WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessel safety economic

  1. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel safety. 151.1512 Section... River § 151.1512 Vessel safety. Nothing in this subpart relieves the master of the responsibility for ensuring the safety and stability of the vessel or the safety of the crew and passengers, or any other...

  2. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vessel safety. 970.205 Section 970.205... safety. In order to provide a basis for the necessary determinations with respect to the safety of life... Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any...

  3. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    accidents, including basic steps in conducting cost- benefit analyses. 15 Ill. ASSUMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS This section is used to define the scope...Analysis. Alexandria: Department of Defense, 1978. Devanney, J. W., et al. "Conference Ratemaking and the West Coast of South America," Journal of Transport

  4. Nuclear power safety economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legasov, V.A.; Demin, V.F.; Shevelev, Ya.V.

    1984-01-01

    The existing conceptual and methodical basis for the decision-making process insuring safety of the nuclear power and other (industrial and non-industrial) human activities is critically analyzed. Necessity of development a generalized economic safety analysis method (GESAM) is shown. Its purpose is justifying safety measures. Problems of GESAM development are considered including the problem of costing human risk. A number of suggestions on solving them are given. Using the discounting procedure in the assessment of risk or detriment caused by harmful impact on human health is substantiated. Examples of analyzing some safety systems in the nuclear power and other spheres of human activity are given

  5. Safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.

    1994-01-01

    The failure of several types of geometrically similar cylindrical and spherical steel and glass fibers vessels filled with water or air was investigated when an explosive charge of TNT was detonated in the center. Vessels had radius 50-1000 mm, thickness of walls 2-20%. The detonation on TNT imitated energy release. The parameter: K = M/mf is a measure of the strength of the vessel where M is the mass of the vessel, and mf is the mass of TNT for which the vessel fails. This demanded 2-4 destroyed and nondestroyed shots. It may be showed that: K=A/σ f where σ f is the fracture stress of the material vessel, and A = const = F(energy TNT, characteristic of elasticity of vessel material). The chief results are the following: (1) A similar increase in the geometrical dimensions of steel vessels by a factor of 10 leads to the increase of parameter K in about 5 times and to decrease of failure deformation in 7 times (scale effect). (2) For glass fibers, scale effect is absent. (3) This problem is solved in terms of theory energetic scale effect. (4) The concept of TNT equivalent explosive makes it possible to use these investigations to evaluate the response of safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

  6. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  7. KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC SAFETY RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rakhmatulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan essentially depends on how the Republic’s transit potential is used and how internal demands in energy resources are met. There are many legal, investment, technological and other challenges with respect to these aspects. Main ways to solvethe problems are: to form potential transit development legislation conforming to respective international standards; to take specific transport infrastructure modernization measures; to simplify railway and road transport state border crossing procedures; to develop service facilitiesalong interstate trunk roads; to improve competitiveness of domestic oil-processing enterprises; to further develop integrative cooperation withRussia in the oil processing field.

  8. Safety of steel vessel Magnox pressure circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokoe, T.Y.; Bolton, C.J.; Heffer, P.J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The maintenance of pressure circuit integrity is fundamental to nuclear safety at the steel vessel Magnox stations. To confirm continued pressure circuit integrity the CEGB, as part of the Long Term Safety Review, has carried out extensive assessment and inspection in recent years. The assessment methods and inspection techniques employed are based on the most modern available. Reactor pressure vessel integrity is confirmed by a combination of arguments including safety factors inferred from the successful pre-service overpressure test, leak-before-break analysis and probabilistic assessment. In the case of other parts of the pressure circuits that are more accessible, comprising the boiler shells and interconnecting gas duct work, in-service inspection is a major element of the safety substantiation. The assessment and inspection techniques and the materials property data have been underpinned for many years by extensive research and development programmes and in-reactor monitoring of representative samples has also been undertaken. The paper summarises the work carried out to demonstrate the long term integrity of the Magnox pressure circuits and provides examples of the results obtained. (author)

  9. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Fischer, P.U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  10. 78 FR 42452 - Safety Zone; Kentucky Air National Guard Vessel for Parachute Rescue Jumpmaster Training, Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... only a few hours at a time during any 24 hour period. The majority of the training exercises will be... greatly reducing the likelihood of affecting transient recreational vessels. Additionally, the starting... Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an...

  11. Safety margins of PWR irradiated vessels - The Chooz A issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, F; Barthelet, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guilleret, J C

    1988-12-31

    In 1986, some irradiated specimen of CHOOZ A (SENA) vessel showed a significant excess of {delta} RTNDT to former previsions. The lack of data on one of the two irradiated shells, and discrepancies between dosimeters results and available previous fluence calculations whose accuracy was questionable, cause the safety authorities to require an important complementary work program before putting again the plant on the grid after 1987 fuel reloading. These works are presented and discussed. They lead to a state that a conservative to day value of the vessel RTNDT is 64 degrees Celsius and that there is no underclad defect in the vessel wall and welds. Then the plant was allowed to restart with certitude that vessel irradiation will not impair its lifetime. (author). 4 refs.

  12. Initiation and arrest - two approaches to pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Stepanek, S.

    1976-01-01

    The safety analysis is described of the reactor pressure vessel related to brittle fracture based on the fracture mechanics theory using two different approximations, i.e., the Crack Arrest Temperature (CAT) or Nil Ductility Temperature (NDT), and fracture toughness. The variation of CAT with stress was determined for different steel specimens of 120 to 200 mm in thickness. A diagram is shown of CAT variation with stress allowing the determination of crack arrest temperature for all types of commonly used steels independently of the NDT initial value. The diagram also shows that the difference between fracture transition elastic (FTE) and NDT depends on the type of material and determines the value of the ΔTsub(sigma) factor typical of the safety coefficient. The so-called fracture toughness reference value Ksub(IR) is recommended for the computation of pressure vessel criticality. Also shown is a defect analysis diagram which may be used for the calculation of pressure vessel safety prior to and during operation and which may also be used in making the decision on what crack sizes are critical, what cracks may be arrested and what cracks are likely to expand. The diagram is also important for the fact that it is material-independent and may be employed for the estimates of pre-operational and operational inspections and for pressure vessel life prediction. It is generally applicable to materials of greater thickness in the region where the validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics is guaranteed. (J.P.)

  13. Integral reactor vessel related to power reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widart, J.; Scailteur, A.

    1978-01-01

    Integral design applied to PWR pressure vessels allows to reach a high level of safety because: 1) it presents a better balance of the material in the geometry, resulting in an improved stress level (mainly faulted condition loadings); 2) location and geometry of the welds are designed in order to get a very sound pressure boundary of the upper part of the vessel; 3) the new location and geometry of the welds allow an easy ISI in such a way that ambiguity surrounding defect size or locaton is practically suppressed. (author)

  14. New approaches to food safety economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Unnevehr, L.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Food-safety economics is a new research field, which needs a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision-making process in food-safety improvement. Food safety is a theme that plays at many levels in the community: at the consumer level, at the farm or business level, at

  15. Reactor pressure vessels safety and reliability - certainty and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper, it is suggested that the hazard to the population which would result from vessel failure rate of the order of 10 -6 to 10 -7 per vessel year could be acceptable to society on the basis of other natural and man-made risks. The paper considers the problems of demonstrating safety by calculation based on fracture mechanics, and indicates some of the uncertainties, and inconsistencies in the theory, particularly the effect of cracks in locally degraded volumes of material. The phenomenon of crack arrest is considered, and attention is drawn to the uncertainties as indicated at least by some tests. There is need for speedy resolution of this problem. The uncertainties in material properties, heat treatment and residual stresses are considered, and a proposed upper limit for residual defects ('original sin') is proposed. (orig.) [de

  16. 77 FR 35271 - Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... during the launching of the NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, on June 16, 2012. This temporary safety zone is... preceding paragraph, a 30 day notice period would also be impractical. B. Basis and Purpose The NOAA vessel...

  17. Safeguarding the nuclear safety of WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels at SKODA Plzen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The approach is described of the SKODA enterprise to safety assurance and to providing the reliability of WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels. The philosophy is analyzed of in-service inspection and determination of the residual service life of pressure vessels. This follows up on the so-called conception of basic safety whose main aim is to preclude failures at production stage by the selection of suitable material, namely by optimizing the choice of raw materials, of metallurgical procedures such as will lead to high purity of the pressure vessel material, by introducing multiple inspection in production, reducing the sensitivity of materials to technological operations, and by high-quality welds. The quality of in-service inspections is given by the use of technical diagnostic instruments of peak quality and of modern methods of nondestructive materials testing. The instruments and methods used are described. It is stated that the experience gained with in-service inspection will make it possible to draw up operating regulations and safety criteria for nuclear installations and own inspection regulations, this with regard to technical and economic factors. (Z.M.)

  18. Highway Safety, Economic Behavior, and Driving Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Keeler, Theodore E.

    1991-01-01

    Economic analysis has enhanced our understanding of the efficacy of highway safety regulations. Specifically, a consumer-theoretic literature has developed on drivers' responses to regulations, based on ideas first set forth by Lester lave and W. E. Weber (1970) and more fully thought out by Sam Peltzman (1975). Meanwhile, an empirical literature has also developed, testing hypotheses relating to the effects on safety of speed limits, safety-device regulations, and alcohol policies, among oth...

  19. Balance of safety versus economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, J.A.; Acero, M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper looks at the strength of the case for improving safety over and above those safety standards which are currently accepted for the majority of current nuclear power plant, and assesses the cost premium that has to be paid for advanced designs with enhanced safety features. The risks associated with current nuclear plant have already been reduced to very low levels, and further preventative measures, whose cost would be out of proportion to the remaining risks, should be challenged. In this respect two issues need to be addressed: 'What is the premium to be paid for enhanced safety?' and 'How safety is safe enough?'. For a given reactor size, the premium for introducing enhanced safety in an 'advanced' reactor could be of the order of 20 %. For early plants in a series the premium would be significantly higher, due in part to the need to recover the FOAK costs. The recommendations of INSAG-3 would seem to be a good basis for defining 'What is Safe Enough' and improvements over and above these risk levels should be unnecessary unless they can be achieved at very low cost. It is concluded that the best of the current 'basic' designs are acceptably safe and the availability of 'advanced' designs should not preclude the future licensing of 'basic' designs, provided that they have introduced cost effective modifications which reflect the lessons learned from TMI and technological advances such as the use of micro-processors in control and protection systems. 'Advanced' designs have their place where the price level for electricity is higher, or become higher as environmental pressures (carbon tax) or scarcity of fossil fuels force up the price of electricity. In addition a utility may favour an 'advanced' design because they place value on its higher security of investment and the improved operational performance that has been introduced in developing the advanced designs. (authors)

  20. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  1. Development of Safety Review Guide for the Periodic Safety Review of Reactor Vessel Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongsoon; Ko, Hanok; Kim, Seonjae; Jhung, Myungjo

    2013-01-01

    Aging management of the reactor vessel internals (RVIs) is one of the important issues for long-term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Safety review on the assessment and management of the RVI aging is conducted through the process of a periodic safety review (PSR). The regulatory body should check that reactor facilities sustain safety functions in light of degradation due to aging and that the operator of a nuclear power reactor establishes and implements management program to deal with degradation due to aging in order to guarantee the safety functions and the safety margin as a result of PSR. KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has utilized safety review guides (SRG) which provide guidance to KINS staffs in performing safety reviews in order to assure the quality and uniformity of staff safety reviews. The KINS SRGs for the continued operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) published in 2006 contain areas of review regarding aging management of RVIs in chapter 2 (III.2.15, Appendix 2.0.1). However unlike the SRGs for the continued operation, KINS has not officially published the SRGs for the PSR of PWRs, but published them as a form of the research report. In addition to that, the report provides almost same review procedures for aging assessment and management of RVIs with the ones provided in the SRGs for the continued operation, it cannot provide review guidance specific to PSRs. Therefore, a PSR safety review guide should be developed for RVIs in PWRs. In this study, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals in PWRs is developed and provided. In this paper, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals (PSR SRG-RVIs) in PWRs is introduced and main contents of the draft are provided. However, since the PSR safety review guides for areas other than RVIs in the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are expected to be developed in the near future, the draft PSR SRG-RVIs should be revisited to be compatible with

  2. Safety Domain Measurement for Vessels in an Overtaking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Zhi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine traffic engineering has been pushed to the limits due to a rising demand in the shipping business. Merchant ships are growing dramatically, both in numbers and in size. To keep pace with current developments, automation seems to be one viable option when it comes to keeping ships running with fewer seafarers available. The aim of this paper is to monitor a modern day mariners’ performance while working in a tense situation. The objective is to define the size of the safety domain whilst overtaking a vessel. The approach was to assess the ship's domain area within a 3 nm wide traffic separation scheme by using a ship handling simulator. From the simulation results, an overtaking domain was determined as 1.36 nm long and 0.4 nm wide. Safety domains in real-life situations were experienced on a much smaller scale compared to the previous findings. The working load for this particular operation is expected to be stressful and highly skilled orientated.

  3. Nuclear power - economics and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    The market for steam coal is largely related to its use in electricity production and here it has to compete with hydrocarbon fuels, renewable sources and nuclear power. The criteria for fuel choice by utilities are partly economic, partly environmental, partly questions of convenience and fuel supply diversity, and partly a reaction to public and political pressures. The relative importance attached to these factors and even perceptions of the factors themselves differ from country to country and utility to utility so that there is no universal consensus on the ''right balance'' of alternative means of generation. Some countries like France and Belgium are heavily committed to nuclear power while others like Australia are committed to coal. Most have no overwhelming commitment to any one source and operate a mixture of plants, although some like Sweden and Austria have decided either to phase out or not to operate nuclear plants. The net result is that there are now some 400 nuclear reactors in operation in 26 countries with over 200 under construction or planned. However, nuclear power's future prospects were not helped by the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Coal has also suffered over concerns about gaseous emissions, acid rain and the effects of mining operations. Nuclear critics worry about the disposal of radioactive wastes whilst critics of coal use (and fossil/wood-fuel) worry about global climatic effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This paper looks at some of the facts about nuclear power and its future prospects and how they are likely to affect coal demand. It is concluded that coal does not face an easy future. (author)

  4. 78 FR 76751 - Safety Zone; Vessel Launch; Menominee River; Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Vessel Launch; Menominee River; Marinette, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Menominee River in Marinette, Wisconsin. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Menominee...

  5. 77 FR 60042 - Safety Zone; Research Vessel SIKULIAQ Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Menominee River in Marinette Wisconsin. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Menominee River during the launching of the Research vessel SIKULIAQ, on October 13th, 2012. This temporary safety...

  6. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  7. 76 FR 27897 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0342] Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River... will enforce the security and safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1318 for large passenger vessels operating in...

  8. Safety of nuclear pressure vessels and its regulatory aspects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Torquat, G; Queniart, D; Barrachin, B; Roche, R

    1979-01-01

    Having outlined the basic French regulations governing the safety of both pressure vessels and also of nuclear installations in general the particular safety regulations covering prestressed concrete vessels for nuclear reactors are considered. The regulations now being prepared to cover heat transfer systems of water reactors are detailed under sections headed; general provisions, sizing, and construction.

  9. Safety and economic study of special trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, W.V.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is being conducted of the safety and economics of special (35 mph and less) and regular trains for shipment of spent fuels. The approach, pertinent considerations, and results to date are discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that special train requirements have potential for only a small reduction in the accident likelihood, while increasing the cost

  10. Demarcation of inland vessels' limit off Mormugao port region, India: A pilot study for the safety of inland vessels using wave modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.; AshokKumar, A.

    The Ministry of Shipping desires to revise the inland vessels' limit (IVL) notification based on scientific rationale to improve the safety of vessels and onboard personnel. The Mormugao port region extending up to the Panaji was considered...

  11. 76 FR 16611 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Surveys of Vessel Owners, Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... community well-being, fishing practices, job satisfaction, job opportunities, and attitudes toward fisheries... fishing industry. Under this survey, the SSB intends to collect socio-economic data from vessel owners...

  12. Preliminary Performance Analysis Program Development for Safety System with Safeguard Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Jun; Park, Cheon-Tae; Yoon, Ju-Hyeon; Park, Keun-Bae

    2007-01-01

    SMART is an advanced modular integral type pressurized water reactor for a seawater desalination and an electricity production. Major components of the reactor coolant system such as the pressurizer, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP), and steam generators are located inside the reactor vessel. The SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and better accommodate and thus enhance a resistance to a wide range of transients and accidents. The safety goals of the SMART are enhanced through highly reliable safety systems such as the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) and the safeguard vessel coupled with the passive safety injection feature. The safeguard vessel is a steel-made, leak-tight pressure vessel housing the RPV, SIT, and the associated valves and pipelines. A primary function of the safeguard vessel is to confine any radioactive release from the primary circuit within the vessel under DBAs related to loss of the integrity of the primary system. A preliminary performance analysis program for a safety system using the safeguard vessel is developed in this study. The developed program is composed of several subroutines for the reactor coolant system, passive safety injection system, safeguard vessel including the pressure suppression pool, and PRHRS. A small break loss of coolant accident at the upper part of a reactor is analyzed and the results are discussed

  13. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  14. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... waters of the Oakland Estuary just north of the Park Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project on November 4, 2013 through November 22, 2013. This...

  15. Running Safety of Trains under Vessel-Bridge Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the sensor placement of the health monitoring system, the dynamic behavior of the train-bridge system subjected to vessel-collision should be studied in detail firstly. This study thus focuses on the characteristics of a train-bridge system under vessel-bridge collision. The process of the vessel-bridge collision is simulated numerically with a reliable finite element model (FEM. The dynamic responses of a single car and a train crossing a cable-stayed bridge are calculated. It is shown that the collision causes significant increase of the train’s lateral acceleration, lateral wheelset force, wheel unloading rate, and derailment coefficient. The effect of the collision on the train’s vertical acceleration is much smaller. In addition, parametric studies with various train’s positions, ship tonnage, and train speed are performed. If the train is closer to the vessel-bridge collision position or the ship tonnage is larger, the train will be more dangerous. There is a relatively high probability of running danger at a low speed, resulting from longer stay of the train on the bridge. The train’s position, the ship tonnage, and the train speed must be considered when determining the most adverse conditions for the trains running on bridges under vessel-bridge collision.

  16. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  17. Formation of maintenance economic safety enterprise system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the issues of economic security. The operation of enterprises is being implemented in a volatile market environment, which requires a comprehensive assessment of not only the individual factors affecting the operation of the enterprise, but also encourages the need to develop a comprehensive system for the enterprise to ensure economic security. The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical and methodological approaches to assessing and ensuring the economic security of the enterprise, the development of a mechanism to ensure the economic security of the enterprise. Measures to ensure the safety of personnel suggest preventive work with the personnel, training personnel of the security services division, formation of personnel reserve of security personnel, the organization of work with new employees, reducing staff turnover. Preventive measures to minimize include activities not directly related to the activities of security units, but to minimize losses of commercial enterprise in the course of maintenance operations: control of inventories; control document; scheduled and unscheduled inspections during the reception of the goods; selection and organization of the movement control risk goods. Development of guidelines and regulations involves the planning of a clear legal regulation of all processes for the operation of commercial facility, potentially dangerous from the point of view of any commercial activity or threats to the security risks. The success of the activities is largely determined by the speed and accuracy of enterprise responses to emerging threats, where a key determinant of the effectiveness of business, is to create a system to ensure the economic security of the enterprise.

  18. 77 FR 37600 - Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... are underway in the Puget Sound Captain of the Port Zone. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the... Ensign Anthony P. LaBoy, Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Puget Sound; Coast Guard...

  19. 76 FR 31350 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0357] Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of request for comments... Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard detection...

  20. ENTREPRENEURSHIP ECONOMIC SAFETY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SECURITY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Goudkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful functioning of the industry that provides for safety of organizations and physical entities exercises strategic impacts on development of society and economics of any state including Russia. Economic safety of Russia is directly linked with economic and information safety of itsbusiness structures. Extension of the scope and use of services offered by experienced state and private security enterprises including licensed individuals is one of most important directions of business safety perfection. Further improvement of Russian legislation on non-governmentalsecurity structures and coordination of their activities with those of state law enforcement bodies is obligatory condition of attaining higherpublic and economic safety levels.

  1. MARS vessel safety analysis. LATA report No. 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigdon, L.D.; Donham, B.J.; Hughes, P.S.

    1979-08-01

    A previous study was performed to assess the hazards associated with an accidental leakage of cooling water into the crucible of molten 238 U for the MARS laser isotope separation experiment. Since that study found that the probability of such an explosion is extremely low during an accidental cooling system failure, a study was conducted to define a more realistic design basis accident (DBA) for the final MARS configuration. If the vapor-phase explosion is considered to be a significant threat, the design criteria for the vacuum vessel should be a working pressure of 67 psig or 101 psig momentary single pulse equivalent static pressure

  2. An assessment of the economic consequences of thermal annealing of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesbach, T.J.; Server, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a thermal heat treatment to recover mechanical properties which were degraded by neutron radiation exposure is a potential method for assuring reactor pressure vessel licensing life and possible license renewal. 'Wet anneals' at temperatures less than 343degC have been conducted on test reactors in Alaska (SM-1A) and Belgium (BR3). The Soviets have also performed 'dry anneals' at higher temperatures near or above 450degC on several commercial reactor vessels. Technical and economic uncertainties have made utilities in the United States reluctant to seriously consider thermal annealing of large commercial reactor vessels except as a last resort option. However, as a utility begins to experience significant radiation embrittlement or considers extending the operating license life of the vessel, thermal annealing can be a viable option depending upon many considerations. These considerations include other possible remedial measures that can be taken (i.e., flux reduction), economic issues with regard to utility finances, and corporate philosophy. A decision analysis model has been developed to analyze the thermal anneal option in comparison to other alternatives for a number of possible combinations and timing. The results for a postulated vessel and embrittlement condition are presented to show that thermal annealing can be a viable management option which should be taken seriously. (author)

  3. The economic speed of an oceangoing vessel in a dynamic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magirou, Evangelos F.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Bouritas, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    destination combinations, a dynamic programming formulation can be applied to determine both the optimal speed and the optimal voyage sequence. Analogous results are derived for random freight rates of known distributions. In the case of independent rates the economic speed depends on fuel price...... and the expected freight rate, but is independent of the revenue of the particular voyage. For freight rates that depend on a state of the market Markovian random variable, economic speed depends on the market state as well, with increased speed corresponding to good states of the market. The dynamic programming......The optimal (economic) speed of oceangoing vessels has become of increased importance due to the combined effect of low freight rates and volatile bunker prices. We examine the problem for vessels operating in the spot market in a tramp mode. In the case of known freight rates between origin...

  4. Probabilistic Assessment of the Design and Safety of HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.M. Dolin

    2003-03-03

    This probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of the HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel used for a DynEx test involved the probability of failure for several scenarios, in which a fragment may penetrate the vessel. The samples involve vessel thicknesses of 1 inch, 2 inches, and 5.25 inches--the combined thicknesses of the 2 inch containment vessel and the 3.25 inch safety vessel. Two simulation approaches were used for each scenario to assess the probability of failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence method simultaneously models all likely fragment events of a test, for which the net probability of failure is the sum of all the fragment events. The Stochastic Sampling method determines the probability of a fragment perforation on the basis of a logical model and takes the overall probability that an experiment results in failure as the maximum probability for any fragment event. With margin and safety assessments taken into account, it was concluded that the one and two inch thicknesses by themselves are inadequate for containing a DynEx test. The 5.25 inch thickness was determined to be safe by the Likelihood of Occurrence method and nearly adequate by the Stochastic Sampling simulation.

  5. Test of safety injection supply by diesel generator under reactor vessel closed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Bi Fengchuan; Che Junxia; Zhang Jianwen; Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied that the test of diesel generator full load take-up under the condition of actual safety injection and reactor vessel closed in Ningde nuclear project unit l. It is proved that test result accorded with design criteria, meanwhile, the test was removed from the key path of project schedule, which cut a huge cost. (authors)

  6. 75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... which Chapter 45 of Title 46, U.S.C. applies and persons representing the marine insurance industry... Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Industry...

  7. 78 FR 33224 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in...

  8. 78 FR 57261 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, the United...

  9. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking and Limit State II (concrete crushing when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  10. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  11. Device for removing hydrogen gas from the safety containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The safe processing of all concentrations of gas mixtures should be possible with such a device using a thermal recombiner of compact construction. A recombiner consisting of a metal case and diverter sheets situated in it is heated by induction. The incoming pipe for the gas mixture enriched with hydrogen and the outgoing pipe for the gas mixture with low hydrogen content are connected together by a three way valve. The third connection to the safety valve takes the larger port of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content back to the safety containment vessel. Sufficient amount of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content is taken via the three way valve to the safety containment vessel to ensure that the hydrogen content of the gas mixture taken to the recombiner remains below the 4% by volume limit. (orig./PW)

  12. Safety of light-water reactor pressure vessels against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are surveyed of research by SKODA Trust into brittle failure resistance of materials for WWER type reactor pressure vessels and into pressure vessel operating safety. Conditions are discussed in detail decisive for initiation, propagation and arrest of brittle fracture. The tests on the Cr-Mo-V type steel showed high resistance of the steel to the formation and the propagation of brittle fracture. They also confirmed the high operating reliability and the required service life of the steel. (B.S.)

  13. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  14. Health economics of blood transfusion safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, Marinus van

    2008-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS disaster in transfusion medicine shaped the future agendas for blood transfusion safety. More than ever before, the implementation of interventions which could improve blood transfusion safety was driven merely by availability of technology. The introduction of new expensive

  15. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Erik Vinnem, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?

  16. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  17. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  18. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J. D. [Bonnard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseil, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1981-01-15

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed.

  19. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed

  20. Ensuring the nuclear safety of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessels in Skoda, Concern Enterprise, Plzen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of routine inspections are described of reactor pressure vessels with the aim of identifying residual lifetime and overall safety. The inspection programme includes: choice of systems and instruments, type of tests, test frequency, safety criteria, measures to be taken in case of unsatisfactory results, documentation. The criteria are given for periodical inspections and requirements listed for instruments and equipment. The main three groups of tests are: visual inspection and dimension tests, surface inspection and volumetric inspection. Briefly described is some of the equipment used. (M.D.)

  1. Economic evaluation of safety measures for transport companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Rienstra, Sytze A.

    1998-01-01

    Measures to reduce material damage within companies may both increase the business economic performance of the company and traffic safety in general. In this paper the notion of whether such measures are economically feasible is investigated. Results are presented of a series of interviews

  2. 78 FR 55230 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...\\ including the regulation of workplace safety and health.\\2\\ The Coast Guard's regulatory authority extends... 147 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0779] RIN 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements... a vessel-specific Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) that incorporates the management...

  3. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within a 500-yard radius of any Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vessel while it is moored at the LPG... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; LPG... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth...

  4. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing

    2017-01-01

    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  5. Economic Techniques of Occupational Health and Safety Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Beregovaya, Irina B.; Khanzhina, Olga A.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the issues on economic techniques of occupational health and safety management. Authors’ definition of safety management is given. It is represented as a task-oriented process to identify, establish and maintain such a state of work environment in which there are no possible effects of hazardous and harmful factors, or their influence does not go beyond certain limits. It was noted that management techniques that are the part of the control mechanism, are divided into administrative, organizational and administrative, social and psychological and economic. The economic management techniques are proposed to be classified depending on the management subject, management object, in relation to an enterprise environment, depending on a control action. Technoeconomic study, feasibility study, planning, financial incentives, preferential crediting of enterprises, pricing, profit sharing and equity, preferential tax treatment for enterprises, economic regulations and standards setting have been distinguished as economic techniques.

  6. Economic feasibility of a novel energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation to reduce energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, G. Uday Bhaskar; Aditya, R.; Jana, Amiya K.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the highly irreversible operation of batch distillation involves more wastage of energy compared to continuous flow distillation. For boosting its energy efficiency, the middle vessel batch distillation (MVBD) column has been invented. In this paper, a rigorous model for an MVBD process for the separation of a ternary hydrocarbon system is developed to simulate its transient behavior. In order to obtain the products at their maximum achievable purities, we device the two operating policies for the representative configuration. This contribution introduces a heat pumping system in the MVBD aiming to further improve its energetic and economic potentials. This novel heat integration technique is operated with a variable speed compressor for pressurizing the overhead vapor before thermally coupling it with the reboiler liquid. Interestingly, along with the compression ratio (CR), the other two manipulated variables are the inflow rate of overhead vapor to the compressor and that of an external medium (here, steam) that provides makeup heat to the reboiler. The operation of this adaptive heat pump assisted column originally involves the simultaneous adaptation of two variables throughout the entire batch processing. The simulation results show that a cost savings predicted in the heat integrated MVBD scheme can be achieved along with a substantial reduction in energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► The two operating policies have been derived for middle vessel batch distillation operation. ► This contribution introduces an adaptive heat pumping system for the middle vessel column. ► The heat integrated column shows better energetic and economic potentials over its conventional counterpart.

  7. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  8. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume V. Reactor vessel and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) will serve as the primary pressure retaining structure for the Safety Research Experiment Facility (SAREF) reactor. The reactor core, control rod drive room, primary heat exchangers, and gas circulators will be located in cavities within the PCRV. The orientation of these cavities, except for the control rod drive room, will be similar to the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs that are currently proposed or under design. Due to the nature of this type of structure, all biological and radiological shielding requirements are incorporated into the basic vessel design. At the midcore plane there are three radially oriented slots that will extend from the outside surface of the PCRV to the reactor core liner. These slots will accommodate each of the fuel motion monitoring systems which will be part of the observation apparatus used with the loop experiments

  9. Safety assessment of in-vessel vapor explosion loads in next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Jong Rae; Choi, Byung Uk; Kim, Ki Yong; Lee, Kyung Jung [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea); Park, Ik Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    A safety assessment of the reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. The explosion analyses show that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform premixture bounding calculations within the conservative ranges. Strain analyses using the calculated pressure loads on the lower head inner wall show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is physically unreasonable. The static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 7,246 psia shows that the maximum equivalent strain is 4.3% at the bottom of lower head, which is less than the allowable threshold value of 11%. (author). 24 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Safety of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Yamanaka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Inherent safety of a reactor may be quantified by the grace period at various safety levels such as maintenance of fuel integrity, maintenance of fuel coolability and avoidance of core-melt. It is important to find out the grace period especially at the safety level of maintenance of fuel integrity. It has been conducted to design the ISER, which is characterized by the steel-made reactor pressure vessel. In addition to the passive nature of the safety design of the reactor itself, the ISER is equipped in the secondary system with a subsystem called the passive safety and shutdown system (PSSS), which will help to increase the grace period. It was found by the null transient analysis that check valves are needed at the top hot/cold interface. The analysis of the station blackout, which is one of the severest accident conceivable for the ISER, was made to examine inherent safety of the ISER with and without the PSSS. This paper reports that found out that the PSSS enhances inherent safety of the ISER

  11. Safety of the pressure vessels of water reactors. Prevention of sudden failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.; Barrachin, B.

    1975-01-01

    From the safety view point the primary circuit is considered as the essential barrier against the diffusion of radioactive products in the event of fuel element failure. The safety of the vessel itself, the failure of which is not accounted for in accident analyses, is based chiefly on a series of preventive measures such as the suitable choice of materials and manufacturing process, compliances with detailed specifications concerning tests and defect tolerances, supervision in service. All these points are examined in detail when the safety analysis is performed. In this context the Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees assists the Department de Surete Nucleaire in the study of special problems such as the prevention of sudden failure and the characterisation of steels as a function of working conditions, particularly neutron irradiation. The report is thus devoted mainly to the presentation of methods to prevent sudden failure, with special emphasis on the limits of application. Some results obtained at the Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees on steels typical of those used for water reactor vessels (A533 and A508Cl.3) are given by way of example. Part two concentrates on the role of various factors influencing embrittlement by irradiation [fr

  12. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  13. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  14. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report.

  15. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin; Park, Jae Hong

    2001-03-01

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report

  16. Relocation work of temporary thermocouples for measuring the vessel cooling system in the safety demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Yanagi, Shunki; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to confirm that the temperature of water cooling panel of the vessel cooling system (VCS) is controlled under the allowable working temperature during the safety demonstration test because the water cooling panel temperature rises due to stop of cooling water circulation pumps. Therefore, several temporary thermocouples are relocated to the water cooling panel near the stabilizers of RPV and the side cooling panel outlet ring header of VCS in order to observe the temperature change of VCS. The relocated thermocouples can measure the temperature change with starting of the cooling water circulation pumps of VCS. So it is confirmed that the relocated thermocouples can observe the VCS temperature change in the safety demonstration test. (author)

  17. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarov, Valentin G.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented

  18. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The NPP component addressed in the present publication is the PWR pressure vessel

  19. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  20. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA704 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... apportionment of the 2011 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species...

  1. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ06 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... of the 2010 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species fishery...

  2. Analyses for passive safety of fusion reactor during ex-vessel loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Maki, Koichi; Uda, Tatuhiko; Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1995-01-01

    Passive safety of nuclear fusion reactors during ex-vessel Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in the divertor cooling system has been investigated using a hybrid code, which can treat the interaction of the plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs). The code has been modified to include the impurity emission from PFCs with a diffusion model at the edge plasma. We assumed an ex-vessel LOCA of the divertor cooling system during the ignited operation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which a carbon-copper brazed divertor plate was employed in the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). When a double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the impurity density in the main plasma becomes about twice within 2s after the LOCA due to radiation enhanced sublimation of graphite PFCs. The copper cooling tube of the divertor begins to melt at about 3s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at about 4s due to the impurity accumulation. It is necessary to apply other PFC materials, which can shorten the time period for passive shutdown, or an active shutdown system to keep the reactor structures intact for such rapid transient accident. (author)

  3. Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material in evaluation of the safety analysis report of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widia Lastana Istanto

    2011-01-01

    Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material that must be met by applicants for nuclear power plants construction permit has been investigated in this paper. The fracture toughness should be described in the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) document that will be evaluated by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Because BAPETEN does not have a regulations or standards/codes regarding the material used for the reactor vessel, especially in the fracture toughness requirements, then the acceptance criteria that applied to evaluate the fracture toughness of reactor vessel material refers to the regulations/provisions from the countries that have been experienced in the operation of nuclear power plants, such as from the United States, Japan and Korea. Regulations and standards used are 10 CFR Part 50, ASME and ASTM. Fracture toughness of reactor vessel materials are evaluated to ensure compliance of the requirements and provisions of the Regulatory Body and the applicable standards, such as ASME or ASTM, in order to assure a reliability and integrity of the reactor vessels as well as providing an adequate safety margin during the operation, testing, maintenance, and postulated accident conditions over the reactor vessel lifetime. (author)

  4. Application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to reactor pressure vessel safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.; Pitner, P.

    1995-06-01

    Among all the components of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plant, the reactor vessel is of major importance for safety. The integrity of this structure must be guaranteed in all circumstances, even in the case of the most severe accidents, and its mechanical state can be decisive for the lifetime of the plant. The brittle rupture would be the most important of all potential hazards if the irradiation effects were not consistent with predictions. The interest of having a reliable and precise method of evaluating the available safety margins and the integrity of this component led Electricite de France (EDF) to carry out a probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. The probabilistic model developed by integration of the uncertainties in the usual fracture mechanics equations is presented. A special focus is made on the problem of coupling thermo-mechanical finite element calculations and reliability analysis. The use of a finite element code can be associated with prohibitive computation times when it is invoked numerous times during simulations sequences or complex iterative procedures. The response surface method is used. It provides an approximation of the response from a reduced number of original data. The global approach is illustrated on an example corresponding to a specific accidental transient. A validation of the obtained results is also carried out through the comparison with an equivalent model without coupling. (author)

  5. Assessment of the Zaporizhya NPP unit 1 reactor pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, V.; Popov, V.; Zaritsky, N.

    1997-01-01

    This emergency situation had occurred at the ZNPP unit 1 while its being under ''hot shutdown'' in natural coolant circulation mode. The main difference between emergency situation and mode with improper setting of PPPD described in the ''Technical Safety Substantiation (TSS) is that this mode is being considered in the TSS under rated power of reactor with main circulation pumps (MCP) under operation. This difference is a substantial one. For this reason a necessity appeared to asses an integrity of referred reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under given emergency situation to judge whether results obtained meet the ND requirements (safety assessment). Under operation such RPV elements are being mostly affected as upper cooling, lower cowling, weld No. 3 weld No. 4 situated in front of core. These elements materials ageing process is the most intense one. Thus, this work was aimed at investigation of structure material behavior and RPV integrity assessment under thermal shock conditions while PPPD improper setting. At that time the most attention was drawn to above mentioned upper and lower cowlings along with welds No. 3 and 4. 5 refs, figs, 10 tabs

  6. Efficiency and safety of bipolar vessel and tissue sealing in visceral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhaus, Marcus; Schaefer, Nico; Walgenbach, Klaus; Hirner, Andreas; Szyrach, Mara Natascha; Tolba, René Hany

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency and safety of the bipolar tissue/vessel sealing and cutting device EnSeal(™) in comparison to the conventional clamp and ligation technique in visceral surgery. In an acute animal model, a part of the small bowel, a part of the colon and the kidneys were resected either with the conventional clamp and ligation technique or with EnSeal(™). Operation time, blood loss and blood parameters as well as the lateral thermal spread were evaluated. Small bowel, colon and kidney resection time with the EnSeal(™) device was shorter compared to the conventional clamp and ligation technique (small bowel: EnSeal(™): 4.7 ± 1.0 min vs. con: 35.1 ± 2.3 min; colon: EnSeal(™): 7.0 ± 1.4 min vs. con: 16.3 ± 1.5 min, kidney: EnSeal(™): 5.7 ± 1.3 min vs. con: 16.7 ± 3.7 min, p surgery with EnSeal(™) can be performed more efficiently in a shorter time, with significantly less blood loss, minimal thermal damage and without changes of blood parameters, indicating biological safety and integrity.

  7. Assessment of the Zaporizhya NPP unit 1 reactor pressure vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, V; Popov, V; Zaritsky, N [State Scientific and Technical Centre on Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRS), Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    This emergency situation had occurred at the ZNPP unit 1 while its being under ``hot shutdown`` in natural coolant circulation mode. The main difference between emergency situation and mode with improper setting of PPPD described in the ``Technical Safety Substantiation (TSS) is that this mode is being considered in the TSS under rated power of reactor with main circulation pumps (MCP) under operation. This difference is a substantial one. For this reason a necessity appeared to asses an integrity of referred reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under given emergency situation to judge whether results obtained meet the ND requirements (safety assessment). Under operation such RPV elements are being mostly affected as upper cooling, lower cowling, weld No. 3 weld No. 4 situated in front of core. These elements materials ageing process is the most intense one. Thus, this work was aimed at investigation of structure material behavior and RPV integrity assessment under thermal shock conditions while PPPD improper setting. At that time the most attention was drawn to above mentioned upper and lower cowlings along with welds No. 3 and 4. 5 refs, figs, 10 tabs.

  8. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of the Port Zone 165.1318 Section 165.1318 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND...

  10. Safety and economic impacts of photo radar program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Unsafe speed is one of the major traffic safety challenges facing motorized nations. In 2003, unsafe speed contributed to 31 percent of all fatal collisions, causing a loss of 13,380 lives in the United States alone. The economic impact of speeding is tremendous. According to NHTSA, the cost of unsafe speed related collisions to the American society exceeds 40 billion US dollars per year. In response, automated photo radar speed enforcement programs have been implemented in many countries. This study assesses the economic impacts of a large-scale photo radar program in British Columbia. The knowledge generated from this study could inform policy makers and project managers in making informed decisions with regard to this highly effective and efficient, yet very controversial program. This study establishes speed and safety effects of photo radar programs by summarizing two physical impact investigations in British Columbia. It then conducts a cost-benefit analysis to assess the program's economic impacts. The cost-benefit analysis takes into account both societal and funding agency's perspectives. It includes a comprehensive account of major impacts. It uses willingness to pay principle to value human lives saved and injuries avoided. It incorporates an extended sensitivity analysis to quantify the robustness of base case conclusions. The study reveals an annual net benefit of approximately 114 million in year 2001 Canadian dollars to British Columbians. The study also finds a net annual saving of over 38 million Canadian dollars for the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) that funded the program. These results are robust under almost all alternative scenarios tested. The only circumstance under which the net benefit of the program turns negative is when the real safety effects were one standard deviation below the estimated values, which is possible but highly unlikely. Automated photo radar traffic safety enforcement can be an effective and efficient

  11. Safety consideration and economic advantage of a new underground nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Ching, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of an underground nuclear power plant is proposed to make undergrounding of nuclear reactors not only environmentally desirable but also economically feasible. Expedient to the underground environment, this design capitalizes on the pressure-containing and radiation filtering characteristics of the new underground boundary conditions. Design emphasis is on the containment of a catastrophic accident - that of a reactor vessel rupture caused by external means. The High Capacity Rapid Energy Dissipation Underground Containment (HiC-REDUCE) system which efficiently contains loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and small break conditions is described. The end product is a radiation-release-proof plant which, in effect, divorces the public from the safety of the reactor. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of radiation damage on operating safety of steel pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.; Havel, S.; Stoces, B.; Brumovsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects are assessed of the environment upon mechanical properties of steel used generally for pressure vessels of light water nuclear reactors. Changes caused by radiation affect the reliability of vessels. Deterioration of steel properties is mainly due to neutron radiation. The article deals with factors bearing upon damage and with methods allowing to evaluate the reliability of vessels and predict their service life. Operating reliability of vessels is very unfavourably affected by planned and accidental reactor transients. (author)

  13. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  14. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  15. Proximal Occlusion of Medium-Sized Vessels with the Penumbra Occlusion Device: A Study of Safety and Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, E.; Petitpierre, F. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Brizzi, V.; Dubuisson, V. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Surgery (France); Bras, Y. Le; Grenier, N.; Cornelis, F., E-mail: cornelisfrancois@gmail.com [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively investigate the safety and efficacy of hybrid proximal coiling of various medium-sized vessels (4 to 8 mm) using the Penumbra Occlusion Device (POD).Materials and MethodsFrom October 2014 to February 2016, 37 proximal embolizations were performed with PODs in 36 patients (mean age: 50.8, range: 10–86; 29 male, 7 female). Vessel occlusions were achieved under fluoroscopic guidance using a 2.7 French microcatheter. Among the 36 vessels targeted, 16 were splenic arteries, 11 renal arteries, 4 mesenteric arteries, 3 arteriovenous fistulae, 1 iliac artery, and 1 gonadal vein. Intermittent follow-up angiography was performed to assess the flow for final occlusion. Outcomes and complications were assessed by clinical and/or imaging follow-up.ResultsTo produce proximal occlusion of the intended vessels, the POD was used alone in 19 embolizations (51.4 %). In 12 procedures (32.4 %), POD was used as a coil constrainer to secure the coil construct. In 6 procedures (16.2 %), additional embolic devices were used to achieve vessel occlusion after initial POD deployment. After a mean follow-up of 3.2 months, no POD migration was observed but two complications occurred (5.4 %): one post embolic syndrome and one extensive infarction with splenic abscess.ConclusionThe POD system allows safe and effective proximal embolization of medium-sized vessels in a variety of clinical settings.

  16. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Safety margin evaluation of pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment vessel model with BARC code ULCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.M.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results and for prediction of safety margins of Indian PHWRs. The present paper highlights the analysis results for prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a round robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd = design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd

  18. Economic evaluation of occupational safety preventive measures in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Delfina G; Arezes, Pedro M; Afonso, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    When an organization performs an integrated analysis of risks through its Occupational Health and Safety Management System, several steps are suggested to address the implications of the identified risks. Namely, the organization should make a detailed analysis of the monetary impact for the organization of each of the preventive measures considered. However, it is also important to perform an analysis of the impact of each measure on society (externalities). The aim of this paper is to present a case study related to the application of the proposed economic evaluation methodology. An analysis of the work accidents in a hospital has been made. Three of the major types of accidents have been selected: needle stings, falls and excessive strain. Following the risk assessment, some preventive measures have been designed. Subsequently, the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C) of these measures has been calculated, both in financial terms (from the organization's perspective) and in economic terms (including the benefits for the worker and for the Society). While the financial ratio is only advantageous in some cases, when the externalities are taken into account, the B/C ratio increases significantly. It is important to consider external benefits to make decisions concerning the implementation of preventive measures in Occupational Health and Safety projects.

  19. Socio-economic Survey of Commercial Fishing Vessel Owners in the Northeast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's Social Sciences Branch (SSB) conducted a survey of vessel owners participating in commercial fisheries in the New England...

  20. Economic, safety and environmental prospects of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R W; Holdren, J P; Sharafat, S [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research; and others

    1990-09-01

    Controlled fusion energy is one of the long term, non-fossil energy sources available to mankind. It has the potential of significant advantages over fission nuclear power in that the consequences of severe accidents are predicted to be less and the radioactive waste burden is calculated to be smaller. Fusion can be an important ingredient in the future world energy mix as a hedge against environmental, supply or political difficulties connected with the use of fossil fuel and present-day nuclear power. Progress in fusion reactor technology and design is described for both magnetic and inertial fusion energy systems. The projected economic prospects show that fusion will be capital intensive, and the historical trend is towards greater mass utilization efficiency and more competitive costs. Recent studies emphasizing safety and environmental advantages show that the competitive potential of fusion can be further enhanced by specific choices of materials and design. The safety and environmental prospects of fusion appear to exceed substantially those of advanced fission and coal. Clearly, a significant and directed technology effort is necessary to achieve these advantages. Typical parameters have been established for magnetic fusion energy reactors, and a tokamak at moderately high magnetic field (about 7 T on axis) in the first regime of MHD stability ({beta} {le} 3.5 I/aB) is closest to present experimental achievement. Further improvements of the economic and technological performance of the tokamak are possible. In addition, alternative, non-tokamak magnetic fusion approaches may offer substantive economic and operational benefits, although at present these concepts must be projected from a less developed physics base. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Sailing Vessel Routing Considering Safety Zone and Penalty Time for Altering Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zyczkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce new model for simulation sea vessel routing. Besides a vessel types (polar diagram and weather forecast, travel security and the number of maneuvers are considered. Based on these data both the minimal travelling costs and the minimal processing time are found for different vessels and different routes. To test our model the applications SailingAssistance wad improved. The obtained results shows that we can obtain quite acceptable results.

  2. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-03-15

    Cooling methodologies for the molten corium resulted from the severe accident of the Nuclear Power Plant is suggested as one of most important items for the safety of the NPP. In this regard, considerable experimental and analytical works have been devoted. In the second phase of this project, current status of research about corium-concrete interaction and corium coolability which can occur on the reactor cavity has been surveyed, and the researches about lower head failure mechanism have also been surveyed. And, severe accident analysis for Ulchin 3 and 4 has been conducted, and collapse load of lower head has been analyzed through structural analysis considering various heat transfer conditions. The results of accident analysis can be used as a basic input for structural analysis which will be conducted in 3rd phase of this study.

  3. AIRLINE COMPANIES ECONOMIC SAFETY FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES WITHIN THE SYSTEM OF NATIONAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Bezzubov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: an analysis of existing threats, dangers and challenges to aviation enterprises in today's conditions and formulating the basic foundations for the development of methods for ensuring the economic security of aviation enterprises. Determination of the place and role of economic security of aviation enterprises in the national security system. Research methods: Using the comparative method of scientific knowledge, the main threats in the activity of aviation enterprises have been identified and the main provisions for increasing the level of economic stability and transport safety of aviation enterprises have been identified through the use of a formal legal and imperative method. Results: The problem of economic security of aviation enterprises is determined through the teaching of administrative, air, space law and the application of the findings of the science of economics and management. Each of the sciences forms an interdisciplinary approach to the issue of economic security of aviation enterprises in the national security system. In the modern economic system, the problem of the economic security of aviation enterprises is formed through the prism of the state's activities and the possibilities for interference in the activities of economic entities in the aviation sphere. The definition of economic security of aviation enterprises in the national security system is determined through the presence of the following economic and legal factors: a increasing the level of protection of passengers and pilots from acts of unlawful interference; B the formation of quality of aircraft servicing as an element of reducing the risk of accidents in aviation transport; c the mathematical increase in the number of incidents in aviation transport; c the integral relationship between the economic performance of the airline company and the quality of passenger service; d the need and possibility of using air transport for humanitarian missions

  4. Passive safety features of low sodium void worth metal fueled cores in a bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Wade, D.C.; Wigeland, R.A.; Kumaoka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Masao; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features of low-sodium-void-worth metallic-fueled reactors with emphasis on using a bottom-supported reactor vessel design. The reactor core designs included self-sufficient types as well as actinide burners. The analyses covered the reactor response to the unprotected, i.e. unscrammed, transient overpower accident and the loss-of-flow accident. Results are given demonstrating the safety margins that were attained. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effects of Economic Recession on Road Safety Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, M.; Gonzalo-Orden, H.; Linares, A.; Olio, L. dell’

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, the investment in both construction and conservation of transportinfrastructures has been considerably reduced in several countries, as Spain. After anumber of years in which economic circumstances have forced Governments to reducebudgets earmarked for the maintenance and creation of new ways, it is interesting toanalyze whether this has taken a toll on accident rates.The paper evaluates if there are significant changes in the road safety through these yearsin Spain, comparing the annual statistics concerning investment in infrastructure andaccidents. Thus, the classical risk, mortality and severity indexes have been analyzed tounderstand their real trends. Finally, through linear regression techniques, it is shown howthese trends are related to the budgets invested each year, in order to draw interestingconclusions about the effect of their reduction. (Author)

  6. Safety and economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The DT, DD and DHe fusion fuel cycles are compared on the basis of safety and economics. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeder for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed superconducting tokamaks, producing 4000 MW thermal power. The DT and DD designs are developed utilizing a plasma beta of 5%, 10% and 20%, assuming first stability scaling laws; a single value of 10% for beta is used for the DHe design. Modest extrapolations of current day technology are employed, providing a reference point for the relative ranking of the fuel cycles. Technological advances and improved understanding of the physics involved may alter the relative positions from what has been determined here. 92 figs., 59 tabs

  7. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: N2i2@xplornet.ca [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  8. Economic, safety and environmental prospects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Holdren, J.P.; Sharafat, S.

    1990-01-01

    Controlled fusion energy is one of the long term, non-fossil energy sources available to mankind. It has the potential of significant advantages over fission nuclear power in that the consequences of severe accidents are predicted to be less and the radioactive waste burden is calculated to be smaller. Fusion can be an important ingredient in the future world energy mix as a hedge against environmental, supply or political difficulties connected with the use of fossil fuel and present-day nuclear power. Progress in fusion reactor technology and design is described for both magnetic and inertial fusion energy systems. The projected economic prospects show that fusion will be capital intensive, and the historical trend is towards greater mass utilization efficiency and more competitive costs. Recent studies emphasizing safety and environmental advantages show that the competitive potential of fusion can be further enhanced by specific choices of materials and design. The safety and environmental prospects of fusion appear to exceed substantially those of advanced fission and coal. Clearly, a significant and directed technology effort is necessary to achieve these advantages. Typical parameters have been established for magnetic fusion energy reactors, and a tokamak at moderately high magnetic field (about 7 T on axis) in the first regime of MHD stability (β ≤ 3.5 I/aB) is closest to present experimental achievement. Further improvements of the economic and technological performance of the tokamak are possible. In addition, alternative, non-tokamak magnetic fusion approaches may offer substantive economic and operational benefits, although at present these concepts must be projected from a less developed physics base. For inertial fusion energy, the essential requirements are a high efficiency (≥ 10%) repetitively pulsed pellet driver capable of delivering up to 10 MJ of energy on target, targets capable of an energy gain of about 100, reactor chambers capable of

  9. ADA access to passenger vessels : finding safety equivalence solutions for weathertight doors with coamings : Phase 2 : a risk management approach to reconfiguration design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    This report examines a risk management methodology to provide for both marine safety and disability access at weathertight doors into passenger accommodation spaces on U.S. passenger vessels. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance B...

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Advanced Bipolar Vessel Sealing in Vaginal Hysterectomy: 1000 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavé, Henri; Clavé, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of advanced electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing (EBVS) during vaginal hysterectomy by evaluating urinary complications, overall complications, and reoperation rate. A retrospective cohort (Canadian Task Force classification III). High-volume gynecologic surgeon practice, private hospital. One thousand consecutive patients who have undergone vaginal hysterectomy for benign conditions carried out with EBVS between January 2002 and December 2012. Vaginal hysterectomy performed using an EBVS device. One thousand consecutive patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy with advanced EBVS between January 2002 and December 2012 with an average age of 51.4 ± 8.9 years (range, 31-88) and mean weight and body mass index of 57.4 ± 7.2 kg (range, 42-105) and 25.8 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 (range, 19.1-38.9), respectively. Eighty-five percent of patients (852/1000) were healthy without any severe systemic disease. A single experienced surgeon performed all vaginal hysterectomies with EBVS, specifically by not applying traction during thermofusion to avoid hemorrhage, amputating the cervix to transform the uterus to an apple shape to facilitate a vaginal approach and rotation of the uterus, and placing bi-clamp forceps on the edge of the uterus and not at a 45- or 90-degree angle. Wound closure was completed with a continuous suture. Eleven urinary complications (1.1%) were recorded (10 bladder mechanical injuries and 1 vesicovaginal fistula). This was not statistically different from the rate of .64% previously reported in the FINHYST study (p = .15). The overall rate of complications was 5.3%, and 20 patients (2.0%) required reoperation. The presence of uterine scar tissue (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-19.2) and larger uterus size (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-19.2) were associated with a higher risk of urinary complications. The use of EBVS during vaginal hysterectomy results in urinary and overall

  11. Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context. The case of the containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrenti, J.M. [Universite Paris Est, LCPC (France); Nahas, G. [IRSN/DSR (France)

    2011-07-01

    The durability of structures, because of its economic and environmental implications, is one of the actual hot topics in civil engineering. In the field of nuclear energy, we are facing very challenging problems like: how could we prolong the service life of actual nuclear containments and how can we assure the durability of a radioactive storage on the very long term (several centuries)? These already difficult questions in a classical civil engineering view are even more complicated in the field of nuclear energy where the structures are massive and the safety of the installations has to be considered. For the containment of nuclear power plants, these stakes will be lit with some examples of research concerning the mechanical behaviour of concrete and concrete structures (at early age, in service on long scales of time and in the event of an accident), the durability of the concrete structures (leaching, swelling due to delayed ettringite formation - DEF -) and the couplings between mechanics and durability. Finally, the importance of probabilistic aspects and the inherent difficulties will be shown. (authors)

  12. Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context. The case of the containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Nahas, G.

    2011-01-01

    The durability of structures, because of its economic and environmental implications, is one of the actual hot topics in civil engineering. In the field of nuclear energy, we are facing very challenging problems like: how could we prolong the service life of actual nuclear containments and how can we assure the durability of a radioactive storage on the very long term (several centuries)? These already difficult questions in a classical civil engineering view are even more complicated in the field of nuclear energy where the structures are massive and the safety of the installations has to be considered. For the containment of nuclear power plants, these stakes will be lit with some examples of research concerning the mechanical behaviour of concrete and concrete structures (at early age, in service on long scales of time and in the event of an accident), the durability of the concrete structures (leaching, swelling due to delayed ettringite formation - DEF -) and the couplings between mechanics and durability. Finally, the importance of probabilistic aspects and the inherent difficulties will be shown. (authors)

  13. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  14. Evaluation of the Structural Safety of a Vessel with Different Material(Cr-13)-Supplemented Screw Thread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Hoon; Bae, Jun Ho; Kim, Chul [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The dome and neck part of a vessel is generally formed by a hot spinning process with a seamless tube. However, as studies on and design data from the hot spinning process are insufficient, this process has been performed based on trial and error and the experiences of field engineers. Changes in the inner diameter from the bottom to the top of the neck have occurred mainly because of the characteristics of the hot spinning process due to the high-speed rotation of the rollers. In this study, a theoretical and finite element analysis of the vessel is conducted with different material(Cr-13)-supplemented screw threads for tapping and to reduce shape errors. Based on the results, the structural safety under the operating conditions is evaluated.

  15. Resolution of the reactor vessel materials toughness safety issue; Task Action Plan A-11; Appendices C-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    The central problem in the Unresolved Safety Issue A-11, 'Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness,' was to provide guidance in performing analyses for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) which fail to meet the toughness requirements during service life as a result of neutron radiation embrittlement. A technical team of recognized experts was organized to assist the NRC staff in addressing the problem. Using the foundation of the tearing modulus concept, which has been developed under earlier NRC sponsorship, relationships were obtained which provided approximate solutions to the RPV fracture problem with assumed beltline region flaws. Volume I of this report is a brief presentation of the problem and the results; Volume II provides the detailed technical foundations

  16. THE THREATS TO THE ECONOMIC SAFETY OF STAVROPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Novikova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with defining of threats to the economic safety of Stavropol region in food, manufacturing, infrastructural, financial, social and innovative industries of the region. Among these threats besides those relating to the Russian Federation on the whole there are also specific regional threats. They are: extremis; resource depletion; uncivilized redistribution of property; the reduction of tax potential; the destruction of the regional agro-industrial sector; the depletion of agricultural (arable land; the low level of competitiveness of processing industries; the breakdown of social welfare in rural areas; the price and tariff increases exceeding the population income growth; the increasing differentiation of population income and its poverty level; the high level of unemployment; the decline in material and technical and financial opportunities of businesses in procedure implementation and innovation mastering; the drain on workers from the region and the dismantling of sector research; the drop in all kinds of financing; the decline of research and development activities efficiency; regular lowering of domestic innovative markets; the low level of innovative infrastructure development; the availability of high investment risks; low effectiveness of carried out scientific and technological programmers and projects.

  17. Evaluating Post-Earthquake Building Safety Using Economical MEMS Seismometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Yu; Yin, Ren-Cheng; Wu, Yih-Min

    2018-05-05

    The earthquake early warning (EEW)-research group at National Taiwan University has been developing a microelectromechanical system-based accelerometer called “P-Alert”, designed for issuing EEWs. The main advantage of P-Alert is that it is a relatively economical seismometer. However, because of the expensive nature of commercial hardware for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, the application of SHM to buildings remains limited. To determine the performance of P-Alert for evaluating post-earthquake building safety, we conducted a series of steel-frame shaking table tests with incremental damage. We used the fragility curves of different damage levels and the interstory drift ratios (calculated by the measured acceleration of each story using double integration and a filter) to gauge the potential damage levels. We concluded that the acceptable detection of damage for an entire building is possible. With improvements to the synchronization of the P-Alert sensors, we also anticipate a damage localization feature for the stories of a building.

  18. TPE upgrade for enhancing operational safety and improving in-vessel tritium inventory assessment in fusion nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M., E-mail: Masashi.Shimada@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Taylor, C.N.; Moore-McAteer, L.; Pawelko, R.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Kolasinski, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Hydrogen and Materials Science Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Cadwallader, L.C.; Merrill, B.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to evaluate in-vessel tritium inventory in the nuclear environment for fusion safety. The electrical upgrade were recently carried out to enhance operational safety and to improve plasma performance. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium and eliminating heat stress issue. In November 2015, the TPE successfully achieved first deuterium plasma via remote operation after a significant three-year upgrade. Simple linear scaling estimate showed that the TPE is expected to achieve Γ{sub i}{sup max} of >1.0 × 10{sup 23} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and q{sub heat} of >1 MW m{sup −2} with new power supplies. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, FNSF, and DEMO for improving in-vessel tritium inventory assessment in fusion nuclear environment.

  19. 33 CFR 165.114 - Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels-Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.114 Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels—Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. (a...

  20. Aging impact on the safety and operability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement causes a loss of reactor vessel material fracture toughness as nuclear plants age. Fracture mechanics based regulatory requirements limit the permissible level of irradiation embrittlement such that essential fracture prevention margins are maintained throughout the plant operating life. This paper reviews the regulatory requirements and the underlying fracture mechanics technology. Issues identified with that technology are identified and research programs implemented to resolve the issues are described. Where possible, an assessment is given of the anticipated impact on the research program output will have on the reactor vessel fracture-margin assessment process

  1. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... http://www.regulations.gov on or before July 25, 2011 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that... that occur on the vessel, and provide law enforcement officials in the course and scope of an... industry best practices for placement and retention of video recording devices exist? If yes, please...

  2. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DWTF vessel owner/operator may demonstrate such non-availability, namely by recounting the good faith... Authorization Act (CGAA, signed into law (Pub. L. 111-281) on October 15, 2010) reauthorized the use of foreign... wording ``to the extent practicable.'' However, since licensed positions often have contracts associated...

  3. Resolution of the Task A-11 reactor-vessel materials-toughness safety issue. Appendices C-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The central problem in the unresolved safety issue A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness, was to provide guidance in performing analyses required by 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix G, Section V.C. for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) which fail to meet the toughness requirement during service life as a result of neutron radiation embrittlement. Although the methods of linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were adequate for low-temperature RPV problems, they were inapplicable under operating conditions because vessel steels, even those which exhibit less than 50 ft-lb of C/sub v/ energy, were relatively tough at temperatures where the impact energy reached its upper shelf values. A technical team of recognized experts was organized to assist the NRC staff in addressing the problem. Using the foundation of the tearing modulus concept, which had been developed under earlier NRC sponsorship, relationships were obtained which provided approximate solutions to the problem of RPV fracture with assumed beltline region flaws. The first paper of this report is a summary of the problem, the solutions, and the results of verification analyses. The details are provided in a series of appendices in Volumes I and II

  4. New method of safety assessment for pressure vessel of nuclear power plant--brief introduction of master curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wendou

    2011-01-01

    The new Master Curve Method is called as a revolutionary advance to the assessment of- reactor pressure vessel integrity in USA. This paper explains the origin, basis and standard of the Master Curve from the reactor pressure-temperature limit curve which assures the safety of nuclear power plant. According to the characteristics of brittle fracture which is greatly susceptible to the microstructure, the theory and the test method of the Master Curve as well as its statistical law which can be modeled using Weibull distribution are described in this paper. The meaning, advantage, application and importance of the Master Curve as well as the relation between the Master Curve and nuclear power safety are understood from the fitting formula for the fracture toughness database by Weibull distribution model. (author)

  5. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  6. Consistency between analytical and finite element predictions for safety of cylindrical pressure vessels at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Otto Theodor

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of the plastic collapse load of cylindrical pressure vessels is very often made by using expensive Finite Element computations. The calculation of the collapse load requires an elastic-plastic material model and the consideration of non-linear geometry effects. The plastic collapse load causes overall structural instability and cannot be determined directly from a Finite Element analysis. In the present paper the plastic collapse load for a cylindrical pressure vessel is determined by an analytical method based on a linear elastic perfectly plastic material model. When plasticity occurs the material is considered to be incompressible and the tensor of plastic strains to be parallel to the stress deviator tensor. In this case the finite stress-strain relationships of Henkel can be used for calculating the pressure for which plastic flow occurs. The analytical results are completely confirmed by Finite Element predictions. (orig.)

  7. Effectiveness of In-Vessel Retention Strategies and Minimum Safety Injection Flow over Postulated Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Joong; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Seongnyeon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); KIm, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Jonghwa; Park, Raejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The objective of this study is first to evaluate various serious severe accident scenarios of OPR1000 with and without in-vessel retention strategies using MELCOR code. Second is to develop a mechanistic model of minimum safety injection flow using the thermal-hydraulic parameters of CET and collapsed water level obtained from the MELCOR simulation results. Effectiveness of RCS depressurization of OPR1000 is investigated for postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOF. It is seen that timely operator action is important to achieve the best mitigation. Also The MELCOR simulation results of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW are utilized to develop a model for minimum safety injection flow. The model suggests that if HPSI is available with RCS pressure lower than 120 bars, the core coolability can be guaranteed. In this study, several MELCOR simulations are conducted in search for effective in-vessel retention strategies over postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW of OPR1000. Detailed accident sequences are presented and indicative parameters diagnosing the reactor thermal-hydraulic state are interrogated to provide useful information to the operator actions. To properly assist operator's action during the severe accident, the thermal-hydraulic parameters should be virtual, intuitive, and reliable. In addition, the parameters should be collected through the instrumentations close to the reactor core. In this regard, Core Exit Temperature (CET) and collapsed core water level are deemed as the commensurate parameters.

  8. Effectiveness of In-Vessel Retention Strategies and Minimum Safety Injection Flow over Postulated Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Joong; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Seongnyeon; KIm, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Jonghwa; Park, Raejoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is first to evaluate various serious severe accident scenarios of OPR1000 with and without in-vessel retention strategies using MELCOR code. Second is to develop a mechanistic model of minimum safety injection flow using the thermal-hydraulic parameters of CET and collapsed water level obtained from the MELCOR simulation results. Effectiveness of RCS depressurization of OPR1000 is investigated for postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOF. It is seen that timely operator action is important to achieve the best mitigation. Also The MELCOR simulation results of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW are utilized to develop a model for minimum safety injection flow. The model suggests that if HPSI is available with RCS pressure lower than 120 bars, the core coolability can be guaranteed. In this study, several MELCOR simulations are conducted in search for effective in-vessel retention strategies over postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW of OPR1000. Detailed accident sequences are presented and indicative parameters diagnosing the reactor thermal-hydraulic state are interrogated to provide useful information to the operator actions. To properly assist operator's action during the severe accident, the thermal-hydraulic parameters should be virtual, intuitive, and reliable. In addition, the parameters should be collected through the instrumentations close to the reactor core. In this regard, Core Exit Temperature (CET) and collapsed core water level are deemed as the commensurate parameters

  9. Contribution of materials investigations and operating experience of reactor vessel internals to PWRs' safety, performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, E.; Monteil, N.; Jardin, N.; Doll, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals (RVI) include all the components inside the pressure vessel, except the nuclear fuel, the rod cluster assemblies and the instrumentation. The RVI consist of bolted and welded structures that are divided into two sub-assemblies: the upper internals which are removed at every refueling outage and the lower internals which are systematically removed for inspection at every 10-year outage. The main functions of the RVI are to position the core, to support it, and to provide a coolant flow by channeling the fluid. Moreover, the lower internals contribute to a neutron protection of the reactor pressure vessel by absorbing most of the neutron flux from the core. Depending on their location and material composition, the RVI components can face different ageing phenomena, that are actual or potential (such as wear, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking, hardening and loss of ductility due to neutron irradiation, irradiation creep and irradiation swelling). EDF has developed a strategy for managing ageing and demonstrating the capacity of the RVI to perform their design functions over 40 years of operation. This overall approach is periodically revisited to take into account the most recent knowledge obtained from the following main topics: Safety Analyses, Research-Development programs, In-Service Inspection (ISI) results, Maintenance programs and Metallurgical Examinations. Based on continuous improvements in those fields, the goal of this paper is to present the way that materials investigations and operating experience obtained on RVI are managed by EDF to improve RVI safety, performance and reliability. It is shown that a perspective of 60 years of operation of RVI components is supported by large Research-Development efforts combined with field experience. (authors)

  10. Stent-assisted coil embolization of aneurysms with small parent vessels: safety and efficacy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Anna Luisa; Hou, Samuel Y; Puri, Ajit S; Silva, Christine F; Gounis, Matthew J; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a viable therapeutic approach for wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. However, it can be technically challenging in small cerebral vessels (≤2 mm). To present our experience with stents approved for SACE in aneurysms with small parent arteries. All patients who underwent stent-assisted aneurysm treatment with either a Neuroform or an Enterprise stent device at our institution between June 2006 and October 2012 were identified. Additionally, we evaluated each patient's vascular risk factors, aneurysm characteristics (ruptured vs non-ruptured, incidental finding, recanalized) and follow-up angiography data. A total of 41 patients with 44 aneurysms met our criteria, including 31 women and 10 men. Most of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation (75%). Stent placement in vessels 1.2-2 mm in diameter was successful in 93.2%. Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6 cases and vessel straightening was seen in 1 case only. Initial nearly complete to complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 88.6%. Six-month follow-up angiography showed coil compaction in three cases, one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and stent occlusion. Twelve to 20-months' follow-up showed stable coil compaction in two patients compared with previous follow-up, and aneurysm recanalization in two patients. Twenty-four to 36-months' follow-up showed further coil compaction in one of these patients and aneurysm recanalization in a previous case of stable coil compaction on mid-term follow-up. Our results suggest that SACE of aneurysms with small parent vessels is feasible in selected cases and shows good long-term patency rates of parent arteries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. 77 FR 21866 - Safety Zone; Sunken Vessel, Puget Sound, Everett, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around the Vigor Marine Dry Dock... dry dock and associated debris, and to ensure the safety of the salvage crews on scene. It will do so... of the Port or his Designated Representative. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on April 12...

  12. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors III: Ex-vessel LOCA analyses considering passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Okazaki, T.; Maki, K.; Uda, T.; Seki, Y.; Aoki, I.; Kunugi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in a fusion reactor have been analyzed to investigate the possibility of passive plasma shutdown. For this purpose, a hybrid code of the plasma dynamics and thermal characteristics of the reactor structures, which has been modified to include the impurity emission from plasma-facing components (PFCs), has been developed. Ex-vessel LOCAs of the cooling system during the ignition operation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which graphite PFCs were employed in conceptual design activity, were assumed. When double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the copper cooling tube begins to melt within 3 s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 4 s. An active plasma shutdown system will be needed for such rapid transient accidents. On the other hand, when a small (1%) break LOCA occurs there, the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 36 s, which happens before the copper cooling tube begins to melt. When the double-ended break LOCA occurs at the cold leg of the first-wall cooling system, there is enough time (nearly 100 s) to shut down the plasma with a controllable method before the reactor structures are damaged. 21 refs., 8 figs

  13. ECONOMIC SAFETY PROBLEM IN MODERN MACRO AND MICRO CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rekun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Security is an important component of economic security and the guaranteeing of appropriate national interests in the state. All these things are closely related to the economic efficiency of operations of economic entities, with economic independence, stability and security of a society. In addition, economic security is a part of national security, its foundation and material basis. The problem of economic security in modern conditions at the micro and macro levels requires determining the main directions of its formation. Methodology. To achieve this goal, basic directions of a security mechanism of the economic system, in particular on the macro level were grounded. Findings. Economic security is such state of the state economy operation in which the order of equilibrium occurred in certain organizational and legal norms on the basis of social life. These regulations are created be the state, principles of coexistence, which are transmitted from generation to generation. The current state of economic security guaranteeing at the macro and micro levels was analyzed. The system of indicators that can be used in the assessment of the security system was determined. Originality. Propositions concerning necessary changes in the policy of economic security in a state were formulated. The system of indicators which can be used in the assessment of the security system was offered. Practical value. Using of the proposed system of economic security indicators will expand the list of important factors affecting on its status and allow us determining the main directions of its formation.

  14. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  15. Prestressed safety enclosure (PSE) with metallic cushion for new or existing reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The special technology required to build the conventional types of thickwalled forged nuclear reactor pressure vessels is mastered only by a few large world-class manufactures. In order eventually to make it possible for other less established manufacturers, for example, those in newly industrialized nations, to construct nuclear RPVS or containers with large diameter for high pressures and which can tolerate large thermal gradients, an improved novel concept of a prestressed cast-iron container with multilayer shells and interlayer metallic cushions is being developed and is described in this paper. (author)

  16. The Morality and Economics of Safety in Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tim

    Ministry of Defence policy is to conform as closely as possible to UK health and safety legislation in all its operations. We consider the implications of the law and the guidance provided by the Health and Safety Executive for the arguments we need to make for the safety of defence procurements, and extract four general principles to help in answering the questions that arise when considering the safety of systems with complex behaviour. One of these principles is analysed further to identify how case law and the guidance interpret the requirement for risks to be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. We then apply the principles to answer some questions that have arisen in our work as Independent Safety Auditors, including the limits to the tolerability of risk to armed forces personnel and civilians in wartime, and the acceptability of the transfer of risk from one group to another when controls on risk are introduced.

  17. Nuclear safety: economic analysis of American, French and Japanese regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-05-01

    While discussing and comparing the American, Japanese and French approaches and practices, and identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, the author discusses why self-regulation and civil responsibility cannot guarantee a sufficient nuclear safety level, why the safety regulation authority must be independent from industry and government, whether a figure must be put to the safety objective (for example with a risk threshold), whether it is better to define detailed standards to be applied by manufacturers and operators or to define general performance criteria to be reached

  18. Construction safety and waste management an economic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist’s point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e.g. China and India, and developed countries, e.g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Follow-up Study of ITER Safety Analysis : Large In-vessel First Wall Pipe Break with Wet Confinement Bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Previous researches have been analyzed risk assessments of fusion reactors that are dangerous in the severe accidents where the radioactive material released from confinement building to the environment. To simulate the severe accidents in ITER, a number of thermal hydraulics simulation codes were used. Before construction of the fusion reactor, to obtain ITER license about safety issue, MELCOR is chosen as one of the several codes to be used to perform ITER safety analyses. Qualification of the simulation code is to simulate the cooling system in ITER, the transport of radionuclides during design basis accidents (DBAs) including beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). MELCOR is fully integrated code that models the accidents in Light Water Reactor (LWR). To analyze the accidents in ITER, MELCOR 1.8.2 version is modified. In the nuclear fusion system, the amount of released radioactive material is criteria for safety permission. Tritium (or tritiated water: HTO) and radioactive dust aerosol are the source of radioactive leakage. In the Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR) for the ITER plant, Table I lists the release guidelines for tritium and activation products for normal operation, incidents and accidents. Several accident analyses have been studied to know how much radioactive material could be released from the severe accidents. In the present work, The MELCOR input deck of large First Wall (FW) coolant leak (pipe break) is used to study and radioactive material leakage thorough bypass accident are studied to follow up the ITER safety analysis. In this research, follow-up study of the in-vessel inboard/inboard-outboard FW pipe break was analyzed to investigate the amount of leakage of radioactive aerosol. All of the accident cases released the lower amount of radioactive aerosol compared to the IAEA guide lines. In addition, the OBB pipe break made lower HTO aerosol leakage because of condensation of HTO and adsorption between coolant and aerosol.

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  1. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, III, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kallman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maes, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skolnik, Edward G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiner, Steven C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-12-22

    Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

  2. Seafood safety: economics of hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cato, James C

    1998-01-01

    .... This document on economic issues associated with seafood safety was prepared to complement the work of the Service in seafood technology, plant sanitation and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation...

  3. Information About Dynamics of the Sea Surface as a Means to Improve Safety of the Unmanned Vessel at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przyborski Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental states of the sea surface is its heave. Despite of years of the intense scientific inquiry, no clear understanding of the influence of this aspect on the dynamics of the sea environment has emerged. The separation of two nearby fluid elements which one may observed for example as a free floating of small objects on the sea surface (rescuers on the rough sea or small research vessels is caused by the interaction of different components. On the other hand one may say that the heave of the sea is also a summary interaction of a few components describing the dynamics of the sea. Therefore it is the most important aspect, which influenced the dispersion phenomenon. This observation has important consequences for many different problems as for example conducting Search and Rescue missions and using unmanned ships. We would like to present results of our experiment focused on finding the answer to question about nature of the heave of the sea and its influence on safety of Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV.

  4. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  5. Health economics of blood transfusion safety - focus on sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit; Postma, Maarten J.

    Background and objectives. Health economics provides a standardised methodology for valid comparisons of interventions in different fields of health care. This review discusses the health economic evaluations of strategies to enhance blood product safety in sub-Saharan Africa Methods. We reviewed

  6. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing

  7. Simplicity: the key to improved safety, performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandless, R.J.; Redding, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design every feature, every system, every piece of equipment must justify its existence - or it must go. Each must perform a needed function in the simplest way because simplification is the key to high performance and competitive economics. The SBWR has the potential to become a safe, economical and environmentally sound energy source for the 1990s, GE believes. The distinctive features of the reactor are described. It is illustrated on a wall chart which also gives its main specifications

  8. Coupling finite elements and reliability methods - application to safety evaluation of pressurized water reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.; Venturini, V.

    1995-02-01

    When reliability studies are extended form deterministic calculations in mechanics, it is necessary to take into account input parameters variabilities which are linked to the different sources of uncertainty. Integrals must then be calculated to evaluate the failure risk. This can be performed either by simulation methods, or by approximations ones (FORM/SORM). Model in mechanics often require to perform calculation codes. These ones must then be coupled with the reliability calculations. Theses codes can involve large calculation times when they are invoked numerous times during simulations sequences or in complex iterative procedures. Response surface method gives an approximation of the real response from a reduced number of points for which the finite element code is run. Thus, when it is combined with FORM/SORM methods, a coupling can be carried out which gives results in a reasonable calculation time. An application of response surface method to mechanics reliability coupling for a mechanical model which calls for a finite element code is presented. It corresponds to a probabilistic fracture mechanics study of a pressurized water reactor vessel. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  9. Optimization of the nuclear power engineering safety on the basis of social and economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.F.; Kuz'min, I.I.; Lystsov, V.N.; Amosova, T.V.; Makhutov, N.A.; Men'shikov, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    Principle of optimization of nuclear power engineering safety is presented on the basis of estimating the risks to the man's health with an account of peculiarities of socio-economic system and other types of economic activities in the region. Average expected duration of forthcoming life and costs of its prolongation serve as a unit for measuring the man's safety. It is shown that if the expenditures on NPP technical safety exceed the scientifically substantiated costs for this region with application of the above principle, than the risk for population will exceed the minimum achievable level. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Safety analysis of Atucha 1 reactor pressure vessel for a typical transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomik, E.; Jinchuk, D.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of disturbances on the CNA I external electric grid some incidents were produced in a 6 minutes lapse, causing a sudden cooling of the primary system, while pressure was maintained nearly constant. On the basis of this event, a safety analysis based on the LInear Elastic Fracture Mechanics was carried out. This paper presents an alternative method for the calculation of transients; the Finite Element Method, particularly, the OCA-II FEM code. By using this method it was possible to demonstrate, for this event, a safe operating condition for the end of life of the RPV, with regard to brittle fracture risk. 6 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  11. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; Reactor vessel lower head integrity; Evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; reactor vessel lower head integrity; and evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; Reactor vessel lower head integrity; Evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; reactor vessel lower head integrity; and evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  13. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  14. Stakeholders' Perspectives About and Priorities for Economic Evaluation of Health and Safety Programs in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; de Boer, Henriette; Macdonald, Sara; Alamgir, Hasanat; Koehoorn, Mieke; Guzman, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    This study identified and prioritized resources and outcomes that should be considered in more comprehensive and scientifically rigorous health and safety economic evaluations according to healthcare sector stakeholders. A literature review and stakeholder interviews identified candidate resources and outcomes and then a Delphi panel ranked them. According to the panel, the top five resources were (a) health and safety staff time; (b) training workers; (c) program planning, promotion, and evaluation costs; (d) equipment purchases and upgrades; and (e) administration costs. The top five outcomes were (a) number of injuries, illnesses, and general sickness absences; (b) safety climate; (c) days lost due to injuries, illnesses, and general sickness absences; (d) job satisfaction and engagement; and (e) quality of care and patient safety. These findings emphasize stakeholders' stated priorities and are useful as a benchmark for assessing the quality of health and safety economic evaluations and the comprehensiveness of these findings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  16. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Costs. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Costs and Cost Impacts of Marine Safety Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Subsistence: Includes the cost of all edibles , sales taxes, delivery charges, and loading costs. Stores, Supplies, and Equipment: The cost of all...consumable stores, supplies, and expendable equipment other than edibles , fuel, and water. 89 Insurance: Annual cost for H&M, P&I, and port risk for the...Products (50) 3441 3442 3444 3446 3449 105 Screw Machine Products (51) 3450 106 Metal Stampings (51) 3460 107 Cutlery , Hand Tools, Hardware (52) 3420

  17. EPR design: A combined approach on safety and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griedl, R.; Sturm, J.; Degrave, C.; Kappler, F.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1991, the French and German cooperation led to common work based on the experience of the two designers FRAMATOME and SIEMENS KWU with all their know how, the most important utilities in France and Germany operating NPP and the technical supports of the Licensing Authorities GRS and IPSN. The conclusion of that work was the issue in November 1997 and February 1999 respectively of two Basic Design reports for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) with a power of 4250 MWth and 4900 MWth. The Basic Design approach was led under two key items: Enhancement of the overall safety level by implementation of design measures to: make the plant less dependant to common cause failures; practically eliminate all high pressure core melt sequences which could lead to important radioactive releases to the environment; implement specific systems to face severe accident situation with low-pressure core melt. Use of the many years of experiences in two different nuclear designs is to reach an overall availability figure over 91%, partly due to design improvements on the safety level. With such an objective, demonstrated by feedback of experience on already operating plants, the EPR project can be proposed as a competitive alternative to the most recent fossil plants. (author)

  18. Materials technology and the energy problem : application to the reliability and safety of nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    In the U.S.A. over the past few months, widespread plant shutdowns because of cracking problems has produced considerable public pressure for a reappraisal of the reliability and safety of nuclear reactors. The awareness of such problems, and their solution, is particularly relevant to South Africa at this time. Some materials problems related to nuclear plant failure are examined in this paper. Since catastrophic failure (without prior warning from slow leakage) is in principle possible for light water (pressurised) reactors under operating conditions, it is essential to maintain rigorous manufacturing and quality control procedures, in conjunction with thorough and frequent examination by non-destructive testing methods. Although tests currently in progress in the U.S.A. on large-scale model reactors suggest that mathematical stress and failure analyses, for simple geometries at least, are sound, current in situ surveillance programmes aimed at categorizing the effects of irradiation are inadequate. In addition, the effects on materials properties and subsequent fracture resistance of the combined effects of irradiation and thermal shock (arising from the injection of emergency cooling water during a loss-of coolant accident) are unknown. The problem of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipelines is considerable, and at present virtually impossible to predict. Much of the available laboratory data is inapplicable in that it cannot account for the complex interactions of stress state, temperature, material variations and segregation effects, and water chemistry, especially in conjunction with irradiation effects, that are experienced in an operating environment

  19. To make or buy patient safety solutions: a resource dependence and transaction cost economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Naleef; Mick, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    For almost a decade, public and private organizations have pressured hospitals to improve their patient safety records. Since 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has no longer been reimbursing hospitals for secondary diagnoses not reported during the point of admission. This ruling has motivated some hospitals to engage in safety-oriented programs to decrease adverse events. This study examined which hospitals may engage in patient safety solutions and whether they create these patient safety solutions within their structures or use suppliers in the market. We used a theoretical model that incorporates the key constructs of resource dependence theory and transaction cost economics theory to predict a hospital's reaction to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services "never event" regulations. We present propositions that speculate on how forces conceptualized from the resource dependence theory may affect adoption of patient safety innovations and, when they do, whether the adopting hospitals will do so internally or externally according to the transaction cost economics theory. On the basis of forces identified by the resource dependence theory, we predict that larger, teaching, safety net, horizontally integrated, highly interdependent, and public hospitals in concentrated, high public payer presence, competitive, and resource-rich environments will be more likely to engage in patient safety innovations. Following the logic of the transaction cost economics theory, we predict that of the hospitals that react positively to the never event regulation, most will internalize their innovations in patient safety solutions rather than approach the market, a choice that helps hospitals economize on transaction costs. This study helps hospital managers in their strategic thinking and planning in relation to current and future regulations related to patient safety. For researchers and policy analysts, our propositions provide the basis for empirical testing.

  20. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t...

  1. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t...

  2. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to... vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  3. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central...

  4. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  5. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  6. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  7. Innovations as a Factor for Ensuring Economic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim SANDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of development of the competitive environment, one of the main ways to solve economic, social and environmental problems is to use the latest achievements of science and technology. Each enterprise seeks to ensure that economic growth is intense, i.e. to be a consequence of the application of more sophisticated factors of production and technology. The prerequisite for intensive growth is the use of innovative strategy in the practical activities of enterprises. The end result of innovations is the materialization and industrial development of innovation, the idea of which can be the scientific and technical activity, and marketing research to identify unmet needs. The innovations are an effective defensive reaction of the firm to the emerging threats of losing market place, constant pressure from competitors, the challenge of new technologies, shortening the life of products, legislative restrictions and changing the market situation. In the offensive version, the innovation is a mean of exploiting new opportunities to preserve or gain a competitive advantage. In the long term aspect, the company has no choice but to pursue an innovation policy, which is the only source of lasting success. The main objective of researching the innovation activity of any organization is to ensure competitiveness in market conditions in order to identify risk factors and ways to overcome them.

  8. Spatial Analysis and Safety Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Small and Medium Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Orekhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the spatial patterns of socio-economic development of small and medium-sized cities in the Volgograd region. We know that small and medium-sized cities as spatial socio-economic systems are not only the support frame of settlement, but the main “engine” of innovative impulses for the surrounding periphery. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the effort to implement a spatial approach to the assessment of the economic security of small and medium-sized cities (SCR. The content of the economic security of cities is determined by two system characteristics of the socio-economic system: economic activity (EA and quality of life (QL of the urban population, or SCR = F (EA; QL. For finding spatial patterns in GIS, great interest is in investigating the environment of each city by calculating the local statistical characteristics of geo-variability which allow assessing trends of spatial variation of the six components of security (human security, technosphere safety, environmental safety, etc., local variations in emissions and their values indicators Ki. The successful solution of these problems is possible with the use of tools of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA in ARCGIS, and in particular, the Voronoy maps. The spatial approach has allowed to perform an integrated assessment of the economic security and to evaluate safety risks in small and medium-sized cities of the Volgograd region with the security system of indicators.

  9. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J A

    2000-12-20

    International trade in food products has expanded rapidly in recent years. This paper presents economic approaches for analyzing the effects on trade in food products of the food safety requirements of governments and private buyers. Important economic incentives for companies to provide improved food safety arise from (1) public incentives such as ex ante requirements for sale of a product with sufficient quality and ex post penalties (liability) for sale of products with deficient quality, and (2) private incentives for producing quality such as internal performance goals (self-regulation) and the external (certification) requirements of buyers. The World Trade Organization's Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. Economists can help guide risk management decisions by providing estimates of the benefits and costs of programs to improve food safety and by analyzing their effect on trade in food products.

  10. A comparative study of the safety and economics of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The safety and economic characteristics of the deuterium-tritium (DT), deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-helium-3 (DHe) fusion fuel cycles have been compared. Representative tokamak designs for each fuel cycle were established based on consistent design criteria, using modest extrapolations of present day technologies. The economic analysis of these designs took into account the possible variation in capital and operating costs, and plant availability. Safety analyses examined tritium inventories, routine tritium releases, inventories of activation products and the level of hazard associated with plant wastes. The annual dose incurred by plant workers was estimated for all fuel cycles. The impact of using a reduced activation steel as a blanket material on the economics and safety during normal conditions for the DD fuel cycle was examined. A loss of coolant accident (LOCA) was investigated to determine the relative safety and economic impact of this event for the various fuel cycles. Finally, a cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine if the increased costs associated with these designs are justified by the improved safety which they provide. (orig.)

  11. Do Economic Problems at Home Undermine Worker Safety Abroad? : A Panel Study, 1980-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.; Prakash, A.

    Do economic downturns in the Global North undermine worker safety in the Global South? Literature suggests that bilateral trade linkages lead to the diffusion of “good” labor standards from importing countries of the Global North to exporting countries of the Global South. The crucial mechanism is

  12. Developing guidelines for good practice in the economic evaluation of occupational safety and health interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tompa, Emile; Verbeek, Jos; van Tulder, Maurits; de Boer, Angela

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of a recently held workshop in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was to advance methods for the economic evaluation of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions at the corporate and societal level. Drawing from that workshop, we discuss issues to consider when developing

  13. Occupational safety and health in nanotechnology and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.

  14. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Alveano-Aguerrebere

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001. For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  15. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne

    2017-01-01

    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development. PMID:29271873

  16. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés; Javier Ayvar-Campos, Francisco; Farvid, Maryam; Lusk, Anne

    2017-12-22

    México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development.

  17. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Treutlein, D.; Rydlewska, I.; Frusteri, L.; Krüger, H.; Veerman, T.; Eeckelaert, L.; Roskams, N.; Broek, K. van den; Taylor, T.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information

  18. Health economics of blood transfusion safety--focus on sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Postma, Maarten J

    2010-01-01

    Health economics provides a standardised methodology for valid comparisons of interventions in different fields of health care. This review discusses the health economic evaluations of strategies to enhance blood product safety in sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed health economic methodology with special reference to cost-effectiveness analysis. We searched the literature for cost-effectiveness in blood product safety in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-antibody screening in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa showed health gains and saved costs. Except for adding HIV-p24 screening, adding other tests such as nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) to HIV-antibody screening displayed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios greater than the WHO/World Bank specified threshold for cost-effectiveness. The addition of HIV-p24 in combination with HCV antibody/antigen screening and multiplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT in pools of 24 may also be cost-effective options for Ghana. From a health economic viewpoint, HIV-antibody screening should always be implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. The addition of HIV-p24 antigen screening, in combination with HCV antibody/antigen screening and multiplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT in pools of 24 may be feasible options for Ghana. Suggestions for future health economic evaluations of blood transfusion safety interventions in sub-Saharan Africa are: mis-transfusion, laboratory quality and donor management. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic evaluation of occupational health and safety programmes in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, J; Tompa, E; Koehoorn, M; de Boer, H; Macdonald, S; Alamgir, H

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based resource allocation in the public health care sector requires reliable economic evaluations that are different from those needed in the commercial sector. To describe a framework for conducting economic evaluations of occupational health and safety (OHS) programmes in health care developed with sector stakeholders. To define key resources and outcomes to be considered in economic evaluations of OHS programmes and to integrate these into a comprehensive framework. Participatory action research supported by mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including a multi-stakeholder working group, 25 key informant interviews, a 41-member Delphi panel and structured nominal group discussions. We found three resources had top priority: OHS staff time, training the workers and programme planning, promotion and evaluation. Similarly, five outcomes had top priority: number of injuries, safety climate, job satisfaction, quality of care and work days lost. The resulting framework was built around seven principles of good practice that stakeholders can use to assist them in conducting economic evaluations of OHS programmes. Use of a framework resulting from this participatory action research approach may increase the quality of economic evaluations of OHS programmes and facilitate programme comparisons for evidence-based resource allocation decisions. The principles may be applicable to other service sectors funded from general taxes and more broadly to economic evaluations of OHS programmes in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent... pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours, Alaska local time (A...

  2. Analysis on Peasants’ Diet Condition and Food Safety Awareness in Northern Jiangsu——From the Perspective of Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking three counties in northern Jiangsu (Suining,Ganyu and Sihong) as the respondents,the economic principles of food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu are described from three aspects which are information asymmetry,food supply and food safety issue and food consumption and food safety issue.From the two aspects-adverse selection of consumers and opportunistic behavior of producers,the paper introduces the influence of food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu.Based on the above analysis,economic theories for solving food safety issues of rural areas in northern Jiangsu are put forward:First,improve consumers’ knowledge of food safety;Second,normalize the behavior of main bodies of production and management;Third,improve the current situation of information asymmetry of food safety;Fourth,accelerate economic construction of rural areas in northern Jiangsu,practically increase peasant income and living standard.

  3. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  4. [Economic analysis versus the principle of guaranteed safety in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, J P; Loubière, S; Rotily, M

    2000-06-01

    This article shows that policies aimed at reducing risks of infectious agents transmissible through blood unfortunately follow a law of 'diminishing returns': increasing marginal costs have to be devoted for limited reductions in the risks of contamination through blood donations. Therefore, the economic cost-effectiveness analysis is appropriate to identify screening strategies which may minimize costs to reach a certain level of safety. Moreover, economic analysis can contribute to public debates about the level of residual risk that society is willing to accept. Empirical results from French studies about screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in individuals who have received blood transfusions and in blood donations are presented to illustrate these points.

  5. Code development incorporating environmental, safety and economic aspects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.; Greenspan, E.; Holdren, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a proposal to continue the authors work on the Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion reactors under DOE contract DE-FR03-89ER52514. The grant objectives continue those from the previous grant: (1) completion of first-generation Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) computer modules suitable as integral components of tokamak systems codes. (2) continuation of work on special topics, in support of the above and in response to OFE requests. The proposal also highlights progress on the contract in the twelve months since April, 1992. This has included work with the ARIES and ITER design teams, work on tritium management, studies on materials activation, and calculation of radioactive inventories in fusion reactors

  6. Improving economics and safety of water cooled reactors. Proven means and new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) with water cooled reactors [either light water reactors (LWRs) or heavy water reactors (HWRs)] constitute the large majority of the currently operating plants. Water cooled reactors can make a significant contribution to meeting future energy needs, to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to energy security if they can compete economically with fossil alternatives, while continuing to achieve a very high level of safety. It is generally agreed that the largest commercial barrier to the addition of new nuclear power capacity is the high capital cost of nuclear plants relative to other electricity generating alternatives. If nuclear plants are to form part of the future generating mix in competitive electricity markets, capital cost reduction through simplified designs must be an important focus. Reductions in operating, maintenance and fuel costs should also be pursued. The Department of Nuclear Energy of the IAEA is examining the competitiveness of nuclear power and the means for improving its economics. The objective of this TECDOC is to emphasize the need, and to identify approaches, for new nuclear plants with water cooled reactors to achieve competitiveness while maintaining high levels of safety. The cost reduction methods discussed herein can be implemented into plant designs that are currently under development as well as into designs that may be developed in the longer term. Many of the approaches discussed also generally apply to other reactor types (e.g. gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors). To achieve the largest possible cost reductions, proven means for reducing costs must be fully implemented, and new approaches described in this document should be developed and implemented. These new approaches include development of advanced technologies, increased use of risk-informed methods for evaluating the safety benefit of design features, and international consensus regarding commonly acceptable safety requirements that

  7. Improving economics and safety of water cooled reactors. Proven means and new approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) with water cooled reactors [either light water reactors (LWRs) or heavy water reactors (HWRs)] constitute the large majority of the currently operating plants. Water cooled reactors can make a significant contribution to meeting future energy needs, to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to energy security if they can compete economically with fossil alternatives, while continuing to achieve a very high level of safety. It is generally agreed that the largest commercial barrier to the addition of new nuclear power capacity is the high capital cost of nuclear plants relative to other electricity generating alternatives. If nuclear plants are to form part of the future generating mix in competitive electricity markets, capital cost reduction through simplified designs must be an important focus. Reductions in operating, maintenance and fuel costs should also be pursued. The Department of Nuclear Energy of the IAEA is examining the competitiveness of nuclear power and the means for improving its economics. The objective of this TECDOC is to emphasize the need, and to identify approaches, for new nuclear plants with water cooled reactors to achieve competitiveness while maintaining high levels of safety. The cost reduction methods discussed herein can be implemented into plant designs that are currently under development as well as into designs that may be developed in the longer term. Many of the approaches discussed also generally apply to other reactor types (e.g. gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors). To achieve the largest possible cost reductions, proven means for reducing costs must be fully implemented, and new approaches described in this document should be developed and implemented. These new approaches include development of advanced technologies, increased use of risk-informed methods for evaluating the safety benefit of design features, and international consensus regarding commonly acceptable safety requirements that

  8. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2011 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. EDF ageing management program of nuclear components: a safety and economical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management of Nuclear Power Plants is an essential issue for utilities, in term of safety and availability and corresponding economical consequences. Practically all nuclear countries have developed a systematic program to deal with ageing of components on their plants. This paper presents the ageing management program developed by EDF and that are compared with different other approaches in other countries (IAEA guidelines and GALL report). The paper presents a general overview of the programs, the major results, recommendations and conclusions. (author)

  15. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P

    2015-08-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing interventions. The objective of this review is to address key considerations and limitations of current methods as they apply to blood safety. Because a voluntary blood supply is an example of a public good, analyses should be conducted from the societal perspective when possible. Two primary study designs are recommended for most blood safety intervention assessments: budget impact analysis (BIA), which measures the cost to implement an intervention both to the blood operator but also in a broader context, and cost-utility analysis (CUA), which measures the ratio between costs and health gain achieved, in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality, by use of an intervention. These analyses often have important limitations because data that reflect specific aspects, for example, blood recipient population characteristics or complication rates, are not available. Sensitivity analyses play an important role. The impact of various uncertain factors can be studied conjointly in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The use of BIA and CUA together provides a comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits from implementing (or not) specific interventions. RBDM is multifaceted and impacts a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gathering and analyzing health economic evidence as part of the RBDM process enhances the quality, completeness, and transparency of decision-making. © 2015 AABB.

  16. Modern approaches to quintessence of public accounting of enterprise in context of economical safety providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Gnilitskaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discrepancy of possibilities of modern accounting to the demands of economical safety directed for the satisfaction of informational needs of various groups of users of accounting in order they could make grounded and timely management decisions while providing stable and steady functioning both an enterprise and a region where this enterprise runs and also a state as a whole, has caused the necessity of searching for other concepts and the models of accounting information formation. The research proves that the most advantages for economical safety providing belong to the concept of cost accounting. The use of this concept will allow to identify the information necessary for the sides interested in it; to model external corporation accounting including field peculiarities of an enterprise; to disclose the information concerning not only to internal parameters but also to external environment where the enterprise functions; to assess the risks of businesses and show their influence in corresponding forms of accounting. The adaptation of the concept of cost accounting into the practice of home enterprises (if the informational needs of economical safety are provided will require definite changes in the structure and contents of accounting information, on one hand, and the improvement (view, shift of the principles of preparation of accounting as the accounting base, on the other hand.

  17. Generic analyses for evaluation of low Charpy upper-shelf energy effects on safety margins against fracture of reactor pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50 requires that reactor pressure vessel beltline material maintain Charpy upper-shelf energies of no less than 50 ft-lb during the plant operating life, unless it is demonstrated in a manner approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), that lower values of Charpy upper-shelf energy provide margins of safety against fracture equivalent to those in Appendix G to Section XI of the ASME Code. Analyses based on acceptance criteria and analysis methods adopted in the ASME Code Case N-512 are described herein. Additional information on material properties was provided by the NRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Materials Engineering Branch. These cases, specified by the NRC, represent generic applications to boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor vessels. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 140

  18. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duysen, J.C. van; Meric de Bellefon, G.

    2017-01-01

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  19. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duysen, J.C. van, E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@ensc-lille.fr [Department of Nuclear Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille 1 (France); Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  20. Economics of the specification 6M safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the potential economic impact of the DOT Specification 6M criticality safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements. The examination was based upon comparative analyses of current authorized fissile material load limits for the 6M, current Federal regulations (and interpretations) limiting the contents of Type B fissile material packages, limiting aggregates of fissile material packages, and recent proposed fissile material mass limits derived from specialized criticality safety analyses of the 6M package. The work examines influences on cost in transportation, handling, and storage of fissile materials. Depending upon facility throughput requirements (and assumed incremental costs of fissile material packaging, storage, and transport), operating, facility storage capacity, and transportation costs can be reduced significantly. As an example of the pricing algorithm application based upon reasonable cost influences, the magnitude of the first year cost reductions could extend beyond four times the cost of the packaging nuclear criticality safety re-evaluation. 1 tab

  1. In-service supervision of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemann, H.; Mayer, N.; Amberg, C.

    1985-01-01

    On-line measurements of the physical state of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel and a comparison of the distribution of temperature, strain and stress within the concrete member to the optimized statical predictions and the criterions of layout yield to an efficient and economical method of operating the vessel with a high potential of safety. The requirements of instrumentation and the comparison with static calculations are discussed on the prototype vessel at Seibersdorf Research Center during the phase of construction and prestressing, the phase of the first thermal treatment (stabilization), the pressure tests and under the operating conditions of a high temperature reactor (150 0 C/50 bar). (Author)

  2. In-service supervision of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemann, H.; Weissbacher, L.; Mayer, N.; Amberge, C.

    1985-01-01

    On-line measurements of the physical state of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel, and comparison with the design predictions of the distribution of temperature, strain and stress within the concrete member and the criteria of layout, provide an efficient and economical method of operating the vessel with a high potential of safety. The requirements of instrumentation and the comparison with static calculations are discussed with reference to the prototype vessel at Seibersdorf Research Centre during the phase of construction and prestressing, the phase of the first thermal treatment (stabilization), the pressure tests and under the operating conditions of a high temperature reactor (150 0 C, 50 bar). (author)

  3. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) technology to improve outage safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken an aggressive program, called ORAM (Outage Risk Assessment and Management), to provide utilities with tools and technology to assist in managing risk during the planning and conduct of outages. The ORAM program consists of the following 6 steps: i) Perform utility surveys and visits on shutdown risk management needs, ii) Perform probabilistic shutdown safety assessments (PSSAs) to identify generic insights that can be incorporated into risk management guidelines and identify selected areas for the development of contingency actions, iii) Develop risk management guidelines (RMG's) that provide a systematic approach to the planning and conduct of outages from a safety perspective. Incorporate insights from the shutdown safety assessments and other operating experience into the RMG's. iv) Develop selected contingency actions including a thermalhydraulic tool kit to address higher risk time periods and activities identified in the shutdown safety assessments, v) Develop computer software that integrates all of the above capability into an easy to use tool for effective shutdown operation management for utilities, vi) Provide assistance in the transfer of this technology and the application of these tools. This paper briefly describes the technical approach and tools developed under EPRI's ORAM program and its applications for improving outage safety and economics. (author)

  4. 76 FR 59064 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA722 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by [[Page 59065

  5. Catcher Vessel Cost Earnings Data - Economic Data Collection for Monitoring the Economic Effects of the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Rationalization Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was initiated in response to regulation 50 CFR 660.114, which mandates that economic data be collected from every participant in the trawl...

  6. On the complex analysis of the reliability, safety, and economic efficiency of atomic electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem is posed of effectively increasing the engineering performance of nuclear electric power stations (APS). The principal components of the engineering performance of modern large APS are considered: economic efficiency, radiation safety, reliability, and their interrelationship. A nomenclature is proposed for the quantitative indices which most completely characterize the enumerated properties and are convenient for the analysis of the engineering performance. The urgent problem of developing a methodology for the complex analysis and optimization of the principal performance components is considered; this methodology is designed to increase the efficiency of the work on high-performance competitive APS. The principle of complex optimization of the reliability, safety, and economic-efficiency indices is formulated; specific recommendations are made for the practical realization of this principle. The structure of the complex quantiative analysis of the enumerated performance components is given. The urgency and promise of the complex approach to solving the problem of APS optimization is demonstrated, i.e., the solution of the problem of creating optimally reliable, fairly safe, and maximally economically efficient stations

  7. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  8. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  9. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  10. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA680 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  11. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-0648-XC112 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... third seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  12. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC056 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... second seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  13. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC204 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  14. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY78 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water species fishery in the...

  15. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XB122 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... first seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  16. An Economic Evaluation of Food Safety Education Interventions: Estimates and Critical Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hua; Lambea, Maria; McDowell, Joyce; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions. In particular, the focus here is on how reported behavioral change is translated into economic benefits. Current gaps in the literature make it impossible to know with certainty how many people are protected by the education (what are the spillover effects?), the length of time education remains effective, and the level of risk reduction from change in behavior. Based on EFNEP survey data, food safety education led 37.4% of participants to improve their food safety behaviors. Under reasonable default assumptions, benefits from this improvement significantly outweigh costs, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of between 6.2 and 10.0. Incorporation of a sensitivity analysis using alternative estimates yields a greater range of estimates (0.2 to 56.3), which highlights the importance of future research aimed at filling these research gaps. Nevertheless, most reasonable assumptions lead to estimates of benefits that justify their costs.

  17. Summary of the US Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    ESECOM has completed a recent assessment of the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) compared to present and future fission energy sources giving particular emphasis to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics. By consistently applying a set of economic and safety models to a set of MFE concepts using a wide range of possible material choices, power densities, power conversion methods, and fuel cycles, ESECOM finds that several different MFE concepts have the potential to achieve costs of electricity comparable to those of fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 13 refs., 7 tabs

  18. Summary of the report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) has assessed magnetic fusion energy's prospects for providing energy with economic, environmental, and safety characteristics that would be attractive compared with other energy sources (mainly fission) available in the year 2015 and beyond. ESECOM gives particular attention to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics of a variety of magnetic fusion reactors, and compares them with a variety of fission cases. Eight fusion cases, two fusion-fission hybrid cases, and four fission cases are examined, using consistent economic and safety models. These models permit exploration of the environmental, safety, and economic potential of fusion concepts using a wide range of possible materials choices, power densities, power conversion schemes, and fuel cycles. The ESECOM analysis indicates that magnetic fusion energy systems have the potential to achieve costs-of-electricity comparable to those of present and future fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 75 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  19. Multi-objective optimization of a cascade refrigeration system: Exergetic, economic, environmental, and inherent safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eini, Saeed; Shahhosseini, Hamidreza; Delgarm, Navid; Lee, Moonyong; Bahadori, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization is performed for a cascade refrigeration cycle. • The optimization problem considers inherently safe design as well as 3E analysis. • As a measure of inherent safety level a quantitative risk analysis is utilized. • A CO 2 /NH 3 cascade refrigeration system is compared with a CO 2 /C 3 H 8 system. - Abstract: Inherently safer design is the new approach to maximize the overall safety of a process plant. This approach suggests some risk reduction strategies to be implemented in the early stages of design. In this paper a multi-objective optimization was performed considering economic, exergetic, and environmental aspects besides evaluation of the inherent safety level of a cascade refrigeration system. The capital costs, the processing costs, and the social cost due to CO 2 emission were considered to be included in the economic objective function. Exergetic efficiency of the plant was considered as the second objective function. As a measure of inherent safety level, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) was performed to calculate total risk level of the cascade as the third objective function. Two cases (ammonia and propane) were considered to be compared as the refrigerant of the high temperature circuit. The achieved optimum solutions from the multi–objective optimization process were given as Pareto frontier. The ultimate optimal solution from available solutions on the Pareto optimal curve was selected using Decision-Makings approaches. NSGA-II algorithm was used to obtain Pareto optimal frontiers. Also, three decision-making approaches (TOPSIS, LINMAP, and Shannon’s entropy methods) were utilized to select the final optimum point. Considering continuous material release from the major equipment in the plant, flash and jet fire scenarios were considered for the CO 2 /C 3 H 8 cycle and toxic hazards were considered for the CO 2 /NH 3 cycle. The results showed no significant differences between CO 2 /NH 3 and

  20. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut [Joint Research Centre, EC-JRC, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 2, NL-0 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  1. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  2. Long-term safety and feasibility of three-vessel multimodality intravascular imaging in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI in the s......We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI...... in the setting of IBIS-4 study. IBIS4 (NCT00962416) is a prospective cohort study conducted at five European centers including 103 STEMI patients who underwent serial three-vessel coronary imaging during primary PCI and at 13 months. The feasibility parameter was successful imaging, defined as the number...... of pullbacks suitable for analysis. Safety parameters included the frequency of peri-procedural complications, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and any clinically-indicated revascularization at 2 years. Clinical outcomes were compared...

  3. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  4. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Risk-Informed Balancing Of Safety, Nonproliferation, And Economics For The SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  7. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  8. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  9. Process-integrated online monitoring of safety-relevant aluminum airbag pressure vessel components for a combined defect detection and material property determination by using contactless NDT (EMUS and EC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Dobmann, G.; Salzburger, H.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Airbag pressure vessels for the north-American market mainly are made by forging and by the use of steel alloys. In Europe aluminum alloys are common and the manufacturing process is extrusion of circular blanks - made from cold rolled plates - in a form applying a 100 t press at room temperature. Then by heat treatment the strength/hardness of the material is properly adjusted and after that the pressure vessel parts have to be continuously inspected with an inspection and handling cycle time of 3 s. Inspection of the axis-symmetric parts is asked for surface breaking extrusion defects as well as for surface parallel delaminations in the bulk volume. Furthermore, the material strength is a quality characteristic that has to be nondestructively registered and documented. The inspection is performed by eddy current probes and an EMAT, of which the eddy current impedance measurements are used for surface breaking extrusion defect detection and sizing (single frequency technique with digital locus curve filtering) and strength characterization (3-frequency technique with digital filtering for signal-to-noise enhancement). The bulk delaminations are detected by an EMAT-resonance technique using a spiral eddy current coil and permanent magnets for the EMA-energy transformation. The inspections are performed by singling the parts on a conveying belt, rotating two of them parallel on turntables scanning with the transducers in specially selected circular scan paths. The performance of the system is characterized by a number of 6000 parts per shift in the two time-parallel inspection lines with 3 shifts in 24 hours. The registered quality characteristics are documented by laser writing onto the surface of each part. The emphasis of the contribution is on the presentation and discussion of the safety and economical benefits by process-integrated NDT. (author)

  10. Study of system safety evaluation on LTO of national project. Structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Kunio; Masaki, Koichi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Osakabe, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To assure the structural integrity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is known as one of the critical issues to maintain the safe long-term operation of a nuclear power plant. In Japan, the assessment methods for RPV integrity, stipulated in the codes and standards, have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Authors have initiated extensive research on the improvement of structural integrity assessment methods of RPVs. In this paper, we describe some research results obtained from the first-year activity. These include the study on revisiting the technical background of the methods, such as loading conditions, postulated crack definition, the other evaluation methods. In addition, studies on probabilistic methods for the applicability to the current rules and the standardization of the probabilistic analysis methods have been presented. (author)

  11. 76 FR 14279 - Safety Zone; Todd Pacific Shipyards Vessel Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... from entering or remaining in the safety zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port or a... published. In addition, given the dangers involved with a large slow moving dry dock maneuvering close to... with a large slow moving dry dock maneuvering close to the shore, delaying the effective date of this...

  12. Environmental and economic analysis of an in-vessel food waste composting system at Kean University in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Horowitz, Naomi; Casey, Maeve; Jones, Kimmera

    2017-01-01

    A composting system provides many benefits towards achieving sustainability such as, replacing fertilizer use, increasing the quantity of produce sold, and diverting organic wastes from landfills. This study delves into the many benefits a composting system provided by utilizing an established composting system at Kean University (KU) in New Jersey, as a scale project to examine the composters' environmental and economic impacts. The results from the study showed that composting food wastes in an in-vessel composter when compared to typical disposal means by landfilling, had lower impacts in the categories of fossil fuel, GHG emissions, eutrophication, smog formation and respiratory effects; whereas, its had higher impacts in ozone depletion, acidification human health impacts, and ecotoxicity. The environmental impacts were mainly raised from the manufacturing of the composter and the electricity use for operation. Applying compost to the garden can replace fertilizers and also lock carbon and nutrients in soil, which reduced all of the environmental impact categories examined. In particular, the plant growth and use stage reduced up to 80% of respiratory effects in the life cycle of food waste composting. A cost-benefit analysis showed that the composting system could generate a profit of $13,200 a year by selling vegetables grown with compost to the student cafeteria at Kean and to local communities. When educational and environmental benefits were included in the analysis, the revenue increased to $23,550. The results suggest that in-vessel composting and the subsequent usage of a vegetable garden should be utilized by Universities or food markets that generate intensive food wastes across the U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Design criteria and pressure vessel codes - an American view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuppeny, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    To the pressure vessel designer, codes and criteria represent the common ground where the stress analyst and the metallurgist must interact and evolve rules and procedures which will ensure safety and open-ended responsiveness to technological, economic, and environmental change. The paper briefly discusses the evolution and rationale behind the current ASME code sections -emphasizing those portions applicable to designs operating in the creep range. The author then proposes a plan of action so that the analysts and materials people can make optimum use of time and resources, and evolve data and design criteria which will be responsive to changing technology and the economic and safety requirements of the future. (author)

  14. Quality and safety of agri-food systems: technological and economic innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ragazzi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the evolution of the economical approach to the topics of agri-food product quality and safety with particular attention to the schemes developed at European level. Thus, we wish to underline the forces which identified the insurance and certification systems as innovative tools for quality problem management in agri-food systems and what aspects they allow to manage according to the different needs of the stakeholders. In the last years, the proliferation of these schemes was so strong to considered the recent Iso 22000 Law as a possible solution for the harmonization process. Finally, some aspects of traceability systems are examined, apart from law obligations, identifying important opportunity of differentiation and acquisition of competitive advantages for the organization choosing them.

  15. High-safety and economical small molten-salt fission power stations and their developmental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Mitachi, K.; Minami, K.; Kato, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is not settled yet as one of the sound economical industries. Its establishment should obviously depend on the solution of the following problems: ''natural'' safety (depending on inherent natures), nuclear proliferation resistance - nearly non-production and effective incineration of Pu, Am and Om, universal resource, flexible power-size and excellent economy - wide applicability including Developing Countries. Therefore, some essentially new principles have to introduce in the nuclear energy system design. These are thorium utilization, fluid-fuel concepts, especially molten-fluoride technology, and separation of fissile-breeding and power-generation. This philosophy is named Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THOMSNES]. Its practical development program is presented

  16. Analysis of economics and safety to cope with station blackout in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Shehhi, Ahmed Saeed; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed framework covers all aspects of very complicated decision making. • We addressed the various options against SBO. • Emergency water supply through the steam generator hookup was considered. • Optimal testing interval of EDG was determined in various design options. • Effect of risk aversion factor on decision making was quantitatively illustrated. - Abstract: Design and operation options that can reduce both the initiating event frequency and the accident mitigation probability were addressed in an integrated framework to cope with station blackout. The safety, engineering cost, water delivery cost and testing/maintenance cost of each option were quantitatively evaluated to calculate the cost variation and to find an optimal point in the reference reactor, OPR1000. Design variables that represent additional emergency water supply, diverse emergency diesel generator, and surveillance test period modification were investigated. Based on these design variables, we applied the developed formula to quantify cost items, which were presented as changes of the economics and the safety. A case study was provided to illustrate the change of the total cost. Different risk aversion factors that represent different attitudes of the public were also investigated. The result shows that the costs and benefits of various complicated options can be effectively addressed with the proposed risk-informed decision making framework

  17. Development of an economic skill building intervention to promote women's safety and child development in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Saima Shams; Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Shehzad, Shireen; Ali, Nazbano Ahmed

    2010-02-01

    Violence against women is a global epidemic phenomenon that can result in major mental health problems. Not only are women affected but also the health and well-being of their children are in jeopardy. To prevent violence and promote women's safety, several strategies have been tested in various cultural contexts. This article describes the process of developing and validating an economic skill building intervention for women of an urban slum area of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of the intervention is to increase women's economic independence, promote women's safety, and improve the behavioral functioning of their children.

  18. DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF THE “SHOCKS” INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMIC SAFETY OF MACROREGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Guryanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern forms of integration processes, along with a number of opportunities to obtain synergistic effects by regions, impose additional threats and risks. In particular, such risks include deterioration of trading conditions in partner countries, depreciation of assets, unidirectional reaction to “shocks”. The need to monitor and prevent such specific risks and threats requires an appropriate transformation of economic security systems (RESS of the regions (macroregions. The development of a model basis is one of the ways to increase the RESS functioning efficiency. The basis would allow to analyze dynamic effects of the “shocks” influence; to identify the system components, which at certain stages contribute to an increase in the overall level of economic safety, or, on the contrary, create additional threats. The authors propose a methodical approach to the formation of such a model basis, which is based on the application of principal components method, canonical correlations method, the method of development level, vector autoregressive technologies, vector models of error correction. The proposed methodical approach is implemented on the data of macroregions’ financial security indicators, as one of the dominant components of economic security. The obtained results allowed to reveal the interrelations between the structural components of safety, taking into account long-term relationships, short-term effects and the speed of return to the equilibrium trajectory after the impact of external “shocks” (threats. The developed models of dynamically stable systems have shown that in modern conditions there is a high probability of short-term local crises formation, since the reaction at the time of the “shock” impact often has the character of “explosive” oscillations. The study of dynamically unstable systems models has made it possible to determine the points of bifurcation, the dominant threats, the elimination of which

  19. The role of the safety analysis organization in steam generators replacement and reactor vessel head replacement evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Whee G.; Boatwright, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a major component in a nuclear power plant is replaced, especially the steam generators, the plant operator is presented a rare opportunity to learn from operating experience and significantly improve the performance, reliability and robustness of the plant. In addition to the use of improved materials, improved design margins can be built into the component specification that can later be used to provide meaningful operating margins. A Safety Analysis organization that is well-integrated with other plant organizations and possesses a detailed knowledge of the plant design and licensing bases can effectively balance the wants and needs of each organization to optimize the benefits realized by the plant as a whole. Knowledge of the assumptions, limitations, and available margins, both analytical and operating, can be used to specify a replacement steam generator design that optimizes costs and operating improvements. The work scope required to support the new design can be controlled through carefully selected and evaluated restrictions in operations, development of alternate operating strategies, and imposition of appropriate limitations. The important point is that the effective Safety Analysis organization must possess both the breadth and depth of knowledge of the plant design and operations and proactively use this information to support the replacement steam generator project. (author)

  20. Making the link between radiological assessment, nuclear safety assessment and environmental impact assessment, as applied to unloading of the Lepse spent fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham M.; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Markarov, Valentine G.

    2000-01-01

    Planning and optimisation of radioactive waste management operations is a complicated task involving scientific, technical and social issues. There are many factors which have to be balanced, involving trade-offs such as those between safety now and long term safety; between protection of human health and protection of the environment as a whole; between protection of workers and protection of the public; and between mitigation of risks of major accidents and mitigation of routine low-level but certain to occur risks. Managing the spent fuel currently stored on the Lepse vessel in Murmansk offers as big a challenge as any other in this context. The Russian Federation state regulatory process imposes strict requirements on operators to demonstrate adequate safety, environmental and human health protection. Practically, however, there is little experience in Russia or elsewhere on how to combine all the issues referred to above within an overall assessment that leads to informed decision making. The paper will describe the components of assessment work being considered within the context of the regulatory planning of Lepse unloading operations. The scope will focus on radiation protection issues but also include non-radioactive pollution risks and other safety issues have to be taken into account if a truly optimal allocation and application of resources is to be made. Consideration will be given to radiation worker dose and other health risk assessments for routine operations, safety assessments of special operations such as spent fuel handling; and the radiological and other environmental and human health impacts of planned releases of effluents to the biosphere. The need to identify and collate particular relevant information will discussed and the links between the different components of the overall assessment will be identified with a view to improving the overall effectiveness of the assessment process. The problem of combining all the information coherently

  1. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

  2. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  3. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  4. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  5. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. A classification system for pressure vessel shell failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1989-01-01

    A system for classifying failures of the shells of pressure vessels is presented. The classification system is based on the way a failure physically manifests itself and not on imputed economic or safety significance. It is believed the described way of classifying the failures is useful for transferring information from one situation to another. In assigning names to types of failure, the intention has been to adopt explicit definitions rather than supposed colloquial usage. (author)

  11. In-place thermal annealing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    Radiation embrittlement of ferritic pressure vessel steels increases the ductile-brittle transition temperature and decreases the upper shelf level of toughness as measured by Charpy impact tests. A thermal anneal cycle well above the normal operating temperature of the vessel can restore most of the original Charpy V-notch energy properties. The Amry SM-1A test reactor vessel was wet annealed in 1967 at less than 343 0 C (650 0 F), and wet annealing of the Belgian BR-3 reactor vessel at 343 0 C (650 0 F) has recently taken place. An industry survey indicates that dry annealing a reactor vessel in-place at temperatures as high as 454 0 C (850 0 F) is feasible, but solvable engineering problems do exist. Economic considerations have not been totally evaluated in assessing the cost-effectiveness of in-place annealing of commercial nuclear vessels. An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) task group is upgrading and revising guide ASTM E 509-74 with emphasis on the materials and surveillance aspects of annealing rather than system engineering problems. System safety issues are the province of organizations other than ASTM (e.g., the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code body)

  12. DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL SAFETY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS A COMPLEX ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Ganushchak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to the performance of the evaluation of the financial safety of the enterprise. To achieve the stated aim it has been necessary to solve the following tasks: to use the approaches as to the evaluation of the financial safety of the enterprise, to introduce the analysis system of the financial safety of the enterprise, to consider the structural logical scheme of the analysis procedure of the financial safety of the enterprise, to give the description of the integral indicator of the financial safety of the enterprise; to evaluate and compare companies in the paltry industry according to the level of their financial safety. Methodology. Methodologial basis of the research are the scientific methods, such as : method of logical generalization, dialectical method of recognition of the economic phenomena – to give the definitions of «economic security of the enterprise», «financial security of the enterprise», grouping method, analysis which were used to estimate indicator position of the financial security of the poultry company, graph method which was applied to compare integral estimation of the enterprise;methods of synthesis, deduction, induction, method of the expert estimation to calculate and implement integral marker of the financial security of the poultry company;method of the correlation analysis which was used to identify weight coefficients of the all sided figures of the solvency , business activity, profitability, financial steadiness, pay ability. The priority in methods using was defined by the particular tasks and goals. Results of the research showned into a wide set of the ways of financial enterprise safety as a component of economic security of the state. There is an evaluation of enterprise financial safety on the basis of calculations of integral indicator, including combined indices of profitability (unprofitability, pay ability or the lack of that, business activity (fading, financial

  13. Economic incentives as a policy tool to promote safety and health at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila

    2010-06-01

    Incentives are regarded as a promising policy tool for promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). This article discusses the potential of different kinds of incentives in light of economic theory and evidence from research. When incentives are used as a policy tool, it implies the existance of an institution that has both the interest and the power to apply incentives to stakeholders, usually to employers. Governments can subsidize employers' investments in OSH with subsidies and tax structures. These incentives are successful only if the demand for OSH responds to the change in the price of OSH investments and if the suppliers of OSH are able to increase their production smoothly. Otherwise, the subsidy will only lead to higher prices for OSH goods. Both public and private insurance companies can differentiate insurance premiums according to claim behavior in the past (experience rating). There is evidence that this can effectively lower the frequency of claims, but not the severity of cases. This papers concludes that incentives do not directly lead to improvement. When incentives are introduced, their objective(s) should be clear and the end result (ie what the incentive aims to promote) should be known to be effective in achieving healthy and safe workplaces.

  14. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  15. Report No. 3 -- Background of the factors of safety used in Divisions 1 of Sections III and XI of the ASME rules for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper was prepared in 1984 as a quick background summary of the factors of safety used in the various Code rules as they apply to Class 1 reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). This document should be interpreted as the individual viewpoint of the author on the matters under discussion. The general approach followed is to cite basic reference documents, to lead the reader to the more important aspects which are pertinent to the subject material, and to provide a viewpoint on additional rules which might be either needed or desirable. After a discussion of the differences between Sections 3 and 11 in categorizing the loadings to be considered, the sequence of consideration is as follows: (1) The rules of the code that control initial construction, Section 3, Division (Construction = materials + design + examination + testing + inspection + certification). (2) The rules of Section 3 that specifically affect operation, Appendix G, which forms the basis of the pressure-temperature limits of the Technical Specifications. (3) The rules of Section 11 as they affect ''Acceptance by Examination'' and ''Acceptance by Evaluation''. (4) The special considerations of: (a) Limits for Emergency and Faulted Conditions (b) Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (c) Low Upper-Shelf Energy (USE) Materials (d) Pressure Thermal Shock (PTS)

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced high-power reactor projects of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, U.M.; Philimonova, R.A.; Kichutkina, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced large sized reactors projects (900 MW and more) are submitted in that report: EPR, Frameatome France, Siemens Germany; EP-1000 Westinghouse, USA and Genesi Italy; Candu 9, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; System 80 +, ABB, USA; KNGR, group NSSS Engineering and Development, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc; APWR, Electric Power company, Japan Atomic Power Company, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Westinghouse Electric; and WWER-1000 (V-392), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond

  18. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Installation method for the steel container and vessel of the nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liying; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) has the advantages of inherent safety and better economics, integrated arrangement, full power natural circulation and dual vessel structure. However, the large thin container presents a new and difficult problem. The characteristics of the dual vessel installation method are analyzed with system engineering theory. Since there is no foreign or domestic experience, a new method was developed for the dual vessel installation for the 5 MW NHR. The result shows that the installation method is safe and reliable. The research on the dual vessel installation method has important significance for the design, manufacture and installation of the NHR dual vessel, as well as the industrialization and standardization of the NHR

  1. The safety and effectiveness of different methods of earwax removal: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, A J; Loveman, E; Gospodarevskaya, E; Harris, P; Bird, A; Bryant, J; Scott, D A; Davidson, P; Little, P; Coppin, R

    2010-06-01

    Build-up of earwax is a common reason for attendance in primary care. Current practice for earwax removal generally involves the use of a softening agent, followed by irrigation of the ear if required. However, the safety and benefits of the different methods of removal are not known for certain. To conduct evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the interventions currently available for softening and/or removing earwax and any adverse events (AEs) associated with the interventions. Eleven electronic resources were searched from inception to November 2008, including: The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), PREMEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (OVID), EMBASE (OVID); and CINAHL. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were applied to the full text or retrieved papers and data were extracted by two reviewers using data extraction forms developed a priori. Any differences were resolved by discussion or by a third reviewer. Study criteria included: interventions - all methods of earwax removal available and combinations of these methods; participants - adults/children presenting requiring earwax removal; outcomes - measures of hearing, adequacy of clearance of wax, quality of life, time to recurrence or further treatment, AEs and measures of cost-effectiveness; design - randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) for clinical effectiveness, cohort studies for AEs and cost-effectiveness, and costing studies for cost-effectiveness. For the economic evaluation, a deterministic decision tree model was developed to evaluate three options: (1) the use of softeners followed by irrigation in primary care; (2) softeners followed by self-irrigation; and (3) a 'no treatment' option. Outcomes were assessed in terms of benefits to patients and costs incurred, with costs presented by exploratory cost-utility analysis. Twenty-six clinical trials conducted in primary

  2. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  4. 75 FR 56015 - Vessel Inspection Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 Vessel Inspection Alternatives CFR... Certificate; (ii) International Tonnage Certificate; (iii) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate; (iv) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate; and (v) International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate; and...

  5. *Abstracts - 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium, Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety - November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Heather; Verhoef, Marja J

    2012-10-23

    Abstract The following are abstracts of oral and poster presentations given at the 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium - Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety, and the 4th HomeoNet Research Forum, a pre-Symposium event. The IN-CAM Research Symposium was held November 2 to 4, 2012 at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information, please visit: www.incamresearch.ca.

  6. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for the planning and reporting of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant pressure vessels are presented. The guide specifically applies to inservice inspections of Safety class 1 and 2 nuclear power plant pressure vessels, piping, pumps and valves plus their supports and reactor pressure vessel internals by non- destructive examination methods (NDE). Inservice inspections according to the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/73) are discussed separately in the guide YVL 3.0. (4 refs.)

  8. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  9. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues (Revision 1). Topical report, April-August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powars, C.; Lucher, D.; Moyer, C.; Browning, L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of LNG as a vehicle fuel, to determine market niches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed

  10. Safety and Security Decisions in times of Economic Crisis : Establishing a Competitive Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that organisations who invest intelligently in safety and security, regardless the macroeconomic situation, will have a competitive advantage over their competitors not doing so. Establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage is all about excellence. Excellent results actually

  11. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 89--91)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of Fusion reactors.: Activation Analysis; Tritium Inventory; Environmental and Safety Indices and Their Graphical Representation; Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Decision Analysis; Plasma Burn Control -- Application to ITER; and Other Applications

  12. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIA IN VIEW OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu-Zagar Gilda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety at work has become one of the most substantial and important sectors in the EU social policy over the last years.In Romania, the implementation of health and safety management systems is performed by: a systematic approach to problems, training and awareness, effective and efficient tools for managing a company's specific issues as well as involvement at all its organizational levels.The article deals with the implementation of the management systems for health and safety at work, which complements the enterprises' existing organizational system and promotes enforcement of the legislation regarding health and safety at work.Creating a healthier and safer working environment is a goal that exceeds the resources and expertise of a single institution or a single country.

  13. Earthquake-proof supporting structure in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akio; Sekine, Katsuhisa; Madokoro, Manabu; Katoono, Shin-ichi; Konno, Mutsuo; Suzuki, Takuro.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional earthquake-proof structure comprises a vessel vibration stopper integrated to a reactor vessel, powder for restricting the horizontal displacements, a safety vessel surrounds the outer periphery of the reactor vessel and a safety vessel vibration stopper integrated therewith, which are fixed to buildings. However, there was a problem that a great amount of stresses are generated in the base of the reactor vessel vibration stopper due to reaction of the powders which restrict thermal expansion. In order to remarkably reduce the reaction of the powers, powders are charged into a spaces formed between each of the reactor vessel vibration stopper, the safety vessel vibration stopper and the flexible member disposed between them. According to this constitution, the reactor vessel vibration stopper does not undergo a great reaction of the powers upon thermal expansion of the reactor vessel to moderate the generated stresses, maintain the strength and provide earthquake-proof supporting function. (N.H.)

  14. Resolution of the Task A-11 reactor-vessel materials-toughness safety issue. Part I. Main report. Part II. Staff responses to public comments, and Appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1982-10-01

    This report provides the NRC position with respect to the reactor pressure vessel safety analysis required according to the rules given in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 (10 CFR). An analysis is required whenever neutron irradiation reduces the Charpy V-notch upper shelf energy level in the vessel steel to 50 ft-lb or less. Task A-11 was needed because the available engineering methodology for such an analysis utilized linear elastic fracture mechanics principles, which could not fully account for the plastic deformation or stable crack extension expected at upper shelf temperatures. The Task A-11 goal was to develop an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodology, applicable to the beltline region of a pressurized water reactor vessel, which could be used in the required safety analysis. The goal was achieved with the help of a team of recognized experts. Part I of this volume contains the For Comment NUREG-0744, originally published in September 1981 and edited to accommodate comments from the public and the NRC staff. Edited segments are noted by vertical marginal lines. Part II of this volume contains the staff's responses to, and resolution of, the public comments received

  15. Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels : Towards Improved Safety and Economical Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simanjuntak, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure tunnels for hydropower plants are relatively expensive constructions, particularly when steel linings are used. Concrete linings can be economically attractive; however, their applicability is limited by the low tensile strength of concrete. Techniques to improve the bearing capacity of

  16. Plenary - safety culture and its relationship to economic value in the competitive market: a global perspective. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellman, Michael B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: These are times of great optimism within the nuclear power industry-the likes of which it has not experienced in more than two decades. Increased demand for electricity and continued environmental concerns have highlighted the worldwide need for a sustainable nuclear industry and have opened public dialogue about the possibility of the construction of new nuclear power plants. The recent power crisis in California and power shortages elsewhere have heightened this renewed interest in nuclear power. This new optimism within the industry must be backed by solid public support for the industry to once again flourish. This support will only come from absolute public confidence in the safety of nuclear power and the industry's ability to operate responsibly. Safety and safety culture are the foundation for the future growth of this industry, and thus, it is the overall theme of this conference and the major theme to be addressed by this distinguished slate of plenary speakers. Introductions: Thomas J. Lewis, Director, Administrations, Nuclear Management Company and Assistant General Chair. Welcome and Opening Remarks: James Lake, President, American Nuclear Society, Richard Abdoo, Chair of the Board and CEO, Wisconsin Electric Company. Setting the Stage for Safety Culture and Its Relationship to Economic Value: Michael B. Sellman, General Chair, 2001 Annual Meeting. Presentations: Commissioner Jeffrey Merrifield, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Professor Shunsuke Kondo, University of Tokyo-Japan; David W. Bersoff, Director of the Yankelovich Monitor. (authors)

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  18. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  19. The key role of nuclear energy to strengthen economic safety for France and the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris; Chenu, Anne; Nieuviaert, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication first discusses how to improve the external safety (energy independence) for France. It outlines that nuclear energy is a safety factor for the economy, that France needs to reduce its dependence on fossil energies through an electrification of uses, that imports of fossil energies can be reduced by developing nuclear research. In a second part, it discusses how to improve internal supply safety for France and for the EU. It evokes the crisis situation faced by the European electricity market, outlines the need to invest in existing nuclear production capacities, the need to stabilize the electric system, and to take better advantage of non-carbon energies (possible future technological advances of the energy sector are evoked)

  20. Inland Waterway Environmental Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshnyak, Valery; Sokolov, Sergey; Nyrkov, Anatoliy; Budnik, Vlad

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of development of the main components of the environmental safety when operating vessels on inland waterways, which include strategy selection ensuring the environmental safety of vessels, the selection and justification of a complex of environmental technical means, activities to ensure operation of vessels taking into account the environmental technical means. Measures to ensure environmental safety are developed on the basis of the principles aimed at ensuring environmental safety of vessels. They include the development of strategies for the use of environmental protection equipment, which are determined by the conditions for wastewater treatment of purified sewage and oily bilge water as well as technical characteristics of the vessels, the introduction of the process of the out-of-the-vessel processing of ship pollution as a technology for their movement. This must take into account the operating conditions of vessels on different sections of waterways. An algorithm of actions aimed at ensuring ecological safety of operated vessels is proposed.

  1. Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the Safety of WWER-440/230 NPPs, a list of safety issues requiring broad studies of generic interest have been agreed upon by an Advisory Group who met in Vienna in September 1990. The list was later revised in the light of the programme findings. The information on the status of the issues, and on the amount of work already completed and under way in the various countries, needs to be compiled. Moreover, an evaluation of what further work is required to resolve each one of the issues is also necessary. In view of this, the IAEA has started the preparation of a series of status reports on the various issues. This report on the generic safety issue ''Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement'' presents a comprehensive survey of technical information available in the field and identifies those aspects which require further investigation. 39 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Concept of a Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessel for a Modular High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Bounin, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR) are representing one of the most interesting solutions for the upcoming generation of nuclear technology, especially with view to their inherent safety characteristics. To complete the safety concept of such plants already in the first phase of the technical development, Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessels (PCIV) instead of the established forged steel reactor pressure vessels have been considered under the aspect of safety against bursting. A longterm research and development work, mainly performed in Germany, showed the excellent features of this technical solution. Diverse prototypic vessels were tested and officially proven. Design studies confirmed the feasibility of such a vessel concept also for Light Water Reactor types, too. The main concept elements of such a burst-proof vessel are: Strength and tightness functions are structurally separated. The tensile forces are carried by the prestressing systems consisting of a large number of independent wires. Compressive forces are applied to the vessel walls and heads. These are segmented into blocks of ductile cast iron. All cast iron blocks are prestressed to high levels of compression. The sealing function is assigned to a steel liner fixed to the cast iron blocks. The prestressing system is designed for an ultimate pressure of 2.3 times the design pressure. The prestress of the lids is designed for gapping at a much smaller pressure. Therefore, a drop of pressure will always occur before loss of strength (“leakage before failure”). In addition to these safety features further technical as well as economic aspects generate favorable assessment criteria: high design flexibility, feasibility of large vessel diameters; advantageous conditions for transport, assembly and decommissioning due to the segmented construction; advantage of workshop manufacturing; high-level quality control of components. Nowadays, considering the globally newly standardized safety requirements

  3. Historical summary of the heavy-section steel technology program and some related activities in light-water reactor pressure vessel safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, G.D.

    1986-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program and other programs having a close relationship to the development of information used in the assessment of light-water reactor pressure vessel integrity are reviewed. The early Pressure Vessel Research Committee planning, the principals contributing to program formulation, the role of the US Atomic Energy Commission, and the developments under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship are identified. The need for major research and development accomplishments in fracture mechanics, heavy-section steel procurement, materials properties, irradiation effects, fatigue crack growth, and structural testing are summarized. The impact of program results on regulatory issues and the development of data used in the preparation of codes, standards, and guides are discussed. Continuing activities and recommendations for future research and development in support of pressure vessel integrity assessments are presented

  4. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  5. How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using qualitative data collected from fifty-eight African American grandmothers raising grandchildren in skipped-generation households (SGHs, I reveal how and why women in non-normative families, lacking legal protections and publicly recognized authority as parents, must negotiate risk in pursuit of resources. I demonstrate that these grandmothers struggle for economic survival while seeking simultaneously to minimize the risk of losing their grandchildren and maximize their chances of receiving public assistance. I argue that grandmothers in SGHs face significant challenges obtaining government benefits owing to policy eligibility guidelines, street-level implementation, and family dynamics. Ultimately, I illustrate how the severe deprivation experienced by these grandmothers is exacerbated by their exclusion from safety net programs that could help them support the children in their care.

  6. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 92--94). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This is the Final Report for a three-year (FY 92--94) study of the Environmental, Safety, and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion energy systems, emphasizing development of computerized approaches suitable for incorporation as modules in fusion system design codes. First, as is reported in Section 2, the authors now have operating a simplified but complete environment and safety evaluation code, BESAFE. The first tests of BESAFE as a module of the SUPERCODE, a design optimization systems code at LLNL, are reported in Section 3. Secondly, as reported in Section 4, the authors have maintained a strong effort in developing fast calculational schemes for activation inventory evaluation. In addition to these major accomplishments, considerable progress has been made on research on specific topics as follows. A tritium modeling code TRIDYN was developed in collaboration with the TSTA group at LANL and the Fusion Nuclear Technology group at UCLA. A simplified algorithm has been derived to calculate the transient temperature profiles in the blanket during accidents. The scheme solves iteratively a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing about 10 regions of the blanket by preserving energy balance. The authors have studied the physics and engineering aspects of divertor modeling for safety applications. Several modifications in the automation and characterization of environmental and safety indices have been made. They have applied this work to the environmental and safety comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors. A methodology in decision analysis utilizing influence and decision diagrams has been developed to model fusion reactor design problems. Most of the work during this funding period has been reported in 26 publications including theses, journal publications, conference papers, and technical reports, as listed in Section 11

  7. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  8. The importance of servicing for the safety and economic efficiency of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1991-01-01

    Experience-oriented preventive maintenance is the central and decisive instrument for plant safety. Preventive maintenance, in the overriding sense of the entire system consisting of man and machine, is identical with service. Such service must be readily available, efficient, purposeful, innovative and of high quality. The high quality of German nuclear power plants and their reliability are the result of a constructive cooperation between producer, supplier, service enterprise and operator. (DG) [de

  9. Safety Margins and Their Economical Value in a De-regulated Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The definition of safety margins is sometimes ambiguous. Depending on assumptions used to evaluate the evolution of plant parameters and on acceptance criteria, the same design could well turn out to have positive, zero, or negative margin for the same operating situation. Very often, considering that an optimized reactor would have to operate with zero margin compared to at least one safety criterion, designers or utilities considered in their analyses penalizing assumptions. This was done for example either considering reduced component capability or very high core peaking factors, the latter generally exceeding by far what would be anticipated in perturbed situations. This approach has three major drawbacks: -having a reasonable understanding of the real importance of safety margins is difficult, -if a non-conservatism is identified in a methodology, there is a high risk of being in a no-compliance situation from a regulatory standpoint, -it leads to a limitation on allowable electrical output and constraints on technical specifications for example. In a regulated market, such a situation can be tolerable as the final customer has to pay the extra financial burden in any case. In a de-regulated market, the situation is significantly different. The final customer can choose his supplier, and is likely to go to those offering the best prices, i.e. those making optimal use of their available resources. There is so a need for better understanding of real plant capabilities. Revisiting assumptions used for evaluating safety margins is so highly recommended, if not imperative, to electricity companies. This will helpful to reshape company strategies in case of evolution of market conditions. (author)

  10. Efficacy, safety, and economics of bracing after spine surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mary P; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Sorefan-Mangou, Fatimah; Garwood, Philip; Wilson, Jefferson R

    2018-01-31

    Bracing is often used after spinal surgery to immobilize the spine, improve fusion, and relieve pain. However, controversy exists regarding the efficacy, necessity, and safety of various bracing techniques in the postsurgical setting. In this systematic review, we aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of postoperative bracing versus no postoperative bracing after spinal surgery in patients with several common operative spinal pathologies. A systematic review was carried out to compare postoperative bracing and no postoperative bracing. A systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from 1970 to May 2017, supplemented by manual searching of the reference list of relevant studies and previously published reviews. Studies were included if they compared disability, quality of life, functional impairment, radiographic outcomes, cost-effectiveness, or complications between patients treated with postoperative bracing and patients not receiving any postoperative bracing. Each article was critically appraised independently by two reviewers, and the overall body of evidence was rated using guidelines outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. Of the 858 retrieved citations, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review, consisting of 4 randomized controlled trials and 1 prospective cohort study. Low to moderate evidence suggests that there are no significant differences in most measures of disability, pain, quality of life, functional impairment, radiographic outcomes, and safety between groups. Isolated studies reported statistically significant and inconsistent differences between groups with respect to Neck Disability Index at 6 weeks postoperatively or Short Form-36 Physical Component Score at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Based on limited evidence, postoperative bracing does not result in improved

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Life Management - Challenges and Proposal for a Unified Model Integrating Safety and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, Paolo; Elsing, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In recent years many electric utilities and nuclear power plants adopted policies for improved coordination of both safety and non-safety programs, called plant life management (PLIM), also in view on plant life extension programs, but mainly for an optimisation of operating costs. The implementation of PLIM programs has followed many different approaches, being intrinsically dependent on the national regulatory framework and technical traditions. In Countries with some experience, the PLIM program proved very convenient, especially when coupled with Maintenance, Surveillance an Inspection (MS and I) optimization: average savings are reported in the range of 20-30% of total (maintenance) costs. A unified European model for PLIM was developed at the JRC-Institute for Energy with the support of a network of stakeholders (SENUF), and validated at some EU nuclear plants. This paper provides a summary of the model features, the result of its validation at some plants and summarises the perceived scientific/technological challenges on which JRC proposes to focus, based upon its competencies and skills, having in mind both the European and world-wide context and its potential evolution. (author)

  12. Case Study on Economic Return on Investments for Safety and Emergency Lighting in Road Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While planning a double-hole road tunnel with a length higher than one km, it is important to pay attention to the safety factor if an accident occurs. If there is a power outage, in order to avoid critical situations that could jeopardize the safety of the people present (facilitating the stream coming out from the tunnel and the arrival of the emergency personnel, it is really important to guarantee uninterrupted lighting of roadways, mandatory emergency lay-bys, and ways of escape. Uninterrupted service of the lighting systems supply must be guaranteed, in accordance with the current regulations, through the exertion of UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply and power units. During tunnel construction, such devices represent a cost that must be amortized. In this case study, which takes into consideration a section of a road tunnel characterized by emergency lay-bys and ways of escape, emergency and security lighting were planned and installation and management costs were evaluated. The goal of this research was the creation of a cash flow thanks to the energy generated by photovoltaic panels, in a way that the service life of the system (25 years coincided with the amortization of the costs of the backup electrical equipment installation (complying with the regulations. The possibility of over-dimensioning the UPS and providing it with a proper photovoltaic panel surface (235 kWp to generate and exchange electric energy with the grid was taken into consideration.

  13. Economic justification of costs at inspection of industrial safety of high-rise marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibin, Pavel; Ol'khovik, Evgeniy; Rastorguev, Igor

    2018-03-01

    The task of technical and economic regulation within mutual international recognition of testing laboratories are considered. Codes and procedures within requirements of international ISO/IEC standards of a series 17000 for elimination of non-tariff barriers and interlaboratory exchange of experts in the field of high-rise marine construction are considered. In paper, the methods of assessment of formation of economically justified cost of works at inspection and monitoring of technical condition of high-rise marine wharf engineering port structure based on settlement and actual labor input were applied. For the countries of EU, data on the average cost of works of testing laboratory within a week have been taken as a basis. Such approach will be objective as considers only expenses on obligatory actions in the course of inspection of technical condition of port engineering constructions. The analysis of public results of financial activities of the accredited organizations allowed to calculate the main indicators of the size of necessary profit and overheads at observance of all requirements imposed to test laboratories including taking into account their future technical development. The offered practice corresponds to the general direction by mutual international recognition of independent testing laboratories and can be use in the future.

  14. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. 2011 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. 2013 Pleasure Craft and Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. 2011 Pleasure Craft Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. Economic benefits of safety-engineered sharp devices in Belgium - a budget impact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanmore, Emma; Maclaine, Grant; Garin, Fiona; Alonso, Alexander; Leroy, Nicolas; Ruff, Lewis

    2013-11-25

    Measures to protect healthcare workers where there is risk of injury or infection from medical sharps became mandatory in the European Union (EU) from May 2013. Our research objective was to estimate the net budget impact of introducing safety-engineered devices (SEDs) for prevention of needlestick injuries (NSIs) in a Belgian hospital. A 5-year incidence-based budget impact model was developed from the hospital inpatient perspective, comparing costs and outcomes with SEDs and prior-used conventional (non-safety) devices. The model accounts for device acquisition costs and costs of NSI management in 4 areas of application where SEDs are currently used: blood collection, infusion, injection and diabetes insulin administration. Model input data were sourced from the Institut National d'Assurance Maladie-Invalidité, published studies, clinical guidelines and market research. Costs are discounted at 3%. For a 420-bed hospital, 100% substitution of conventional devices by SEDs is estimated to decrease the cumulative 5-year incidence of NSIs from 310 to 75, and those associated with exposure to blood-borne viral diseases from 60 to 15. Cost savings from managing fewer NSIs more than offset increased device acquisition costs, yielding estimated 5-year overall savings of €51,710. The direction of these results is robust to a range of sensitivity and model scenario analyses. The model was most sensitive to variation in the acquisition costs of SEDs, rates of NSI associated with conventional devices, and the acquisition costs of conventional devices. NSIs are a significant potential risk with the use of sharp devices. The incidence of NSIs and the costs associated with their management can be reduced through the adoption of safer work practices, including investment in SEDs. For a Belgian hospital, the budget impact model reports that the incremental acquisition costs of SEDs are offset by the savings from fewer NSIs. The availability of more robust data for NSI reduction

  19. Utilization of new feeding technology in power production from biomass; safety aspects and techno-economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Safety-technical characteristics of fuels, primarily biomass and, as reference, coal, have been studied at VTT Energy since the year 1993. The work has been related mainly to the development work of feeding and handling systems for pressurised gasification and combustion technology. Dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics of fuels have been determined in a number of research projects. Possible prevention of dust explosions with a suppression method immediately at ignition was studied in a project on suppression of dust explosions in biomass-utilising plants (Bioenergia Programme 1995). The first phase of dust explosion and suppression tests at elevated pressure were carried out in testing equipment of 5,6 m{sup 3} constructed, in particular, for these tests in Great Britain. Tests were made both with coal and wood powders by Coal Technology Development Division (British Coal Corporation) and Kidde Fire Protection. At the first stage of the test programme both coal and wood powder explosions were successfully suppressed at 10 bar pressure level. The current 1997-98 project includes the second phase of the explosion suppression tests, which will be carried out at 18 bar. If successful these tests would enable the extrapolation of the operation values to the pressure level of IGCC plants, i.e. to 20 - 25 bar. The boundary conditions set by safety factors on the design of pressurised (and atmospheric) feeding systems are fairly well-known due to data obtained from dust explosion and self-ignition experiments and from dust explosion suppression tests. The overall aim of the research is to compare pressurised system alternatives based primarily on lock-hopper feeding technology both technically and economically. A significant issue is how to arrange pressurisation and sufficient inertisation. New alternatives to produce inert gas will be assessed. The newest equipment, plug screw and piston feeders under development, will also be included in the study. The

  20. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  1. WWER-440/230 reactor pressure vessel integrity. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report was prepared with the objective of integrating all aspects involved and to provide plant specific information on the issue of reactor pressure vessel integrity including pressurized thermal shock assessment. Areas of the thermal hydraulic analysis including selection of transients, of the structural analysis including fracture mechanics assessment and of the material properties including embrittlement, annealing and re-embrittlement behaviour are addressed. The report also provides related recommendations and conclusions as well as detailed information on the plant specific status for operating WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. 10 refs, 9 figs, 9 tabs

  2. Passive safety systems for decay heat removal of MRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, M; Iida, H; Hoshi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Ship System Lab.

    1996-12-01

    The MRX (marine Reactor X) is an advanced marine reactor, its design has been studied in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is characterized by four features, integral type PWR, in-vessel type control rod drive mechanisms, water-filled containment vessel and passive decay heat removal system. A water-filled containment vessel is of great advantage since it ensures compactness of a reactor plant by realizing compact radiation shielding. The containment vessel also yields passive safety of MRX in the event of a LOCA by passively maintaining core flooding without any emergency water injection. Natural circulation of water in the vessels (reactor and containment vessels) is one of key factors of passive decay heat removal systems of MRX, since decay heat is transferred from fuel rods to atmosphere by natural circulation of the primary water, water in the containment vessel and thermal medium in heat pipe system for the containment vessel water cooling in case of long terms cooling after a LOCA as well as after reactor scram. Thus, the ideal of water-filled containment vessel is considered to be very profitable and significant in safety and economical point of view. This idea is, however, not so familiar for a conventional nuclear system, so experimental and analytical efforts are carried out for evaluation of hydrothermal behaviours in the reactor pressure vessel and in the containment vessel in the event of a LOCA. The results show the effectiveness of the new design concept. Additional work will also be conducted to investigate the practical maintenance of instruments in the containment vessel. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Experimental study of laminar and turbulent flame speed of a spherical flame in a fan-stirred closed vessel for hydrogen safety application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulier, J. [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) (France); Chaumeix, N., E-mail: chaumeix@cnrs-orleans.fr [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Halter, F. [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Meynet, N.; Bentaïb, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) (France)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to report new experimental results on the effect of turbulence on the propagation speed of hydrogen/air flames. To do so, a new experimental setup, called the spherical bomb, has been designed and built at CNRS-ICARE laboratory. With this new setup, the effect of a given and well-characterized turbulence intensity on the increase of hydrogen/air flame speed can be investigated. This new facility consists of a spherical vessel equipped (563 mm internal diameter) equipped with 8 motors which are linked to fans inside the bomb. Fan actuation induces the generation of a turbulent flow inside the vessel prior to any ignition. The spherical bomb is equipped with 4 quartz windows (200 mm optical diameter) that allow the use of a Particle Image Velocimetry diagnostic in order to characterize the turbulence level inside the bomb. The flame propagation was recorded using a high speed camera at 19,002 frames per second. These experiments were performed for lean to stoichiometric hydrogen/air mixtures (16–20% of H{sub 2} in air), initially at ambient temperature and pressure, and for a rotation speed from 1000 to 5000 rpm. The PIV measurements showed that a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is created with a fluctuation speed that can reach 4 m/s at 5000 rpm.

  4. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  5. Safety and feasibility of performing staged non-culprit vessel percutaneous coronary intervention within the index hospitalization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Joshua P.; Kitabata, Hironori; Torguson, Rebecca; Satler, Lowell F.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Suddath, William O.; Pichard, Augusto D.; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the same hospitalization as primary PCI is safe. Background: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel disease undergoing primary PCI, staged non-culprit vessel PCI at a separate session is recommended. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 282 consecutive STEMI patients with multivessel disease who underwent primary PCI followed by staged PCI of the non-culprit vessel. Patients were categorized into staged PCI in the same hospitalization (n = 184) and staged PCI at a separate hospitalization within 8 weeks of primary PCI (n = 98). Results: Baseline characteristics, presentation of STEMI, and procedural characteristics were similar in both groups. Contrast amount was higher in the separate hospitalization group for both index (175 vs. 153 ml, p = 0.011) and staged (144 vs. 120 ml, p = 0.004) procedures. More staged left main PCI was performed in the separate hospitalization group (3.9 vs. 0.3%, p = 0.008). Angiographic success of staged PCI was similar in both groups, with similar rates of vascular complications and major bleeding. Following staged PCI, in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (3.3 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.43) and mortality (2.7 vs. 0%, p = 0.17) were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Our study supports the safety and feasibility of staged PCI within the same hospitalization as primary PCI, achieving similar procedural success and in-hospital outcomes as staged PCI at a separate hospitalization. Higher contrast amount used during primary PCI and presence of left main lesion in non-culprit vessels may influence the decision to stage the PCI at a separate hospitalization

  6. Japan's Energy Policy in a Post-3/11 World Juggling Safety, Sustainability and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hikaru

    2014-09-01

    this year, the cabinet adopted an updated Strategic Energy Plan aimed at reducing reliance on nuclear power as much as possible and building a flexible, diversified, multilevel supply-and-demand structure. Many challenges remain to be overcome, however, such as accelerating the use of renewable energy, securing stable and lower-cost sources of fossil fuels, holding down rising electricity costs, and overcoming opposition to restarting nuclear power plants. Challenges related to the liberalization and un-bundling of Japan's power sector are also a lingering cause for concern. The problems that emerged in the aftermath of 3/11 exposed the existing electricity system's deep vulnerability. Sweeping reforms will be needed to overhaul this system and reduce reliance on nuclear power by diversifying energy sources. Electricity system reform will thus be of vital importance. Such reforms will be advanced in a three-stage process under the April 2013 Policy on Electricity System Reform. However this scheme seems imperfect at best and a number of lingering concerns remain regarding its consistency and efficiency. Electricity system reform is indispensable to rebuilding Japan's post-Fukushima energy policy and ensuring the success of the Abenomics program of economic growth. Japan must thus carry out drastic electricity system reforms, without being swayed by vested interests. (author)

  7. The atmospheric corrosion: an important technical-economic and nuclear safety factor during storage in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Galeano, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the research performed to determine the atmospheric corrosion in the region of Juragua nuclear power plant and to offer some practical recommendations to increase the efficiency during the storage of materials, considering technical-economic and nuclear safety aspects

  8. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  9. Delivering an empowerment intervention to a remote Indigenous child safety workforce: Its economic cost from an agency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M; McCalman, Janya; Jacups, Susan; Tsey, Komla; Lines, Katrina; Smith, Kieran; Searles, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    The Family Wellbeing (FWB) program applies culturally appropriate community led empowerment training to enhance the personal development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in life skills. This study sought to estimate the economic cost required to deliver the FWB program to a child safety workforce in remote Australian communities. This study was designed as a retrospective cost description taken from the perspective of a non-government child safety agency. The target population were child protection residential care workers aged 24 or older, who worked in safe houses in five remote Indigenous communities and a regional office during the study year (2013). Resource utilization included direct costs (personnel and administrative) and indirect or opportunity costs of participants, regarded as absence from work. The total cost of delivering the FWB program for 66 participants was $182,588 ($2766 per participant), with 45% ($82,995) of costs classified as indirect (i.e., opportunity cost of participants time). Training cost could be further mitigated (∼30%) if offered on-site, in the community. The costs for offering the FWB program to a remotely located workforce were high, but not substantial when compared to the recruitment cost required to substitute a worker in remote settings. An investment of $2766 per participant created an opportunity to improve social and emotional wellbeing of remotely located workforce. This cost study provided policy relevant information by identifying the resources required to transfer the FWB program to other remote locations. It also can be used to support future comparative cost and outcome analyses and add to the evidence base around the cost-effectiveness of empowerment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermofluid experiments for Fusion Reactor Safety. Visualization of exchange flows through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Sadao; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1997-01-01

    Exchange flow rates through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA (Loss of VAcuum event) conditions were measured quantitatively by using a preliminary LOVA apparatus and exchange flow patterns over the breach were visualized qualitatively by smoke. Velocity distributions in the exchange flows were predicted from the observed flow patterns by using the correlation method in the flow visualization procedures. Mean velocities calculated from the predicted velocity distributions at the outside of the breach were in good agreement with the LOVA experimental results when the exchange flow velocities were low. It was found that the present flow visualization and the image processing system might be an useful procedure to evaluate the exchange flow rates. (author)

  11. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This... lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  12. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.

    1995-01-01

    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  15. Economic Analysis of Kiva VCF Treatment System Compared to Balloon Kyphoplasty Using Randomized Kiva Safety and Effectiveness Trial (KAST) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Douglas P; Olan, Wayne J; Kakad, Priyanka; Li, Qianyi; Hornberger, John

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common osteoporotic fractures and cause persistent pain, kyphotic deformity, weight loss, depression, reduced quality of life, and even death. Current surgical approaches for the treatment of VCF include vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BK). The Kiva® VCF Treatment System (Kiva System) is a next-generation alternative surgical intervention in which a percutaneously introduced nitinol Osteo Coil guidewire is advanced through a deployment cannula and subsequently a PEEK Implant is implanted incrementally and fully coiled in the vertebral body. The Kiva System's effectiveness for the treatment of VCF has been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial, the Kiva Safety and Effectiveness Trial (KAST). The Kiva System was non-inferior to BK with respect to pain reduction (70.8% vs. 71.8% in Visual Analogue Scale) and physical function restoration (38.1 % vs. 42.2% reduction in Oswestry Disability Index) while using less bone cement. The economic impact of the Kiva system has yet to be analyzed. To analyze hospital resource use and costs of the Kiva System over 2 years for the treatment of VCF compared to BK. A representative US hospital. Economic analysis of the KAST randomized trial, focusing on hospital resource use and costs. The analysis was conducted from a hospital perspective and utilized clinical data from KAST as well as unit-cost data from the published literature. The cost of initial VCF surgery, reoperation cost, device market cost, and other medical costs were compared between the Kiva System and BK. The relative risk reduction rate in adjacent-level fracture with Kiva [31.6% (95% CI: -22.5%, 61.9%)] demonstrated in KAST was used in this analysis. With 304 vertebral augmentation procedures performed in a representative U.S. hospital over 2 years, the Kiva System will produce a direct medical cost savings of $1,118 per patient and $280,876 per hospital. This cost saving with the Kiva

  16. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  17. The Coast Guard Proceedings of the Marine Safety and Security Council. Volume 72, Number 4, Winter 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    National Drug Threat Assessment reported that the annual economic cost of controlled prescription drug non-medical use (use beyond that of...scenario: On a clear Tuesday eve- ning, an outbound small coastal freight ship collides with an inbound offshore supply vessel while navigating a bend...NMCProceedings@uscg.mil Website: www.uscg.mil/proceedings Safety Management Systems Waterways: America’s Economic Engine Recreational Boating Safety i

  18. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  19. Protecting nuclear power plants. Chapter 2. On the importance of the security and safety of the reactor pressure vessel to external threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Debarberis, L.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have blong been recognized as potential targets of terrorist attacks, and critics have long questioned the adequacy of the existing measures to defend against such attacks. The 11-S 2001, 11-M 2004 and 7-J 2005 attacks in USA, Spain and UK illustrated the deadly intention and abilities of modern terrorist groups. These attacks also brought to surface long standing concerns about the vulnerability of nuclear installations to possible terrorist attacks. Commercial nuclear reactors contain large inventory of radioactive fission products which, if dispersed, could pose a direct radiation hazard on the population. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV), which contains the nuclear fuel, is the most critical component of the plant. This paper shows that small amount of explosive material can produce irreversible damage in the RPV and the release of radioactive material. Therefor, access of working personal to the vicinity of the RPV during the refuelling outage should be stricktly limited. It should be considered a high priority security issue

  20. Measures to ensure economic safety of the system of state regulation of social and economic development by the example of the Voronezh region and AO concern "Constellation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of competitiveness and socio-economic development of Russia and its regions are impossible without ensuring economic security of enterprises of all sectors of the economy and forms of ownership, which is especially important in the face of economic sanctions and the negative impact of global economic crises. The program of social and economic development is a unique strategy of the region, focused on security and optimization of the spatial structure and relations between the center and the regions in order to ensure economic security, growth through the most effective use of existing internal and external factors. The institutional influence of the state in order to improve the economic security of regions and enterprises occurs palliatively when the business of the region is supported in direct (subsidies, and more often indirectly (compliance with the laws and regulations of the Russian Federation and the region on the principles of institutional and market synergies. Adaptation of enterprises in the region to the market is difficult, when specific socio-organizational, economic, technical and technological, scientific, information activities in their interrelations function in the field of Russian laws. The search for ways to improve the economic security of the Russian Federation, regions and enterprises takes place in the context of global integration through the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation. An important task of the current stage of economic security of the country and regions is the construction of a system of its institutional organization that would be able to balance the levers of government with the opportunities of private enterprises, provide a quality level of providing the business with protection from terrorism, predation, financial risks, legal competition and.

  1. Annealing the reactor vessel at the Palisades Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the way of background, Palisades was licensed in 1967 and went commercial in 1971. Jumping to two years ago, we faced at that time three issues that challenged our ability to operate to end-of-license, which would be 2007 without any extensions. The three items were regulatory performance, economic performance, and reactor vessel embrittlement. We had not been operating the plant with the kind of conservative decisions and with the kind of safety margins that one is expected to operate a plant in the United States at this time. Our economic performance was not satisfactory in that our capacity factor was low and our costs high. In the area of reactor vessel embrittlement, our analysis showed that we would reach the NRC screening criteria for embrittlement in the year 2004. Over the last two years, we have made significant improvements in the first two areas. Our decision-making has changed. Our performance, especially over the last year and a half, has been excellent. In addition, we have gotten our capacity factors up and our costs under control. Clearly, sustained performance is what is going to carry the day but from what we can see and from where we are, we are in more of a maintenance-of-performance than in a turn-around situation. On the other hand, in the area of reactor vessel embrittlement, about a year and a half ago we had a bit of a setback. We had taken material from retired steam generators that had welds identical to the welds in our reactor vessel. When we analyzed the welds from our steam generators, we were given some surprises about the chemistry makeup. When we applied the new information to our analysis, we changed the date on which we would reach our screening criteria from 2004 to late 1999

  2. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  3. Annual report on Reactor Safety Research Projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 1999. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index'' of the CEC (commission of the European communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.)

  4. Modelling of in-vessel retention after relocation of corium into the lower plenum - Evaluation of the temperature field and of the viscoplastic deformation of the vessel wall. Reactor safety research, project No.:150 1254 - Final report; Beitrag zur Modellierung der Schmelzerueckhaltung im RDB nach Verlagerung von Corium in das untere Plenum - Berechnung des Temperaturfeldes und der viskoplastischen Verformung der Behaelterwand. Reaktorsicherheitsforschung, Vorhaben-Nr.: 150 1254 - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstadt, E.; Willschuetz, H.G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) a possible failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its failure time has to be investigated for a determination of the loadings on the containment. Several experiments have been performed accompanied with material properties evaluation, theoretical, and numerical work. At the Institute Of Safety Research of the FZR a finite element model has been developed simulating the thermal processes and the viscoplastic behaviour of the vessel wall. An advanced model for creep and material damage has been established and has been validated using experimental data. The thermal hydraulic and the mechanical calculations are sequentially and recursively coupled. The model is capable of evaluating fracture time and fracture position of a vessel with an internally heated melt pool. The model was applied to pre- and post test calculations for the FOREVER test series representing the RPV of a PWR in the scale of 1:10. These experiments were performed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. The results of the calculations can be summarised as follows: The creeping process is caused by the simultaneous presence of high temperature (>600 C) and pressure (>1 MPa). The hot focus region is the most endangered zone exhibiting the highest creep strain rates. The exact level of temperature and pressure has an influence on the vessel failure time but not on the failure position. The failure time can be predicted with an uncertainty of 20 to 25%. This uncertainty is caused by the large scatter and the high temperature sensitivity of the viscoplastic properties of the RPV steel. Contrary to the hot focus region, the lower centre of the vessel head exhibits a higher strength because of the lower temperatures in this zone. The lower part moves down without significant deformation. Therefore it can be assumed, that the vessel failure can be retarded or prevented by supporting this range. The

  5. Differential use of danger and safety signals in an animal model of anxiety vulnerability: The behavioral economics of avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Kevin M; Fortress, Ashley M; Pang, Kevin C H

    2018-03-02

    Differential processing of danger and safety signals may underlie symptoms of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. One symptom common to these disorders is pathological avoidance. The present study examined whether danger and safety signals influence avoidance differently in anxiety-vulnerable Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. SD and WKY rats were tested in a novel progressive ratio avoidance task with and without danger or safety signals. Two components of reinforcement, hedonic value and motivation, were determined by fitting an exponentiated demand equation to the data. Hedonic value of avoidance did not differ between SD and WKY rats, but WKY rats had greater motivation to avoid than SD rats. Removal of the safety signal reduced motivation to avoid in SD, but not WKY, rats. Removal of the danger signal did not alter avoidance in either strain. When danger and safety signals were presented simultaneously, WKY rats responded to the danger signals, whereas SD rats responded to the safety signal. The results provide evidence that 1) safety signals enhance motivation to avoid in SD rats, 2) both danger and safety signals influence motivation in WKY rats, and 3) danger signals take precedence over safety signals when presented simultaneously in WKY rats. Thus, anxiety vulnerability is associated with preferential use of danger signals to motivate avoidance. The differential use of danger and safety signals has important implications for the etiology and treatment of pathological avoidance in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. ITER vacuum vessel design and electromagnetic analysis on in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.; Iizuka, T.

    1995-01-01

    Major functional requirements for the vacuum vessel are to provide the first safety barrier and to support electromagnetic loads due to plasma disruptions and vertical displacement events, and to withstand plausible accidents without losing confinement. A double wall structure concept has been developed for the vacuum vessel due to its beneficial characteristics from the viewpoints of structural integrity and electrical continuity. An electromagnetic analysis of the blanket modules and the vacuum vessel has been performed to investigate force distributions on in-vessel components. According to the vertical displacement events (VDE) scenario, which assumes a critical q-value of 1.5, the total downward vertical force, induced by coupling between the eddy current and external fields, is about 110 MN. We have performed a stress analysis for the vacuum vessel using the VDE disruption forces acting on the blankets, and a maximum stress intensity of 112 MPa was obtained in the vicinity of the lower support of the vessel. (orig.)

  7. The future of nuclear power after Sizewell B. 3 v.: v. 1 Economic issues; v. 2 Environmental and safety issues; v. 3 Public perception issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The three days of conference proceedings are published in three separate volumes. The first includes 7 papers relating to economic issues - those presented at the Sizewell-B public inquiry and the changes in the economic situation since the inquiry ended. The electricity demand, how this demand is to be met by nuclear and other fuel sources and how energy conservation might be an economic alternative to simply building more generating capacity are all issues discussed. The possible privatisation of the industry is also touched on. Volume two has 8 papers concerned with environmental and safety issues. These include the influence of the Sizewell-B decision on nuclear licensing and reactor safety, the technical and safety aspects of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the roles of British Nuclear Fuels and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and radiation protection and effluent discharge control. The six papers in volume 3 look at public perception issues - not only towards nuclear power but towards the public inquiry process. The local authority view, the Friends of the Earth case against the PWR, and technical expertise in the decision process are also topics covered. All the papers are indexed separately. (UK)

  8. Prevention of Biofouling in Hydrocarbons by Antimicrobial Vessel and Pipeline Coating for Cost Savings and an Increase in Safety and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lackner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are prone to bacterial and fungal contamination. Bacteria and fungi live and proliferate in water droplets within the fuels and on surfaces surrounding them. This can cause corrosion in oil exploration and production, clogging of fuel lines in aviation and higher emissions in diesel combustion engines to state few examples. State-of-the-art is the addition of biocides to fuels, which is associated with several disadvantages like costs and environmental burden. A novel technology to prevent biofouling in hydrocarbons is presented here. By applying an anti-microbial coating to the surfaces of hydrocarbon processing units, pipelines, and fuel containers, microbial growth can effectively be reduced. The coating can be a paint or varnish, for instance, epoxy resin as already used in aircraft fuel tanks to today. It contains transition metal oxides, thus an acidic surface is produced. This acidic surface was shown to eliminate up to 109 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU.ml-1 of bacteria of the species of agrobacterium tumefaciens and others in diesel, kerosene, and biodiesel, where other anti-microbial coatings based on silver did not perform. The technology has the potential to bring huge cost savings to the oil and gas industry, alongside an increase in safety and equipment reliability.

  9. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  10. Improvement to reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The vessel described includes a prestressed concrete vessel containing a chamber and a removable cover closing this chamber. The cover is in concrete and is kept in its closed position by main and auxiliary retainers, comprising fittings integral with the concrete of the vessel. The auxiliary retainers pass through the concrete of the cover. This improvement may be applied to BWR, PWR and LMFBR type reactor vessel [fr

  11. Efficacy and Safety of REVIVE SE Thrombectomy Device for Acute Ischemic Stroke: River JAPAN (Reperfuse Ischemic Vessels with Endovascular Recanalization Device in Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Ota, Shinzo; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Rei; Satow, Tetsu; Kubo, Michiya; Tsumoto, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Yukiko; Kataoka, Taketo; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Todo, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Ito, Yasushi; Sugiu, Kenji; Matsumaru, Yuji; Yoshimura, Shinichi

    2018-04-15

    REVIVE SE (REVIVE) is a closed-ended, self-expanding stent retriever used in the RIVER JAPAN study. We present our early experience with REVIVE for revascularization of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients who have failed or are ineligible for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment. This prospective, single-arm, non-randomized, multicenter registry study followed up patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy with REVIVE for 90 days. The primary endpoint was a post-procedure Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score ≥2a. Secondary endpoints were clot migration/embolization; recanalization without symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at 24 h; symptomatic ICH; good neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score decrease ≥10) at day 90; device- or procedure-related serious adverse events (SAEs) and mortality at day 90. To confirm non-inferiority of REVIVE, results were compared with historical data of the Merci Retriever. About 49 patients were enrolled (median age 73 years; males 46.9%; middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 83.7%; median NIHSS score 17). A post-procedure TICI score ≥2a was observed in 73.5% (36/49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 58.9-85.1) of patients. No post-procedural clot migration/embolization events occurred. Successful recanalization without symptomatic ICH was observed in 62.5% (30/48, 95% CI 47.4-76.0). The good neurological outcome was achieved in 66.7% (32/48) patients. Symptomatic ICH and device- or procedure-related SAEs were reported in 6.3% and 12.2% of patients, respectively. Two deaths were reported. REVIVE demonstrated equivalent efficacy and safety as the Merci Retriever. Results suggest that REVIVE is effective and safe in recanalizing occluded intracranial arteries in AIS.

  12. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  13. Systematic review of economic analyses in patient safety: a protocol designed to measure development in the scope and quality of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alexander W; Mandavia, Rishi; Mayer, Erik; Marti, Joachim; Mossialos, Elias; Darzi, Ara

    2017-08-18

    Recent avoidable failures in patient care highlight the ongoing need for evidence to support improvements in patient safety. According to the most recent reviews, there is a dearth of economic evidence related to patient safety. These reviews characterise an evidence gap in terms of the scope and quality of evidence available to support resource allocation decisions. This protocol is designed to update and improve on the reviews previously conducted to determine the extent of methodological progress in economic analyses in patient safety. A broad search strategy with two core themes for original research (excluding opinion pieces and systematic reviews) in 'patient safety' and 'economic analyses' has been developed. Medline, Econlit and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database bibliographic databases will be searched from January 2007 using a combination of medical subject headings terms and research-derived search terms (see table 1). The method is informed by previous reviews on this topic, published in 2012. Screening, risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane collaboration tool) and economic evaluation quality assessment (using the Drummond checklist) will be conducted by two independent reviewers, with arbitration by a third reviewer as needed. Studies with a low risk of bias will be assessed using the Drummond checklist. High-quality economic evaluations are those that score >20/35. A qualitative synthesis of evidence will be performed using a data collection tool to capture the study design(s) employed, population(s), setting(s), disease area(s), intervention(s) and outcome(s) studied. Methodological quality scores will be compared with previous reviews where possible. Effect size(s) and estimate uncertainty will be captured and used in a quantitative synthesis of high-quality evidence, where possible. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer

  14. Integrity of Magnox reactor steel pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, P.E.J.; Williams, G.H.; Wright, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The background to the safety assessment of the steel reactor pressure vessels for Magnox power stations is reviewed. The evolved philosophy adopted for the 1991 safety cases prepared for the continued operation of four Magnox power stations operated by Nuclear Electric plc is described, together with different aspects of the multi-legged integrity argument. The main revisions to the materials mechanical property data are addressed together with the assessment methodology adopted and their implications for the overall integrity argument formulated for the continued safe operation of these reactor pressure vessels. (author)

  15. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2005. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  16. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  17. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  18. Comprehending the structure of a vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of fusion machines. 1. Comprehending the vacuum vessel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Nakahira, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    The functions, conditions and structure of vacuum vessel using tokamak fusion machines are explained. The structural standard and code of vacuum vessel, process of vacuum vessel design, and design of ITER vacuum vessel are described. Production and maintenance of ultra high vacuum, confinement of radioactive materials, support of machines in vessel and electromagnetic force, radiation shield, plasma vertical stability, one-turn electric resistance, high temperature baking heat and remove of nuclear heat, reduce of troidal ripple, structural standard, features of safety of nuclear fusion machines, subjects of structural standard of fusion vacuum vessel, design flow of vacuum vessel, establishment of radial build, selections of materials, baking and cooling method, basic structure, structure of special parts, shield structure, and of support structure, and example of design of structure, ITER, are stated. (S.Y.)

  19. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  20. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  1. How strong is the Social Security safety net? Using the Elder Index to assess gaps in economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Li, Yang; Xu, Ping

    2018-04-16

    Older Americans rely heavily on Social Security benefits (SSBs) to support independent lifestyles, and many have few or no additional sources of income. We establish the extent to which SSBs adequately support economic security, benchmarked by the Elder Economic Security Standard Index. We document variability across U.S. counties in the adequacy levels of SSBs among older adults. We find that the average SSBs fall short of what is required for economic security in every county in the United States, but the level of shortfall varies considerably by location. Policy implications relating to strengthening Social Security and other forms of retirement income are discussed.

  2. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R ampersand D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993)

  3. A risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation. Beyond the myth of absolute safety and unthinkable events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation, a very timely yet rather neglected area in the economics profession. The economic and psychological consequences of Japan's recent catastrophe have been so grave and wide-spread, thus calling for careful reexamination of the economics of risk and uncertainty. It is Daniel Bernoulli, a mathematical genius of the 18 th century, who first introduced the expected utility theory into decision making under risk. Although a great deal of applications has been done in many areas since then, it appears that the most recent nuclear meltdown of Japan is casting serious doubt upon the general validity of existing risk theories. It is high time for us to establish a new comprehensive approach by taking account of psychological, sociological, cultural, and historical factors. (author)

  4. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2007. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) sponsors research projects on the safety of nuclear power plants currently in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The progress reports are published by the Research Management Division of GRS. The reports as of the year 2000 are available in the Internet-based information system on results and data of reactor safety research (http://www.grs-fbw.de). The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index (JSRI)'. The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  5. [HERA-QUEST: HTA evaluation of generic pharmaceutical products to improve quality, economic efficiency, patient safety and transparency in drug product changes in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalrong-Steur, Miriam; Kellermann, Anita; Bernard, Rudolf; Berndt, Georg; Bindemann, Meike; Nusser-Rothermundt, Elfriede; Amann, Steffen; Brakebusch, Myga; Brüggmann, Jörg; Tydecks, Eva; Müller, Markus; Dörje, Frank; Kochs, Eberhard; Riedel, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    In view of the rising cost pressure and an increasing number of drug shortages, switches between generic drug preparations have become a daily routine in hospitals. To ensure consistently high treatment quality and best possible patient safety, the equivalence of the new and the previous drug preparation must be ensured before any change in the purchase of pharmaceutical products takes place. So far, no easily usable, transparent and standardized instrument for this kind of comparison between generic drug products has been available. A group of pharmaceutical experts has developed the drug HTA (health technology assessment) model "HERA" (HTA Evaluation of geneRic phArmaceutical products) through a multi-step process. The instrument is designed to perform both a qualitative and economic comparison of equivalent drug preparations ("aut idem" substitution) before switching products. The economic evaluation does not only consider unit prices and consumption quantity, but also the processing costs associated with a product change process. The qualitative comparison is based on the evaluation of 34 quality criteria belonging to six evaluation fields (e.g., approval status, practical handling, packaging design). The objective evaluation of the quality criteria is complemented by an assessment of special features of the individual hospital for complex drug switches, including the feedback of the physicians utilizing the drug preparation. Thus potentially problematic switches of pharmaceutical products can be avoided at the best possible rate, contributing to the improvement of patient safety. The novel drug HTA model HERA is a tool used in clinical practice that can add to an increase in quality, therapeutic safety and transparency of drug use while simultaneously contributing to the economic optimization of drug procurement in hospitals. Combining these two is essential for hospitals facing the tension between rising cost pressure and at the same time increasing demands

  6. Pressure vessel for a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the retention of low temperature water and also prevent the thermal fatigue of the pressure vessel by making large the curvature radius of a pressure vessel of a feed water sparger fitting portion and accelerating the mixing of low-temperature water at the feed water sparger base and in-pile hot water. Constitution: The curvature radius of the corner of the feed water sparger fitting portion in a pressure vessel is formed largely. In-pile circulating water infiltrates up to the base portion of the feed water sparger to carry outside low-temperature water at the base part, which is mixed with in-pile hot water. Accordingly, low temperature water does not stay at the base portion of the feed water sparger and generation of thermal fatigue in the pressure vessel can be prevented and the safety of the BWR type reactor can be improved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Some aspects of reactor pressure vessel integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Vojvodic, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessel of the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant is the subject of extreme interest due to the fact that presents the pressure boundary of the reactor coolant system, which is under extreme thermal, mechanical and irradiation effects. Reactor pressure vessel by itself prevents the release of fission products to the environment. Design, construction and in-service inspection of such component is governed by strict ASME rules and other forms of administrative control. The reactor pressure vessel in nuclear power plant Kriko is designed and constructed in accordance with related ASME rules. The in-service inspection program includes all requests presented in ASME Code section XI. In the present article all major requests for the periodic inspections of reactor pressure vessel and fracture mechanics analysis are discussed. Detailed and strict fulfillment of all prescribed provisions guarantee the appropriate level of nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  9. Design of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER vacuum vessel is a major safety barrier and must support electromagnetic loads during plasma disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDE) and withstand plausible accidents without losing confinement.The vacuum vessel has a double wall structure to provide structural and electrical continuity in the toroidal direction. The inner and outer shells and poloidal stiffening ribs between them are joined by welding, which gives the vessel the required mechanical strength. The space between the shells will be filled with steel balls and plate inserts to provide additional nuclear shielding. Water flowing in this space is required to remove nuclear heat deposition, which is 0.2-2.5% of the total fusion power. The minor and major radii of the tokamak are 3.9 m and 13 m respectively, and the overall height is 15 m. The total thickness of the vessel wall structure is 0.4-0.7 m.The inboard and outboard blanket segments are supported from the vacuum vessel. The support structure is required to withstand a large total vertical force of 200-300 MN due to VDE and to allow for differential thermal expansion.The first candidate for the vacuum vessel material is Inconel 625, due to its higher electric resistivity and higher yield strength, even at high temperatures. Type 316 stainless steel is also considered a vacuum vessel material candidate, owing to its large database and because it is supported by more conventional fabrication technology. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Theerthan, A.; Giri, A.; Karbojian, A.; Willschuetz, H.G.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Vandroux, S.; Bonnet, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Ikkonen, K.; Sairanen, R.; Bhandari, S.; Buerger, M.; Buck, M.; Widmann, W.; Dienstbier, J.; Techy, Z.; Kostka, P.; Taubner, R.; Theofanous, T.; Dinh, T.N

    2003-04-01

    The cost-shared project ARVI (assessment of reactor vessel integrity) involves a total of nine organisations from Europe and USA. The objective of the ARVI Project is to resolve the safety issues that remain unresolved for the melt vessel interaction phase of the in-vessel progression of a severe accident. The work consists of experiments and analysis development. Four tests were performed in the EC-FOREVER Programme, in which failure was achieved in-vessels employing the French pressure vessel steel. The tests were analysed with the commercial code ANSYS-Multiphysics, and the codes SYSTUS+ and PASULA, and quite good agreement was achieved for the failure location. Natural convection experiments in stratified pools have been performed in the SIMECO and the COPO facilities, which showed that much greater heat is transferred downwards for immiscible layers or before layers mix. A model for gap cooling and a set of simplified models for the system codes have been developed. MVITA code calculations have been performed for the Czech and Hungarian VVERs, towards evaluation of the in-vessel melt retention accident management scheme. Tests have been performed at the ULPU facility with organised flow for vessel external cooling. Considerable enhancement of the critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. The ARVI Project has reached the halfway stage. This paper presents the results obtained thus far from the project.

  11. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  12. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  13. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... operators to make decisions aimed at improving boating safety. This information, described in title 33 Code... Coast Guard long after an accident occurs. Incomplete, inaccurate, or late accident information makes... the recreational vessel owner or operator? If so, how many man-hours are required to collect this...

  14. The influence of economic incentives linked to road safety indicators on accidents: the case of toll concessions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Thais; Vassallo, José Manuel; Herraiz, Israel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate whether the incentives incorporated in toll highway concession contracts in order to encourage private operators to adopt measures to reduce accidents are actually effective at improving safety. To this end, we implemented negative binomial regression models using information about highway characteristics and accident data from toll highway concessions in Spain from 2007 to 2009. Our results show that even though road safety is highly influenced by variables that are not managed by the contractor, such as the annual average daily traffic (AADT), the percentage of heavy vehicles on the highway, number of lanes, number of intersections and average speed; the implementation of these incentives has a positive influence on the reduction of accidents and injuries. Consequently, this measure seems to be an effective way of improving safety performance in road networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project integration report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J. R.; Rempe, J. L.; Stickler, L. A.; Korth, G. E.; Diercks, D. R.; Neimark, L. A.; Akers, D W; Schuetz, B. K.; Shearer, T L; Chavez, S. A.; Thinnes, G. L.; Witt, R. J.; Corradini, M L; Kos, J. A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) was an international effort that was sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The primary objectives of the VIP were to extract and examine samples from the lower head and to evaluate the potential modes of failure and the margin of structural integrity that remained in the TMI-2 reactor vessel during the accident. This report presents a summary of the major findings and conclusions that were developed from research during the VIP. Results from the various elements of the project are integrated to form a cohesive understanding of the vessel`s condition after the accident.

  16. Analysis of stress in reactor core vessel under effect of pressure lose shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Liu Baoting

    2001-01-01

    High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (HTR-10) is a modular High Temperature gas cooled Reactor of the new generation. In order to analyze the safety characteristics of its core vessel in case of large rupture accident, the transient performance of its core vessel under the effect of pressure lose shock wave is studied, and the transient pressure difference between the two sides of the core vessel and the transient stresses in the core vessel is presented in this paper, these results can be used in the safety analysis and safety design of the core vessel of HTR-10. (author)

  17. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  18. The impact of regional environmental regulations on empirical vessel speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ådland, Roar Os; Fonnes, Gro; Jia, Haiying; Daae Lampe, Ove; Strandenes, Siri Pettersen

    2017-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that the use of more expensive low-sulphur fuel within an Emission Control Area (ECA) should result in lower vessel speeds. The objective of this paper is to investigate empirically, for the first time, whether the introduction of an ECA affects vessel speeds. We utilize a dataset of observed vessel speeds derived from the Automated Information System (AIS) for nearly 7000 ECA boundary crossings over a three-year period. Our results suggest that introducing stricter s...

  19. Impact of the effect of economic crisis and the targeted motorcycle safety programme on motorcycle-related accidents, injuries and fatalities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, T H; Umar, R S Radin; Zulkaurnain, S; Kulanthayan, S

    2005-03-01

    In 1997, a Motorcycle Safety Programme (MSP) was introduced to address the motorcycle-related accident problem. The MSP was specifically targeted at motorcyclists. In addition to the MSP, the recent economic recession has significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic-related incidents. This paper examines the effects of the recent economic crisis and the MSP on motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia. The autocorrelation integrated moving average model with transfer function was used to evaluate the overall effects of the interventions. The variables used in developing the model were gross domestic product and MSPs. The analysis found a 25% reduction in the number of motorcycle-related accidents, a 27% reduction in motorcycle casualties and a 38% reduction in motorcycle fatalities after the implementation of MSP. Findings indicate that the MSP has been one of the effective measures in reducing motorcycle safety problems in Malaysia. Apart from that, the performance of the country's economy was also found to be significant in explaining the number of motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia.

  20. Safety device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhl, H.

    1974-01-01

    The safety device is used to capture fragments of the lid of a pressure vessel when this vessel ruptures. It consists of a catcher structure attached to the concrete vessel, which is open at the top, and surrounding the pressure vessel. The catcher structure in this case may be designed as a ring installed very close to the concrete vessel, as a closure plate or may be made of transverse beams arranged parallel to each other. It is anchored either rigidly or elastically to the concrete vessel by means of springs or to the foundation by means of steel stretching members. (DG) [de

  1. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  2. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  3. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  4. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  5. Systematic review to evaluate the safety, efficacy and economical outcomes of the Vibrant Soundbridge for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhage, Karl-Ludwig; Leichtle, Anke; Schönweiler, Rainer; Todt, Ingo; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Frenzel, Henning; Wollenberg, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Introduced in the late 90s, the active middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) is nowadays used for hearing rehabilitation in patients with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) unable to tolerate conventional hearing aids. In experienced hands, the surgical implantation is fast done, safe and highly standardized. Here, we present a systematic review, after more than 15 years of application, to determine the efficacy/effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, as well as patient satisfaction with the VSB active middle ear implant in the treatment of mild to severe SNHL. A systematic search of electronic databases, investigating the safety and effectiveness of the VSB in SNHL plus medical condition resulted in a total of 1640 papers. After removing duplicates, unrelated articles, screening against inclusion criteria and after in-depth screening, the number decreased to 37 articles. 13 articles were further excluded due to insufficient outcome data. 24 studies remained to be systematically reviewed. Data was searched on safety, efficacy and economical outcomes with the VSB. Safety-oriented outcomes included complication/adverse event rates, damage to the middle/inner ear, revision surgery/explant rate/device failure and mortality. Efficacy outcomes were divided into audiological outcomes, including hearing thresholds, functional gain, speech perception in quiet and noise, speech recognition thresholds, real ear insertion gain and subjective outcomes determined by questionnaires and patient-oriented scales. Data related to quality of life (QALY, ICER) were considered under economical outcomes. The VSB turns out to be a highly reliable and a safe device which significantly improves perception of speech in noisy situations with a high sound quality. In addition, the subjective benefit of the VSB was found to be mostly significant in all studies. Finally, implantation with the VSB proved to be a cost-effective and justified health care intervention.

  6. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-09-15

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  7. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  8. Ex Ante Liability Rules in New Zealand's Health and Safety in Employment Act: A Law and Economics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gordon; Alan E. Woodfield

    2006-01-01

    In addition to penalties imposed for breaches of statutory duties in the event of workplace accidents involving physical harms, New Zealand's Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 also provides for penalties where accidents have not occurred. Ordinary negligence rules are ex post in that both an accident and harm must occur before liability accrues, whereas ex ante liability rules create liability for deficient care per se. This paper examines whether liability for breaches of duty that do...

  9. Review of the evolution of safety, ecological and economical aspects of liquid scintillation counting materials and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbhen, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The wide applicability of liquid scintillation techniques for counting weak β-emitters and other radionuclides has led to the daily use of a large number of liquid scintillation counter instruments in research and control laboratories. Of the solvents used in liquid scintillators, xylene, toluene and trimethyl benzene are most common. To a minor extent, dioxane, methylglycol, ethanol and methanol are also used. The estimated annual total volume is around 2-3 million liters of scintillation cocktails. The present situation demonstrates a problem in laboratory safety and concomitant cost for waste treatment, usually not recognized. The use and handling of these inflammable and irritant solvents can induce certain risks to personnel and laboratory safety. A significant reduction of the ecological and health risks is important. In recent years, some progress has been made by using smaller volumes and smaller sizes of vials. The introduction of non-flammable scintillator solvents, which do not penetrate through polyethylene vials and do not escape into the laboratory atmosphere, also adds to the safety process

  10. Using Economic Evaluation to Illustrate Value of Care for Improving Patient Safety and Quality: Choosing the Right Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Lee, Ken K H; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-08-03

    To scale and sustain successful quality improvement (QI) interventions, it is recommended for health system leaders to calculate the economic and financial sustainability of the intervention. Many methods of economic evaluation exist, and the type of method depends on the audience: providers, researchers, and hospital executives. This is a primer to introduce cost-effectiveness analysis, budget impact analysis, and return on investment calculation as 3 distinct methods for each stakeholder needing a measurement of the value of QI at the health system level. Using cases for the QI of hospital-acquired condition rates (e.g., pressure injuries), this primer proceeds stepwise through each method beginning from the same starting point of constructing a model so that the repetition of steps is minimized and thereby capturing the attention of all intended audiences.

  11. Design of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel for gas-cooled heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Notheisen, C.; Steffen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The GHR pebble bed reactor offers a simple, safe and economic possibility of heat generation. An essential component of this concept is the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. A system of cooling pipes welded to the outer surface of the liner is used to transfer the heat from the reactor to the intermediate circuit. The high safety of this vessel concept results from the clear separation of the functions of the individual components and from the design principle of the prestressed conncrete. The prestressed concrete structure is so designed that failure can be reliably ruled out under all operating and accident conditions. Even in the extremely improbable event of failure of all decay heat removal systems when decay heat and accumulated heat are transferred passively by natural convection only, the integrity of the vessel remains intact. For reasons of plant availability the liner and the liner cooling system shall be designed so as to ensure safe elimination of failure over the total operating life. The calculations which were peformed partly on the basis of extremely adverse assumption, also resulted in very low loads. The prestressed concrete vessel is prefabricated to the greatest possible extent. Thus a high quality and optimized fabrication technology can be achieved especially for the liner and the liner cooling system. (orig./HP)

  12. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  13. 33 CFR 96.370 - What are the requirements for vessels of countries not party to Chapter IX of SOLAS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel, or self-propelled mobile offshore drilling unit of 500 gross tons or more, operated in U.S... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS How Will Safety Management Systems Be Certificated and...

  14. Reactor vessel pressure transient protection for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, G.

    1978-09-01

    During the past few years the NRC has been studying the issue of protection of the reactor pressure vessels at Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) from transients when the vessels are at a relatively low temperature. This effort was prompted by concerns related to the safety margins available to vessel damage as a result of such events. Nuclear Reactor Regulation Category A Technical Activity No. A-26 was established to set forth the NRC plan for resolution of the generic aspects of this safety issue. The purpose of the report is to document the completion of this generic technical activity

  15. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Tempest in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    As the ASN made some statements about anomalies of carbon content in the EPR vessel bottom and top, the author recalls and comments some technical issues to better understand the information published on this topic. He notably addresses the role of the vessel, briefly indicates its operating conditions, shape and structure, and mechanical components for the top, its material and mechanical properties, and test samples used to assess mechanical properties. He also comments the phenomenon of radio-induced embrittlement, the vessel manufacturing process, and evokes the applicable regulations. He quotes and comments statements made by the ASN and Areva which evoke further assessments of the concerned components

  17. Prestressed cast iron pressure vessels as burst-proof pressure vessels for innovative nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehling, W.; Boettcher, A.; Bounin, D.; Steinwarz, W.; Geiss, M.; Trauth, M.

    2000-01-01

    The amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act from July 28, 1994 requires that events 'whose occurrence is practically excluded by the measures against damages', i.e. events of the category residual risk, must not necessitate far reaching protective measures outside the plant. For a conventional reactor pressure vessel, the residual risk consists in the very small probability of a catastrophic failure (formation of a large fracture opening, bursting of the vessel). With a prestressed cast iron vessel (PCIV), the formation of a large fracture opening or bursting of the vessel, respectively, is impossible due to its design properties. Against this background the possibility of the use of this type of pressure vessel for lightwater reactors has been studied in the frame of a 'Working Group for Innovative Nuclear Technology', founded by different research institutes and industrial companies. Furthermore, it has been studied whether the use of the PCIV support the realization of a corecatcher system. The results are presented in this report. Already many years earlier, Siempelkamp has performed industrial development and Forschungszentrum Juelich related experimental and theoretical safety research for the PCIV as an innovative, bust-proof pressure vessel concept. This development of the PCIV as well as its safety properties are also presented in a conclusive manner. (orig.) [de

  18. Push Off 2000 : new oilfield safety device catching on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2006-12-15

    Fuel gas scrubbers use production gas to operate oil batteries, well separators, dehydrators, compressors, and pneumatic and pressure controls. Once an internal float gets stuck, production is stopped. The Push Off 2000 is a new safety device for fuel gas scrubbers which allows operators to easily dislodge a stuck internal float by activating the tool, which is mounted on top of the vessel. The device was developed after an operator suffered burns from a flash explosion that occurred after using a hammer to strike the fuel gas scrubber. The hammer method is the usual method of dealing with stuck internal floats, and can also jeopardize the integrity of the vessel, releasing gas or liquid hydrocarbons into the environment. The Push Off 2000 is expected to reduce costly facility downtime and increase revenue generating production time. Over 50 oil and gas companies have the Push Off 2000 device installed on fuel gas scrubber units at their facilities, and have recognized the safety and economic merits of the tool. The patented device has been approved by the Alberta Boilers Safety Association, the British Columbia Boiler and Elevator Safety Branch, and the Saskatchewan Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Unit. 1 fig.

  19. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  2. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  3. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  4. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  5. Reactor pressure vessel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butti, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A link and pin support system provides the primary vertical and lateral support for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel without restricting thermally induced radial and vertical expansion and contraction. (Auth.)

  6. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  7. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  8. Environmental and economic assessment of a road safety product made with virgin and recycled HDPE: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Simões, Carla; Costa Pinto, Lígia M; Bernardo, C A

    2013-01-15

    The development of value-added products made from post-consumer plastic recyclates has become an important goal in the quest for a sustainable society. To attain such goal, tools with higher accuracy and wider scope are increasingly necessary. The present work describes the application of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)/Life Cycle Costing (LCC) integrated model, with inclusion of externalities (environmental and social costs), to Anti-Glare Lamellae (AGL) made with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). It compares an AGL currently manufactured from virgin HDPE (current AGL) with an alternative one made with recycled HDPE (optional AGL). The results obtained show that neither the current nor the optional AGL depict the best environmental performance in all impact categories. Nevertheless, there is a clear overall environmental and economic advantage in replacing virgin HDPE with recycled HDPE. The present work also makes evident that the LCA/LCC integrated model allows the identification of economic and environmental win-win and trade-off situations related to the full life cycle of products. As such, its results can be used as valuable guidelines in product development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactor pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 2, the general principles of reactor pressure vessel design are elaborated. Crack and fracture initiation and propagation are treated in some detail

  10. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    metals (e.g., cadmium, chromium, lead, copper , zinc, silver, nickel, and mercury), solids, and nutrients (USEPA, 2008b; USEPA 2010). Wastewater from... flotation ), and disinfection (using ultraviolet light) as compared to traditional Type II MSDs that use either simple maceration and chlorination, or...Coliform Naval Vessels Oceanographic Vessels Small Cruise Ships 25a Vendor 2 Hamann AG Biological Treatment with Dissolved Air Flotation and

  11. The Analysis of the Causes of Emergencies on the Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mrozowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of research conducted on the vessels, covering a wide spectrum of issues relating to the exploitation of vessels of various flags, as well as operating security and safety systems on board. The main aim of the study was to collect numbers of data directly from the crew, for examples: indicate by the crew marine areas with the greatest probability of occurrence of casualties and incidents, trying to the definition the causes of their occurrence, prevention actions used on board and analyses operating safety systems used on the various type of vessels. The analysis of research became the basis to identify strengths and weaknesses areas of the vessel operation. The author proposes a solution to be implemented on board and emphasizes meaning of safety management system.

  12. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  13. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  14. Economic and safety aspects of using moderator heat for feed water heating in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwegar, I.A.; Dutta, Anu; Chaki, S.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the proposed advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR), coolant and moderator are separated by the coolant channel. The coolant absorbs most of the fission heat produced in the reactor core. However, the moderator absorbs about 5 to 6 % of the fission heat. In a reactor producing 750 MW(th) power, this moderator heat is about 40 MW. In the present Indian PHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) systems, this moderator heat is lost to a sink through the moderator heat exchangers, which are cooled by process water. This paper presents the results of the steam cycle analysis carried out for AHWR using moderator heat exchangers as part of the feed heating system. The present study is an attempt to determine the gain in electrical output (MW) if moderator heat is utilized for feed water heating. The operational and safety aspects of using moderator heat are also discussed in the paper

  15. Occupational health and safety issues in the informal economic segment of Pakistan: a survey of construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Shaukat, Muhammad Zeeshan; Usman, Ahmad; Nawaz, Muhammad Musarrat; Nazir, Mian Sajid

    2018-06-01

    This research covers the current status of occupational health and safety (OHS)-related practices in the informal construction segment of Pakistan. Data were collected, through interviews, from 316 construction sites employing 3577 workers. The results of the study reveal that both employers and workers lack knowledge of OHS laws/standards and no practices of this nature are enacted at these construction sites. Alarmingly, work-related accidents, whenever they happen, are not given due attention and there is no formal injury-report system. The informal construction industry employs a huge portion of the informal workforce, and lack of OHS happens at tremendous human cost. These research findings may thus play their role in strengthening the case for reforms in the sector. This study, if properly utilized, may also enable employers of the sector by increasing their knowledge about OHS practices and, as a result, trying to offer safer environments for their workers.

  16. FFTF and CRBRP reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) reactor vessel each serve to enclose a fast spectrum reactor core, contain the sodium coolant, and provide support and positioning for the closure head and internal structure. Each vessel is located in its reactor cavity and is protected by a guard vessel which would ensure continued decay heat removal capability should a major system leak develop. Although the two plants have significantly different thermal power ratings, 400 megawatts for FFTF and 975 megawatts for CRBRP, the two reactor vessels are comparable in size, the CRBRP vessel being approximately 28% longer than the FFTF vessel. The FFTF vessel diameter was controlled by the space required for the three individual In-Vessel Handling Machines and Instrument Trees. Utilization of the triple rotating plug scheme for CRBRP refueling enables packaging of the larger CRBRP core in a vessel the same diameter as the FFTF vessel

  17. Improving Safety, Economic, Substantiality, and Security of Nuclear Energy with Canadian Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Holly; Pencer, Jeremy; Yetisir, Metin; Leung, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor is one of the six design concepts being developed under the Generation IV International Forum. It is the only concept evolving from the water-cooled reactors and taking advantages of the balance-of-plant design and operation experience of the fossil-power plants. Canada is developing the SCR concept from the well-established pressure-tube reactor technology. The Canadian SCWR maintains modular design approach using relative small fuel channels with the separation of coolant and moderator. It is equipped with an advanced fuel channel design that is capable to transfer decay heat from the fuel to the moderator under the long-term cooling stage. Coupled with the advanced passive-moderator cooling system, cooling of fuel and fuel channel is continuous even without external power or operator intervention. The Canadian SCWR is operating at a pressure of 25 MPa with a core outlet temperature of 625 deg. C. This has led to a drastic increase in thermal efficiency to 48% from 34% of the current fleet of reactors (a 40% rise in relative efficiency). With the high core outlet temperature, a direct thermal cycle has been adopted and has led to simplification in plant design attributing to the cost reduction compared to the current reactor designs. The Canadian SCWR adopts the advanced Thorium fuel cycle to enhance the substantiality, economic, and security. than uranium in the world (estimated to be three times more). This provides the long-term fuel supply. Thorium's price is stable compared to uranium and is consistently lower than uranium. This would maintain the predictability and economic of fuel supply. Thorium itself is a non-fissile material and once irradiated requires special handling. This improves proliferative resistance. The objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements in generating nuclear energy with the Canadian SCWR

  18. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project integration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.R.; Rempe, J.L.; Stickler, L.A.; Korth, G.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.; Akers, D.W.; Schuetz, B.K.; Shearer, T.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.; Witt, R.J.; Corradini, M.L.; Kos, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) was an international effort that was sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The primary objectives of the VIP were to extract and examine samples from the lower head and to evaluate the potential modes of failure and the margin of structural integrity that remained in the TMI-2 reactor vessel during the accident. This report presents a summary of the major findings and conclusions that were developed from research during the VIP. Results from the various elements of the project are integrated to form a cohesive understanding of the vessel's condition after the accident

  19. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala–BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants’ self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala–BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. PMID:29126127

  20. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala-BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S; Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants' self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala-BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  2. Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2005-03-01

    Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As a result, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10 -11 in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel by using mercury-leakage sensors. (author)

  3. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  4. Experience of CR and RCCA operation in Ukrainian WWER-1000: Aspects of reliability, safety and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2000-01-01

    The next topics are represented in the paper: A brief history of WWER-1000 control rod (CR) and WWER-1000 rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) design; Evolution of WWER-1000 CR manufacturing technology and design; Experience of RCCA operation; Lifetime extension of WWER-1000 boron carbide CR; WWER-1000 reactor core operation problems due to partial RCCA insertion; Designing and licensing procedures and first operational experience of WWER-1000 RCCA (CR) with a combined absorber 'boron carbide-hafnium' and a chromium-nickel alloy cladding. The main conclusions are: Fuel assembly (FA) bow is the main reason of partial RCCA insertion during reactor core operation. However, the use of the RCCA and its driver bar with increased dead load, alongside with other measures, allow to reduce the probability of incomplete RCCA insertion; The materials used in CRs of RCCA in existing reactor operating modes have been working reliably; The use of hafnium under an appropriate price policy can give certain economic advantages for the Ukrainian NPPs, however, additional research is needed in order to confirm the specific CR physical characteristics and reliability. (author)

  5. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  6. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Control of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide presents requirements for the pipework of nuclear facilities in Finland. According to the section 117 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree (161/88), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) controls the pressure vessels of nuclear facilities in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87) and, to the extent applicable in accordance with the Act of Pressure Vessels (98/73) and the rules and regulations issued by the virtue of these. In addition STUK is an inspecting authority of pressure vessels of nuclear facilities in accordance with the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/1973). According to the section of the Pressure Vessel Degree, a pressure vessel is a steam boiler, pressure container, pipework of other such appliance in which the pressure is above or may come to exceed the atmospheric pressure. Guide YVL 3.0 describes in general terms how STUK controls pressure vessels. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 piping as well as Class EYT (non-nuclear) and their support structures in accordance with this guide and applies the provisions of the Decision of the Ministry of Trade and Industry on piping (71/1975) issued by virtue of the Pressure Vessel Decree

  7. In service inspection of SUPERPHENIX 1 vessels: MIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Viard, J.; Lerat, B.; Saglio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Although no in-service inspection constraints were imposed on the Phenix vessels, the Safety Authorities asked that the design of SUPERPHENIX 1 makes it possible to monitor throughout the lifetime of the reactor, surface and internal defects on the main vessel. A pool design and the presence of heat baffles inside the main vessel make access from the inside of the vessel impossible. Thus, an inspection can only be performed from the outside of the main vessel: the distance between the walls of the main and safety vessels is such that an inspection device can be introduced into the corresponding space. As the design of the reactor precludes radiographic inspection, the method which was selected for monitoring internal defects in the main vessel is ultrasonics. However, the anisotropic structure of austenitic stainless steel welds limits the performance of this technique. The authors present the in-service inspection device, MIR, which has been specially developed for the visual and ultrasonic examination of SUPERPHENIX 1 vessels

  8. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee Grace Nemeno-Guanzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient’s conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  9. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The TMI-2 [Three Mile Island unit 2] Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program at Argonne National Laboratory is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which accounts for a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  10. Utilization of new feeding technology in power production from biomass; safety aspects and techno-economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The possibility to prevent the dust explosions by suppression method in the ignition stage has been investigated in the project `Suppression of dust explosions in biomass-fired plants` (Bioenergy Research programme 1995). The first stage of the dust explosion and suppression tests under elevated pressure were carried out in spring 1996 in England using the 5.6 m{sup 3} equipment constructed for this purpose. The tests were carried out both with coal and wood dusts. The tests were carried out by Coal Technology Development Division (British Coal) and Kidde Fire Protection. In the first stage of the project it was possible to suppress both the coal and wood dust explosions successfully at the 10 bar pressure level. The target of the second stage of the project is to carry out the tests also at 18 bar pressure level. These tests would, if successful, enable the extrapolation of the operational parameters the pressure levels of 20-25 bars of IGCC plants. The limiting factors for the planning of pressurized (and ambient pressure) feeding systems are now known relatively well on the basis of the knowledge gained in the dust explosion and self-ignition tests, and the dust explosion suppression tests. The total objective of the research is the comparison of pressurized feeding systems, based mainly on the lock-hopper technology, both in the economical and technical sense. Arrangement of pressurization and sufficient inertization form a significant factor. The newest pressurized double-screw and piston feeder technologies will also be considered. The second stage of the suppression tests has been carried out in the first stage of the project. The suppression tests were successful both with coal and biomass dusts when using four suppression media containers. The full pressure dust explosions were carried out successfully at 18 bar initial pressure 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. Bioenergy Research programme

  11. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  12. Cooling system for the connecting rings of a fast neutron reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-P.; Malaval, Claude

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling system for the vessel connecting rings of a fast neutron nuclear reactor, particularly of a main vessel containing the core of the reactor and a volume of liquid metal coolant at high temperature and a safety vessel around the main vessel, both vessels being suspended to a rigid upper slab kept at a lower temperature. It is mounted in the annular space between the two vessels and includes a neutral gas circuit set up between the wall of the main vessel to be cooled and that of the safety vessel itself cooled from outer. The neutral gas system comprises a plurality of ventilators fitted in holes made through the thickness of the upper slab and opening on to the space between the two vessels. It also includes two envelopes lining the walls of these vessels, establishing with them small section channels for the circulation of the neutral gas cooled against the safety vessel and heated against the main vessel [fr

  13. Method of detecting water leakage in radioactive waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Hitoshi; Takao, Yoshiaki; Hayakawa, Kiyoshige.

    1989-01-01

    Lower level radioactive wastes formed upon operation of nuclear facilities are processed by underground storage. In this case, a plurality of drum cans packed with radioactive wastes are contained in a vessel and a water soluble dye material is placed at the inside of the vessel. The method of placing the water soluble dye material at the inside of the vessel includes a method of coating the material on the inner surface of the vessel and a method of mixing the material in sands to be filled between each of the drum cans. Then, leakage of water soluble dye material is detected when water intruding from the outside into the vessel is again leached out of the vessel, to detect the water leakage from the inside of the vessel. In this way, it is possible to find a water-invaded vessel before corrosion of the drum can by water intruded into the vessel and leakage of nuclides in the drum can. Accordingly, it is possible to apply treatment such as repair before occurrence of accident and can maintain the safety of radioactive water processing facilities. (I.S.)

  14. Petro-Safe '95: 6. Annual environmental, safety and health conference and exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Book 3: AFV '95 and Production economics '95 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Book 3 of the proceedings contains papers from two symposia: Alternative Fueled Vehicles and Production Economics. The Alternative Fueled Vehicles symposium is divided into 3 sections which cover: (1) Hardware and vehicles--school bus fleets and LNG; (2) Fuels and infrastructure--CNG fueling facilities, reformulated gasoline and clean diesel, LNG, future supply trends and domestic energy security, safety issues, and methanol; and (3) Regulatory issues--Clean Cities program, Energy Policy Act and state legislation, Employee Trip Reduction program, and public awareness. The papers in the Production Economics symposium deal with cost-effective methods for marginal field development; economic considerations for offshore platforms and systems; enhanced oil recovery economics; floating production economics; and capital versus operating costs in oil and gas production. Thirty-five papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  16. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  17. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  18. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  19. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  20. Reactor vessel stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Beer, R.W.; Salton, R.B.; Spiegelman, S.R.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner, for facilitating the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud, has gripper jaws which when the tensioner is lowered into engagement with the upper end of the stud are moved inwards to grip the upper end and which when the tensioner is lifted move outward to release the upper end. (author)

  1. In vessel core melt progression phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, M.

    1993-01-01

    For all light water reactor (LWR) accidents, including the so called severe accidents where core melt down can occur, it is necessary to determine the amount and characteristics of fission products released to the environment. For existing reactors this knowledge is used to evaluate the consequences and eventual emergency plans. But for future reactors safety authorities demand decrease risks and reactors designed in such a way that fission products are retained inside the containment, the last protective barrier. This requires improved understanding and knowledge of all accident sequences. In particular it is necessary to be able to describe the very complex phenomena occurring during in vessel core melt progression because they will determine the thermal and mechanical loads on the primary circuit and the timing of its rupture as well as the fission product source term. On the other hand, in case of vessel failure, knowledge of the physical and chemical state of the core melt will provide the initial conditions for analysis of ex-vessel core melt progression and phenomena threatening the containment. Finally a good understanding of in vessel phenomena will help to improve accident management procedures like Emergency Core Cooling System water injection, blowdown and flooding of the vessel well, with their possible adverse effects. Research and Development work on this subject was initiated a long time ago and is still in progress but now it must be intensified in order to meet the safety requirements of the next generation of reactors. Experiments, limited in scale, analysis of the TMI 2 accident which is a unique source of global information and engineering judgment are used to establish and assess physical models that can be implemented in computer codes for reactor accident analysis

  2. The effectiveness, safety, and economic evaluation of Korean medicine for unexplained infertile women: A multi-center, prospective, observational study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Dong-Il

    2017-12-01

    Infertility is a condition in which a woman has not been pregnant despite having had normal intercourse for 1 year. The number of unexplained infertile females is increasing because of late marriage customs, as well as environmental and lifestyle habits. In Korea, infertile females have been treated with Korean medicine (KM). However, these effects have not been objectively confirmed through clinical trials. Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbal medicine treatment in infertile patients and to demonstrate the economic feasibility through economical evaluation with assisted reproductive technology.This study is designed as a multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. All participants included will be from 3 Korean Medicine hospitals in Korea and will voluntarily sign an informed consent agreement. All recruited patients will conduct related surveys and tests, and be provided with treatment according to their menstrual cycle. Patients will take herbal medicines for 4 menstruation cycles and receive acupuncture and moxibustion treatment at 3 times (menstrual cycle day 3, 8, 14) during 4 menstruation cycles. They will also undergo an approximately 4 menstrual cycle treatment period, and 3 menstrual cycle observation period. If pregnant during the study, participants will take the herbal medicine for implantation for about 15 days. In this study, the primary outcome will be the clinical pregnancy rate, whereas the secondary outcome will include the implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate.Ultimately, this study will provide clinical data regarding the effectiveness and safety of KM treatment for females with unexplained infertility and important evidence for establishing standard KM treatments for unexplained infertility. Moreover, we will identify the most cost-effective way to treat unexplained infertility. Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS), Republic of Korea: KCT0002235. Date: February 21, 2017

  3. PDX vacuum vessel stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    A stress analysis of PDX vacuum vessel is described and the summary of results is presented. The vacuum vessel is treated as a toroidal shell of revolution subjected to an internal vacuum. The critical buckling pressure is calculated. The effects of the geometrical discontinuity at the juncture of toroidal shell head and cylindrical outside wall, and the concavity of the cylindrical wall are examined. An effect of the poloidal field coil supports and the vessel outside supports on the stress distribution in the vacuum vessel is determined. A method evaluating the influence of circular ports in the vessel wall on the stress level in the vessel is outlined

  4. The need to pressure test prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgie, J.H.; Holland, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the period when PCRV were relatively unproven, proof pressure testing provided a useful demonstration of vessel integritiy and a confirmation of model testing and of analysis. No failures have occurred during concrete vessel tests in the UK or in the subsequent operational life of the vessels and much has been learned of their behaviour in service. The paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of proof testing PCRV in the light of the above increased knowledge of vessel performance. The paper draws attention to certain hypothetical loading cases that could be more onerous than the proof test and suggests that pressure testing could itself cause unnecessarily high loading to parts of the vessel. Always recognising the safety considerations and demonstrations of such are of prime importance, the authors suggest that a lower pressure level could be adopted without loss of original intent. In addition some ground rules are suggested as to cases where proof testing could be omitted. (orig./HP)

  5. Safety technology qualification of the prestressed cast iron pressure vessel (PCIV) and of the primary cell of the HTR-modul for the passive removal of decay heat, phase 1 (INHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnke, E.P.

    1990-02-01

    During this development program the thermodynamic behaviour of a system was investigated, consisting of a hot working Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessel and an inactive heat sink in the surrounding cavern cell. It could be shown, that the inactive heat removal system designed as a natural circuit can remove the maximum amount of heat of 890 kW during emergency conditions via a natural-draught air cooling tower even under very conservative assumptions and for a 50% loss of cooling pipes. Further it could be shown, that the hot working Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessel has a very safe load carrying behaviour during all normal and upset conditions. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 38 figs., 43 refs [de

  6. Examination of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matokovic, A.; Picek, E.; Markulin, K.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand of a higher level of safety in the operation of the nuclear power plants requires the utilisation of more precise automated equipment to perform in-service inspections. That has been achieved by technological advances in computer technology, in robotics, in examination probe technology with the development of the advanced inspection technique and has also been due to the considerable and varied experience gained in the performance of such inspections. In-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel, especially Russian-designed WWER-1000 presents one of the most important and extensive examination of nuclear power plants primary circuit components. Such examination demand high standards of inspection technology, quality and continual innovation in the field of non-destructive testing advanced technology. A remote underwater contact ultrasonic technique is employed for the examination of the base metal of vessel and reactor welds, whence eddy current method is applied for clad surface examinations. Visual testing is used for examination of the vessel interior. The movement of inspection probes and data positioning are assured by using new reactor pressure vessel tool concept that is fully integrated with inspection systems. The successful performance of reactor pressure vessel is attributed thorough pre-outage planning, training and successful performance demonstration qualification of chosen non-destructive techniques on the specimens with artificial and/or real defects. Furthermore, use of advanced approach of inspection through implementation the state-of-the-art examination equipment significantly reduced the inspection time, radiation exposure to examination personnel, shortening nuclear power plant outage and cutting the total inspection costs. This paper presents advanced approach in the reactor pressure vessel in-service inspections and it is especially developed for WWER-1000 nuclear power plants.(author)

  7. Prestressed concrete pressure vessels for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.

    1979-12-01

    Following a general description of the Scandinavian cooperative project on prestressed concrete pressure vessels for boiling water reactors, detailed discussion is given in four appendices of the following aspects: the verification programme of tests and studies, the development and testing of a liner venting system, a preliminary safety philosophy and comparative assessment of cold and hot liners. Vessel failure probability is briefly discussed and some figures presented. The pressure gradients in the vessel wall resulting from various stipulated linear cracks, with a liner venting system are presented graphically. (JIW)

  8. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, S; Ramakumar, M S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Div. of Remote Handling and Robotics

    1994-12-31

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs.

  9. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs

  10. Proposal of Ex-Vessel dosimetry for pressure vessel Atucha II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaraviglio, N.; Bazzana, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor dosimetry has the purpose of guarantee that changes in material mechanical properties of critical materials do not compromise the reactor safety. In PWR in which the top of the reactor vessel is open once a year, is possible to use Charpy specimens to measure the change in mechanical properties. Atucha II nuclear power plant is a reactor with on-line refueling so there is no access to the inside of the pressure vessel. Because of this, ex-vessel dosimetry must be performed and mechanical properties changes must be inferred from radiation damage estimations. This damage can be calculated using displacement per atom cross sections and a transport code such as MCNP. To increase results reliability it is proposed to make a neutron spectrum unfolding using activation dosimeters irradiated during one operation cycle of the power plant. In this work we present a dosimetry proposal for such end, made in base of unfolding procedures and experimental background. (author) [es

  11. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  12. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  13. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  14. Nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, E.G.; Lofy, R.A.; Williams, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for the in situ inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel to detect the location and character of flaws in the walls of the vessel, in the welds joining the various sections of the vessel, in the welds joining attachments such as nozzles, elbows and the like to the reactor vessel and in such attachments wherein an inspection head carrying one or more ultrasonic transducers follows predetermined paths in scanning the various reactor sections, welds and attachments

  15. Reactor vessel stud closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelman, S.R.; Salton, R.B.; Beer, R.W.; Malandra, L.J.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner apparatus for enabling the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud. The apparatus is adapted to engage the vessel stud by closing a gripper around an upper end of the vessel stud when the apparatus is seated on the stud. Upon lifting the apparatus, the gripper releases the vessel stud so that the apparatus can be removed

  16. Stress criteria for nuclear vessel concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1975-01-01

    Concrete nuclear vessels are submitted to prestressing forces which limit tensile stresses in concrete when the vessel is under pressure with thermal gradients. Hence, the most severe conditions for concrete appear when the vessel is prestressed and not submitted to internal pressure. The triaxial states of stress in the concrete may be computed postulating elastic or other behavior and compared with safe limits obtained from rupture tests and fatigue tests. The first part of the paper, recalls experimental rupture results and the acceptability procedures currently used. Criteria founded on the lemniscoid surfaces are proposed, parameters for which are obtained by various tests and safety considerations. In the second part, rupture tests are reported on small, thick, cylindrical vessels submitted to external hydraulic pressure simulating prestressing forces. Materials used are plain concrete, microconcrete, marble and graphite. The strengths obtained are much higher than those which could be elastically computed, triaxial rupture states being provided by previous experiments. Such results may be due to a plastic stress redistribution before fracture and to stabilizing effects of stress gradients around the more stressed areas. Fatigue tests by external hydraulic loading are reported [fr

  17. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  18. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  19. Phenomenological vessel burst investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippelein, K.W.; Julisch, P.; Muz, J.; Schiedermaier, J.

    1985-07-01

    Fourteen burst experiments have been carried out using vessels with circumferential and longitudinal flaws, for investigation of the fracture behaviour, i.e. the time-related fracture opening. The vessels had dimensions (outer diameter x wall thickness = 800 x 47 mm) which correspond to the dimensions of the main coolant piping of a 1300 MW e PWR. The test specimens had been made of the base-safe material 20 MnMoNi 55 and of a special, 22 NiMoCr 37 base alloy. The experimental conditions with regard to pressure and temperature have been chosen so as to correspond to normal operating conditions of a PWR (p∝17.5 MPa, T∝300 0 C), i.e. the flaws have been so dimensioned that failure was to be expected at a pressure of p∝17.5 MPa. As a rule, water has been used as the pressure medium, or in some cases air, in order to influence the time-dependent pressure decrease. Fluid and structural dynamics calculations have also been made. In order to determine the impact of a fast propagating crack on the leak-to-fracture curve, which normally is defined by quasistationary experiments, suitable tests have been made with large-volume, cylindrical vessels (outer diameter x wall thickness x length = 3000 x 21 x 14000 mm) made of the material WSt E 43. The leak-before-fracture criterion has been confirmed. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomenology of radiation-induced changes in blood vessels are systematized and authors' experience is generalized. Modern concepts about processes leading to vessel structure injury after irradiation is critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of X-ray vessel injury, consideration of which is not yet sufficiently elucidated in literature

  2. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomeology of radiation changes of blood vessels are systemized and the authors' experience is generalyzed. A critical analysis of modern conceptions on processes resulting in vessel structure damage after irradiation, is given. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of radiation injury of vessels

  3. Radiation embrittlement of Spanish nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.; Ballesteros, A.; Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants contain a series of pressure vessel steel surveillance capsules as the principal means of monitoring radiation effects on the pressure vessel. Changes in fracture toughness are more severe in surveillance capsules than in reactor vessel materials because of their proximity of the reactor core. Therefore, it is possible to predict changes in fracture toughness of the reactor vessel materials. This paper describes the status of the reactor vessel surveillance program relating to Spanish nuclear power plants. To date, twelve capsules have been removed and analyzed from seven of the nine Spanish reactors in operation. The results obtained from the analysis of these capsules are compared with the predictions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, by means of measured and expected increase of the nil-ductility transition reference temperature (RT NDT ). The comparison is made considering the different variables normally included in the studies of radiation response of reactor pressure vessel materials, such as copper content of steel, level of neutron fluence above 1 MeV, base metal or weld metal, and so forth. The surveillance data have been used for determining the adjusted reference temperatures and upper shelf energies at any time. The results have shown that the seven pressure vessels are in excellent condition to continue operating with safety against brittle fracture beyond the design life, without the need to recuperate the degraded properties of the materials by annealing of the vessel

  4. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    For a company to maintain its competitive edge in today's global market every opportunity to gain an advantage must be exploited. Many companies are strategically focusing on improved utilization of existing equipment as well as regulatory compliance. Abbott Laboratories is no exception. Pharmaceutical companies such as Abbott Laboratories realize that reliability and availability of their production equipment is critical to be successful and competitive. Abbott Laboratories, like many of our competitors, is working to improve safety, minimize downtime and maximize the productivity and efficiency of key production equipment such as the pressure vessels utilized in our processes. The correct strategy in obtaining these objectives is to perform meaningful inspection with prioritization based on hazard analysis and risk. The inspection data gathered in Abbott Laboratories pressure vessel program allows informed decisions leading to improved process control. The results of the program are reduced risks to the corporation and employees when operating pressure retaining equipment. Accurate and meaningful inspection methods become the cornerstone of a program allowing proper preventative maintenance actions to occur. Successful preventative/predictive maintenance programs must utilize meaningful nondestructive evaluation techniques and inspection methods. Nondestructive examination methods require accurate useful tools that allow rapid inspection for the entire pressure vessel. Results from the examination must allow the owner to prove compliance of all applicable regulatory laws and codes. At Abbott Laboratories the use of advanced NDE techniques, primarily B-scan ultrasonics, has provided us with the proper tools allowing us to obtain our objectives. Abbott Laboratories uses B-scan ultrasonics utilizing a pulse echo pitch catch technique to provide essential data on our pressure vessels. Equipment downtime is reduced because the nondestructive examination usually takes

  5. Investigation of impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Cornwell, R.; Hanner, D.; Leichter, H.; Mohr, P.

    1963-10-15

    Explosion containment vessels for containing from 2,000 to 3,000 five ton nuclear explosions are considered. Analysis methods appear adequate and lowest weights using the most advanced materials available in the next five years are projected.None of these materials can be fabricated today and all require extensive development. Present material technology limits the choice of materials and defines the weight. The addition of safety factors and fixtures (nozzles, etc.) will add to this weight considerably, and may well radically alter the vessel response. Improvements in the strength weight ratios of metals and glasses over those considered in this report do not appear reasonable at this time. Winding schemes to utilize the high strength of steel wires and somehow maintain a reasonable thickness appear to offer the most promise. A `ductile` beryllium would of course offer vast improvement, but no indications that this is being developed have appeared and all presently known beryllium is much too brittle.

  6. Integral experiments on in-vessel coolability and vessel creep: results and analysis of the FOREVER-C1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Vaeg., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the first FOREVER-C1 test. During this experiment, the 1/10th scale pressure vessel, heated to about 900degC and pressurized to 26 bars, was subjected to creep deformation in a non-stop 24-hours test. The vessel wall displacement data clearly shows different stages of the vessel deformation due to thermal expansion, elastic, plastic and creep processes. The maximum displacement was observed at the lowermost region of the vessel lower plenum. Information on the FOREVER-C1 measured thermal characteristics and analysis of the observed thermal and structural behavior is presented. The coupled nature of thermal and mechanical processes, as well as the effect of other system conditions (such as depressurization) on the melt pool and vessel temperature responses are analyzed. (author)

  7. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system? 96.220 Section 96.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a safety...

  9. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety management system have? 96.250 Section 96.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.250 What documents and...

  10. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a safety management system meet? 96.240 Section 96.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.240 What functional...

  11. Pressure vessel lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Elter, C.; Becker, G.; Pertiller, S.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a lid for closing openings in reactor pressure vessels containing helium, which is made as a circular casting with hollow spaces and a flat floor and is set on the opening and kept down. It consists of helium-tight metal cast material with sufficient temperature resistance. There are at least two concentric heat resistant seals let into the bottom of the lid. The bottom is in immediate contact with the container atmosphere and has hollow spaces in its inside in the area opposite to the opening. (orig./HP) [de

  12. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Latest developments in prestressed concrete vessels for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ople, F.S. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an update of the design development of prestressed concrete vessels, commonly referred to as 'PCRVs' starting with the first single-cavity PCRV for the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station to the latest multi-cavity PCRV configurations being utilized as the primary reactor vessels for both the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) and the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) in the U.S.A. The complexity of PCRV design varies not only due to the type of vessel configuration (single versus multi-cavity) but also on the application to the specific type of reactor concept. PCRV technology as applied to the Steam Cycle HTGR is fairly well established; however, some significant technical complexities are associated with PCRV design for the Gas Turbine HTGR and the GCFR. For the Gas Turbine HTGR, for instance, the fluid dynamics of the turbo-machinery cause multi-pressure conditions to exist in various portions of the power conversion loops during operation. This condition complicates the design approach and the proof test specification for the PCRV. The geometric configuration of the multi-cavity PCRV is also more complex due to the introduction of large horizontal cylindrical cavities (housing the turbo/machines for the Gas Turbine HTGR and circulators for the GCFR) in addition to the vertical cylindrical cavities for the core and heat exchangers. Because of this complex geometry, it becomes difficult to achieve an optimum prestressing arrangement for the PCRV. Other novel features of the multi-cavity PCRV resulting from the continuing design optimization effort are the incorporation of an asymmetric (offset core) configuration and the use of large vessel cavity/penetration concrete closures directly held down by prestressing tendons for both economic and safety reasons. (orig.)

  14. Design of pressure vessels. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The equipments and loops of PWR reactors are basically pressure vessels. Their specificities concern the integrity warranties that must be implemented considering their importance for the reactors safety. Thus, stress is put on the exhaustiveness of the prevention of in-service degradation and on the safety scenarios considered. The second specificity concerns the possibility of activation of wear and corrosion products during their flow inside the reactor core. This second aspect leads to some constraints on the choice of the materials used and on the surface coating of the inside wall of big components of the primary circuit. The aim of this document is to develop the general approach adopted for the design of the pressure vessels of PWR fluid loops, and to stress more particularly on the nuclear particularities of these equipments. Some extensions of these rules to high temperature resistant materials (FBR-type reactors) are also evoked. Content: General considerations: design basis of pressure vessels, risk analysis and design conditions, ruining paths and safety coefficients; 2 - damage prevention for excessive deformation: definitions, criteria; 3 - prevention of the plastic instability damage: definition, criteria; 4 - buckling prevention: definition and mechanisms, rules and criteria; 5 - prevention of progressive deformation damage: definitions, plastic adaptation, plastic accommodation, progressive deformation; 6 - prevention of fatigue damage: definitions, general prevention approach, design fatigue curves, analytic approach, particular aspects, analysis of zones with geometrical singularity; 7 - prevention of sudden rupture damage: fragile rupture and ductile tear, general approach, analytic criteria, irradiation and aging effects; 8 - other potential damages; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  15. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Vessel Traffic Services (TRNCVTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KUM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first Vessel Traffic Service (VTS started in 1949 in the Liverpool Port (UK and it continued in Netherlands in 1956. In Turkey, planning and management of the marine traffic using the waterways and ports in Turkey started with Turkish Straits VTS which came into service in 2003 due to the increase in traffic density enhance its effectiveness and necessity every year. Feasibility studies in five new areas have been initiated for the establishment of the VTS system by force of the strategic decision taken by the maritime authority in 2008. These areas are; İzmit Bay, Izmir Bay and Aliağa Region, Gulf of İskenderun and Mersin. Monitoring the marine traffic has an important place as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC is an important transition point in the Eastern Mediterranean region. For this reason, in this study the impact assessment and necessity of the establishment of a VTS to be located in the TRNC were evaluated by using Environmental (PEST: Political, Economic, Social, Technological and SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats Analyses. In addition, the suitability of the possible locations of Traffic Monitoring Stations (TMS has been examined by the field study. Evaluation of TRNC VTS in geographical and strategic terms will benefit from the opportunities and facilities that both the Republic of Turkey and the TRNC will have as a part of the effect of VTS against the embargo imposed on the TRNC in the world. Three appropriate VTS TMSs have been chosen as a result of the field study carried out for 10 determined TMSs; Cape Kormakitis, Cape Apostolos Andreas and Famagusta. It is also concluded that it would be appropriate to plan the Famagusta Station as VTS Centre. It is assumed to monitor and track the vessels in the zones out of the coverage area of these stations by Automatic Identification System (AIS. Safety and security in the shipping, protection of navigation, life, property and the marine environment of

  16. An automated vessel segmentation of retinal images using multiscale vesselness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, M.; Malek, J.; Tourki, R.; Krissian, K.

    2011-01-01

    The ocular fundus image can provide information on pathological changes caused by local ocular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Automated analysis and interpretation of fundus images has become a necessary and important diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology. The extraction of blood vessels from retinal images is an important and challenging task in medical analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion which allows reducing the noise and better preserving small structures like vessels in 2D images. A vessel detection filter, based on a multi-scale vesselness function, is then applied to enhance vascular structures.

  17. Welding of structural components and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    'Welding of structural components and vessels' was chosen as the guiding topic for the 17th special conference in Munich so that current problems of this important area of application for welding engineering could be discussed in detail. The following topics were in the focus of the discussions: developments in steel, steel production and steel processing, reports on the practical application of welding in the manufacture of containers and pipes, quality assurance, product liability, safety considerations regarding creep-stressed components, problems of welding in large structures. 7 of the total number of 12 contributions were recorded separately for the data base ENERGY. (orig./MM) [de

  18. System for cooling the upper wall of a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailla, Henri; Schaller, Karl; Vidard, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A system for cooling the upper wall of the main vessel of a fast neutron reactor is described. This vessel is suspended from an upper shield by the upper wall. It includes coils carrying a coolant which are immersed in an intermediate liquid bathing the wall and contained in a tank integral with the vessel. At least one of the two cooling and intermediate liquids is a liquid metal. The main vessel is contained in a safety vessel, the space between the main and safety vessels is occluded in its upper part by an insulating shield placed under the tank. There is a liquid metal seal between the upper wall and the upper shield under the tank. This system has been specially designed for sodium cooled fast neutron reactors [fr

  19. Knowledge gaps in economic analyses of advanced reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.; Pencer, J.; Leung, L.K.H.; Sadhankar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of next generation nuclear systems is predicated on improvement in sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and economics. The economic assessment of the reactor concept is required as early as in the concept development stage. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has developed a methodology for economic assessment of the Generation IV (GEN-IV) nuclear energy systems. The GIF economics methodology was used for the assessment of one of the reactor concepts for the Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWR), namely the European pressure-vessel type concept referred to as the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). The economic analysis involved studying the sensitivity of two main economic indicators, namely, the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) and the Total Capital Investment Cost (TCIC). The knowledge gaps in estimating the capital costs and fuel costs, as well as the uncertainties in other cost parameters affecting the economic assessment of the nuclear energy system in the concept development stage are presented. (author)

  20. Role of radiation embrittlement in reactor vessel integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, T.U.; Chexal, V.K.; Wyckoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor vessel integrity calculations are complex. The effect of radiation embrittlement on vessel material properties is a very important aspect of any vessel integrity evaluation. The importance of realistic (based on surveillance capsule results) rather than conservative estimates of the material properties (based on regulatory curves) cannot be overestimated. It is also important to make realistic thermal hydraulic and system operations assumptions. In addition, use of actual flaw sizes from in-service inspections (versus hypothetical flaw size selection) will promote realism. Important research results exist that need to be incorporated into the regulatory process. The authors believe results from current research and development efforts will demonstrate that, with reasonable assumptions and best estimate calculations, the safety of even the older reactor vessels with high copper content welds can be assured over their design lifetimes without the need for major fixes. The utilities, through EPRI and the vendors, have dedicated a significant effort to solving the pressurized thermal shock problem

  1. Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. Part II. Intermediate vessel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The testing of the intermediate pressure vessels is a major activity under the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. A primary objective of these tests is to develop or verify methods of fracture prediction, through the testing of selected structures and materials, in order that a valid basis can be established for evaluating the serviceability and safety of light-water reactor pressure vessels. These vessel tests were planned with sufficiently specific objectives that substantial quantitative weight could be given to the results. Each set of testing conditions was chosen so as to provide specific data by which analytical methods of predicting flaw growth, and in some cases crack arrest, could be evaluated. Every practical effort was made to assure that results would be relevant to some aspect of real reactor pressure vessel performance through careful control of material properties, selection of test temperatures, and design of prepared flaws. 5 references

  2. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Morris LS. Hysterectomy vs. resectoscopic endometrial ablation for the control of abnormal uterine bleeding . A cost-comparative study. J Reprod Med 1994;39...after the antibody treatment contain a pericyte coat, vessel architecture is normal, the diameter of the vessels is smaller (dilated, abnormal vessels...involvement of proteases from inflammatory mast cells and functionally abnormal (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000; Pasqualini (Coussens et al., 1999) and other bone

  3. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  4. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  5. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  6. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VESSEL-SOURCED POLLUTION: A SECURITY THREAT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and some other conventions make provisions concerning protection of ma- ... the pollution of the marine in Malaysia, it appears that pollution by vessels .... pollution from ships and maritime safety; providing effective legal, technical and scientific ..... of the offence after the service of the notice on the offending ship through.

  8. 33 CFR 161.12 - Vessel operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0′ N. extending eastward through the Golden Gate, and the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay and... safety beyond that provided by other means. The bridge-to-bridge navigational frequency, 156.650 MHz (Ch... Measures, and Operating Requirements § 161.12 Vessel operating requirements. (a) Subject to the exigencies...

  9. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey natural hazards science strategy: promoting the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10–year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical

  11. Research program plan: reactor vessels. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, M.; Taboada, A.

    1985-07-01

    The ability of the licensing staff of the NRC to make decisions concerning the present and continuing safety of nuclear reactor pressure vessels under both normal and abnormal operating conditions is dependent upon the existence of verified analysis methods and a solid background of applicable experimental data. It is the role of this program to provide both the analytical methods and the experimental data needed. Specifically, this program develops fracture mechanics analysis methods and design criteria for predicting the stress levels and flaw sizes required for crack initiation, propagation, and arrest in LWR pressure vessels under all known and postulated operations conditions. To do this, not only must the methods be developed but they must be experimentally validated. Further, the materials data necessary for input to these analytical methods must be developed. Thus, in addition to methods development and large scale experimental verification this program also develops data to show that slow-load fracture toughness, rapid-load fracture toughness, and crack arrest toughness obtained from small laboratory specimens are truly representative of the toughness characteristics of the material behavior in pressure vessels in both the unirradiated and the irradiated conditions

  12. Structural failure analysis of reactor vessels due to molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor vessel during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This paper addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings from the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on a wet or dry cavity and pressurization of the vessel based on operating pressure or atmospheric (pipe break). The analyses considered both short term (minutes) and long term (days) failure modes. Short term failure modes include creep at elevated temperatures and plastic instabilities of the structure. Long term failure modes are caused by creep rupture that lead to plastic instability of the structure. The analyses predict the reactor vessel will remain intact after the core melt has deposited on the lower vessel head

  13. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  14. Short and long term maintenance strategy for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, A.; Heuze, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents elements based on : surveys, operating inspection, theoretical studies, safety analysis, laboratory results, that enabled to determine maintenance options and short and long term strategies for processing on reactor vessel head leaks. (TEC). 1 tab

  15. Report on the research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants in operation sponsored by Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. Period under report: 1 January - 30 June 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit (BMWA) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour) sponsors research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations and to the further development of safety technology. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWA, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The reports are published by the Research Management Division of GRS. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWA does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  16. Application of improved quality control technology to pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriedt, F.

    1985-01-01

    Within the last decade, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII-1 instituted requirements for a formal written quality control system. The results, good and bad, of this requirement are discussed. The effects are far reaching from a national economic standpoint. Quality control technology has improved. These improvements are discussed and compared to existing requirements of the CODE. Recommended improvements are suggested

  17. Progress report within the series of GRS-F progress reports on reactor safety, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. Period: 1 July - 31 December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order to the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Managment Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.) [de

  18. Progress report within the series of GRS-F progress reports on reactor safety, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. Period: 1 January - 30 June, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order to the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Managment Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.) [de

  19. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention applies to a pressure vessel for nuclear reactors whose shell, made of cast metal segments, has a steel liner. This liner must be constructed to withstand all operational stresses and to be easily repairable. The invention solves this problem by installing the liner at a certain distance from the inner wall of the pressure vessel shell and by filling this clearance with supporting concrete. Both the concrete and the steel liner must have a lower prestress than the pressure vessel shell. In order to avoid damage to the liner when prestressing the pressure vessel shell, special connecting elements are provided which consist of welded-on fastening elements projecting into recesses in the cast metal segments of the pressure vessel. Their design is described in detail. (TK) [de

  20. Development of mechanisms and instruments of increasing economic safety with regard to the peculiarities of the present stage of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of theoretical provisions of economic security, their mechanisms and instruments is determined by the laws of the economy that reveal the management of production, the market processes of distribution, exchange, consumption, taking into account the features of industries, regions, the level of globalization, etc. Each sphere, region or branch of the economy is characterized by peculiar economic processes justified by a specific approach to their disclosure. Economic security, its emergence, development and adaptation to changing market conditions, is based on the information economy or on the knowledge economy. Economic security is determined by the costs of information, its confidentiality, taking into account the interaction, on the one hand, and the competition of various enterprises, regions and countries, on the other. In the process of economic development, knowledge in general and any specialists are needed, but only those that are necessary in the economy. Communication and interaction of science, knowledge, information with production provides not only economic security, but also their successful development. To develop certain principles or laws for the interaction of technological and economic factors, their degree and level of interaction, a study of economic activity was conducted. In the present study, a civilizational approach was used that is based on the determining role of man in the economy and society and the importance of knowledge and information, when the important mechanisms remain: the development of technology and technology, the role of knowledge and information, and communication. The implementation of the civilized approach takes into account the new methodological level of increasing economic security, when the main factor in the development of the economy is the scientific and technological progress that justifies the information path of economic development.

  1. Mark III Containment vessel/annulus concrete design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.S.; Moussa, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Recently, engineers have been considering the significant dynamic impact of safety/relief valve (S/RV) discharge loads on the containment structures, safety equipment, and piping systems in BWR type reactors. For a plant in the construction stage, extensive modifications will be made to qualify these new loads. The lower portion of the containment vessel serves as a suppression pool pressure boundary and is designed to sustain the effects of postulated loss of coolant accidents, seismic occurrences, S/RV discharge loads, and other effects. Extremely high spectral peak accelerations of the free-standing steel containment vessel can be obtained during the air dearing process of the S/RV discharge. Parametric studies indicated that a substantial reduction in response can be obtained by increasing the stiffness of the steel containment vessel in the lover area. A concrete backing configuration in the suppression pool area of Mark III Containment is proposed in this paper. A composite action is assumed between the steel containment vessel shell and the concrete section. The system is physically separated from the shield building. This approach warrants an early erection of the shield building and a late installation of piping systems in the containment vessel suppression pool area. Finite element analyses are performed by using ASHSD2 and EASE2 computer codes. The results of the analyses have shown the proposed stress criteria are satisfied. The approach pressented is justified to be a workable system for a new plant design. (orig./HP)

  2. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  3. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellissier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety. (author)

  4. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety.

  5. Pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, D.

    2007-01-01

    This book guides through general and fundamental problems of pressure vessel design. It moreover considers problems which seem to be of lower importance but which turn out to be crucial in the design phase. The basic approach is rigorously scientific with a complete theoretical development of the topics treated, but the analysis is always pushed so far as to offer concrete and precise calculation criteria that can be immediately applied to actual designs. This is accomplished through appropriate algorithms that lead to final equations or to characteristic parameters defined through mathematical equations. The first chapter describes how to achieve verification criteria, the second analyzes a few general problems, such as stresses of the membrane in revolution solids and edge effects. The third chapter deals with cylinders under pressure from the inside, while the fourth focuses on cylinders under pressure from the outside. The fifth chapter covers spheres, and the sixth is about all types of heads. Chapter seven discusses different components of particular shape as well as pipes, with special attention to flanges. The eighth chapter discusses the influence of holes, while the ninth is devoted to the influence of supports. Finally, chapter ten illustrates the fundamental criteria regarding fatigue analysis. Besides the unique approach to the entire work, original contributions can be found in most chapters, thanks to the author's numerous publications on the topic and to studies performed ad hoc for this book. (orig.)

  6. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures......./capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  7. The Coast Guard Proceedings of the Marine Safety and Security Council: Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    management system designed to manage safety elements in the workplace . In practice, an operational...winning DuPont family of workplace safety training offerings. Management Buy-In Even if an organization embraces nonconformities as a call to improved...PROCEEDINGS Spring 2016 Vol. 73, Number 1 Safety Management System Objectives 6 Safety Management Facilitates Safe Vessel Operation Vessel

  8. Structural analysis and evaluation for the design of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, K.; Uragami, K.; Funada, T.; Baba, K.; Kira, T.

    1977-01-01

    For the design of pressure vessel, the detailed structural analysis such as the fatigue analysis under operating conditions is required by ASME Code or Japanese regulation. Accordingly, it should be verified by the analysis that the design of the pressure vessel is in compliance with the stress limitation defined in the Code or the regulation. However, it was apparent that the analysis is very complicated and takes a lot of time to evaluate in accordance with the Code requirements. Thereupon we developed the computer program by which we can perform the stress analysis with correctness and comparatively in a short period of design work reflecting the calculation results on detailed drawings to be used for fabrication. The computer program is controlled in combination with the system of the design work and out put list of the program can be directly used for the stress analysis report which is issued to customers. In addition to the above computer program, we developed the specific three dimensional finite element computer program to make sure of the structural integrity of the vessel head and flanges which are most complex for the analysis compared with the stress distribution measured by strain gauges on the vessel head and flange. Besides the structural analysis, the fracture mechanics analysis for the purpose of preventing the pressure vessel from the brittle fracture during heat-up and cool-down operation is also important and thereby we showed herein that the pressure vessel is in safety against the brittle fracture for the specified operating conditions. As a result of the above-mentioned analysis, the pressure vessel is designed with safety from the stand-points of the structural intensity and the fracture mechanics. (auth.)

  9. A powerful methodology for reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.; Mager, T.

    1994-01-01

    The recent operating experience of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Industry has focused increasing attention on the issue of reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS). More specifically, the review of the old WWER-type of reactors (WWER 440/230) has indicated a sensitive behaviour to neutron embrittlement. This led already to some remedial actions including safety injection water preheating or vessel annealing. Such measures are usually taken based on the analysis of a selected number of conservative PTS events. Consideration of all postulated cooldown events would draw attention to the impact of operator action and control system effects on reactor vessel PTS. Westinghouse has developed a methodology which couples event sequence analysis with probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses, to identify those events that are of primary concern for reactor vessel integrity. Operating experience is utilized to aid in defining the appropriate event sequences and event frequencies of occurrence for the evaluation. Once the event sequences of concern are identified, detailed deterministic thermal-hydraulic and structural evaluations can be performed to determine the conditions required to minimize the extension of postulated flaws or enhance flaw arrest in the reactor vessel. The results of these analyses can then be used to better define further modifications in vessel and plant system design and to operating procedures. The purpose of the present paper will be to describe this methodology and to show its benefits for decision making. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs

  10. Concrete containment vessels (CCV) for nuclear power plants, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Yukimi; Kitajima, Masatake

    1977-01-01

    Containment vessels (CV) and the construction of concrete containment vessels (CCV) for nuclear power plants are described generally, and their use and techniques in foreign countries are illustrated, in connection with the introduction of CCV to Japanese nuclear power plants. The introduction deals with the construction plan of Japanese nuclear power plants, and with the difficulties in the steel CV for large scale construction. The investigations, tests and researches are not yet sufficient. The prompt establishment of safety supported by technical criteria, analytical methods and experiments is desired. The second part deals with the consideration for aseismatic design, construction, function and characteristics of CCV. The classification and currently employed CCV, which is mainly reinforced concrete containment vessels (RCCV), are described, and the typical CCV employed for BWR is illustrated. Further, the typical arrangement of reinforcing steels at the cylindrical portion and the dome portion of RCCV is illustrated. The third part deals with the present state of CCV abroad. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) of Turkey Point power plant is illustrated as a typical example of CCV. The tests reported in the international meeting for the design, construction and operation of concrete pressure vessels and concrete containment vessels at York University in England in 1975 are reviewed. Typical examples of the design conditions, the size and form, and the construction procedure for PCCV and RCCV abroad are reviewed. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. The impact of vessel speed reduction on port accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Tae; Park, Hyosoo

    2016-03-19

    Reduced-speed zones (RSZs) have been designated across the world to control emissions from ships and prevent mammal strikes. While some studies have examined the effectiveness of speed reduction on emissions and mammal preservation, few have analyzed the effects of reduced ship speed on vessel safety. Those few studies have not yet measured the relationship between vessel speed and accidents by using real accident data. To fill this gap in the literature, this study estimates the impact of vessel speed reduction on vessel damages, casualties and frequency of vessel accidents. Accidents in RSZ ports were compared to non-RSZ ports by using U.S. Coast Guard data to capture the speed reduction effects. The results show that speed reduction influenced accident frequency as a result of two factors, the fuel price and the RSZ designation. Every $10 increase in the fuel price led to a 10.3% decrease in the number of accidents, and the RSZ designation reduced vessel accidents by 47.9%. However, the results do not clarify the exact impact of speed reduction on accident casualty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total system for manufacture of nuclear vessels by computer: VECTRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Jin; Ueno, Osamu; Hanai, Yoshiharu; Ohkawa, Isao; Washizu, Hideyuki

    1980-01-01

    VECTRON (Vessel Engineering by Computer Tool and Rapid Operating for the N/C System) is a CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) system that has been developed to produce high quality and highly accurate vessels for nuclear power plants and other industrial plants. Outputs of this system are design drawings, manufacturing information and magnetic tapes of the N/C marking machine for vessel shell plates including their attachments. And it can also output information at each stage of designing, marking, cutting, forming and assembling by treating the vessels in three dimensions and by using data filing systems and plotting program for general use. The data filing systems consist of functional and manufacturing data of each part of vessels. This system not only realizes a change from manual work to computer work, but also leads us to improve production engineering and production jigs for safety and high quality. At present, VECTRON is being applied to the manufacture of the shell plates of primary containment vessels in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (K-1) and the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 (2F-3), to realize increased productivity. (author)

  13. PWR vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Kinsman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on PWR pressure vessels which operate under NRC rules and regulatory guides intended to prevent failure of the vessels. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified under these rules and regulations are required to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. However, the flaw distribution assumed in the development of the NRC Regulations and recommended for the plant specific analyses is potentially over-conservative. This is because the distribution is based on the limited amount of vessel inspection data available at the time the criteria were being developed and does not take full advantage of the more recent and reliable domestic vessel inspection results. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding an effort through Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of developing a new flaw distribution based on the increased amount and improved reliability of domestic vessel inspection data. Results of Phase I of the program indicate that state-of-the-art NDE systems' capabilities are sufficient for development of a new flaw distribution that could ultimately provide life extension benefits over the presently required operating practice

  14. Nuclear reactor vessel decontamination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed in the present application, a decontamination system for reactor vessels. The system is operatable without entry by personnel into the contaminated vessel before the decontamination operation is carried out and comprises an assembly which is introduced into the vertical cylindrical vessel of the typical boiling water reactor through the open top. The assembly includes a circular track which is centered by guideways permanently installed in the reactor vessel and the track guides opposed pairs of nozzles through which water under very high pressure is directed at the wall for progressively cutting and sweeping a tenacious radioactive coating as the nozzles are driven around the track in close proximity to the vessel wall. The whole assembly is hoisted to a level above the top of the vessel by a crane, outboard slides on the assembly brought into engagement with the permanent guideways and the assembly progressively lowered in the vessel as the decontamination operation progresses. The assembly also includes a low pressure nozzle which forms a spray umbrella above the high pressure nozzles to contain radioactive particles dislodged during the decontamination

  15. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  16. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Safety and security are top concerns in maritime navigation, particularly as maritime traffic continues to grow and as crew sizes are reduced. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a key role in regard to these concerns. This system, whose objective is in part to identify and locate ves...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  17. MIR: an in-service inspection device for Superphenix 1 vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Ceccato, S.; Lerat, B.; Viard, J.

    1986-06-01

    The main and safety vessels of SUPERPHENIX 1 were designed to allow in-service inspections. The remote controlled inspection device MIR was developed for this purpose. It allows both visual and ultrasonic examinations to be performed. Basically, MIR consists of a tetrahedral structure provided with four steering and traction wheels, two for each vessel. A computer assisted control system enables it to be driven to any position on either the main or safety vessels. Operating conditions are briefly reviewed and the main features of MIR presented

  18. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. PWR vessel inspection performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair Fairbrother, D.; Bodson, Francis

    1998-01-01

    A compact robot for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessels has been developed that reduces setup logistics and schedule time for mandatory code inspections. Rather than installing a large structure to access the entire weld inspection area from its flange attachment, the compact robot examines welds in overlapping patches from a suction cup anchor to the shell wall. The compact robot size allows two robots to be operated in the vessel simultaneously. This significantly reduces the time required to complete the inspection. Experience to date indicates that time for vessel examinations can be reduced to fewer than four days. (author)

  20. Thermal radiation from fireballs on failure of liquefied petroleum gas storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.; Hawksworth, S. [Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Lab., Buxton (United Kingdom); Gosse, A. [BG Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Fire impingement on vessels containing pressure liquefied gases can result in catastrophic failure of the vessel leading to a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE). If the gas is flammable, this can result in the formation of very large fireballs. In safety assessments where catastrophic vessel failure is identified as a real possibility, the risk of death from a fireball tends to be higher than that from missiles or blast. Since many of the physical processes which take place in a BLEVE are scale dependent, a series of tests were undertaken at a large scale where 2 tonne propane vessels were taken to failure in a jet fire and the vessel response, mode of failure and consequence of failure characterised. The measurements taken by the Health and Safety Laboratory and BG Technology relating to fireball formation are described. (Author)