which interacts with RAGE, competing with the full molecule. In tissue repair, it was reported that the overexpression of HMGB1 or the administration of exogenous HMGB1 significantly increased the number of vessels and promoted recovery in skin-wound, ischemic injury. Due to the bivalent nature of DAMP, it is often difficult to explain the relative role of DAMP in inflammation versus its role in tissue repair. However, this point is crucial as DAMP-related treatments move into clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inflammation markers in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Dimitrios; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a common health disorder with uncertain etiology and unclear pathophysiology. There is evidence that various systems interact in uncertain ways and mechanisms to cause hypertension. It is also well known that inflammation is a key feature in the initiation, progression and clinical implication of several cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has become evident that the immune system and inflammatory response are also essential in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Many inflammation markers such as CRP, cytokines, and adhesion molecules have been found elevated in hypertensive patients supporting the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also, in normotensive individuals, these markers have been associated with the risk of developing hypertension, whereas in hypertensive patients they have been associated with target organ damage as well as with the risk for future cardiovascular events. Thus, understanding the role of inflammation in hypertension provides new insights for novel therapeutic approaches, targeting inflammation for the treatment of hypertension and its complications.

  14. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  15. Artery Wall Assessment Helps Predict Kidney Transplant Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Hernández

    Full Text Available Kidney transplant recipients have high cardiovascular risk, and vascular inflammation may play an important role. We explored whether the inflammatory state in the vessel wall was related to carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT and patient survival following kidney transplantation.In this prospective observational cohort study we measured c-IMT and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the inferior epigastric artery in 115 kidney transplant candidates. Another c-IMT measurement was done 1-year post-transplantation in 107. By stepwise multiple regression analysis we explored factors associated with baseline c-IMT and their changes over time. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was constructed to identify risk factors for mortality.A worse cardiovascular profile (older age, smoker, diabetic, carotid plaque, systolic blood pressure and vascular calcification and higher VCAM-1 levels were found in patients in the highest baseline c-IMT tertile, who also had a worse survival. Factors independently related to baseline c-IMT were age (β=0.369, P<0.0001, fasting glucose (β=0.168, P=0.045, smoking (β=0.228, P=0.003 and VCAM-1 levels (β=0.244, P=0.002. Independent factors associated with c-IMT measurement 1-year post-transplantation were baseline c-IMT (β=-0.677, P<0.0001, post-transplant diabetes (β=0.225, P=0.003 and triglycerides (β=0.302, P=0.023. Vascular VCAM-1 levels were associated with increased risk of mortality in bivariate and multivariate Cox regression. Notably, nearly 50% of patients showed an increase or maintenance of high c-IMT 1 year post-transplantation and these patients experienced a higher mortality (13 versus 3.5%; P=0.021.A worse cardiovascular profile and a higher vascular VCAM-1 protein levels at time of KT are related to subclinical atheromatosis. This could lead to a higher post-transplant mortality. Pre-transplant c IMT, post-transplant diabetes and triglycerides at 1-year post

  16. Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Jens; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Bock, Felix; Siebelmann, Sebastian; Lankenau, Eva; Hüttmann, Gereon; Steven, Philipp; Cursiefen, Claus

    2017-11-01

    Corneal neovascularization, in particular lymphangiogenesis, is a limiting factor in corneal transplant survival. Novel treatment approaches focus on (selective) inhibition and regression of lymphatic vessels. Imaging clinically invisible corneal lymphatic vessels is a prerequisite for these strategies. Using a murine model, this study investigates whether corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT). Corneal neovascularization was induced by intrastromal placement of 11.0 nylon sutures in one eye of BALB/c mice. After 2 weeks, cross-sectional images and volumes of the corneas with a 0.5 mm lateral and axial field of view were acquired using a custom-built mOCT system enabling a resolution of 1 μm at a B-scan rate of 165/s. Three of the six animals received an additional intrastromal injection of India ink 24 hours before the measurement to stain the corneal lymphatic system in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using CD31 and LYVE-1 was used to validate the mOCT findings. Using mOCT, lymphatic vessels were visible as dark vessel-like structures with the lumen lacking a hyperreflective wall and mostly lacking cells. However, individual, slowly moving particles, which most likely are immune cells, occasionally could be observed inside the lumen. In lymphatic vessels of ink-stained corneas, hyperreflection and shadowing underneath was observed. Ink-filled lymphatic vessels were colocalized in consecutive corneal flat mounts of the same specimen. Corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using mOCT. This novel approach opens new options for noninvasive clinical imaging of corneal lymphatic vessels for diagnostic and therapeutic indications.

  17. Development of a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel to evaluate the effects of stent strut material selection and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Bradley Huegh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in The United States and Europe, accounting for approximately half of all deaths. The most common form of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is characterized by the formation of fatty atheromatous plaques that can grow to occlude the vessel lumen, thus causing ischemia distal to the occlusion. This is commonly treated using balloon angioplasty, which is usually done in conjunction with the deployment of a stent. Stent deployment helps hold the vessel open following the local injury caused by balloon inflation and prevents elastic recoil and subsequent negative remodeling. Stenting has been shown to significantly reduce restenosis rates from approximately 20-50% without a stent to about 10-30% with stent deployment. However, restenosis still remains the main cause of long-term stent failure. In basic terms, a balloon angioplasty procedure is a forceful displacement of an atherosclerotic lesion serving to widen the vessel lumen to increase blood flow. This procedure causes stretching of the vessel wall, tears in the atherosclerotic plaques, and general damage to the vessel in turn signaling a complex cascade of thrombosis, inflammation, intimal thickening, and vascular remodeling. Stent deployment also further complicates the immunological response by triggering a foreign body response from the implantation of a biomaterial into the body. When performing an angioplasty procedure, particularly in conjunction with stent deployment, a certain degree of vascular injury is inevitable. However, the initial injury can be further complicated by the body's local reaction to the implanted biomaterial, the severity of which can ultimately dictate the degree of restenosis and subsequently affect procedural success. The proliferative response of VSMCs to the various afore mentioned stimuli results in the formation of often copious amounts of neointimal tissue, generally known as intimal hyperplasia. The

  18. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia & Myelodysplastic Syndromes Anemia of Inflammation & Chronic Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a ... other organs to fail. What is anemia of inflammation and chronic disease (AI/ACD)? Anemia of inflammation ...

  19. Microfluidic strategy to investigate dynamics of small blood vessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasotharan, Sanjesh; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Guenther, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Resistance arteries (RAs, 30-300 microns in diameter) that are located within the terminal part of the vascular tree regulate the laminar perfusion of tissue with blood, via the peripheral vascular resistance, and hence controls the systemic blood pressure. The structure of RAs is adapted to actively controlling flow resistance by dynamically changing their diameter, which is non-linearly dependent on the temporal variation of the transmural pressure, perfusion flow rate and spatiotemporal changes in the chemical environment. Increases in systemic blood pressure (hypertension) resulting from pathologic changes in the RA response represent the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We use a microfluidic strategy to investigate small blood vessels by quantifying structural variations within the arterial wall, RA outer contour and diameter over time. First, we document the artery response to vasomotor drugs that were homogeneously applied at step-wise increasing concentration. Second, we investigate the response in the presence of well-defined axial and circumferential heterogeneities. Artery per- and superfusion is discussed based on microscale PIV measurements of the fluid velocity on both sides of the arterial wall. Structural changes in the arterial wall are quantified using cross-correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition analyses of bright-field micrographs.

  20. Metabolic regulation of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Immune cells constantly patrol the body via the bloodstream and migrate into multiple tissues where they face variable and sometimes demanding environmental conditions. Nutrient and oxygen availability can vary during homeostasis, and especially during the course of an immune response, creating a demand for immune cells that are highly metabolically dynamic. As an evolutionary response, immune cells have developed different metabolic programmes to supply them with cellular energy and biomolecules, enabling them to cope with changing and challenging metabolic conditions. In the past 5 years, it has become clear that cellular metabolism affects immune cell function and differentiation, and that disease-specific metabolic configurations might provide an explanation for the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases. This Review outlines the metabolic challenges faced by immune cells in states of homeostasis and inflammation, as well as the variety of metabolic configurations utilized by immune cells during differentiation and activation. Changes in cellular metabolism that contribute towards the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases are also briefly discussed.

  1. Leptospira and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis and has a worldwide impact on public health. This paper will discuss both the role of immunogenic and pathogenic molecules during leptospirosis infection and possible new targets for immunotherapy against leptospira components. Leptospira, possess a wide variety of mechanisms that allow them to evade the host immune system and cause infection. Many molecules contribute to the ability of Leptospira to adhere, invade, and colonize. The recent sequencing of the Leptospira genome has increased our knowledge about this pathogen. Although the virulence factors, molecular targets, mechanisms of inflammation, and signaling pathways triggered by leptospiral antigens have been studied, some questions are still unanswered. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are the primary sensors of invading pathogens. TLRs recognize conserved microbial pattern molecules and activate signaling pathways that are pivotal to innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, a new molecular target has emerged—the Na/K-ATPase—which may contribute to inflammatory and metabolic alteration in this syndrome. Na/K-ATPase is a target for specific fatty acids of host origin and for bacterial components such as the glycolipoprotein fraction (GLP that may lead to inflammasome activation. We propose that in addition to TLRs, Na/K-ATPase may play a role in the innate response to leptospirosis infection.

  2. Effect of variable heat transfer coefficient on tissue temperature next to a large vessel during radiofrequency tumor ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Cleber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.

  3. Periostin links mechanical strain to inflammation in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Yamashita

    Full Text Available AIMS: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs are characterized by chronic inflammation, which contributes to the pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Although mechanical stress has been suggested to promote inflammation in AAA, the molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Periostin is a matricellular protein known to respond to mechanical strain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of periostin in mechanotransduction in the pathogenesis of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found significant increases in periostin protein levels in the walls of human AAA specimens. Tissue localization of periostin was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction of elastic fibers. We examined whether mechanical strain could stimulate periostin expression in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Cells subjected to 20% uniaxial cyclic strains showed significant increases in periostin protein expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and secretions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and the active form of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2. These changes were largely abolished by a periostin-neutralizing antibody and by the FAK inhibitor, PF573228. Interestingly, inhibition of either periostin or FAK caused suppression of the other, indicating a positive feedback loop. In human AAA tissues in ex vivo culture, MCP-1 secretion was dramatically suppressed by PF573228. Moreover, in vivo, periaortic application of recombinant periostin in mice led to FAK activation and MCP-1 upregulation in the aortic walls, which resulted in marked cellular infiltration. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that periostin plays an important role in mechanotransduction that maintains inflammation via FAK activation in AAA.

  4. Quantification of synovistis by MRI: correlation between dynamic and static gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic and macroscopic signs of synovial inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Løvgreen-Nielsen, P

    1998-01-01

    injection, as the highest correlation coefficients to histologic inflammation were observed in this interval. Dynamic MRI can be used to determine synovial inflammation. Evaluation of large synovial areas one-half to one minute after Gd injection best reflects joint inflammation....... as at the four biopsy sites, and compared to synovial pathology. The rate of early enhancement of the total synovial membrane of the preselected slice, determined by dynamic MRI, was highly correlated with microscopic evidence of active inflammation (Spearman p = 0.73; p ... knees with and without synovial inflammation with a high predictive value (0.81-0.90). Moderate and severe inflammation could not be differentiated. The early enhancement rate was correlated with histologic features of active inflammation, particularly vessel proliferation and mononuclear leucocyte...

  5. Promotion of lymphatic integrity by angiopoietin-1/Tie2 signaling during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Kentaro; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sawane, Mika; Matsumoto-Okazaki, Yuuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Furuse, Mikio; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    The cutaneous lymphatic system plays a major role in tissue fluid homeostasis and inflammation of the skin. Although several lymphangiogenic factors are known to be involved in the formation of lymphatic vessels, the molecular mechanisms that maintain lymphatic integrity and control the functional drainage of interstitial fluid and resolution of inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) enhances lymphatic integrity and function during inflammation. Ang1 transgenic mice under the control of keratin-14 (K14-Ang1) showed attenuated edema formation and inflammation after UV B (UVB) exposure. After UVB irradiation, blood vascular permeability was inhibited in K14-Ang1 mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, lymphatic vessels of WT mice were markedly enlarged and leaky in inflamed skin, whereas K14-Ang1 mice showed relatively contracted lymphatic vessels together with enhanced lymphatic vascularization. Expression of endothelial-specific tight junction molecules claudin-5 and zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) was strongly down-regulated in the inflamed lymphatic vessels of UVB-exposed WT mice, whereas down-regulation of both claudin-5 and ZO-1 was blocked in UVB-exposed K14-Ang1 mice. In vitro studies revealed that the stability of lymphatic endothelial cells was enhanced in the presence of Ang1, presumably via up-regulation of claudin-5, as well as ZO-1. Claudin-5 knockdown markedly increased the permeability of lymphatic endothelial cells. Overall, our data strongly support the idea that Ang1/Tie2 signaling promotes lymphatic integrity by modulating tight junction molecule expression during inflammation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic behavior of microscopic bubbles near a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, Sergey A.; Ooi, Andrew; Manasseh, Richard

    2012-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behavior of microscopic bubbles near a rigid wall is investigated. Oscillations are driven by the ultrasonic pressure field that arises in various biomedical applications such as ultrasound imaging or targeted drug delivery. It is known that, when bubbles approach a blood-vessel wall, their linear dynamic response is modified. This modification may be very useful for real-time detection of bubbles that have found targets; in future therapeutic technologies, it may be useful for controlled release of medical agents encapsulating microbubbles. In this paper, the nonlinear response of microbubbles near a wall is studied. The Keller-Miksis-Parlitz equation is adopted, but modified to account for the presence of a rigid wall. This base model describes the time evolution of the bubble surface, which is assumed to remain spherical, and accounts for the effect of acoustic radiation losses owing to liquid compressibility in the momentum conservation. Two situations are considered: the base case of an isolated bubble in an unbounded medium, and a bubble near a rigid wall. In the latter case, the wall influence is modeled by including a symmetrically oscillating image bubble. The bubble dynamics is traced using a numerical solution of the model equation. Subsequently, Floquet theory is used to accurately detect the bifurcation point where bubble oscillations stop following the driving ultrasound frequency and undergo period-changing bifurcations. Of particular interest is the detection of the subcritical period-tripling and -quadrupling transition. The parametric bifurcation maps are obtained as functions of nondimensional parameters representing the bubble radius, the frequency and pressure amplitude of the driving ultrasound field, and the distance from the wall. It is shown that the presence of the wall generally stabilises the bubble dynamics, so that much larger values of the pressure amplitude are needed to generate nonlinear responses. Thus, a

  7. Precise spatial control of cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom by using an ultrasonic standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiwei; Huang, Peixuan; Guo, Shifang; Zhao, Lu; Jia, Yingjie; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    In atherosclerotic inducement in animal models, the conventionally used balloon injury is invasive, produces excessive vessel injuries at unpredictable locations and is inconvenient in arterioles. Fortunately, cavitation erosion, which plays an important role in therapeutic ultrasound in blood vessels, has the potential to induce atherosclerosis noninvasively at predictable sites. In this study, precise spatial control of cavitation erosion for superficial lesions in a vessel phantom was realised by using an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) with the participation of cavitation nuclei and medium-intensity ultrasound pulses. The superficial vessel erosions were restricted between adjacent pressure nodes, which were 0.87 mm apart in the USW field of 1 MHz. The erosion positions could be shifted along the vessel by nodal modulation under a submillimetre-scale accuracy without moving the ultrasound transducers. Moreover, the cavitation erosion of the proximal or distal wall could be determined by the types of cavitation nuclei and their corresponding cavitation pulses, i.e., phase-change microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 5 MHz and SonoVue microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 1 MHz. Effects of acoustic parameters of the cavitation pulses on the cavitation erosions were investigated. The flow conditions in the experiments were considered and discussed. Compared to only using travelling waves, the proposed method in this paper improves the controllability of the cavitation erosion and reduces the erosion depth, providing a more suitable approach for vessel endothelial injury while avoiding haemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smooth muscle–endothelial cell communication activates Reelin signaling and regulates lymphatic vessel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Sophie; Xie, Sherry; Tatin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Active lymph transport relies on smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractions around collecting lymphatic vessels, yet regulation of lymphatic vessel wall assembly and lymphatic pumping are poorly understood. Here, we identify Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein previously implicated in central nervous system development, as an important regulator of lymphatic vascular development. Reelin-deficient mice showed abnormal collecting lymphatic vessels, characterized by a reduced number of SMCs, abnormal expression of lymphatic capillary marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and impaired function. Furthermore, we show that SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels stimulated release and proteolytic processing of endothelium-derived Reelin. Lymphatic endothelial cells in turn responded to Reelin by up-regulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) expression, which suggests an autocrine mechanism for Reelin-mediated control of endothelial factor expression upstream of SMC recruitment. These results uncover a mechanism by which Reelin signaling is activated by communication between the two cell types of the collecting lymphatic vessels—smooth muscle and endothelial cells—and highlight a hitherto unrecognized and important function for SMCs in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis and function. PMID:22665518

  9. Neuroradiologic Characteristics of Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System According to the Affected Vessel Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Kaufmann-Bühler, Ann-Katrin; Gansukh, Tserenchunt; Gansukh, Amarjargal; Schuster, Simon; Bachmann, Henrike; Thomalla, Götz; Magnus, Tim; Matschke, Jakob; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-09-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important impact in diagnosing primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). However, neuroradiologic findings may vary immensely, making an easy and definite diagnosis challenging. In this retrospective, single center study, we analyzed neuroradiologic findings of patients with PACNS diagnosed at our hospital between 2009 and 2014. Furthermore, we classified patients according to the affected vessel size and compared imaging characteristics between the subgroups. Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 43 [±15.3] years, 17 females) in this study. Patients with positive angiographic findings were classified as either medium or large vessel PACNS and presented more ischemic lesions (p < 0.001) and vessel wall enhancement (p = 0.017) compared to patients with small vessel PACNS. No significant differences were detected for the distribution of contrast-enhancing lesions (parenchymal or leptomeningeal), hemorrhages, or lesions with mass effect. Twenty-five patients underwent brain biopsy. Patients with medium or large vessel PACNS were less likely to have positive biopsy results. It is essential to differentiate between small and medium/large vessel PACNS since results in MRI, digital subtraction angiography and brain biopsy may differ immensely. Since image quality of MR scanners improves gradually and brain biopsy may often be nonspecific or negative, our results emphasize the importance of MRI/MRA in the diagnosis process of PACNS.

  10. In vivo visualization of the final stages of xylem vessel refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig R; Knipfer, Thorsten; McElrone, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Embolism removal is critical for restoring hydraulic pathways in some plants, as residual gas bubbles should expand when vessels are reconnected to the transpiration stream. Much of our understanding of embolism removal remains theoretical as a consequence of the lack of in vivo images of the process at high magnification. Here, we used in vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to visualize the final stages of xylem refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) paired with scanning electron microscopy. Before refilling, vessel walls were covered with a surface film, but vessel perforation plate openings and intervessel pits were filled with air. Bubbles were removed from intervessel pits first, followed by bubbles within perforation plates, which hold the last volumes of air which eventually dissolve. Perforation plates were dimorphic, with more steeply angled scalariform plates in narrow diameter vessels, compared with the simple perforation plates in older secondary xylem, which may favor rapid refilling and compartmentalization of embolisms that occur in small vessels, while promoting high hydraulic conductivity in large vessels. Our study provides direct visual evidence of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the final stages of embolism removal. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnberg, Julia; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Romeo, Javier; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión

    2009-02-01

    Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.

  12. Inflammation-related cancer or cancer-related inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    T.G, Shrihari

    2018-01-01

    Inflammationis the body’s defensive action against various stimuli such as physical orchemical or infectious agents. Acute inflammation and their mediators help intissue repair and healing. If the inflammation aggravates chronically,non-resolved, dysregulated immune system, results release of various inflammatorymediators such as free radicals (ROS and RNS), cytokines, chemokines, growthfactors and proteolytic enzymes produced by innate and adaptive immune cellsactivate transcriptional factor...

  13. Diet induced mild hypercholesterolemia in pigs: local and systemic inflammation, effects on vascular injury - rescue by high-dose statin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Busnelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate systemic and local inflammation as well as progression of vascular inflammation in normal and mechanically injured vessels in a large animal model of mild hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was also to test the effect of high-dose statin treatment on these processes. METHODS: Pigs were kept for 120 days on a standard diet (SD, n=7, high-cholesterol diet (HCD, n=7 or high-cholesterol diet with Atorvastatin starting after 50 days (STATIN, n=7. Left carotid artery balloon injury was conducted in all groups after 60 days of diet treatment. Biochemical analysis together with evaluation of blood and tissue markers of vascular injury and inflammation were performed in all groups at the end of experiment. RESULTS: HCD compared to SD induced systemic inflammation demonstrated by increased number of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes. HCD compared to SD induced also local inflammation demonstrated by adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of T-lymphocytes in abdominal white adipose tissue, activation of hepatic stellate cells with infiltration of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the liver and increased macrophage content in lung parenchyma. These changes were accompanied by increased Intima/Media thickness, stenosis, matrix deposition and activated T-cell infiltrates in injured but not in uninjured contralateral carotid artery as we previously reported. The treatment with high-dose statin attenuated all aspects of systemic and local inflammation as well as pathological changes in injured carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: Diet related mild hypercholesterolemia induce systemic and local inflammation in the liver, lung and adipose tissue that coincide with enhanced inflammation of injured vessel but is without deleterious effect on uninjured vessels. High dose statin attenuated systemic and local inflammation and protected injured vessels. However, finding exact role of reduced systemic

  14. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  15. A scaling and experimental approach for investigating in-vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.E. [Fauske & Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The TMI-2 accident experienced the relocation of a large quantity of core material to the lower plenum. The TMI-2 vessel investigation project concluded that approximately 20 metric tonnes of once molten fuel material drained into the RPV lower head. As a result, the lower head wall experienced a thermal transient that has been characterized as reaching temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C, then a cooling transient with a rate of 10 to 100{degrees}C/min. Two mechanisms have been proposed as possible explanations for this cooling behavior. One is the ingression of water through core material as a result of interconnected cracks in the frozen debris and/or water ingression around the crust which is formed on internal structures (core supports and in-core instrumentation) in the lower head. The second focuses on the lack of adhesion of oxidic core debris to the RPV wall when the debris contacts the wall. Furthermore, the potential for strain of the RPV lower head when the wall is overheated could provide for a significant cooling path for water to ingress between the RPV and the frozen core material next to the wall. To examine these proposed mechanisms, a set of scaled experiments have been developed to examine the potential for cooling. These are performed in a scaled system in which the high temperature molten material is iron termite and the RPV wall is carbon steel. A termite mass of 40 kg is used and the simulated reactor vessels have water in the lower head at pressures up to 2.2 MPa. Furthermore, two different thicknesses of the vessel wall are examined with the thicker vessel having virtually no potential for material creep during the experiment and the thinner wall having the potential for substantial creep. Moreover, the experiment includes the option of having molten iron as the first material to drain into the RPV lower head or molten aluminum oxide being the only material that drains into the test configuration.

  16. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Julie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. Methods A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ, we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD and function (LVF during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5 suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF. In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. Results SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic

  17. Multi-ligand nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to the injured vascular wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kona, Soujanya

    Pathological conditions like coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery diseases as well as cardiovascular interventions used in the treatment of coronary artery diseases such as angioplasty and stenting damage/injure the blood vessel wall, leading to inflamed or activated endothelial cells that have been implicated in events leading to thrombosis, inflammation, and restenosis. Oral administration of anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory drugs causes systemic toxicity, bleeding, patient incompliance, and inadequate amounts of drugs at the injured area. Though drug-eluting stents have shown therapeutic benefits, complications such as in-stent restenosis and late thrombosis still remain and are a cause for concern. Rapid growth in the field of nanotechnology and nanoscience in recent years has paved the way for new targeted and controlled drug delivery strategies. In this perspective, the development of biodegradable nanoparticles for targeted intracellular drug delivery to the inflamed endothelial cells may offer an improved avenue for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The major objective of this research was to develop "novel multi-ligand nanoparticles," as drug carriers that can efficiently target and deliver therapeutic agents to the injured/inflamed vascular cells under dynamic flow conditions. Our approach mimics the natural binding ability of platelets to injured/activated endothelial cells through glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) bound to P-selectin expressed on inflamed endothelial cells and to the subendothelium through GPIb binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) deposited onto the injured vascular wall. Our design also exploits the natural cell membrane translocation ability of the internalizing cell peptide - trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) to enhance the nanoparticle uptake by the targeted cells. Our hypothesis is that these multi-ligand nanoparticles would show an increased accumulation at the injury site since GPIb

  18. WITHDRAWN: The extended abdominal wall flap for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, S T; Senghaas, A; Turley, R; Ravindra, K V; Zenn, M R; Levin, L S; Erdmann, D

    2011-11-01

    Patients with extensive loss of abdominal wall tissue have few options for restoring the abdominal cavity. Composite tissue allotransplantation has been used for limited abdominal wall reconstruction in the setting of visceral transplantation, yet replacement of the entire abdominal wall has not been described. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal abdominal skin surface available through an external iliac/femoral cuff-based pedicle. Five human cadaver abdominal walls were injected with methylene blue to analyze skin perfusion based on either the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA; n = 5) or a cuff of external iliac/femoral artery (n = 5) containing the deep circumflex iliac, deep inferior epigastric, superficial inferior epigastric, and the superficial circumflex iliac arteries. Abdominal wall flaps were taken full thickness from the costal margin to the mid-axial line and down to the pubic tubercle and proximal thigh. In all specimens, the deep inferior epigastric, deep circumflex iliac, superficial inferior epigastric, and the superficial circumflex iliac arteries were found to originate within a 4-cm cuff of the external iliac/femoral artery. Abdominal wall flaps injected through a unilateral external iliac/femoral segment had a significantly greater degree of total flap perfusion than those injected through the DIEA alone (76.5 +/- 4% versus 57.2 +/- 5%; Student t test, P DIEA vessel alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha P Tull

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA, arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2 (PGD(2 by cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not

  1. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Samantha P; Yates, Clara M; Maskrey, Benjamin H; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Madden, Jackie; Grimble, Robert F; Calder, Philip C; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2009-08-01

    Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA), arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2) (PGD(2)) by cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3). This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2) receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2) signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not only

  2. Apoptosis and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haanen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades it has been recognized that cell death is not the consequence of accidental injury, but is the expression of a cell suicide programme. Kerr et al. (1972 introduced the term apoptosis. This form of cell death is under the influence of hormones, growth factors and cytokines, which depending upon the receptors present on the target cells, may activate a genetically controlled cell elimination process. During apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact and the cell breaks into apoptotic bodies, which are phagocytosed. Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation. Cell damage means leakage of cell contents into the adjacent tissues, resulting in the capillary transmigration of granulocytes to the injured tissue. The accumulation of neutrophils and release of enzymes and oxygen radicals enhances the inflammatory reaction. Until now there has been little research into the factors controlling the accumulation and the tissue load of granulocytes and their histotoxic products in inflammatory processes. Neutrophil apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of intlamtnation. It has been assumed that granulocytes disintegrate to apoptotic bodies before their fragments are removed by local macrophages. Removal of neutrophils from the inflammatory site without release of granule contents is of paramount importance for cessation of inflammation. In conclusion, apoptotic cell death plays an important role in inflammatory processes and in the resolution of inflammatory reactions. The facts known at present should stimulate further research into the role of neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage apoptosis in inflammatory diseases.

  3. Multiscale FEM modeling of vascular tone: from membrane currents to vessel mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapela, Adam; Tsoukias, Nikolaos Michael

    2011-12-01

    Regulation of vascular tone is a complex process that remains poorly understood. Here, we present our recent efforts for the development of physiologically realistic models of arterial segments for the analysis of vasoreactivity in health and disease. Multiscale modeling integrates intracellular and cell membrane components into whole-cell models of calcium and membrane potential dynamics. Single-cell models of vascular cells are combined into a multicellular model of the vascular wall, and vessel wall biomechanics are integrated with calcium dynamics in the smooth muscle layer. At each scale, continuum models using finite element method can account for spatial heterogeneity in calcium signaling and for nonuniform deformations of a vessel segment. The outlined approach can be used to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying altered vasoreactivity in hypertension.

  4. Safety assessment of in-vessel vapor explosion loads in next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Jong Rae; Choi, Byung Uk; Kim, Ki Yong; Lee, Kyung Jung [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea); Park, Ik Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    A safety assessment of the reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. The explosion analyses show that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform premixture bounding calculations within the conservative ranges. Strain analyses using the calculated pressure loads on the lower head inner wall show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is physically unreasonable. The static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 7,246 psia shows that the maximum equivalent strain is 4.3% at the bottom of lower head, which is less than the allowable threshold value of 11%. (author). 24 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  6. Lamin in inflammation and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Joseph R; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lamin-B in the fat body upon aging triggers systemic inflammation. This inflammatory response perturbs the local immune response of the neighboring gut tissue and leads to hyperplasia. Here, we will discuss the literature connecting lamins to aging and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In infected lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, opportunistic pathogens and mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) contribute to chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, cytokine release and ce...

  8. Role of platelets in inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Serkan Yalçın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, which is extremely useful process for humanbody is the response of living vascular tissues topathological phenomena that removes the pathogens andinitiates the healing procedure. Microorganisms, physicaltrauma, chemical, mechanical, irradiation, or thermal injury,ischemia and immune reactions are most commoncauses of this exceptionally important event for humanbody. Platelets are non-nucleated cells in blood that producedin bone marrow as derived from megakaryocytes.Apart from stop bleeding and achieving hemostasis thereare incredibly important roles of platelets in inflammation.Platelets contain important mediators for inflammationlike neutrophils or macrophages and can alter the courseof mechanism. In this article changing platelet function ininflammation and the effect of these functions to the processof inflammation will be discussed.Key words: Platelet, inflammation, cytokines

  9. Inflammation-responsive focal constrictors in the mouse ear microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnic, Dino J; Konerding, Moritz; Pratt, Juan P; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Huss, Harold T; Mentzer, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    In many capillary exchange beds, blood flow is locally regulated by precapillary sphincter-like activity. In this study, we used intravascular tracers and scanning electron microscopy to investigate precapillary blood flow regulation in the mouse ear. Gelatin ink injections of the normal mouse ear demonstrated 6.8 ± 2.3 axial vessels with a cutoff of detectable tracer in the early branches: 19 ± 11 focal constrictions were observed along the 1st to 5th order branches of the axial vessels. A perfusion tracer consisting of biotinylated anti-endothelial lectins (Ricinus Communis Agglutin, Lycopersicon Esculentum and Griffonia Simplicifolia) was circulated for 30 min under physiological conditions. Subsequent enzyme histochemistry demonstrated no significant change in distal perfusion or in the number of focal constrictions (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the focal constrictions were unresponsive to vasodilators such as organic nitrates and prostaglandin E1. By contrast, the presence of oxazolone-induced inflammation resulted in significant and sustained vasodilatation for more than 96 h (P > 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated discrete constricting bands morphologically distinct from known precapillary sphincters. These results suggest that these previously unappreciated inflammation-responsive precapillary constrictors regulate capillary recruitment in the mouse ear microcirculation. PMID:17118067

  10. A simple design for microwave assisted digestion vessel with low reagent consumption suitable for food and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Behkami, Shima; Zain, Sharifuddin Md.; Bakirdere, Sezgin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare a cost-effective, low reagent consumption and high performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessel that is capable to work in domestic microwave for digesting food and environmental samples. The designed vessel has a relatively thicker wall compared to that of commercial vessels. In this design, eight vessels are placed in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) holder to keep them safe and stable. This vessel needs only 2.0 mL of HNO3 and 1.0 mL H2O2 to digest 100 mg of biological sample. The performance of this design is then evaluated with an ICP-MS instrument in the analysis of the several NIST standard reference material of milk 1849a, rice flour 1568b, spinach leave 1570a and Peach Leaves 1547 in a domestic microwave oven with inverter technology. Outstanding agreement to (SRM) values are observed by using the suggested power to time microwave program, which simulates the reflux action occurring in this closed vessel. Taking into account the high cost of commercial microwave vessels and the volume of chemicals needed for various experiments (8-10 mL), this simple vessel is cost effective and suitable for digesting food and environmental samples.

  11. Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Hantsoo, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    KIECOLT-GLASER, J.K., J-P. Gouin, and L. Hantsoo, Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2009.- Different aspects of personal relationships including social integration, social support, and social conflict have been related to inflammation. This article summarizes evidence linking the quality and quantity of relationships with gene expression, intracellular signaling mechanisms, and inflammatory biomarkers, and highlights the biological and psychol...

  12. Lamin in inflammation and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Joseph R.; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lami...

  13. Crystalline silica-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M. Tech. The persistent presence of neutrophils is associated with a wide range of inflammatory diseases. Resolution of inflammation in these diseases is also associated with the ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages. Inflammation and apoptosis of inflammatory cells are common known features observed in the lung following exposure to crystalline silica. What is not known is how well these apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages in the presence of crystalline silica? To inves...

  14. The Gateway Reflex, which is mediated by the inflammation amplifier, directs pathogenic immune cells into the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Lavannya; Kamimura, Daisuke; Meng, Jie; Bando, Hidenori; Ogura, Hideki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Kumai, Noriko; Suzuki, Hironao; Atsumi, Toru; Arima, Yasunobu; Murakami, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    The brain-blood barrier (BBB) tightly limits immune cell migration into the central nervous system (CNS), avoiding unwanted inflammation under the normal state. However, immune cells can traverse the BBB when inflammation occurs within the CNS, suggesting a certain signal that creates a gateway that bypasses the BBB might exist. We revealed the inflammation amplifier as a mechanism of this signal, and identified dorsal vessels of the fifth lumber (L5) spinal cord as the gateway. The inflammation amplifier is driven by a simultaneous activation of NF-κB and STATs in non-immune cells, causing the production of a large amount of inflammatory chemokines to open the gateway at L5 vessels. It was found that the activation of the amplifier can be modulated by neural activation and artificially operated by electric pulses followed by establishment of new gateways, Gateway Reflex, at least in mice. Furthermore, genes required for the inflammation amplifier have been identified and are highly associated with various inflammatory diseases and disorders in the CNS. Thus, physical and/or pharmacological manipulation of the inflammation amplifier holds therapeutic value to control neuro-inflammation. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Mathematical Models and Numerical Simulations for the Blood Flow in Large Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Titus PETRILA; Balazs ALBERT

    2012-01-01

    We are proposing a non-Newtonian, Cross type rheological model for the blood flow, under the conditions of an unsteady flow regime connected with the rhythmic pumping of the blood by the heart. We admit the incompressibility and homogeneity of the blood while its flow is laminar and the exterior body forces are neglected. We take also into account the viscoelastic behavior of the vessel walls. The mathematical equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are considered in cylindrical (ax...

  16. Effect of gravitation stress and hypokinesia on blood vessels of the testicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhchenko, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were exposed to single maximum endurable stresses of cranio-caudal direction, hypokinesia for periods of one to eight weeks, and hypokinesia followed by gravitation stresses. The stresses caused dilatation of vessels, greater sinuosity, and occasional ruptures of the walls and extravasation. The greater part of the capillaries were dilated; the greatest part constricted. In hypokinesia there was an increasing atrophy of the testes. Significant results are reported.

  17. Facial ulcerations due to Acinetobacter baumannii: Vessel thrombosis with bacterial mycelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of progressive facial ulcerations that did not respond to cephalexin and topical dexamethasone. Biopsy on the ulcer showed rod-shaped bacteria and actinomycetes-like mycelia in the vessel walls and within thrombi. Tissue culture yielded Acinetobacter baumannii, which was resistant to cephalexin. A favourite outcome was achieved with minocycline treatment. This is the first case report of A. baumannii-related vasculitis.

  18. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  19. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  20. Serine protease inhibitors to treat inflammation: a patent review (2011-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Feryel; El Amri, Chahrazade

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a physiological part of the complex biological response of tissues to counteract various harmful signals. This process involves diverse actors such as immune cells, blood vessels, and nerves as sources of mediators for inflammation control. Among them serine proteases are key elements in both physiological and pathological inflammation. Areas covered: Serine protease inhibitors to treat inflammatory diseases are being actively investigated by various industrial and academic institutions. The present review covers patent literature on serine protease inhibitors for the therapy of inflammatory diseases patented between 2011 and 2016. Expert opinion: Serine proteases regulating inflammation are versatile enzymes, usually involved in proinflammatory cytokine production and activation of immune cells. Their dysregulation during inflammation can have devastating consequences, promoting various diseases including skin and lung inflammation, neuroinflammation, and inflammatory arthritis. Several serine proteases were selected for their contribution to inflammatory diseases and significant efforts that are spread to develop inhibitors. Strategies developed for inhibitor identification consist on either peptide-based inhibitor derived from endogenous protein inhibitors or small-organic molecules. It is also worth noting that among the recent patents on serine protease inhibitors related to inflammation a significant number are related to retinal vascular dysfunction and skin diseases.

  1. Emerging Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate in Inflammation, Cancer, and Lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ching; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Terracina, Krista P; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    The main function of the lymphatic system is to control and maintain fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking. In recent years, the pathological roles of lymphangiogenesis, the generation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression are beginning to be elucidated. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, mediates multiple cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and trafficking, and is now known as an important mediator of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we will discuss recent findings showing the emerging role of S1P in lymphangiogenesis, in inflammation, and in cancer.

  2. Emerging Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate in Inflammation, Cancer, and Lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Takabe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main function of the lymphatic system is to control and maintain fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking. In recent years, the pathological roles of lymphangiogenesis, the generation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression are beginning to be elucidated. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a bioactive lipid, mediates multiple cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and trafficking, and is now known as an important mediator of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we will discuss recent findings showing the emerging role of S1P in lymphangiogenesis, in inflammation, and in cancer.

  3. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  4. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  5. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  6. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  7. Effect of a soluble surfactant on a finite sized bubble motion in a blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T. N.; Mukundakrishnan, K.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed results for the motion of a finite sized gas bubble in a blood vessel. The bubble (dispersed phase) size is taken to be such as to nearly occlude the vessel. The bulk medium is treated as a shear thinning Casson fluid and contains a soluble surfactant that adsorbs and desorbs from the interface. Three different vessel sizes, corresponding to a small artery, a large arteriole, and a small arteriole, in normal humans, are considered. The hematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) has been taken to be 0.45. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is taken into account. Bubble motion cause temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. Shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are associated with a recirculation vortex at the rear of the moving bubble. The presence of the surfactant reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. Our numerical results for bubble shapes and wall shear stresses may help explain phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness. PMID:20305744

  8. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing

    2017-01-01

    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  9. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  10. Vessel classification method based on vessel behavior in the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Daamen, W.; Vellinga, T.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) data have proven to be a valuable source to investigate vessel behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several

  11. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  12. 76 FR 59660 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel Monitoring System Requirements for the Commercial Bottomfish... compliance with federal identification requirements and carry and maintain a satellite- based vessel monitoring system (VMS). This collection of information is needed for permit issuance, to identify actual or...

  13. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  14. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  15. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  16. Spontaneous Hemoperitoneum in Pregnancy from a Ruptured Superficial Uterine Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Wu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old multipara woman pregnant at gestational age 32+ weeks with twins encountered hemoperitoneum resulting from superficial uterine vessel rupture during tocolytic course. The initial presentations were unspecific and sonographic examination was negative. Later the aggravated symptoms led to an impression of abruptio placentae and emergent cesarean section was performed. A superficial venous bleeder was located on the posterior uterine wall and the internal bleeding was up to 3 L. Maternal and fetal outcome were good. Hemoperitoneum during pregnancy is rare but life-threatening to both mother and fetus, and it mimics placenta abruption in many ways. However, by careful investigations with cardiotocogram and bedside echo, they are quite distinguishable. Aggressive fluid replacement and immediate surgical intervention after rapid diagnosis provides the best prognosis.

  17. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is party to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is not party to SOLAS 74 but is party to the International Convention...

  18. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  19. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this system...

  20. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...