WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessel ice mir

  1. Experimental and numerical study on ice resistance for icebreaking vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice resistance is defined as the time average of all longitudinal forces due to ice acting on the ship. Estimation of ship’s resistance in ice-covered waters is very important to both designers and shipbuilders since it is closely related to propulsion of a ship and it determines the engine power of the ship. Good ice performance requires ice resistance should be as low as possible to allow different manoeuvres. In this paper, different numerical methods are presented to calculate ice resistance, including semi-analytical method and empirical methods. A model test of an icebreaking vessel that was done in an ice basin has been introduced for going straight ahead in level ice at low speed. Then the comparison between model test results and numerical results are made. Some discussions and suggestions are presented as well to provide an insight into icebreaking vessel design at early stage.

  2. 78 FR 33150 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLACK ICE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLACK ICE... of the vessel BLACK ICE is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Small passenger sails. Sightseeing, dinner sails, sailing classes, and eco sails. Geographic Region: ``Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama...

  3. Modeling and Control for Dynamic Positioned Marine Vessels in Drifting Managed Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kåre Kjerstad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a development framework for dynamic positioning control systems for marine vessels in managed ice. Due to the complexity of the vessel-ice and ice-ice interactions a configurable high fidelity numerical model simulating the vessel, the ice floes, the water, and the boundaries is applied. The numerical model is validated using experimental data and coupled with a control application incorporating sensor models, control systems, actuator models, and other external dynamics to form a closed loop development platform. The ice drift reversal is simulated by moving the positioning reference frame in an elliptic trajectory, rather than moving each individual ice floe. A control plant model is argued, and a control system for managed ice is proposed based on conventional open water design methods. A case study shows that dynamic positioning in managed ice is feasible for some moderate ice conditions.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Double-Acting Offshore Vessel Performance in Level Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Su

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a numerical model and experimental data are used to investigate the level ice performance of a double-acting intervention vessel. The icebreaking capability and maneuverability in level ice are analyzed by evaluating the behavior of the vessel when it is running both ahead and astern. The paper also presents the implementation of a random crack size model for more realistic icebreaking behavior, giving more consistent evaluation of the vessel's performance in various ice conditions. The numerical simulations are firstly conducted in model-scale for a direct comparison with the experimental results. The scaling of ship speed and ice resistance is then discussed by comparing the simulation results in both full-scale and model-scale. The effect on the vessel's performance of the different properties of scaled model ice and full-scale sea ice is also assessed.

  5. The study of the impact of ice conditions on the possibility of the submarine vessels surfacing in the ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyak, V. L.; Kozin, V. M.; Baurin, N. O.; Ipatov, K. I.; Kandelya, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally submarine vessels emerging from under ice cover performing by static loading of ice from bellow through the creation of positive buoyancy by main ballast tanks. However thickness of ice (approximately 1 meter) from under which modern submarine vessel can emerge essentially limits the use of traditional method, particularly during submarine vessels motion in the severe ice conditions of Arctic region. For breaking the ice cover of greater thickness can be used flexural gravity waves caused by the submarine vessel motion with certain critical speed near the bottom ice. It is also known that in the coastal areas water depth is often less than 100 meters, and the presence of projections on the bottom surface may effect on the wave propagation pattern. This paper presents experimental study of influence of bottom contour on the deflection and the length of the flexural gravity waves from the movement of submarine. Ice cover failure pattern determined. Assessment of ice-breaking capacity of flexural-gravity waves with using the criterion of ice failure is performed.

  6. Ice Observation Program on the Semisubmersible Drilling Vessel SEDCO 708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    would increase the overturning moment as a consequence of its .1 - height (the derrick crown is 180 ft above deck). Atmospheric icing measurement The...typical hull coating. The four coatings were: 1. General Electric LR5630 (65% polysiloxane, 35% polycarbon - ate), a copolymer, mixed with toluene and

  7. Efficiency Analysis of Additions of Ice Flake in Cargo Hold Cooling System of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiadji Amiadji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a maritime nation, the majority of people's livelihood in Indonesia coast is as a fishermen. The process of preserving fish after being caught will determine how good the product quality. One of process on preserving fish that can be done is to perform the cooling process using a cooling machine on board. Refrigeration system certainly requires high electrical power consumption. That high power usage can be reduced as much as possible, one of which is to add chopped ice (ice flake on a fishing boat cargo space. So that the load for cooling can be reduced.The purpose of this thesis is to find out how the influence of the addition of ice flake on cooling load in the cargo hold of fishing vessels, and to know how much power is used when the cooling machine is combined with the addition of ice flake. In this analysis cooling load calculation refers to the standard ISO 7547.from the results of analysis found that the addition of ice flake on cargo space can reduce cooling load and can reduce electricity consumption day in the main vessel for the addition comparison flake ice and fish weight of 1: 1.

  8. Slurry Ice as a Cooling System on 30 GT Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Baheramsyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world that has a sea area that is very spacious. Indonesian sea area is 5.8 million square kilometers and a coastline of 95 181 km has huge potential in the fisheries sector. In line with the need to further improve on the quality of the fish catch. One way to preserve fish is to use a slurry of ice. Slurry ice proved more effective preserving fishery products instead of using ice cubes. Ice slurry cooling system was designed and applied to the fishing vessel 30 GT. The cooling system uses a simple vapor compression system consists of five major components consisting of evaporator, condenser, compressor, and two pumps.In designing this system determined the type of refrigerant used in advance which type of refrigerant R-507a. Then do the design or selection of its main components. The design is only done on the evaporator. As for the other major components such as condensers, compressors, and pumps election in accordance with the specification of the power needed. After that dialakukan depiction of each system component. Then subsequently designing the laying of ice slurry cooling system components on a fishing vessel 30 GT.            Through calculations using simple thermodynamic equations obtained cooling load on this system amounted to 32.06 kW. Condenser with a power of 40 kW. Compressor with power 12 kW. Pump with capacity 10 m3 / h. With memepertimbangkan space left on the ship in the ice slurry system design on the main deck of the ship to the efficient use of space on board. The power requirements of the generator vessel increases due to the addition of ice slurry system components therefore do replacement generator into the generator with a power of 100 kW and penambahn fuel tank to 6,000 L.

  9. Non-dimensional analysis of pack ice loading arising from three hull-ice friction coefficients on a turret-moored offshore vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolgar, R.C.; Colbourne, D.B.

    2006-03-15

    Turret-moored vessel-shaped offshore production systems are being increasingly used in Canada's ice-infested waters. Accurate quantification of the expected ice loading on the systems is needed. This study modeled the effect of the hull-ice friction coefficient on the pack ice loading experienced by vessel-shaped offshore production systems in order to help designers make decisions concerning low-friction coatings of a means of reduced mooring load. Experiments were conducted on 3 different hull-ice coefficients in an ice tank. The first coating represented a high-gloss finish with a low friction coefficient of 0.01, while the second coating represented an offshore vessel with several years of service, and an average friction coefficient of 0.13. The third coating represented an aged and deteriorated hull with a friction coefficient of 0.46. Pack ice loads and forces in the spring mooring lines were instrumented. The curves of horizontal restoring force were derived through a numerical analysis of the mooring line configuration. A linear physical model of the horizontal restoring force provided by a catenary mooring line was then made. Pack ice experiments were conducted by breaking the ice into desired ice floes. The friction coefficient was determined as the slope of a graph of the frictional force against the normal load. The 3 friction surfaces were tested in different ice thicknesses, floe sizes and concentrations. Model velocities were run in random order throughout each test. A yoyo potentiometer was used to measure the heave of the model, while pitch and roll were measured using 2 rotary variable differential transformers embedded in a two post gimbaled dynamometer. A Froude number was used along with an applicable force coefficient. Measured ice loads were non-dimensionalized to a predicted pack ice force coefficient. The effect of the pack ice concentrations was incorporated to account for the reduction in mass, and the inertia of ice interacting

  10. Thermal expansion of vitrified blood vessels permeated with DP6 and synthetic ice modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-06-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on measurements of local ice pressure for ice breaking research vessel “ARAON” at the Amundsen Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyeon Kwon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a local ice pressure prediction has been conducted by using measured data from two ice breaking tests that was conducted for a relatively big ice floe at Amundsen Sea in the Antarctica from January 31 to March 30 2012. The symmetry of load was considered by attaching strain gauges on the same sites inside the shell plating of ship at the port and the starboard sides in the bow thrust room. Using measured strain data, after the ice pressure was converted by the influence coefficient method and the direct method, the two values were found to be similar.

  12. Down-regulation of miR-101 in endothelial cells promotes blood vessel formation through reduced repression of EZH2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Smits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a balanced process controlled by pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules of which the regulation is not fully understood. Besides classical gene regulation, miRNAs have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of angiogenesis. Furthermore, epigenetic changes caused by histone-modifying enzymes were shown to modulate angiogenesis as well. However, a possible interplay between miRNAs and histone-modulating enzymes during angiogenesis has not been described. Here we show that VEGF-mediated down-regulation of miR-101 caused pro-angiogenic effects. We found that the pro-angiogenic effects are partly mediated through reduced repression by miR-101 of the histone-methyltransferase EZH2, a member of the Polycomb group family, thereby increasing methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 and transcriptome alterations. In vitro, the sprouting and migratory properties of primary endothelial cell cultures were reduced by inhibiting EZH2 through up-regulation of miR-101, siRNA-mediated knockdown of EZH2, or treatment with 3-Deazaneplanocin-A (DZNep, a small molecule inhibitor of EZH2 methyltransferase activity. In addition, we found that systemic DZNep administration reduced the number of blood vessels in a subcutaneous glioblastoma mouse model, without showing adverse toxicities. Altogether, by identifying a pro-angiogenic VEGF/miR-101/EZH2 axis in endothelial cells we provide evidence for a functional link between growth factor-mediated signaling, post-transcriptional silencing, and histone-methylation in the angiogenesis process. Inhibition of EZH2 may prove therapeutic in diseases in which aberrant vascularization plays a role.

  13. A study of the changes in freeboard, stability and motion response of ships and semi-submersible platforms due to vessel icing

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Lise Eide

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in the world, and as the traditional fossil fuel supplies are diminishing, it is pushing the oil and gas industry to seek for natural resources in remote and harsh environments. One of these distant and tough environments is in the Arctic region. Vessel icing from both sea-spray icing and atmospheric icing are common in these waters and can impact the safety of a platform or a ship in different ways. Ice accumulation on vessels contributes to an ext...

  14. Modeling Relevant to Safe Operations of U.S. Navy Vessels in Arctic Conditions: Physical Modeling of Ice Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    www.erdc.usace.army.mil. To search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/ client /default...Science and Technology SNAME Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers SSC Ship Structure Committee USCG U.S. Coast Guard WMO World...ice-capable vessels, naval architects have traditionally used physical modeling to measure the vessels’ re- sistance, propulsion, and maneuvering

  15. Ice Thickness, Snow Depth, and Surface Temperature in the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge from a Vessel-mounted Sea Ice Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissling, B.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-02-01

    A new Sea Ice Measurement System was constructed combining an Electromagnetic Induction Meter (Geonics EM-31), a KU-CRESIS Snow Radar, a Wengler Lidar Altimeter and a FLIR Infrared Camera. These were in-line mounted on a frame that was suspended over the side of the Sikuliaq during the ONR SeaState cruise to the Chukchi Sea ice edge in Oct 2015. The EMI measured total snow and ice thickness when corrected for height above the surface by the Lidar Altimeter. Ice Thickness was derived by subtracting radar snow depth from EMI total snow and ice thickness. A Riegl Lidar mounted separately on an upper deck provided a surface elevation swath containing the sea ice measurement system's line profile. These sea ice parameters, over 10km to 20km track lengths at 5m horizontal resolution, provide ground truth validation for airborne measurements which use only lidar surface elevation and radar snow depth to derive sea ice thickness. Algorithms to relate ice thickness only to surface elevation will be tested for possible application to future IceSAT-2 satellite data for the Arctic autumn period.

  16. A study of the changes in freeboard, stability and motion response of ships and semi-submersible platforms due to vessel icing

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Lise Eide

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology There is an increasing demand for energy in the world, and as the traditional fossil fuel supplies are diminishing, it is pushing the oil and gas industry to seek for natural resources in remote and harsh environments. One of these distant and tough environments is in the Arctic region. Vessel icing from both sea-spray icing and atmospheric icing are common in these waters and can impact the safety of a platform or a ship in different ways. Ice acc...

  17. Efficiency Analysis of Additions of Ice Flake in Cargo Hold Cooling System of Fishing Vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Amiadji Amiadji; Edi Djatmiko; Yosef Novian Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

    As a maritime nation, the majority of people's livelihood in Indonesia coast is as a fishermen. The process of preserving fish after being caught will determine how good the product quality. One of process on preserving fish that can be done is to perform the cooling process using a cooling machine on board. Refrigeration system certainly requires high electrical power consumption. That high power usage can be reduced as much as possible, one of which is to add chopped ice (ice flake) on a fi...

  18. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21-posit...... with the six markers. These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics....

  19. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  20. Anti-Icing and De-Icing of Pipe Structures on Marine Vessels using Waste Heat Recovery - Numerical Simulations and Experimental Testing of Ulmatec Pyro's Double-Pipe Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Æsøy, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Shipping, fishing and exploration activities in Arctic waters are endangered by ice accretion on critical structures causing various safety risks. Ulmatec Pyro have developed an anti-icing/de-icing system using waste heat circulation in a double pipe system , for hand railings, helicopter decks and stairway applications. The research objectives of this master thesis was to support Ulmatec Pyro in the design process, using theoretical models for design optimization, and to develop experiment...

  1. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  2. 46 CFR 28.550 - Icing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Icing. 28.550 Section 28.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.550 Icing. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that operates north of 42° North latitude between...

  3. miR-126 and miR-126*: New Players in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Meister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is characterized by autarky in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-restrictive signals, evasion of apoptosis, a limitless potential to replicate, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, including metastasis. The regulation of these cellular processes relies on a fine-tuned control of molecular signal cascades. In recent years, short noncoding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs have been described as a novel class of molecular regulators. These affect various signaling cascades during the progression of neoplastic diseases by the regulation of gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. The novel endothelial cell–derived secreted protein epidermal growth factor–like domain 7 (EGFL7 has been suggested to control vascular tubulogenesis. Further, the two biologically active miRNAs miR-126 and its complement miR-126*, which are encoded by intron 7 of the egfl7 gene, have been described to mediate vascular functions. Knock-out studies in zebrafish and mice suggested a major role of miR-126 in angiogenesis and vascular integrity, which was mediated by the repression of inhibitors of VEGF-induced proliferation in endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed the distribution and function of miR-126 and miR-126* in various types of cancer, and assigned a role to both miRNAs as suppressors of tumor formation. Indeed, miR-126 and miR-126* have been reported to impair cancer progression through signaling pathways that control tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Conversely, miR-126 and miR-126* may have a supportive role in the progression of cancer as well, which might be mediated by the promotion of blood vessel growth and inflammation. In this work, we will summarize the current knowledge on functions of miR-126/miR-126* that are relevant for cancer formation, and we will discuss their potential clinical use as predictive markers of survival and application as novel therapeutic targets for the

  4. miR-218 inhibited tumor angiogenesis by targeting ROBO1 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyuan; Dong, Jiaqiang; He, Yan; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Na; Jiang, Mingzuo; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Gang; Liu, Haiming; Nie, Yongzhan; Fan, Daiming; Tie, Jun

    2017-06-05

    Aberrant expression of miRNAs is involved in several carcinogenic processes, including tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of miR-218 in gastric cancer angiogenesis. In situ hybridization was performed on a set of tissue microarray samples to assess the difference in miR-218 expression in vessels between tumor tissues and normal gastric mucosa. In vitro, ectopic expression of miR-218 disturbed the tubular structure and inhibited the migration of endothelial cells. Motility and tube formation were rescued when miR-218 was downregulated. Moreover, miR-218 suppressed endothelial cell sprouting in a fibrin bead sprouting assay. Subsequently, we identified ROBO1 as a target of miR-218 in endothelial cells and determined it was responsible for the effect of miR-218 on tumor angiogenesis. In vivo, local injection of mature miR-218 in xenografted tumors disrupted the vessel plexus and thus inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, our study demonstrated an anti-angiogenic role of miR-218 in gastric cancer and indicated that delivery of miR-218 may be a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21......-positive tumor cells, we systematically stained consecutive serial sections from ten astrocytomas for miR-21, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y box 2...... (Sox2) and CD133. We developed an image analysis-based co-localization approach allowing global alignment and quantitation of the individual markers, and measured the miR-21 in situ hybridization signal against the immunohistochemical staining of the six different markers. miR-21 significantly co...

  6. miR-27b controls venous specification and tip cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyashev, Dauren; Veliceasa, Dorina; Topczewski, Jacek; Topczewska, Jolanta M; Mizgirev, Igor; Vinokour, Elena; Reddi, Alagarsamy L; Licht, Jonathan D; Revskoy, Sergei Y; Volpert, Olga V

    2012-03-15

    We discovered that miR-27b controls 2 critical vascular functions: it turns the angiogenic switch on by promoting endothelial tip cell fate and sprouting and it promotes venous differentiation. We have identified its targets, a Notch ligand Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Sprouty homologue 2 (Spry2). miR-27b knockdown in zebrafish and mouse tissues severely impaired vessel sprouting and filopodia formation. Moreover, miR-27b was necessary for the formation of the first embryonic vein in fish and controlled the expression of arterial and venous markers in human endothelium, including Ephrin B2 (EphB2), EphB4, FMS-related tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1), and Flt4. In zebrafish, Dll4 inhibition caused increased sprouting and longer intersegmental vessels and exacerbated tip cell migration. Blocking Spry2 caused premature vessel branching. In contrast, Spry2 overexpression eliminated the tip cell branching in the intersegmental vessels. Blockade of Dll4 and Spry2 disrupted arterial specification and augmented the expression of venous markers. Blocking either Spry2 or Dll4 rescued the miR-27b knockdown phenotype in zebrafish and in mouse vascular explants, pointing to essential roles of these targets downstream of miR-27b. Our study identifies critical role of miR-27b in the control of endothelial tip cell fate, branching, and venous specification and determines Spry2 and Dll4 as its essential targets.

  7. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  8. 30 CFR 250.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your DPP or DOCD: (a) General. A description of the crew boats, supply boats, anchor handling vessels, tug boats, barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use...

  9. 30 CFR 250.224 - What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your EP: (a) General. A description of the crew boats, supply boats, anchor handling vessels, tug boats, barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use to support...

  10. The Role of miR-378a in Metabolism, Angiogenesis, and Muscle Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Krist

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-378a (miR-378a, previously known as miR-378 is one of the small noncoding RNA molecules able to regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Its two mature strands, miR-378a-3p and miR-378a-5p, originate from the first intron of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (ppargc1b gene encoding PGC-1β. Embedding in the sequence of this transcriptional regulator of oxidative energy metabolism implies involvement of miR-378a in metabolic pathways, mitochondrial energy homeostasis, and related biological processes such as muscle development, differentiation, and regeneration. On the other hand, modulating the expression of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-1, or interleukin-8, influencing inflammatory reaction, and affecting tumor suppressors, such as SuFu and Fus-1, miR-378a is considered as a part of an angiogenic network in tumors. In the latter, miR-378a can evoke broader actions by enhancing cell survival, reducing apoptosis, and promoting cell migration and invasion. This review describes the current knowledge on miR-378a linking oxidative/lipid metabolism, muscle biology, and blood vessel formation.

  11. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  12. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  13. Academic Research Vessels 1985-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    of them MVC ). Recommnendati ons. * Complete reliance of the academic community on non-academic vessels should be avoided, since such vessels are not...responsible for management of a major fishery on the Bering Sea shelf. This area is covered by ice much of the year. With the spring melting of the ice is...of the group. 5. Meetings of the group shall normally be held four times yearly in- *1 cluding spring and fall semi-annual UNOLS meetings, and at

  14. Upconversion based MIR hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Midinfrared (MIR) hyperspectral imaging has a great potential to be used as a tool for medical diagnostics featuring a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. In hyperspectral imaging, the images of the (biomedical) samples contains both spectral and spatial information....

  15. miR-143 is involved in endothelial cell dysfunction through suppression of glycolysis and correlated with atherosclerotic plaques formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R-H; Liu, B; Wu, J-D; Yan, Y-Y; Wang, J-N

    2016-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease leading to hardening of the vessel wall and narrowing of arteries. Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit highly active glycolysis, the dysfunction of which leads to accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. qRT-PCR was performed to compare the deregulated miR-143 between atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel tissues. The direct target of miR-143 was verified by Western blot and luciferase assay. The metabolic enzymes in atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel tissues were measured. HUVECs were transfected with miR-143 precursor or control microRNAs, and glucose uptake, lactate production, intracellular ATP, and oxygen consumption were measured. In this study, we report a correlation between up-regulated miR-143, EC dysfunction, and atherosclerotic plaque formation. The glycolysis rate was significantly elevated in ECs, which show relatively low levels of miR-143. Importantly, miR-143 was upregulated in clinical atherosclerotic plaque samples compared with healthy arteries, suggesting that miR-143 might play important roles in the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, mRNA levels of key enzymes of glycolysis, such as HK2, LDHA, and PKM2 are significantly down-regulated in the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Overexpression of miR-143 in HUVECs suppresses glycolysis through direct targeting of HK2, leading to EC dysfunction. Restoration of HK2 expression rescues glycolysis in miR-143-overexpressing HUVECs. This study provides further insight into the metabolic mechanisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation due to microRNAs.

  16. Review of Ice-Control Methods at Lock 8, Welland Canal, Port Colborne, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    to control ice and to reduce the possibility of ice causing a shipping vessel to get stuck or jammed in the lock chamber. The lock uses several... causing a shipping vessel to get stuck or jammed in the lock chamber. The lock uses several methods, including an air curtain to hold ice above the lock...4 2.2 Northbound traffic

  17. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Brightness temperatures at 1.4. GHz (L-band) measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission have been used to derive the thickness of sea ice. The retrieval method is applicable only for relatively thin ice and not during the melting period. Hitherto, the availability of ground...... truth sea ice thickness measurements for validation of SMOS sea ice products was mainly limited to relatively thick ice. The situation has improved with an extensive field campaign in the Barents Sea during an anomalous ice edge retreat and subsequent freeze-up event in March 2014. A sea ice forecast...... system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...

  18. MiR-21 expression in the tumor cell compartment holds unfavorable prognostic value in gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Nielsen, Boye Schnack

    2013-01-01

    samples from 193 patients with grade I, II, III, and IV tumors were analyzed by in situ hybridization (ISH) using LNA-DNA chimeric probes. We found miR-21 expression in tumor cells and tumor-associated blood vessels, whereas no expression was seen in adjacent normal brain parenchyma. Using advanced image...... analysis we obtained quantitative estimates reflecting the miR-21 expression levels in each of these compartments. The miR-21 levels correlated significantly with grade [p = 0.027, r (s) = 0.161, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.015-0.301] with the highest levels measured in glioblastomas. Only tumor cell...... miR-21 was associated with poor prognosis when adjusting for known clinical parameters (age, grade, and sex) in a multivariate analysis [p = 0.049, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.545, 95 % CI, 1.002-2.381]. In conclusion, we have shown that miR-21 is located in both tumor cells and tumor blood vessels...

  19. Export of algal biomass from the melting Arctic Sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetius, A.; Albrecht, S.; Bakker, K.; Bienhold, C.; Felden, J.; Fernández-Méndez, M.; Hendricks, S.; Katlein, C.; Lalande, C.; Krumpen, T.; Nicolaus, M.; Peeken, I.; Rabe, B.; Rogacheva, A.; Rybakova, E.; Somavilla, R.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Shipboard Science Party

    2013-01-01

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central

  20. Ice Cloud Property Retrievals Using Far Infrared Upwelling Radiance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrelli, A. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral measurements of the upwelling radiance in the mid-infrared (MIR, 8 - 12 μm wavelength) have proven sensitivity to microphysical and macrophysical parameters of ice clouds. This sensitivity is caused by the spectrally varying index of refraction, as well as the ice crystal shape and particle size parameter. Many methods have been demonstrated that utilize this sensitivity to retrieve bulk ice cloud microphysical properties such as effective ice particle size, and macrophysical properties such as optical depth and height. By extending the spectral observations into the far-infrared (FIR, 17 - 50 μm wavelength), additional information can be retrieved due to the different sensitivities exhibited by cloud ice at these longer wavelengths. Typically, in the far-infrared, ice exhibits stronger scattering across all particle sizes, due to a smaller complex index of refraction, and weaker forward scattering due to the smaller size parameter. In this research, a modeling framework is used to quantify the information content of the FIR spectrum for ice cloud property retrieval. The information content is quantitatively compared to the MIR, to show how ice cloud retrievals could be improved with FIR spectral measurements. For cases where the MIR spectrum contains a high amount of information (e.g., moderate optical depths with small particle size), the FIR spectrum adds only a marginal amount of information. In other cases where the MIR spectrum contains low information (e.g., high optical depth clouds), the FIR spectrum is shown to add significant information. The FIR spectrum can thus be shown to extend the region in state space where passive infrared measurements can effectively constrain ice cloud properties.

  1. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  2. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  3. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  4. A mammalian mirtron miR-1224 promotes tube-formation of human primary endothelial cells by targeting anti-angiogenic factor epsin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Eiko; Miura, Yusuke; Suzuki-Kouyama, Emi; Oka, Kengo; Tachibana, Masashi; Kawabata, Kenji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-17

    Angiogenesis, new vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, is a highly conserved event through vertebrates. However, the system for tuning angiogenesis by species-intrinsic factors is totally unknown. miR-1224 is a member of mammal-specific mirtrons, which were identified as non-canonical microRNAs. We found that the expression of miR-1224 was upregulated in capillary-like tube-forming human umbilical vein endothelial cells on Matrigel. Enforced expression of miR-1224 stimulated tube formation, whereas repression of endogenous miR-1224 inhibited formation. Enforced expression of miR-1224 enhanced VEGF signaling and repressed NOTCH signaling. The adaptor protein of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, epsin2, which has been shown to be a suppressor of angiogenesis, was a direct target of miR-1224. Knockdown of EPN2 stimulated tube formation, while overexpression of EPN2 repressed miR-1224-mediated stimulation. Our findings indicate that miR-1224 is a mammal specific modulator of angiogenesis.

  5. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  6. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wallen-Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium μice-al=0.1 typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction.

  7. Ham Radio is Mir Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary

    1997-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students communicated with U.S. and Russian astronauts via ham radio while they were in orbit on the space station Mir. Gives suggestions for other ham radio classroom activities as well as names of organizations, publications, and grant programs that teachers can access to help in bring ham radio into their…

  8. Involvement of miR-518c-5p to growth and metastasis in oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kinouchi

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that a stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the establishment of metastasis in oral cancer. Recently, small non coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to be involved in the metastatic process of several types of cancers. However, the miRNAs that contribute to metastases induced by the SDF-1/CXCR4 system in oral cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the metastasis-related miRNAs induced by the SDF-1/CXCR4 system using B88-SDF-1 oral cancer cells, which exhibit functional CXCR4 and distant metastatic potential in vivo. Through miRNA microarray analysis, we identified the upregulation of miR-518c-5p in B88-SDF-1 cells, and confirmed the induction by real-time PCR analysis. Although an LNA-based miR-518c-5p inhibitor did not affect cell growth of B88-SDF-1 cells, it did significantly inhibit the migration of the cells. Next, we transfected a miR-518c expression vector into parental B88 cells and CAL27 oral cancer cells and isolated stable transfectants, B88-518c and CAL27-518c cells, respectively. The anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of miR-518c transfectants was significantly enhanced compared with the growth of mock cells. Moreover, we detected the enhanced migration of these cells. The LNA-based miR-518c-5p inhibitor significantly impaired the enhanced cell growth and migration of miR-518c transfectants, indicating that these phenomena were mainly dependent on the expression of miR-518c-5p. Next, we examined the function of miR-518c-5p in vivo. miR-518c transfectants or mock transfectants were inoculated into the masseter muscle or the blood vessels of nude mice. Tumor volume, lymph nodes metastasis, and lung metastasis were significantly increased in the mice inoculated with the miR-518c transfectants. These results indicated that miR-518c-5p regulates the growth and metastasis of oral cancer as a downstream target of the SDF-1/CXCR4 system.

  9. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  10. Expression profiling of miR-96, miR-584 and miR-422a in colon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between miRNAs; miR-96, miR-422a and miR584, and colon cancer, and also to test whether any of these miRNAs can act as non-invasive biomarkers in colon cancer. Methods: The tumor samples and the corresponding normal mucosa used in this study were collected from 60 ...

  11. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    argued that when summers are cool and winters are mild the ice sheets in the northern continents grow because of more snowfall in winter and lesser melting of ice in the summer and vice versa. The variation in the earth-sun geometry changes solar radiation incident at the surface. Milankovitch showed that the changes.

  12. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  13. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  14. Mid-infrared (MIR) photonics: MIR passive and active fiberoptics chemical and biomedical, sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.

    2016-10-01

    The case for new, portable, real-time mid-infrared (MIR) molecular sensing and imaging is discussed. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum (SC) generated light 1.4-13.3 μm in a specially engineered, step-index MIR optical fiber of high numerical aperture. This was the first experimental demonstration truly to reveal the potential of MIR fibers to emit across the MIR molecular "fingerprint spectral region" and a key first step towards bright, portable, broadband MIR sources for chemical and biomedical, molecular sensing and imaging in real-time. Potential applications are in the healthcare, security, energy, environmental monitoring, chemical-processing, manufacturing and the agriculture sectors. MIR narrow-line fiber lasers are now required to pump the fiber MIR-SC for a compact all-fiber solution. Rare-earth-ion (RE-) doped MIR fiber lasers are not yet demonstrated >=4 μm wavelength. We have fabricated small-core RE-fiber with photoluminescence across 3.5-6 μm, and long excited-state lifetimes. MIR-RE-fiber lasers are also applicable as discrete MIR fiber sensors in their own right, for applications including: ship-to-ship free-space communications, aircraft counter-measures, coherent MIR imaging, MIR-optical coherent tomography, laser-cutting/ patterning of soft materials and new wavelengths for fiber laser medical surgery.

  15. Down-regulated miR-9 and miR-433 in human gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Na

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MircoRNAs(miRNAs are short, endogenously non-coding RNAs. The abnormal expression of miRNAs may be valuable for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Methods To screening the special miRNAs in gastric carcinoma, expression level of miRNAs in gastric carcinoma and normal gaster samples were detected by miRNA gene chip. Then, the expressions of miR-9 and miR-433 in gastric carcinoma tissue and SGC7901 cell line were validated by qRT-PCR. GRB2 and RAB34, targets of miR-433 and miR-9 respectively, were detected by Western blot. Results We found 19 miRNAs and 7 miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively. Compared with normal gaster samples, our data showed that miR-9 and miR-433 were down-regulated in gastric carcinoma. Meanwhile, we also found that miR-433 and miR-9 regulated the expression levels of GRB2 and RAB34 respectively. Conclusion Our data show miR-9 and miR-433 was down-regulated in gastric carcinoma. The targets of miR-433 and miR-9 were tumor-associated proteins GRB2 and RAB34 respectively. This result provided the related information of miRNAs in gastric carcinoma.

  16. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  17. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  19. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  20. miR-10 Regulates the Angiogenic Behavior of Zebrafish and Human Endothelial Cells by Promoting VEGF Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, David; Cheng, Paul; White, Mark P.; Ivey, Kathryn N.; Kroll, Jens; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Katus, Hugo A.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Srivastava, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Formation and remodeling of the vasculature during development and disease involves a highly conserved and precisely regulated network of attractants and repellants. Various signaling pathways control the behavior of endothelial cells, but their post-transcriptional dose-titration by miRNAs is poorly understood. Objective To identify miRNAs that regulate angiogenesis. Methods and Results We show that the highly conserved microRNA family encoding miR-10 regulates the behavior of endothelial cells during angiogenesis by positively titrating pro-angiogenic signaling. Knockdown of miR-10 led to premature truncation of intersegmental vessel growth (ISV) in the trunk of zebrafish larvae, while overexpression of miR-10 promoted angiogenic behavior in zebrafish and cultured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that miR-10 functions, in part, by directly regulating the level of fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1), a cell-surface protein that sequesters VEGF, and its soluble splice variant sFLT1. The increase in FLT1/sFLT1 protein levels upon miR-10 knockdown in zebrafish and in HUVECs inhibited the angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells largely by antagonizing VEGF receptor-2 signaling. Conclusion Our study provides insights into how FLT1 and VEGF receptor-2 signaling is titrated in a miRNA-mediated manner and establishes miR-10 as a potential new target for the selective modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22955733

  1. Altered levels of miR-21, miR-125b-2*, miR-138, miR-155, miR-184, and miR-205 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and association with clinicopathological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Mayakannan; Deva Magendhra Rao, Arunagiri K; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Munirajan, Arasambattu K

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have described the aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and we reasoned that studying frequently deregulated candidate miRNAs in OSCC of Indian ethnicity could aid in better understanding of the genetic/environmental impact on the expression statuses of these miRNAs. Therefore, we evaluated the differential expression of six selected miRNAs namely hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-125b2*, hsa-miR-138, hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-184, and hsa-miR-205 in OSCC specimens of Indian ethnicity. Two-step Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR using inventoried TaqMan single miRNA assays was employed to study the expression of the selected miRNAs in 42 OSCC tumors and eight adjacent normal specimens. The expression levels of the miRNAs were tested for any association with clinicopathological parameters. miR-21 was significantly elevated while miR-125b-2* was significantly downregulated in tumors compared to controls (P 184 were observed to be predominantly downregulated in the tumor samples. High levels of miR-155 were associated with the habit of chewing tobacco/betel quid. Our results corroborate the previous findings on the overexpression of mir-21 and downregulation of miR-138 in OSCC. As the expression of miR-184 is controversial in tongue/oral cancer, the downregulation may be specific to tumor anatomical localization. On the other hand, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the association of miR-155 with tobacco chewing and the downregulation of miR-125b-2* in OSCC. Computational predictions suggest that miR-125b-2* may have a role in alternative splicing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sea Ice Changes in the Adelie Depression during the Ice-Trapping Period of the Chinese Ice-Breaker RV Xuelong in January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, F.; Zhai, M.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.; Heil, P.; Zhao, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese ice-breaker vessel RV Xuelong answered a rescue call for the Russian vessel Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Australis, the RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adelie Depression region. Here we present our analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery, to provide an in detail description of the regional sea ice conditions, which led to beset the RV Xuelong for ~6 days. The remotely sensed imagery clearly revealed the sea-ice characteristics during the four stages of the entrapment: gathering stage, compaction stage, dispersion stage and calving stage. Here we present our evaluation of the four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during the late Dec 2013 and early January 2014: coastal current, wind, tide and temperature. This study demonstrates that high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing data are required to monitor the local and regional sea-ice changes with view to avoid future entrapping of vessels due to drastic changes and to work towards improved understanding of sea-atmosphere-ice interactions.

  3. A Case Study of the Wind Impact on Ship Ice-sticking

    OpenAIRE

    Jevgeni Rjazin; Ove Pärn

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the impact of wind on a ferry sailing in ice field is described and analysed. Two ice-sticking events on the Gulf of Finland are taken for the case study. The wind, especially its direction, is stated as an important factor to entrap a vessel in the ice. The wind blowing across the vessel longitude axis caused both the ships to stick.

  4. A Case Study of the Wind Impact on Ship Ice-sticking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgeni Rjazin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the impact of wind on a ferry sailing in ice field is described and analysed. Two ice-sticking events on the Gulf of Finland are taken for the case study. The wind, especially its direction, is stated as an important factor to entrap a vessel in the ice. The wind blowing across the vessel longitude axis caused both the ships to stick.

  5. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  6. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  7. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  8. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  9. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    use of UAS on oceanographic research vessels is just beginning. We report on several initial field efforts which demonstrated that UAS improve spatial and temporal mapping of ocean features, as well as monitoring marine mammal populations, ocean color, sea ice and wave fields and air-sea gas exchange. These studies however also confirm the challenges for shipboard computer systems ingesting and archiving UAS high resolution video, SAR and lidar data. We describe the successful inclusion of DTN communications for: 1) passing video data between two UAS or a UAS and ship; 2) for inclusion of ASVs as communication nodes for AUVs; as well as, 3) enabling extension of adaptive sampling software from AUVs and ASVs to include UAS. In conclusion, we describe how autonomous sampling systems may be best integrated into shipboard oceanographic vessel research to provide new and more comprehensive time-space ocean and atmospheric data collection that is important not only for scientific study, but also for sustainable ocean management, including emergency response capabilities. The recent examples of such integrated studies highlighted confirm ocean and atmospheric studies can more cost-effectively pursued, and in some cases only accomplished, by combining underwater, surface and aircraft autonomous systems with research vessel operations.

  10. Monolayer ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Mark, AE

    2003-01-01

    We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of water under confinement and at ambient conditions that predict a first-order freezing transition from a monolayer of liquid water to a monolayer of ice induced by increasing the distance between the confining parallel plates. Since a slab

  11. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  12. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  13. Synergy of circulating miR-212 with markers for cardiovascular risks to enhance estimation of atherosclerosis presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Hyun; Hwang, Junha; Shin, Jong Wook; Song, Kyu Sang; Lee, Sukhoon

    2017-01-01

    Synergy of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) with cardiovascular risk factors to estimate atherosclerosis presence in ischemic stroke patients has not been investigated. The present study aimed to identify atherosclerosis-related circulating miRNAs and to evaluate interaction with other cardiovascular markers to improve the estimation of atherosclerosis presence. We performed a miRNA profiling study using serum of 15 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were classified by the presence of no (n = 8) or severe (n = 7) stenosis on intracranial and extracranial vessels, which identified miR-212, -372, -454, and -744 as miRNAs related with atherosclerosis presence. Of the 4 miRNAs, only miR-212 showed a significant increase in expression in atherosclerosis patients in a validation study (atherosclerotic patients, n = 32, non-atherosclerotic patients, n = 33). Hemoglobin A1c, a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a), both established risk markers, were independently related with atherosclerosis presence in the validation population. miR-212 enhanced the accuracy of atherosclerosis presence by the three existing markers (three markers, 78.5%; three markers+miR-212, 84.6%, P<0.05) and significantly added to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (three markers, 0.8258; three markers+miR-212, 0.8646, P<0.05). The inclusion of miR-212 increased the reclassification index calculated using net reclassification improvement (0.4527, P<0.05) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.0737, P<0.05). We identified circulating miR-212 as a novel marker of atherosclerosis. miR-212 enhanced the estimation of atherosclerosis presence in combination with hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a). Thus, miR-212 is expected to improve the estimation of atherosclerosis using peripheral blood of patients. PMID:28557988

  14. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  15. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    C shows the expected 2030 air temperature, ocean ice, sea state, wind, precipitation, illumination , icing and ceiling for each GAPV operating area...100 to 3,000 feet) • Medium (3,000 to 10,000 feet) • High (>10,000 feet) Illumination • Precipitation Rate Icing3 • Standard • Day • Low...dusk, dawn, moonlit, streetlight lit) • Night • Heavy (>0.3"/hr) • Moderate (0.1-0.3"/hr) • Light (trace-ɘ.1"/hr) • Trace (does not

  16. Strengthening Interdisciplinarity in MIR: Four Examples of Using MIR Tools for Musicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, Aline; Burgoyne, J. Ashley; van Kranenburg, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287962482; Volk, Anja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304842117

    2014-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is a fundamentally interdisciplinary field. Nonetheless, a number of presentations at previous ISMIR conferences have noted that there are some fields to which MIR seems to have a natural connection but with which there have been relatively fewer collaborations.

  17. ERS-1 SAR ice routing of l'Astrolabe through the Northeast passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, O. M.; Sandven, S.; Skagseth, O.; Kloster, K.; Kovacs, Z.; Sauvadet, P.; Geli, L.; Weeks, W.; Louet, J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the satellite ERS-1 to assist the French polar vessel 'L'Astrolabe' during its navigation through Artic sea ice in the Northeast Passage is reported. The ship spent one month on the voyage from Europe to Japan, and high resolution SAR images and ice maps based on SAR images from ERS-1 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager were telefaxed to the ship using the Inmarsat system. The time delay from observation to the reception of SAR images aboard the ship varied from 6 hours to two days. The quality of these ice maps was compared with Russian ice maps and observations from the ship. The SAR imagery provided detailed information on ice floe distribution, ice concentration, ice types, open leads, and tracks in ice from icebreakers. The response from the Russian ice specialists on the quality of the SAR ice maps was very positive.

  18. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  19. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  20. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L  -  1, 0.48 mol L  -  1, 0.38 mol L  -  1, and 1.12 mol L  -  1, respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries.

  1. MiR-221 and miR-130a regulate lung airway and vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mujahid

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play a crucial role in branching morphogenesis, but very little is known about how endothelial cells contribute to this process. Here, we examined how anti-angiogenic miR-221 and pro-angiogenic miR-130a affect airway and vascular development in the fetal lungs. Lung-specific effects of miR-130a and miR-221 were studied in mouse E14 whole lungs cultured for 48 hours with anti-miRs or mimics to miR-130a and miR-221. Anti-miR 221 treated lungs had more distal branch generations with increased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 around airways. Conversely, mimic 221 treated lungs had reduced airway branching, dilated airway tips and decreased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 in mesenchyme. Anti-miR 130a treatment led to reduced airway branching with increased Hoxa5 and decreased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Conversely, mimic 130a treated lungs had numerous finely arborized branches extending into central lung regions with diffusely localized Hoxa5 and increased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Vascular morphology was analyzed by GSL-B4 (endothelial cell-specific lectin immunofluorescence. Observed changes in airway morphology following miR-221 inhibition and miR-130a enhancement were mirrored by changes in vascular plexus formation around the terminal airways. Mouse fetal lung endothelial cells (MFLM-91U were used to study microvascular cell behavior. Mimic 221 treatment resulted in reduced tube formation and cell migration, where as the reverse was observed with mimic 130a treatment. From these data, we conclude that miR-221 and miR-130a have opposing effects on airway and vascular morphogenesis of the developing lung.

  2. Evaluation of miR-21 and miR-375 as prognostic biomarkers in esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mette; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine

    2015-01-01

    of miR-21 and miR-375 in primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and esophagogastric adenocarcinomas (EAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pre-therapeutic tumor specimens from 195 patients with loco-regional esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy or perioperative...... chemotherapy were analyzed. Expression levels of miR-21 and miR-375 were quantified using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 1.0 Array. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the correlation of miR-21 and miR-375 with disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Forest plots were performed...

  3. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  10. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  11. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  12. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  16. Mir-34: A New Weapon Against Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Misso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microRNA(miRNA-34a is a key regulator of tumor suppression. It controls the expression of a plethora of target proteins involved in cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis, and antagonizes processes that are necessary for basic cancer cell viability as well as cancer stemness, metastasis, and chemoresistance. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of miR-34a-mediated tumor suppression, giving emphasis on the main miR-34a targets, as well as on the principal regulators involved in the modulation of this miRNA. Moreover, we shed light on the miR-34a role in modulating responsiveness to chemotherapy and on the phytonutrients-mediated regulation of miR-34a expression and activity in cancer cells. Given the broad anti-oncogenic activity of miR-34a, we also discuss the substantial benefits of a new therapeutic concept based on nanotechnology delivery of miRNA mimics. In fact, the replacement of oncosuppressor miRNAs provides an effective strategy against tumor heterogeneity and the selective RNA-based delivery systems seems to be an excellent platform for a safe and effective targeting of the tumor.

  17. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  18. Ice Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  19. Interactions of miR-323/miR-326/miR-329 and miR-130a/miR-155/miR-210 as prognostic indicators for clinical outcome of glioblastoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with poor clinical outcome. Identification and development of new markers could be beneficial for the diagnosis and prognosis of GBM patients. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs is involved in GBM. Therefore, we attempted to identify and develop specific miRNAs as prognostic and predictive markers for GBM patient survival. Methods Expression profiles of miRNAs and genes and the corresponding clinical information of 480 GBM samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA dataset were downloaded and interested miRNAs were identified. Patients’ overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS associated with interested miRNAs and miRNA-interactions were performed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The impacts of miRNA expressions and miRNA-interactions on survival were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model. Biological processes and network of putative and validated targets of miRNAs were analyzed by bioinformatics. Results In this study, 6 interested miRNAs were identified. Survival analysis showed that high levels of miR-326/miR-130a and low levels of miR-323/miR-329/miR-155/miR-210 were significantly associated with long OS of GBM patients, and also showed that high miR-326/miR-130a and low miR-155/miR-210 were related with extended PFS. Moreover, miRNA-323 and miRNA-329 were found to be increased in patients with no-recurrence or long time to progression (TTP. More notably, our analysis revealed miRNA-interactions were more specific and accurate to discriminate and predict OS and PFS. This interaction stratified OS and PFS related with different miRNA levels more detailed, and could obtain longer span of mean survival in comparison to that of one single miRNA. Moreover, miR-326, miR-130a, miR-155, miR-210 and 4 miRNA-interactions were confirmed for the first time as independent predictors for survival by Cox regression model

  20. Development of a Mid-Infrared Sea and Lake Ice Index (MISI Using the GOES Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dorofy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An automated ice-mapping algorithm has been developed and evaluated using data from the GOES-13 imager. The approach includes cloud-free image compositing as well as image classification using spectral criteria. The algorithm uses an alternative snow index to the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI. The GOES-13 imager does not have a 1.6 µm band, a requirement for NDSI; however, the newly proposed Mid-Infrared Sea and Lake Ice Index (MISI incorporates the reflective component of the 3.9 µm or mid-infrared (MIR band, which the GOES-13 imager does operate. Incorporating MISI into a sea or lake ice mapping algorithm allows for mapping of thin or broken ice with no snow cover (nilas, frazil ice and thicker ice with snow cover to a degree of confidence that is comparable to other ice mapping products. The proposed index has been applied over the Great Lakes region and qualitatively compared to the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, the National Ice Center ice concentration maps and MODIS snow cover products. The application of MISI may open additional possibilities in climate research using historical GOES imagery. Furthermore, MISI may be used in addition to the current NDSI in ice identification to build more robust ice-mapping algorithms for the next generation GOES satellites.

  1. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  2. 75 FR 13654 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... anchor handling vessels with a minimum ice class A3 has been received by the Maritime Administration. If...

  3. 76 FR 79764 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... anchor handling vessels with a minimum ice class A3 has been received by the Maritime Administration. If...

  4. miR319, miR390, and miR393 Are Involved in Aluminum Response in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid soils limit agricultural production worldwide. Major reason of crop losses in acid soils is the toxicity of aluminum (Al. In the present work, we investigated expression alterations of microRNAs in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. plants under Al stress. Flax seedlings of resistant (TMP1919 and G1071/4_k and sensitive (Lira and G1071/4_o to Al cultivars and lines were exposed to AlCl3 solution for 4 and 24 hours. Twelve small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina platform. In total, 97 microRNAs from 18 conserved families were identified. miR319, miR390, and miR393 revealed expression alterations associated with Al treatment of flax plants. Moreover, for miR390 and miR393, the alterations were distinct in sensitive and resistant to Al genotypes. Expression level changes of miR319 and miR390 were confirmed using qPCR analysis. In flax, potential targets of miR319 are TCPs, miR390–TAS3 and GRF5, and miR393–AFB2-coding transcripts. TCPs, TAS3, GRF5, and AFB2 participate in regulation of plant growth and development. The involvement of miR319, miR390, and miR393 in response to Al stress in flax was shown here for the first time. We speculate that these microRNAs play an important role in Al response via regulation of growth processes in flax plants.

  5. Role of miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b in gastric cancer hypoxia-induced chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Katia; Silvestris, Nicola; Simone, Giovanni; Signorile, Michele; Saragoni, Luca; Brunetti, Oronzo; Monti, Manlio; Mazzotta, Annalisa; De Summa, Simona; Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-04-02

    Despite the search for new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer (GC), there is much evidence of progression due to resistance to chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the ability of cancer cells to survive after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. The involvement of miRNAs in the development of MDR has been well described but miRNAs able to modulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy by regulating hypoxia signaling pathways have not yet been fully addressed in GC. Our aim was to analyze miR-20b, miR-27a and miR-181a expression with respect to (epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX)) chemotherapy regimen in a set of GC patients, in order to investigate whether miRNAs deregulation may influence GC MDR also via hypoxia signaling modulation. Cancer biopsy were obtained from 21 untreated HER2 negative advanced GC patients, retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a first-line chemotherapy (EOX) regimen. MirWalk database was used to identify miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b target genes. The expression of miRNAs and of HIPK2, HIF1A and MDR1 genes were detected by real-time PCR. HIPK2 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed the down-regulation of miR-20b, miR-27a, miR-181a concomitantly to higher levels of MDR1, HIF1A and HIPK2 genes in GC patients with a progressive disease respect to those with a disease control rate. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay highlighted a higher cytoplasmic HIPK2 staining, suggesting a different role for it. We showed that aberrant expression of miR-20b, miR27a and miR-181a was associated with chemotherapeutic response in GC through HIF1A, MDR1 and HIPK2 genes modulation, suggesting a possible novel therapeutic strategy.

  6. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  7. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion system's core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  8. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  9. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  10. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  11. Sea-ice thickness and mass at Ice Station Belgica, Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissling, B. P.; Lewis, M. J.; Ackley, S. F.

    2011-05-01

    Ice Station Belgica was commenced in late winter 2007 in the Bellingshausen Sea as part of Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica (SIMBA), an IPY 2007 cruise on the research vessel N.B. Palmer. A primary objective was to build on the work of previous Antarctic drift station experiments to geophysically characterize sea ice in terms of thickness, surface and ice bottom morphology, and ultimately area-unitized mass. A 24 day drift station was established at approximately 70°S and 93°W in mixed first-year and multi-year ice with three geophysical study sites selected on a 5 km 2 floe. A comprehensive time series assessment of elevation-surveyed transects ranging from 100 m to 300 m in length included snow surface elevation, snow depth, electromagnetic (EM) profiling, and direct drilling for ice draft and ice freeboard. Additional work included a snow surface morphology characterization of a 100 m×300 m area between the primary time series EM transects. Correlation of EM ice thicknesses with collocated drilled ice thickness yielded equations for the correction of EM underestimation of thick deformed ice, particularly at pressure ridges. Mean ice thickness from corrected EM was compared to isostatic ice thickness calculated from surface elevation, snow depth, ice freeboard and respective snow, slush, ice, and sea water densities. Results were consistent, with mean ice thicknesses for multi-year ice of 2.35 m, 2.34 m, and 2.41 m, with similar variance, for corrected EM, drilling, and buoyancy methods respectively. Additionally, a mean ice thickness of 2.31 m was calculated from ASPeCt observations of the ice field associated with the floe, using the method incorporating mean sail heights and fractional coverage of surface deformities or ridging. Temporal series assessment of ice freeboard indicated a slightly negative mean ice freeboard (ice formation from the freezing of slush. The three distinct snow and ice regions assessed on the Belgica floe had mean corrected EM ice

  12. Great Lakes Surface Ice Reports from U.S. Coast Guard

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data consist of ice observations from U.S. Coast Guard vessels operating on the Great Lakes, and from Coast Guard shore stations reported via teletype messages and...

  13. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, Declan J., E-mail: dj.mckenna@ulster.ac.uk [Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Derry BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Patel, Daksha, E-mail: d.patel@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); McCance, Dennis J., E-mail: d.mccance@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.

  14. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas-SPACEHAB technicians oversee the move of a Russian-made oxygen generator to a SPACEHAB Double Module, at rear, in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility. In foreground, from left, are Marc Tuttle, Dan Porter and Mike Vawter. The oxygen generator, manufactured in Russia by RSC Energia, will be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on Mission STS-84 for the Shuttles scheduled docking with the Russian Space Station Mir next month. The nearly 300-pound generator will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff.

  15. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  16. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  17. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  18. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  20. Plasma miR-145, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-223 as novel biomarkers for screening early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mao, Feng; Shen, Tuyang; Luo, Qingquan; Ding, Zhengping; Qian, Liqiang; Huang, Jia

    2017-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis is one of the most significant reasons for the high mortality rate of lung cancer. The identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) has opened a new field for molecular diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether plasma miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for early-stage NSCLC. A total of 232 participants, including 149 NSCLC patients and 83 healthy controls, were recruited between July 2012 and May 2014. We measured the levels of 10 miRNAs (miR-30d, miR-383, miR-20a, miR-145, miR-221, miR-25, miR-223, miR-21, miR-126 and miR-210) in plasma samples of 40 individuals (20 patients and 20 matched healthy controls) at the point of identification of disease, and 129 NSCLC patients and 83 healthy controls at the validation stage using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated for each possible combination of the miRNAs. We observed that the expression of plasma miR-145, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-223 was significantly increased in the early-stage NSCLC samples compared with controls. miRNAs have significant diagnostic value for early-stage NSCLC. Combined ROC analyses using these four miRNAs revealed an elevated area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.897, with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8 and 90.1%, respectively. This AUC helped in distinguishing early-stage NSCLC. Furthermore, the levels of the four plasma miRNAs were significantly decreased following surgery (Pearly-stage NSCLC.

  1. Dysregulation of miR-499, miR-708 and miR-1908 during a depression episode in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Ewa; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Slopien, Agnieszka; Skibinska, Maria; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna

    2017-07-27

    Affective disorders include unipolar disorder (UP) (depression episodes) and bipolar disorder (BP) (depression and mania episodes). Currently, no biological markers are known that can help to differentiate these disorders. However, recent studies have suggested that psychiatric disorders can be connected with small, non-coding RNA, like microRNA. The objective of this study was to analyse the expression level of three microRNAs (miR-499, miR-708, miR-1908) in bipolar and unipolar disorder during depression episodes and after entering the remission state. The group consisted of adult women only, 17 UP (age: 50±17) and 15 BP (age: 33±13) patients. The expression level of miRNAs was investigated by RT-qPCR with the TaqMan assay. Our study has shown a lower expression level of miR-499 (p=0.008), miR-708 (p=0.02) and miR-1908 (p=0.004) in depression episodes of the bipolar disorder patients in comparison to remission state. We have not found similar differences in unipolar disorder and between those types in acute phase of depression and during remission. Obtained results indicate that miRNAs: miR-499, miR-708 and miR-1908 are the most promising candidates for biomarkers of depression episodes of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental Implications of Maritime Vessel Intensification in Arctic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. C.; Banis, D.; Sheard, W.

    2016-12-01

    In 2016, the Arctic experienced some of the warmest monthly temperatures on record. Record high temperatures in the Arctic continue to cause rapid sea ice declines, opening new areas of ocean to commercial exploitation and transportation and causing significant reductions in critical sea ice habitats used by iconic species. Elevated maritime vessel traffic in the Arctic is projected to increase black carbon emissions, encourage the spread of invasive species, increase mammal strikes, intensify conflict with smaller subsistence boats, and heighten oil spill risks. The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental organization concerned with sustainable development and environmental protection, is working with member countries, indigenous participants and other groups on developing networks of marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically important areas. To help inform that process, we analyzed vessel traffic and marine protected area coverage occurring within ecologically or biologically significant areas in the circumpolar Arctic. Our preliminary findings suggest vessel traffic within ecologically or biologically significant areas were highest around Iceland, Norway, Russia and United States but differed by vessel type. The density of fishing vessels occurring within ecologically or biologically important areas were highest near Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islands, parts of Greenland and United States, whereas vessels carrying liquefied natural gas and oil were concentrated near Norway and Russia. The percentage of area covered by marine protected areas within ecologically or biologically significant areas was low, with the exception of places like Wrangel Island, Svalbard, and areas around Greenland. These findings are important because it illustrates ecologically or biologically significant areas in the Arctic are vulnerable to projected vessel traffic intensification and the level of protection afforded by marine protected areas is relatively low.

  3. Combination of DNA ploidy analysis and miR-21 or miR-24 in screening malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongmei; Huang, Liuyan; Zhang, Xuechun; Yang, Juan

    2017-10-24

    The study aimed to assess the combination of DNA ploidy analysis (DPA) and the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) or microRNA-24 (miR-24) in the detection of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). In this prospective research, a total of 40 samples (20 benign and 20 malignant effusions), flexural effusion exfoliated cells and cell-free miR-21 and miR-24 were collected. DPA and exfoliative cytology examinations were conducted to diagnose flexural effusion exfoliated cells. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was carried out to measure the expressions of miR-21 and miR-24. Receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve were applied to evaluate the accuracy rate of different diagnostic approaches on MPE. In the MPE group, DPA demonstrated a higher rate of accuracy in MPE diagnosis than exfoliative cytology. The expressions of miR-21 and miR-24 were significantly higher in MPE than in benign pleural effusion (P < 0.05). Furthermore, area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity were 0.942, 95% and 90% for the combination of miR-21 and DPA and 0.973, 100% and 80% for the union of miR-24 and DPA, respectively, representing a significant improvement in both accuracy and sensitivity. Therefore, the combination of DPA and miR-21 or miR-24 appears to be a better biomarker for discriminating MPE from benign pleural effusion. The combination of DPA and miR-21 or miR-24 may function as a promising diagnostic tool of MPE. ChiCTR-TRC-14004719.

  4. Melting ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2018-01-01

    In this brief frontline, we want to describe the well-known fact that, when freshwater ice melts, the freshwater liquid level does not change. In the Italian Ministerial programs, fluid statics is introduced in the three years of middle school (students of 11–13 years) and during the first two years of high school (14–15 years). The Italian textbooks do not clearly explain why the abovementioned phenomenon occurs. The explanations are qualitative and they may lead to misinterpretation. I have noted that the students are very curious about this phenomenon. They sought a demonstration from books and from the web; and when they do not find it they asked me. Moreover, they have allowed me to observe that there are contradictory statements about the melting of icebergs. Some authors claim that they would not raise the sea-level, others say the opposite. Honestly speaking, I had never thought about this phenomenon and in classroom I tried to give them proof, expressing my opinion about the melting of icebergs.

  5. Expression of oncogenic miR-17-92 and tumor suppressive miR-143-145 clusters in basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Hessam, Schapoor; Amur, Susanne; Skrygan, Marina; Bromba, Michael; Stockfleth, Eggert; Gambichler, Thilo; Bechara, Falk G

    2017-05-01

    A variety of cancers are associated with the expression of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster (Oncomir-1) and tumor suppressor miR-143-5p/miR-145-5p. Epidermal skin cancer has not been investigated for the expression of miR-17-92 and miR-143-145 clusters, despite being extensively studied regarding global microRNA profiles. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and possible correlation of expression of miR17-92 and miR-143-145 cluster members in epidermal skin cancer. We evaluated punch biopsies from patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC, n=15) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC, n=16), along with control specimens from non-lesional epidermal skin (n=16). Expression levels of the miR17-92 cluster (including miR-17-5p, miR-17-3p, miR-18a-3p, miR-18a-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19a-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-19b-1-5p, miR-20a-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-92a-3p, and miR-92a-5p) and the tumor-suppressive cluster miR-143-145 (including miR-143-5p and miR-145-5p) were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We noted a highly significant increased expression of the miR-17-92 members miR-17-5p, miR-18a-5p, miR19a-3p, and miR-19b-3p and tumor suppressor miR-143-5p (p<0.01) in cSCC. miR-145-5p had a significantly decreased expression (p<0.05) for in BCC. A correlation analysis revealed multiple correlating miRNA-pairs within and between the investigated clusters. This study marks the first evidence for the participation of members of the miR-17-92 cluster in cSCC and miR-143-145 cluster in BCC. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  8. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  12. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  15. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  17. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  18. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  19. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  20. Effect of miR-29b-1* and miR-29c knockdown on cell growth of the bladder cancer cell line T24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qingling; Cheng, Wen; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jiandong; Ge, Jingping

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the role of the microRNAs miR-29b-1-5p (miR-29b-1*) and miR-29c in bladder urothelial cancer (BUC). Levels of miR-29b-1* and miR-29c in normal urothelial cells (HU609) and BUC cells (T24) were determined via quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. T24 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA targeting miR-29b-1* or miR-29c, and cell growth was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimehylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The predicted targets and oncogenic pathways of these microRNAs were determined using bioinformatics analysis. MiR29b-1* and miR-29c levels were higher in T24 cells than normal urothelial cells. Knockdown of miR-29b-1* or miR-29c suppressed T24 cell growth. Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-29b-1* and miR-29c co-regulated a subset of putative target genes, about 10% of which have been experimentally validated. Both miR-29b-1* and miR-29c regulate cell growth in BUC. The targets of miR-29b-1* and miR-29c may be functionally associated with proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis.

  1. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  2. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  3. Ice for air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.

    1987-04-09

    The first ice plant on an industrial scale came into service at Harmony goldmine in November 1985. This surface installation has a refrigeration output of about 5.2 MW, corresponding to 1000 t/d of ice. The ice melting tank is at a depth of 1088m. The planning and construction of this first industrial-scale ice plant were based on the result obtained from a research project which gave particular emphasis to investigating the problems related to the transport of ice in pipelines and to the ice-to-water heat transfer in ice-melting tanks. The particular advantage of ice as a coolant is that the mass circulation needed with ice is five times less than with water. It is claimed that, in the circumstances which are specific to Harmony mine, ice cooling is economically viable at a depth of only 1,100 m or thereabouts; however, calculations for very powerful cooling systems have shown that ice has a cost advantage over water + Pelton turbines only at depths of 3,000 m or more. Cost comparisons apart, this ice plant is useful for the testing of technology and safety in the production, transport and melting of the ice and prepares the way for a powerful ice cooling system which will work at great depths. 6 references.

  4. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  5. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and infertility in mice deficient for miR-34b/c and miR-449 loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Comazzetto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Male fertility requires the continuous production of high quality motile spermatozoa in abundance. Alterations in all three metrics cause oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, the leading cause of human sub/infertility. Post-mitotic spermatogenesis inclusive of several meiotic stages and spermiogenesis (terminal spermatozoa differentiation are transcriptionally inert, indicating the potential importance for the post-transcriptional microRNA (miRNA gene-silencing pathway therein. We found the expression of miRNA generating enzyme Dicer within spermatogenesis peaks in meiosis with critical functions in spermatogenesis. In an expression screen we identified two miRNA loci of the miR-34 family (miR-34b/c and miR-449 that are specifically and highly expressed in post-mitotic male germ cells. A reduction in several miRNAs inclusive of miR-34b/c in spermatozoa has been causally associated with reduced fertility in humans. We found that deletion of both miR34b/c and miR-449 loci resulted in oligoasthenoteratozoospermia in mice. MiR-34bc/449-deficiency impairs both meiosis and the final stages of spermatozoa maturation. Analysis of miR-34bc-/-;449-/- pachytene spermatocytes revealed a small cohort of genes deregulated that were highly enriched for miR-34 family target genes. Our results identify the miR-34 family as the first functionally important miRNAs for spermatogenesis whose deregulation is causal to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and infertility.

  6. Decreased expression of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in CD4⁺ T cells and peripheral blood from tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Kleinsteuber

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis infected individuals are protected from developing tuberculosis and T cells are centrally involved in this process. MicroRNAs (miRNA regulate T-cell functions and are biomarker candidates of disease susceptibility and treatment efficacy in M. tuberculosis infection. We determined the expression profile of 29 selected miRNAs in CD4(+ T cells from tuberculosis patients and contacts with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI. These analyses showed lower expression of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in CD4(+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Whole blood miRNA candidate analyses verified decreased expression of miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in children with tuberculosis as compared to healthy children with LTBI. Despite marked variances between individual donor samples, trends of increased miRNA candidate expression during treatment and recovery were observed. Functional in vitro analysis identified increased miR-21 and decreased miR-26a expression after re-stimulation of T cells. In vitro polarized Interleukin-17 positive T-cell clones showed activation-dependent miR-29a up-regulation. In order to characterize the role of miR-29a (a described suppressor of Interferon-γ in tuberculosis, we analyzed M. tuberculosis specific Interferon-γ expressing T cells in children with tuberculosis and healthy contacts but detected no correlation between miR-29a and Interferon-γ expression. Suppression of miR-29a in primary human T cells by antagomirs indicated no effect on Interferon-γ expression after in vitro activation. Finally, classification of miRNA targets revealed only a moderate overlap between the candidates. This may reflect differential roles of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in T-cell immunity against M. tuberculosis infection and disease.

  7. Accuracy of Sea Ice Data from Remote Sensing Methods, its Impact on Safe Speed Determination and Planning of Voyage in Ice-Covered Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The data related to ice floe concentration and ice thickness were analysed. Sources of data have been verified by visual observation and by comparison in between information from different remote sensing sources. The results of this work exceeded initial expectations. The discrepancies of the information provided by various data sources result from the error of the measurement method, which can be as high as 15% of the concentration of ice floes. It should also be borne in mind that the more generalized information about the state of the ice cover, the lower probability of detection of ice floe patches of a high concentration and spatial extent. Each vessel that is planning voyage in ice should take into consideration inaccurate estimation of concentration and thickness of ice floes received by means of satellite remote sensing methods. The method of determining permissible speed of various ice class vessel in ice on basis of safe speed graph for the icebreaker was developed. A well-defined equation approximates relationship between speed of the icebreaker and the vessels of specified ice classes. Average distance of 24.1 Nm from sea ice extent line was related to all analysed lines representing 30-40% ice floe concentration (IUP product excluded and 30.6 Nm for analysed lines representing 70-81-91% ice floe concentration. The maximal average distance of the furthest analysed line (IUP product excluded was equal 37.2 Nm. The average standard deviation of that results was equal 8.3 Nm only. Average distances of analysed lines from sea ice extent line to maximal ice data values were found as follow: 8.4 Nm (23% for NSIDC-CCAR ice age, 12.3 Nm (33% for minimal distance of 30-40% ice concentration, 15.4 Nm (41% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from Open Water side, 25 Nm (67% for minimal distance of 70-81-91% ice concentration, 26.6 Nm (72% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from 1st year ice age side, 35.9 Nm (97% for maximal distance

  8. Shuttle-Mir, CD-ROM Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clay; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM is a companion to an illustrated history book with the same title. This multi-media, searchable CD includes the full text and images in the book, as well as additional material. Interviews, photographs, and biographies of the U.S. Astronauts, cosmonauts, and team members for the Shuttle-Mir Program are available. STS Mission Summaries for each mission involved can be viewed, including launch and landing details, crew lists, and mission highlights. Photographs and videos from each mission are included, as well as diagrams of different spacecraft, and computer-generated animations of the Mir deorbit, collision, and flyaround. Additional documents include mission status reports, published documents, news releases, personal letters, and oral histories. The experiments carried out on Mir are described, highlighting combustion and fluid physics research, life in microgravity, and research of the development of the solar system. The focus on improving space technology and planning for the International Space Station is explained. The main features of the book itself include: (1) Training and Operations; (2) Long Duration Psychology; (3) Bilingual Blues; and (4) Earth Observations.

  9. Identification of Four Oxidative Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs, miR-34a-5p, miR-1915-3p, miR-638, and miR-150-3p, in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Cui, Ruixia; Gu, Jingxian; Zhang, Xing; Xiang, Xiaohong; Liu, Chang; Qu, Kai; Lin, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays an essential role during carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism between oxidative stress and carcinogenesis remains unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are revealed to be involved in oxidative stress response and carcinogenesis. This study aims to identify miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells which might involve in oxidative stress response. An integrated analysis of miRNA expression signature was performed by employing robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, and four miRNAs (miR-34a-5p, miR-1915-3p, miR-638, and miR-150-3p) were identified as the oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that these four miRNAs played an important role in antiapoptosis process. Our data also revealed miR-34a-5p and miR-1915-3p, but not miR-150-3p and miR-638, were regulated by p53 in HCC cell lines under oxidative stress. In addition, clinical investigation revealed that these four miRNAs might be involved in oxidative stress response by targeting oxidative stress-related genes in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that these four miRNAs were associated with patients' overall survival. In conclusion, we identified four oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs, which were regulated by p53-dependent (miR-34a-5p and miR-1915-3p) and p53-independent pathway (miR-150-3p and miR-638). These four miRNAs may offer new strategy for HCC diagnosis and prognosis.

  10. Identification of Four Oxidative Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs, miR-34a-5p, miR-1915-3p, miR-638, and miR-150-3p, in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays an essential role during carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism between oxidative stress and carcinogenesis remains unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs are revealed to be involved in oxidative stress response and carcinogenesis. This study aims to identify miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells which might involve in oxidative stress response. An integrated analysis of miRNA expression signature was performed by employing robust rank aggregation (RRA method, and four miRNAs (miR-34a-5p, miR-1915-3p, miR-638, and miR-150-3p were identified as the oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that these four miRNAs played an important role in antiapoptosis process. Our data also revealed miR-34a-5p and miR-1915-3p, but not miR-150-3p and miR-638, were regulated by p53 in HCC cell lines under oxidative stress. In addition, clinical investigation revealed that these four miRNAs might be involved in oxidative stress response by targeting oxidative stress-related genes in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that these four miRNAs were associated with patients’ overall survival. In conclusion, we identified four oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs, which were regulated by p53-dependent (miR-34a-5p and miR-1915-3p and p53-independent pathway (miR-150-3p and miR-638. These four miRNAs may offer new strategy for HCC diagnosis and prognosis.

  11. Prognostic significance of miR-205 in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Karaayvaz

    Full Text Available microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0.The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001 and miR-205 (P<0.0001 were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028. Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues.miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  12. Acupuncture Decreases NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and Increases miR-146a Expression in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for centuries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36, Zhongwan (CV12, and Pishu (BL20 acupoints on weight changes of rats, histological changes of gastric glands, and expressions changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65, microRNA- (miR- 155, miR-21, and miR-146a in CAG rats induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG combined with irregular diet. Consequently, we found that acupuncture treatment elevated body weight of rats significantly when compared to the model group. By observing histological changes, we found that the acupuncture group showed better improvement of gastric mucosa injury than the model group. Our results also demonstrated upregulation of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 in gastric tissue of CAG rats and a positive correlation between miR-155 and miR-21. Relatively, expression of miR-146a was downregulated and negative correlation relationships between miR-146a and miR-155/miR-21 in CAG rats were observed. Additionally, expressions of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 were downregulated and miR-146a was upregulated after acupuncture treatment. Taken together, our data imply that acupuncture can downregulate NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and upregulate miR-146a expression in CAG rats. NF-κB p65, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-146a may play important roles in therapeutic effect of acupuncture in treating CAG.

  13. 21 CFR 1250.28 - Source and handling of ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and handling of ice. 1250.28 Section 1250.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.28 Source and handling of...

  14. MicroRNA miR-125b causes leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Marina; Harris, Marian H; Zhou, Beiyan; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-12-14

    MicroRNA miR-125b has been implicated in several kinds of leukemia. The chromosomal translocation t(2;11)(p21;q23) found in patients with myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia leads to an overexpression of miR-125b of up to 90-fold normal. Moreover, miR-125b is also up-regulated in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying the t(11;14)(q24;q32) translocation. To decipher the presumed oncogenic mechanism of miR-125b, we used transplantation experiments in mice. All mice transplanted with fetal liver cells ectopically expressing miR-125b showed an increase in white blood cell count, in particular in neutrophils and monocytes, associated with a macrocytic anemia. Among these mice, half died of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or a myeloproliferative neoplasm, suggesting an important role for miR-125b in early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, coexpression of miR-125b and the BCR-ABL fusion gene in transplanted cells accelerated the development of leukemia in mice, compared with control mice expressing only BCR-ABL, suggesting that miR-125b confers a proliferative advantage to the leukemic cells. Thus, we show that overexpression of miR-125b is sufficient both to shorten the latency of BCR-ABL-induced leukemia and to independently induce leukemia in a mouse model.

  15. Mir Contamination Observations and Implications to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron

    2000-01-01

    A series of external contamination measurements were made on the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir external contamination observations summarized in this paper were essential in assessing the system level impact of Russian Segment induced contamination on the International Space Station (ISS). Mir contamination observations include results from a series of flight experiments: CNES Comes-Aragatz, retrieved NASA camera bracket, Euro-Mir '95 ICA, retrieved NASA Trek blanket, Russian Astra-II, Mir Solar Array Return Experiment (SARE), etc. Results from these experiments were studied in detail to characterize Mir induced contamination. In conjunction with Mir contamination observations, Russian materials samples were tested for condensable outgassing rates in the U.S. These test results were essential in the characterization of Mir contamination sources. Once Mir contamination sources were identified and characterized, activities to assess the implications to ISS were implemented. As a result, modifications in Russian materials selection and/or usage were implemented to control contamination and mitigate risk to ISS.

  16. Antarctic Ice Velocity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of recent ice velocity data of the Antarctic ice sheet is intended for use by the polar scientific community. The data are presented in tabular form...

  17. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  18. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  19. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.

  20. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  1. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  2. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  3. miR-125b and miR-100 Are Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Induction Chemotherapy in Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Arai, Yasuhito; Qiao, Zhiwei; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kawai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy in bone. Patients who respond poorly to induction chemotherapy are at higher risk of adverse prognosis. The molecular basis for such poor prognosis remains unclear. We investigated miRNA expression in eight open biopsy samples to identify miRNAs predictive of response to induction chemotherapy and thus maybe used for risk stratification therapy. The samples were obtained from four patients with inferior necrosis (Huvos I/II) and four patients with superior necrosis (Huvos III/IV) following induction chemotherapy. We found six miRNAs, including miR-125b and miR-100, that were differentially expressed > 2-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who respond poorly to treatment. The association between poor prognosis and the abundance of miR-125b and miR-100 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 20 additional osteosarcoma patients. Accordingly, overexpression of miR-125b and miR-100 in three osteosarcoma cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, invasiveness, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs such as methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. In addition, overexpression of miR-125b blocked the ability of these chemotherapy agents to induce apoptosis. As open biopsy is routinely performed to diagnose osteosarcoma, levels of miR-125b and miR-100 in these samples may be used as basis for risk stratification therapy. PMID:27990096

  4. miR-125b and miR-100 Are Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Induction Chemotherapy in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kubota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy in bone. Patients who respond poorly to induction chemotherapy are at higher risk of adverse prognosis. The molecular basis for such poor prognosis remains unclear. We investigated miRNA expression in eight open biopsy samples to identify miRNAs predictive of response to induction chemotherapy and thus maybe used for risk stratification therapy. The samples were obtained from four patients with inferior necrosis (Huvos I/II and four patients with superior necrosis (Huvos III/IV following induction chemotherapy. We found six miRNAs, including miR-125b and miR-100, that were differentially expressed > 2-fold (p<0.05 in patients who respond poorly to treatment. The association between poor prognosis and the abundance of miR-125b and miR-100 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 20 additional osteosarcoma patients. Accordingly, overexpression of miR-125b and miR-100 in three osteosarcoma cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, invasiveness, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs such as methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. In addition, overexpression of miR-125b blocked the ability of these chemotherapy agents to induce apoptosis. As open biopsy is routinely performed to diagnose osteosarcoma, levels of miR-125b and miR-100 in these samples may be used as basis for risk stratification therapy.

  5. Fluoxetine Increases the Expression of miR-572 and miR-663a in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundalil Vasu, Mahesh; Anitha, Ayyappan; Takahashi, Taro; Thanseem, Ismail; Iwata, Keiko; Asakawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the developed neurons in the adult brain. In contrast, the drug may be deleterious to immature or undifferentiated neural cells, although the mechanism is unclear. Recent investigations have suggested that microRNAs (miRNA) may be critical for effectiveness of psychotropic drugs including SSRI. We investigated whether fluoxetine could modulate expressions of neurologically relevant miRNAs in two neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Initial screening results revealed that three (miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) and four (miR-320a, miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) miRNAs were up-regulated in SK-N-SH cells and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively, after 24 hours treatment of fluoxetine (1-25 μM). Cell viability was reduced according to the dose of fluoxetine. The upregulation of miR-572 and miR-663a was consistent in both the SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, confirmed by a larger scale culture condition. Our data is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine could increase the expression of miRNAs in undifferentiated neural cells, and that putative target genes of those miRNAs have been shown to be involved in fundamental neurodevelopmental processes.

  6. Small RNA sequencing profiles of mir-181 and mir-221, the most relevant microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Kim, Inho; Oh, Somi; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Koh, Youngil; Lee, Keun-Wook

    2017-11-27

    To evaluate and select microRNAs relevant to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis, we analyzed differential microRNA expression by quantitative small RNA next-generation sequencing using duplicate marrow samples from individual AML patients. For this study, we obtained paired marrow samples at two different time points (initial diagnosis and first complete remission status) in patients with AML. Bone marrow microRNAs were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Quantification of microRNA expression was performed by counting aligned reads to microRNA genes. Among 38 samples (32 paired samples from 16 AML patients and 6 normal marrow controls), 27 were eligible for sequencing. Small RNA sequencing showed that 12 microRNAs were selectively expressed at higher levels in AML patients than in normal controls. Among these 12 microRNAs, mir-181, mir-221, and mir-3154 were more highly expressed at initial AML diagnosis as compared to first complete remission. Significant correlations were found between higher expression levels of mir-221, mir-146, and mir-155 and higher marrow blast counts. Our results demonstrate that mir-221 and mir-181 are selectively enriched in AML marrow and reflect disease activity. mir-3154 is a novel microRNA that is relevant to AML but needs further validation.

  7. The coordinated roles of miR-26a and miR-30c in regulating TGFβ1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zongji; Guan, Meiping; Jia, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    ameliorated TGFβ1-induced EMT in NRK-52E cells. Co-silencing of miR-26a and miR-30c exhibited the opposite effect. Moreover, miR-26a and miR-30c co-silenced CTGF to decrease ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. Furthermore, miR-26a was up-regulated in urinary extracellular vesicles of diabetic nephropathy patients...

  8. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  9. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  10. MicroRNA Profiling During Craniofacial Development: Potential Roles for Mir23b and Mir133b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lei Ding

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Defects in mid-facial development, including cleft lip/palate, account for a large number of human birth defects annually. In many cases, aberrant gene expression results in either a reduction in the number of neural crest cells (NCCs that reach the frontonasal region and form much of the facial skeleton or subsequent failure of NCC patterning and differentiation into bone and cartilage. While loss of gene expression is often associated with developmental defects, aberrant upregulation of expression can also be detrimental. microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs that normally repress gene expression by binding to recognition sequences located in the 3’ UTR of target mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in many developmental systems, including midfacial development. Here, we take advantage of high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq from different tissues of the developing mouse midface to interrogate the miRs that are expressed in the midface and select a subset for further expression analysis. Among those examined, we focused on four that showed the highest expression level in situ hybridization analysis. Mir23b and Mir24.1 are specifically expressed in the developing mouse frontonasal region, in addition to areas in the perichondrium, tongue musculature and cranial ganglia. Mir23b is also expressed in the palatal shelves and in anterior epithelium of the palate. In contrast, Mir133b and Mir128.2 are mainly expressed in head and trunk musculature. Expression analysis of mir23b and mir133b in zebrafish suggests that mir23b is expressed in the pharyngeal arch, otic vesicle and trunk muscle while mir133b is similarly expressed in head and trunk muscle. Functional analysis by overexpression of mir23b in zebrafish leads to broadening of the ethmoid plate and aberrant cartilage structures in the viscerocranium, while overexpression of mir133b causes a reduction in ethmoid plate size and a significant cleft. These data illustrate that miRs

  11. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  12. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  13. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  14. Mir̤ näitus Stockholmis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Hispaania kunstniku Joan Mir̤ looming koos sürrealistide töödega 30. augustini Stockholmi vastavatud Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis (arhitekt Rafael Moneo). Eksponeeritud 150 Mir̤ teost alates 1919. aastast, kõige rohkem on väljas maale 1920-1950. aastatest

  15. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  16. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...

  17. miR-17-92 explains MYC oncogene addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Casey, Stephanie C; Choi, Peter S; Felsher, Dean W

    2014-01-01

    MYC regulates tumorigenesis by coordinating the expression of thousands of genes. We found that MYC appears to regulate the decisions between cell survival versus death and self-renewal versus senescence through the microRNA miR-17-92 cluster. Addiction to the MYC oncogene may therefore in fact be an addiction to miR-17-92.

  18. Icing Operations - De-Icing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of ice, frost and snow on aircraft surfaces can drastically reduce the climb and maneuvering capabilities of an aircraft. The removal of such contamination prior to take off MUST be strictly adhered to in accordance with regulations and standards. The policy with respect to aircraft icing contamination should be “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN”. All personnel associated with the dispatch and/or operation of aircraft share the responsibility for ensuring that no aircraft is dispatched unless it is clear of ice, snow or frost.

  19. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  20. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  1. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  2. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  3. Circulating miR-150, miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-423-3p as Non-invasive Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Poursadegh Zonouzi, Ahmad; Mahmoodpoor, Fariba; Samadi, Nasser; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) is the major cause of renal allograft loss and can only be diagnosed by invasive histological examinations. The current study aimed to determine whether or not the circulating miR-125a, miR-150, miR-192, miR-200b, miR-423-3p and miR-433 could serve as predictors of graft outcome in the renal transplant recipients with CAD. To evaluate the expression levels of miRNAs, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and analyzed the plasma samples of 53 renal transplant recipients, including: 27 recipients with stable graft function (SGF), 26 recipients with biopsy-proven interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) and 15 healthy controls. Possible correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and the studied circulating miRNAs was also evaluated. miR-150 (p <0.001), miR-192 (p = 0.003), miR-200b (p = 0.048) and miR-423-3p (p <0.001) were differentially expressed between IFTA and SGF plasma samples. Creatinine correlated with miR-192 (r = 0.414, p = 0.036) and miR-423-3p (r = -0.431, p = 0.028). Moreover, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly correlated with the circulating miR-192 (r = -0.390, p = 0.049) and miR-423 (r = 0.432, p = 0.028). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that four miRNAs possessed the best diagnostic value for discriminating IFTA from SGF recipients with the areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 and high sensitivity and specificity values of 78% and 91%, respectively. The results suggest that aberrant plasma levels of these miRNAs are associated with the renal allograft dysfunction. Therefore, they are proposed to be considered as potential diagnostic biomarkers for monitoring of renal graft function. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of direct target genes of miR-7, miR-9, miR-96, and miR-182 in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzeni, Hamidreza; Najafi, Ali; Khani, Marzieh

    2017-08-01

    Some microRNAs have carcinogenic or tumor suppressive effects in breast cancer, which is the most common cancer in women worldwide. MiR-7 and miR-9 are tumor suppressor microRNAs, which induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, miR-96 and miR-182 are onco-microRNAs that increase proliferation, migration, and tumorigenesis in breast cancer cells. This study aimed to identify the direct target genes of these four microRNAs in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Initially, bioinformatics tools were used to identify the target genes that have binding sites for miR-7, MiR-9, MiR-96, and miR-182 and are also associated with breast cancer. Subsequently, the findings of the bioinformatics analysis relating to the effects of these four microRNAs on the 3'-UTR activity of the potential target genes were confirmed using the dual luciferase assay in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells co-transfected with the vectors containing 3'-UTR segments of the target genes downstream of a luciferase coding gene and each of the microRNAs. Finally, the effects of microRNAs on the endogenous expression of potential target genes were assessed by the overexpression of each of the four microRNAs in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Respectively, three, three, three, and seven genes were found to have binding sites for miR-7, miR-9, miR-96, and miR-182 and were associated with breast cancer. The results of empirical studies including dual luciferase assays and real-time PCR confirmed that miR-7 regulates the expression of BRCA1 and LASP1; MiR-9 regulates the expression of AR; miR-96 regulates the expression of ABCA1; and miR-182 regulates the expression of NBN, TOX3, and LASP1. Taken together, our results suggest that the tumor suppressive effects of miR-7 may be mediated partly by regulating the expression of BRCA1 as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. In addition, this microRNA and miR-182 may have effects on the nodal-positivity and tumor

  5. miR-10 in development and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) miR-10 family has attracted attention because of its conservation and the position of the miR-10 genes within the Hox clusters of developmental regulators. In several species, miR-10 is coexpressed with a set of Hox genes and has been found to regulate the translation of Hox...... transcripts. In addition, members of the miR-10 family are de-regulated in several cancer forms. Aside from acting in translational repression, miR-10 was recently found to bind a group of transcripts containing a terminal oligo-pyrimidine (TOP) motif and to induce their translation, thereby adding a new...... function to the miRNA repertoire.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 May 2009; doi:10.1038/cdd.2009.58....

  6. miR-200 Regulates Endometrial Development During Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Word, R. Ann; Kraus, W. Lee; Mendelson, Carole R.

    2016-01-01

    For successful embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cells must undergo functional and morphological changes, referred to as decidualization. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate implantation and decidualization are not well defined. Here we demonstrate that the estradiol- and progesterone-regulated microRNA (miR)-200 family was markedly down-regulated in mouse endometrial stromal cells prior to implantation, whereas zinc finger E-box binding homeobox-1 and -2 and other known and predicted targets were up-regulated. Conversely, miR-200 was up-regulated during in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Knockdown of miR-200 negatively affected decidualization and prevented the mesenchymal-epithelial transition-like changes that accompanied decidual differentiation. Notably, superovulation of mice and humans altered miR-200 expression. Our findings suggest that hormonal alterations that accompany superovulation may negatively impact endometrial development and decidualization by causing aberrant miR-200 expression. PMID:27533790

  7. Circular RNA and miR-7 in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Kjems, Jørgen; Damgaard, Christian Kroun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play important roles in fine-tuning gene expression and are often deregulated in cancer. The identification of competing endogenous RNA and circular RNA (circRNA) as important regulators of miRNA activity underscores the increasing complexity of ncRNA-mediated regulatory networks....... Particularly, the recently identified circular RNA, ciRS-7, which acts as a designated miR-7 inhibitor/sponge, has conceptually changed the mechanistic understanding of miRNA networks. As miR-7 modulates the expression of several oncogenes, disclosing the regulation of miR-7 activity will likely advance...... the understanding of various cancer etiologies. Here, we review the current knowledge about the ciRS-7/miR-7 axis in cancer-related pathways and discuss possible models explaining the relevance of coexpressing miR-7 along with a circRNA inhibitor....

  8. MIR retrotransposon sequences provide insulators to the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Vicente-García, Cristina; Seruggia, Davide; Moltó, Eduardo; Fernandez-Miñán, Ana; Neto, Ana; Lee, Elbert; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Montoliu, Lluís; Lunyak, Victoria V.; Jordan, I. King

    2015-01-01

    Insulators are regulatory elements that help to organize eukaryotic chromatin via enhancer-blocking and chromatin barrier activity. Although there are several examples of transposable element (TE)-derived insulators, the contribution of TEs to human insulators has not been systematically explored. Mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs) are a conserved family of TEs that have substantial regulatory capacity and share sequence characteristics with tRNA-related insulators. We sought to evaluate whether MIRs can serve as insulators in the human genome. We applied a bioinformatic screen using genome sequence and functional genomic data from CD4+ T cells to identify a set of 1,178 predicted MIR insulators genome-wide. These predicted MIR insulators were computationally tested to serve as chromatin barriers and regulators of gene expression in CD4+ T cells. The activity of predicted MIR insulators was experimentally validated using in vitro and in vivo enhancer-blocking assays. MIR insulators are enriched around genes of the T-cell receptor pathway and reside at T-cell–specific boundaries of repressive and active chromatin. A total of 58% of the MIR insulators predicted here show evidence of T-cell–specific chromatin barrier and gene regulatory activity. MIR insulators appear to be CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) independent and show a distinct local chromatin environment with marked peaks for RNA Pol III and a number of histone modifications, suggesting that MIR insulators recruit transcriptional complexes and chromatin modifying enzymes in situ to help establish chromatin and regulatory domains in the human genome. The provisioning of insulators by MIRs across the human genome suggests a specific mechanism by which TE sequences can be used to modulate gene regulatory networks. PMID:26216945

  9. MIR retrotransposon sequences provide insulators to the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Vicente-García, Cristina; Seruggia, Davide; Moltó, Eduardo; Fernandez-Miñán, Ana; Neto, Ana; Lee, Elbert; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Montoliu, Lluís; Lunyak, Victoria V; Jordan, I King

    2015-08-11

    Insulators are regulatory elements that help to organize eukaryotic chromatin via enhancer-blocking and chromatin barrier activity. Although there are several examples of transposable element (TE)-derived insulators, the contribution of TEs to human insulators has not been systematically explored. Mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs) are a conserved family of TEs that have substantial regulatory capacity and share sequence characteristics with tRNA-related insulators. We sought to evaluate whether MIRs can serve as insulators in the human genome. We applied a bioinformatic screen using genome sequence and functional genomic data from CD4(+) T cells to identify a set of 1,178 predicted MIR insulators genome-wide. These predicted MIR insulators were computationally tested to serve as chromatin barriers and regulators of gene expression in CD4(+) T cells. The activity of predicted MIR insulators was experimentally validated using in vitro and in vivo enhancer-blocking assays. MIR insulators are enriched around genes of the T-cell receptor pathway and reside at T-cell-specific boundaries of repressive and active chromatin. A total of 58% of the MIR insulators predicted here show evidence of T-cell-specific chromatin barrier and gene regulatory activity. MIR insulators appear to be CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) independent and show a distinct local chromatin environment with marked peaks for RNA Pol III and a number of histone modifications, suggesting that MIR insulators recruit transcriptional complexes and chromatin modifying enzymes in situ to help establish chromatin and regulatory domains in the human genome. The provisioning of insulators by MIRs across the human genome suggests a specific mechanism by which TE sequences can be used to modulate gene regulatory networks.

  10. Cortical Morphogenesis during Embryonic Development Is Regulated by miR-34c and miR-204

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veno, Morten T.; Veno, Susanne T.; Rehberg, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The porcine brain closely resembles the human brain in aspects such as development and morphology. Temporal miRNA profiling in the developing embryonic porcine cortex revealed a distinct set of miRNAs, including miR-34c and miR-204, which exhibited a highly specific expression profile across...

  11. Coordinated epigenetic repression of the miR-200 family and miR-205 in invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik D; Bramsen, Jesper B; Hulf, Toby

    2011-01-01

    of miRNA expression arrays, qPCR assays and mass spectrometry DNA methylation analyses, we show that the miR-200 and miR-205 loci are specifically silenced and gain promoter hypermethylation and repressive chromatin marks in muscle invasive bladder tumors and undifferentiated bladder cell lines...

  12. MicroRNAs miR-27a and miR-143 Regulate Porcine Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs that play roles in regulating gene expression. Some miRNAs have been classed as epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Previous reports indicated that the miRNAs miR-27a and miR-143 were involved in lipid metabolism in human and rodents. To determine the roles of porcine miR-27a and miR-143 in adipocyte lipid metabolism, porcine adipocytes were cultured and allowed to induce differentiation for 10 days. The lipid-filled adipocytes were then transfected with miRNA mimics and inhibitors. We measured how the indicators of adipogenesis and adipolysis in porcine adipocytes were affected by the over-expression and by the inhibition of both miR-27a and miR-143. The results indicated that the over-expression of miR-27a could accelerate adipolysis releasing significantly more glycerol and free fatty acids than the negative control (P < 0.001, while the mimic of miR-143 expression, promoted adipogenesis by accumulating more triglycerides (P < 0.001 in the adipocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that there was good correlation (r > 0.98, P < 0.001 between the indicators of adipolysis in cell lysates and in the culture medium.

  13. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  14. Differential expression of miR-139, miR-486 and miR-21 in breast cancer patients sub-classified according to lymph node status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Lene; Balslev, Eva; Søkilde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Therapeutic decisions in breast cancer are increasingly guided by prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Non-protein-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found to be deregulated in breast cancers and, in addition, to be correlated with several clinico-pathological features. One...... of the most consistently up-regulated miRNAs is miR-21. Here, we specifically searched for differentially expressed miRNAs in high-risk breast cancer patients as compared to low-risk breast cancer patients. In the same patients, we also compared miR-21 expression with the expression of its presumed target...... PTEN. METHODS: Both microarray and RT-qPCR techniques were used to assess miRNA expression levels in lymph node-positive and -negative human invasive ductal carcinoma tissues. Simultaneously, PTEN protein expression levels were assessed using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: miR-486-5p and miR-139-5p...

  15. The miR-200 family and miR-205 are repressed by Twist1 and concurrently silenced and DNA hypermethylated in invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs commonly deregulated in cancer. The miR-200 family (miR-200a, -200b, -200c, -141 and -429) and miR-205 are encoded in three separate genomic loci and are frequently silenced in advanced cancer. The miR-200 family and miR-205 have been implicated in tumo...... demonstrating concerted transcriptional regulation of the three miR-200 loci. Our data also indicate that DNA hypermethylation of the miR-200 family and miR-205 are possible prognostic markers in bladder cancer.  ......MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs commonly deregulated in cancer. The miR-200 family (miR-200a, -200b, -200c, -141 and -429) and miR-205 are encoded in three separate genomic loci and are frequently silenced in advanced cancer. The miR-200 family and miR-205 have been implicated in tumour...... invasion and metastasis by negatively regulating the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Loss of miR-200 expression leads to silencing of E-cadherin, thereby promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and loss of cell adhesion. However, little is known about...

  16. miR-146a and miR-146b in the diagnosis and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Li, Hai; Wang, Jianwei; Sun, Chongbing

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the expression of miR-146a and miR‑146b with the occurrence and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Experiments in vitro were also used to explore the effect of the knocked down expression of the miRNAs on growth and migration of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. A total of 73 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma admitted to Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang from September 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in the study. Carcinoma samples were obtained from each patient, and adjacent tissues were used as control samples to determine expression levels of miR-146a and miR146b by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. An analysis was conducted to find possible correlations between the miRNAs expression levels and clinicopathological features in the patients followed up for one year after diagnosis. Additionally, to examine the function of miR-146a and miR‑146b on TPC-1 cells, the expression of miRNAs was knocked down using specific siRNAs. MTT and Transwell assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation and migration, respectively, in the miRNA cell lines. Finally, western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression of IRAK1 in PTC cancer cells. Our results showed that the expression levels of miR-146a and miR-146b in carcinoma tissues were significantly higher than the levels in cancer-free tissues (p<0.01). The relative expression levels of miR-146a and miR-146b in cancerous tissues could be associated with the pathological type and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Compared with the siRNA-control cell, MTT and Transwell assays showed that the cell growth and migration of TPC-1 cells were decreased in miR-146a and miR-146b low expression cells (p<0.01). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of IRAK1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma was higher than in adjacent tissue (p<0.01). Based on our findings, the expression of miR-146a and miR-146b correlates with the occurrence

  17. Role of miR-383 and miR-146b in different propensities to obesity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shu-Fang; Duan, Xiao-Mei; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Li-Mei; Kang, Yan-Jun; Wang, Peng; Tang, Xue; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of hepatic microRNAs (miRs) in regulating local thyroid hormone (TH) action and ultimately different propensities to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. When obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) mice were fed HFD for 7 weeks, OP mice showed apparent hepatic steatosis, with significantly higher body weight and lower hepatic TH receptor b (TRb) expression and type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) activity than OR mice. Next-generation sequencing technology revealed that 13 miRs in liver were dysregulated between the two phenotypes, of which 8 miRs were predicted to target on Dio1 or TRb When mice were fed for 17 weeks, OR mice had mild hepatic steatosis and increased Dio1 and TRb expression than OP mice, with downregulation of T3 target genes (including Srebp1c , Acc1 , Scd1 and Fasn ) and upregulation of Cpt1α , Atp5c1 , Cox7c and Cyp7a1 A stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of miR-383, miR-34a and miR-146b were inversely correlated with those of DIO1 or TRb. Down-regulated expression of miR-383 or miR-146b by miR-383 inhibitor (anti-miR-383) or miR-146b inhibitor (anti-miR-146b) in free fatty acid-treated primary mouse hepatocytes led to increased DIO1 and TRb expressions, respectively, and subsequently decreased cellular lipid accumulation, while miR-34a inhibitor (anti-miR-34a) transfection had on effects on TRb expression. Luciferase reporter assay illustrated that miR-146b could directly target TRb 3'untranslated region (3'UTR). These findings suggested that miR-383 and miR-146b might play critical roles in different propensities to diet-induced obesity via targeting on Dio1 and TRb , respectively. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. miR-132 and miR-212 are increased in pancreatic cancer and target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Kook [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Henry, Jon C. [Department of Surgery, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Jiang, Jinmai [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Esau, Christine [Regulus Therapeutics, Carlsbad, CA (United States); Gusev, Yuriy [Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Lerner, Megan R. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Postier, Russell G. [Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Brackett, Daniel J. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Schmittgen, Thomas D., E-mail: Schmittgen.2@osu.edu [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The expression of miR-132 and miR-212 are significantly increased in pancreatic cancer. {yields} miR-132 and miR-212 target the tumor suppressor pRb, resulting in enhanced proliferation. {yields} miR-132 and miR-212 expression is increased by a {beta}2 adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting a novel mechanism for pancreatic cancer progression. -- Abstract: Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as differentially expressed in cancer, however the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. We report that two miRNAs located on chromosome 17p13, miR-132 and miR-212, are over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. Both miRNAs are predicted to target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, Rb1. Validation of this interaction was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and western blot in a pancreatic cancer cell line transfected with pre-miR-212 and pre-miR-132 oligos. Cell proliferation was enhanced in Panc-1 cells transfected with pre-miR-132/-212 oligos. Conversely, antisense oligos to miR-132/-212 reduced cell proliferation and caused a G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest. The mRNA of a number of E2F transcriptional targets were increased in cells over expressing miR-132/-212. Exposing Panc-1 cells to the {beta}2 adrenergic receptor agonist, terbutaline, increased the miR-132 and miR-212 expression by 2- to 4-fold. We report that over-expression of miR-132 and miR-212 result in reduced pRb protein in pancreatic cancer cells and that the increase in cell proliferation from over-expression of these miRNAs is likely due to increased expression of several E2F target genes. The {beta}2 adrenergic pathway may play an important role in this novel mechanism.

  19. The Roles of miR-26, miR-29, and miR-203 in the Silencing of the Epigenetic Machinery during Melanocyte Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Gasque Schoof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic marks located throughout the genome exhibit great variation between normal and transformed cancer cells. While normal cells contain hypomethylated CpG islands near gene promoters and hypermethylated repetitive DNA, the opposite pattern is observed in cancer cells. Recently, it has been reported that alteration in the microenvironment of melanocyte cells, such as substrate adhesion blockade, results in the selection of anoikis-resistant cells, which have tumorigenic characteristics. Melanoma cells obtained through this model show an altered epigenetic pattern, which represents one of the first events during the melanocytes malignant transformation. Because microRNAs are involved in controlling components of the epigenetic machinery, the aim of this work was to evaluate the potential association between the expression of miR-203, miR-26, and miR-29 family members and the genes Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Mecp2, and Ezh2 during cells transformation. Our results show that microRNAs and their validated or predicted targets are inversely expressed, indicating that these molecules are involved in epigenetic reprogramming. We also show that miR-203 downregulates Dnmt3b in mouse melanocyte cells. In addition, treatment with 5-aza-CdR promotes the expression of miR-26 and miR-29 in a nonmetastatic melanoma cell line. Considering the occurrence of CpG islands near the miR-26 and miR-29 promoters, these data suggest that they might be epigenetically regulated in cancer.

  20. MiR-182 and miR-203 induce mesenchymal to epithelial transition and self-sufficiency of growth signals via repressing SNAI2 in prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Li, Wen-Cheng; Hellem, Margrete Reime; Rostad, Kari; Popa, Mihaela; McCormack, Emmet; Oyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Ke, Xi-Song

    2013-08-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we report the dual functions of miR-182 and miR-203 in our previously described prostate cell model. MiR-182 and miR-203 were completely repressed during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from prostate epithelial EP156T cells to the progeny mesenchymal nontransformed EPT1 cells. Re-expression of miR-182 or miR-203 in EPT1 cells and prostate cancer PC3 cells induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) features. Simultaneously, miR-182 and miR-203 provided EPT1 cells with the ability to self-sufficiency of growth signals, a well-recognized oncogenic feature. Gene expression profiling showed high overlap of the genes affected by miR-182 and miR-203. SNAI2 was identified as a common target of miR-182 and miR-203. Knock-down of SNAI2 in EPT1 cells phenocopied re-expression of either miR-182 or miR-203 regarding both MET and self-sufficiency of growth signals. Strikingly, considerable overlaps of changed genes were found between the re-expression of miR-182/203 and knock-down of SNAI2. Finally, P-cadherin was identified as a direct target of SNAI2. We conclude that miR-182 and miR-203 induce MET features and growth factor independent growth via repressing SNAI2 in prostate cells. Our findings shed new light on the roles of miR-182/203 in cancer related processes. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of gene regulation by miR-34a and miR-34c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A Ebner

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs repress target genes by destabilizing mRNAs and/or by inhibiting translation. The best known factor for target recognition is the so called seed--a short continuous region of Watson-Crick base pairing between nucleotides 2-7 of the miRNA and complementary sequences in 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. The miR-34 family consists of three conserved members with important tumor suppressor functions linked to the p53 pathway. The family members share the same seed, raising the question if they also have the same targets. Here, we analyse the effect of miR-34a and miR-34c on protein synthesis by pSILAC. Despite significant overlap, we observe that the impact of both family members on protein synthesis differs. The ability to identify specific targets of a family member is complicated by the occurrence of * strand mediated repression. Transfection of miR-34 chimeras indicates that the 3'end of the miRNA might be responsible for differential regulation in case of targets without a perfect seed site. Pathway analysis of regulated proteins indicates overlapping functions related to cell cycle and the p53 pathway and preferential targeting of several anti-apoptotic proteins by miR-34a. We used luciferase assays to confirm that Vcl and Fkbp8, an important anti-apoptotic protein, are specifically repressed by miR-34a. In summary, we find that miR-34a and miR-34c down-regulate distinct subsets of targets which might mediate different cellular outcomes. Our data provides a rich resource of miR-34 targets that might be relevant for clinical trials that want to implement the miR-34 family in cancer therapy.

  2. Nereid Under Ice (NUI): A Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle for Under Ice Telepresence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakuba, M.; Bowen, A.; German, C. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D.; Mayer, L.; McFarland, C.; Suman, S.; Bailey, J.; Judge, C.; Elliott, S.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Machado, C.; Taylor, C. L.; Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Singh, H.; Maksym, T.; Laney, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Boetius, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Nereid Under Ice (NUI) Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle (HROV) is a 2000 m rated robotic underwater vehicle that allows for direct real-time human supervision of mapping, inspection, and intervention tasks beneath ice and unconstrained by the motions of a support vessel. The vehicle employs a unique unarmored communications only fiber-optic tether that enables putative standoff distances of up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary while under direct human control. Designed and built at WHOI's Deep Submergence Laboratory, along with colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and the University of New Hampshire, NUI enables exploration, detailed examination, and sample retrieval from ice-margin and under-ice environments through the use of high-definition video coupled with a seven-function hydraulic manipulator in addition to a range of acoustic, chemical, and biological sensors tailored to suit the needs of an individual expedition. We summarize the technological and scientific outcomes of under ice sea trials in the High Arctic and capability enhancements undertaken since the successful completion of trials. In July, 2014, NUI successfully completed its first under-ice field expedition from aboard the Alfred Wegener Institute's ice-breaker Polarstern. In addition to conducting engineering trials, the vehicle was equipped with various mission-specific biological sensors for studying near-ice primary productivity - a comprehensive pumped fluorometry system SUNA nitrate, Eco Triplet FL/BB/CDOM, SBE25+ CTD, FRRF, PAR), hyperspectral radiance and irradiance sensors (RAMSES ACC, ARC). We present an overview of results from four dives traveling up to 3.7 km under moving sea ice to a maximum depth of 45 m and ranging up to 800 m distant from Polarstern. We also report continued development aimed at enhancing NUI's capabilities. During the 2014 trials the vehicle was not equipped with a manipulator for sample retrieval. Funding has been secured and design studies are

  3. Control of Ice Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Wen; Sahoo, Venkataraman; Lu, Ming-Chang

    2017-03-28

    Ice formation is a catastrophic problem affecting our daily life in a number of ways. At present, deicing methods are costly, inefficient, and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, the use of superhydrophobic surfaces has been suggested as a potential passive anti-icing method. However, no surface is able to repel frost formation at a very cold temperature. In this work, we demonstrated the abilities of spatial control of ice formation and confinement of the ice-stacking direction. The control and confinement were achieved by manipulating the local free energy barrier for frosting. The V-shaped microgroove patterned surface, which possessed these abilities, exhibited the best anti-icing and deicing performances among the studied surfaces. The insight of this study can be applied to alleviate the impact of icing on our daily life and in many industrial systems.

  4. Producing desired ice faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-11-10

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

  5. miR-92a family and their target genes in tumorigenesis and metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Molin, E-mail: molin_li@hotmail.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Basic Medical Science of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University Cancer Center, Dalian 116044 (China); Guan, Xingfang; Sun, Yuqiang [Department of Pathophysiology, Basic Medical Science of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Mi, Jun [Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University Cancer Center, Dalian 116044 (China); Shu, Xiaohong [College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University Cancer Center, Dalian 116044 (China); Liu, Fang [Department of Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116027 (China); Li, Chuangang, E-mail: li_chuangang@sina.com [Department of Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116027 (China)

    2014-04-15

    The miR-92a family, including miR-25, miR-92a-1, miR-92a-2 and miR-363, arises from three different paralog clusters miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25 that are highly conservative in the process of evolution, and it was thought as a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) correlated with endothelial cells. Aberrant expression of miR-92a family was detected in multiple cancers, and the disturbance of miR-92a family was related with tumorigenesis and tumor development. In this review, the progress on the relationship between miR-92a family and their target genes and malignant tumors will be summarized. - Highlights: • Aberrant expression of miR-92a, miR-25 and miR-363 can be observed in many kinds of malignant tumors. • The expression of miR-92a family is regulated by LOH, epigenetic alteration, transcriptional factors such as SP1, MYC, E2F, wild-type p53 etc. • Roles of miR-92a family in tumorigenesis and development: promoting cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inhibiting cell apoptosis.

  6. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    on sea ice area.) Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Tikho- okeanskii Institut Geografii. Issledovanie Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera ’. Vladivostok, p.23-28. 66...Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera ’. Vladivostok, p.23-28. Keen, R.A., 1977: The response of Baffin Bay ice conditions to changes in atmospheric...surface atmosphere on sea ice area.) Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Tikho- okeanskii Institut Geografii. Issledovanie Sistemy ’Lednikii-Okean- Atmosfera

  8. MiR-125b potentiates macrophage activation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Aadel A.; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Sinha, Nikita; Gibson, William S.J.; Taganov, Konstantin D.; O’Connell, Ryan M.; Baltimore, David

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-125b expression is modulated in macrophages in response to stimulatory cues. Here we report a functional role of miR-125b in macrophages. We found that miR-125b is enriched in macrophages compared to lymphoid cells and whole immune tissues. Enforced expression of miR-125b drives macrophages to adapt an activated morphology that is accompanied by increased co-stimulatory factor expression and elevated responsiveness to interferon gamma, while anti-miR-125b treatment decreases CD80 surface expression. To determine whether these alterations in cell signaling, gene expression and morphology have functional consequences, we examined the ability of macrophages with enhanced miR-125b expression to present antigens and found that they better stimulate T cell activation than control macrophages. Further indicating increased function, these macrophages were more effective at killing EL4 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, miR-125b repressed IRF4 and IRF4 knockdown in macrophages mimicked the miR-125b overexpression phenotype. In summary, our evidence suggests that miR-125b is at least partly responsible for generating the activated nature of macrophages, at least partially by reducing IRF4 levels, and potentiates the functional role of macrophages in inducing immune responses. PMID:22003200

  9. Important miRs of pathways in different tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Arjona, Dolores; Bauer, Peter O

    2013-01-01

    We computationally determined miRs that are significantly connected to molecular pathways by utilizing gene expression profiles in different cancer types such as glioblastomas, ovarian and breast cancers. Specifically, we assumed that the knowledge of physical interactions between miRs and genes indicated subsets of important miRs (IM) that significantly contributed to the regression of pathway-specific enrichment scores. Despite the different nature of the considered cancer types, we found strongly overlapping sets of IMs. Furthermore, IMs that were important for many pathways were enriched with literature-curated cancer and differentially expressed miRs. Such sets of IMs also coincided well with clusters of miRs that were experimentally indicated in numerous other cancer types. In particular, we focused on an overlapping set of 99 overall important miRs (OIM) that were found in glioblastomas, ovarian and breast cancers simultaneously. Notably, we observed that interactions between OIMs and leading edge genes of differentially expressed pathways were characterized by considerable changes in their expression correlations. Such gains/losses of miR and gene expression correlation indicated miR/gene pairs that may play a causal role in the underlying cancers.

  10. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  11. Association of miR-146a, miR-149, miR-196a2, and miR-499 Polymorphisms with Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament of the Cervical Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Lim

    Full Text Available Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL of the spine is considered a multifactorial and polygenic disease. We aimed to investigate the association between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of pre-miRNAs [miR-146aC>G (rs2910164, miR-149T>C (rs2292832, miR-196a2T>C (rs11614913, and miR-499A>G (rs3746444] and the risk of cervical OPLL in the Korean population.The genotypic frequencies of these four SNPs were analyzed in 207 OPLL patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay.For four SNPs in pre-miRNAs, no significant differences were found between OPLL patients and controls. However, subgroup analysis based on OPLL subgroup (continuous: continuous type plus mixed type, segmental: segmental and localized type showed that miR-499GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of segmental type OPLL (adjusted odds ratio = 4.314 with 95% confidence interval: 1.109-16.78. In addition, some allele combinations (C-T-T-G, G-T-T-A, and G-T-C-G of miR-146a/-149/-196a2/-499 and combined genotypes (miR-149TC/miR-196a2TT were associated with increased OPLL risk, whereas the G-T-T-G and G-C-C-G allele combinations were associated with decreased OPLL risk.The results indicate that GG genotype of miR-499 is associated with significantly higher risks of OPLL in the segmental OPLL group. The miR-146a/-149/-196a2/-499 allele combinations may be a genetic risk factor for cervical OPLL in the Korean population.

  12. Let-7, mir-98 and mir-183 as biomarkers for cancer and schizophrenia [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available Recent evidence supports a role of microRNAs in cancer and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, through their regulatory role on the expression of multiple genes. The rather rare co-morbidity of cancer and schizophrenia is an old hypothesis which needs further research on microRNAs as molecules that might exert their oncosuppressive or oncogenic activity in the context of their role in psychiatric disorders. The expression pattern of a variety of different microRNAs was investigated in patients (N = 6 suffering from schizophrenia termed control, patients with a solid tumor (N = 10 and patients with both schizophrenia and tumor (N = 8. miRNA profiling was performed on whole blood samples using the miRCURY LNA microRNA Array technology (6th & 7th generation. A subset of 3 microRNAs showed a statistically significant differential expression between the control and the study groups. Specifically, significant down-regulation of the let-7p-5p, miR-98-5p and of miR-183-5p in the study groups (tumor alone and tumorand schizophrenia was observed (p<0.05. The results of the present study showed that let-7, miR-98 and miR-183 may play an important oncosuppressive role through their regulatory impact in gene expression irrespective of the presence of schizophrenia, although a larger sample size is required to validate these results. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted in order to highlight a possible role of these and other micro-RNAs in the molecular pathways of schizophrenia.

  13. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  14. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis

    2010-01-01

    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.

  15. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  16. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  17. Genetic versus Non-Genetic Regulation of miR-103, miR-143 and miR-483-3p Expression in Adipose Tissue and Their Metabolic Implications-A Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork-Jensen, Jette; Thuesen, Anne Cathrine Baun; Bang-Bertelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Murine models suggest that the microRNAs miR-103 and miR-143 may play central roles in the regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The microRNA miR-483-3p may reduce adipose tissue expandability and cause ectopic lipid accumulation, insulin resist...

  18. Circulating miR-765 and miR-149: Potential Noninvasive Diagnostic Biomarkers for Geriatric Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sayed Ali Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating miR-765 and miR-149 as noninvasive early biomarkers for geriatric coronary artery disease (CAD patients. A total of 69 angiographically documented CAD patients including 37 stable CAD (72.9 ± 4.2 years and 32 unstable CAD (72.03 ± 4.3 years and 20 healthy subjects (71.7 ± 5.2 years, matched for age, sex, smoking habit, hypertension, and diabetes, were enrolled in this study. Compared with healthy subjects, circulating miR-765 levels were increased by 2.9-fold in stable CAD and 5.8-fold in unstable CAD patients, respectively, while circulating miR-149 levels were downregulated by 3.5-fold in stable CAD and 4.2-fold in unstable CAD patients, respectively. Furthermore, plasma levels of miR-765 were found to be positively correlated with ages within control, stable, and unstable groups. The ROC curves of miR-765 and miR-149 represented significant diagnostic values with an area under curve (AUC of 0.959, 0.972 and 0.938, 0.977 in stable CAD patients and unstable CAD patients as compared with healthy subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of miR-765 and miR-149 might be used as noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of CAD in geriatric people.

  19. Folate status, folate-related genes and serum miR-21 expression: Implications for miR-21 as a biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Beckett

    2015-12-01

    General significance: This study demonstrates that serum miR-21 expression correlates with folate status and related genetic status. This may have consequences for the proposed use of miR-21 as a colorectal cancer biomarker.

  20. Academic Airframe Icing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David

    2009-01-01

    2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach

  1. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  2. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  3. Circulating levels of inflammation-associated miR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglei; Peng, Wujian; Shen, Xuemei; Huang, Yunhui; Ouyang, Xin; Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, Second Clinical Medical College, Shenzhen People' s Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2012-10-19

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may represent a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker for various pathological conditions. Moreover, the detection of circulating miRNAs can provide important novel disease-related information. In particular, inflammation-associated miR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 are reported to be associated with vascular homeostasis. Vascular damage is a common event described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that miR-155 and miR-126 may be detectable in the circulation and serve as potential biomarkers for risk stratification. In this study, we assessed miR-155 and miR-126 in the plasma of 30 ESRD patients and 20 healthy controls using real-time quantification RT-PCR. The circulating levels of miR-155 and miR-126 were significantly reduced in patients with ESRD compared to healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference of circulating miR-155 and miR-126 levels between prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis patients. Furthermore, both circulating miR-126 and miR-155 correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (miR-126: r = 0.383, P = 0.037; miR-155: r = 0.494, P = 0.006) and hemoglobin (miR-126: r = 0.515, P = 0.004; miR-155: r = 0.598, P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with phosphate level (miR-126: r = -0.675, P < 0.001; miR-155: r = -0.399, P = 0.029). Pearson's correlation was used to compare circulating levels of miRNAs with clinical parameters. These results suggested that circulating miR-155 and miR-126 might be involved in the development of ESRD. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of circulating miR-155 and miR-126 as candidate biomarkers for risk estimation.

  4. Role for DNA methylation in the regulation of miR-200c and miR-141 expression in normal and cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Lukas; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Heimark, Ronald L.; Cress, Anne E.; Dickinson, Sally; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-12-23

    BACKGROUND: The microRNA-200 family participates in the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype and loss of its expression can result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the loss of expression of miR-200 family members is linked to an aggressive cancer phenotype. Regulation of the miR-200 family expression in normal and cancer cells is not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Epigenetic mechanisms participate in the control of miR-200c and miR-141 expression in both normal and cancer cells. A CpG island near the predicted mir-200c/mir-141 transcription start site shows a striking correlation between miR-200c and miR-141 expression and DNA methylation in both normal and cancer cells, as determined by MassARRAY technology. The CpG island is unmethylated in human miR-200/miR-141 expressing epithelial cells and in miR-200c/miR-141 positive tumor cells. The CpG island is heavily methylated in human miR-200c/miR-141 negative fibroblasts and miR-200c/miR-141 negative tumor cells. Mouse cells show a similar inverse correlation between DNA methylation and miR-200c expression. Enrichment of permissive histone modifications, H3 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, is seen in normal miR-200c/miR-141-positive epithelial cells, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to real-time PCR. In contrast, repressive H3K9 dimethylation marks are present in normal miR-200c/miR-141-negative fibroblasts and miR-200c/miR-141 negative cancer cells and the permissive histone modifications are absent. The epigenetic modifier drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, reactivates miR-200c/miR-141 expression showing that epigenetic mechanisms play a functional role in their transcriptional control. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: We report that DNA methylation plays a role in the normal cell type-specific expression of miR-200c and miR-141 and this role appears evolutionarily conserved, since similar results were obtained in mouse. Aberrant DNA methylation

  5. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  6. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  8. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  13. Transposition of the great vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  14. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  16. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  18. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  19. Localized expression pattern of miR-184 in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Peng, Jianjian; Hu, Jiangbo; Xu, Zhongxin; Xie, Wei; Yuan, Liudi

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of endogenous non-coding small RNAs whose specific functions in animals are generally important. Although functions of some miRNAs have been identified, the role of miR-184 remains unknown. Here, we determined the temporal and spatial expression pattern of miR-184 during the different development stages and tissues in Drosophila. Strikingly, miR-184 is expressed ubiquitously in Drosophila embryos, larvae and adults, its expression pattern shows a dynamic changes during the development of embryo, especially in the central nervous system. This expression profile suggests that miR-184 may act important function in Drosophila development.

  20. Inhibition of 14q32 MicroRNAs miR-329, miR-487b, miR-494, and miR-495 Increases Neovascularization and Blood Flow Recovery After Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welten, S. M. J.; Bastiaansen, Ajnm; de Jong, R. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    in mice after single femoral artery ligation. Methods and Results: Gene silencing oligonucleotides (GSOs) were used to inhibit 4 14q32 microRNAs, miR-329, miR-487b, miR-494, and miR-495, 1 day before double femoral artery ligation. Blood flow recovery was followed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. All 4......Rationale: Effective neovascularization is crucial for recovery after cardiovascular events. Objective: Because microRNAs regulate expression of up to several hundred target genes, we set out to identify microRNAs that target genes in all pathways of the multifactorial neovascularization process....... Using www.targetscan.org, we performed a reverse target prediction analysis on a set of 197 genes involved in neovascularization. We found enrichment of binding sites for 27 microRNAs in a single microRNA gene cluster. Microarray analyses showed upregulation of 14q32 microRNAs during neovascularization...

  1. miR-184 and miR-150 promote renal glomerular mesangial cell aging by targeting Rab1a and Rab31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiujuan; Fu, Bo; Chen, Dapeng; Hong, Quan; Cui, Jing; Li, Jin; Bai, Xueyuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-08-15

    The molecular mechanism of kidney aging is not well understood, but the abnormal expression of miRNAs with aging is considered to be an important contributor. miR-184 and miR-150 were screened using a miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR and found to be significantly upregulated in 24-month-old rats. Rat renal primary glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) were isolated from 3-month and 24-month-old rats for the in vitro analysis of the roles of miR-184 and miR-150 in kidney aging. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that Rab1a and Rab31, which are associated with cell autophagy, were targeted by both miR-184 and miR-150. miR-184 and miR-150 were increased significantly in aging GMCs versus young cells, while Rab1a and Rab31 were significantly lower in aging cells. Furthermore, dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-184 and miR-150 bound to the 3'-UTR of Rab1a and Rab31 mRNAs. Transfection of miR-184 and miR-150 mimics into young GMCs suppressed the expression of Rab1a and Rab31. Transfected cells showed lower autophagy activities and higher levels of cellular oxidative products, leading to the aging of young GMCs. However, miR-184 and miR-150 inhibitors promoted autophagy and reduced oxidative damage by upregulating Rab1a and Rab31 in old GMCs. In conclusion, miR-184 and miR-150 inhibited autophagy, promoting GMC aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. miR-107 and miR-25 simultaneously target LATS2 and regulate proliferation and invasion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Xiaolei [Cancer Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Li, Wanhu [MRI Room of Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, Jinan 250117 (China); Cui, Yongchun, E-mail: yongchuncui1@126.com [Drug Clinical Trial Institution of Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, #440, Jiyan Road, Jinan 250117 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Although a series of oncogenes and tumor suppressors were identified in the pathological development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), the underlying molecule mechanism were still not fully understood. The current study explored the expression profile of miR-107 and miR-25 in GAC patients and their downstream regulative network. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to quantify the expression of these two miRNAs in serum samples from both patients and healthy controls. Dual luciferase assay was conducted to verify their putative bindings with LATS2. MTT assay, cell cycle assay and transwell assay were performed to explore how miR-107 and miR-25 regulate proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Findings of this study demonstrated that total miR-107 or miR-25 expression might be overexpressed in gastric cancer patients and they can simultaneously and synchronically regulate LATS2 expression, thereby affecting gastric cancer cell growth and invasion. Therefore, the miR-25/miR-107-LATS2 axis might play an important role in proliferation and invasion of the gastric cancer cells. - Highlights: • Total miR-107 and miR-25 expression is significantly increased in GAC patients. • Both miR-107 and miR-25 can promote proliferation and invasion of GAC cells. • Both miR-107 and miR-25 can target LATS2 and regulate its expression. • miR-107 and miR-25 regulate proliferation and invasion of GAC cells though LATS2.

  3. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Figure 1). When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice

  4. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts there is...reflection to the atmosphere, absorption in the snow and sea ice, and transmission to the ocean. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic sea ice, sunlight, albedo ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUNLIGHT, SEA ICE, AND THE ICE ALBEDO FEEDBACK IN A

  5. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  6. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  7. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir on display at SPACEHAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Representatives of RSC Energia in Russia and other onlookers in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility examine an oxygen generator which the Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry to the Russian Mir Space Station on Mission STS-84. Sergei Romanov, second from right in the white shirt, is the spokesperson for generator manufacturer RSC Energia. The nearly 300-pound generator will be strapped down on the inside surface of a SPACEHAB Double Module for the trip to Mir. It will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff. It will be the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking.

  8. Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Lei, R.; Huang, W.; Chinare 2010 Arctic Sea Ice Group

    2010-12-01

    The Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) from July 1 to Sep. 23, 2010, the last Chinese campaign in Arctic Ocean contributing to the fourth International Polar Year (IPY), conducted comprehensive scientific studies on ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction and the marine ecosystem’s response to climatic change in Arctic. This paper presents an overview on sea ice (ice concentration, floe size, melt pond coverage, sea ice and snow thickness) of the Pacific Arctic sector, in particular between 150°W to 180°W to 86°N, based on: (1) underway visual observations of sea ice at half-hourly and automatic cameras recording (both side looking from the icebreaker R.V. Xuelong) every 10 to 15 seconds; (2) a downward-looking video mounted on the left side of the vessel at a height of 7 m above waterline recording overturning of ice floes; (3) on-site measurements of snow and ice thickness using drilling and electromagnetic instrument EM31 (9.8 kHz) at eight short-term (~3 hours each) and one 12-day ice stations; (4) six flights of aerial photogrammetry from helicopter, and (5) Satellite data (AMSE-E ice concentration and ENVISAT ASAR) and NIC ice charts) that extended the observations/measurements along beyond the ship track and airborne flights. In the northward leg, the largest ice concentration zone was in the area starting from ~75°N (July 29), with ice concentration of 60-90% (mean ~80%), ice thickness of 1.5-2m, melt ponds of 10-50% of ice, ridged ice of 10-30% of ice, and floe size of 100’s meters to kms. The 12-day ice station (from Aug 7-19), started at 86.92°N/178.88°W and moved a total of 175.7km, was on an ice floe over 100 km2 in size and ~2 m in mean thickness. There were two heavy and several slight snowfall events in the period (July 29 to Aug 19). Snow thickness varies from 5cm to 15 cm, and melted about 5cm during the 12-day ice camp. In the southward leg, the largest sea ice concentration zone was in the area between 87°N to 80

  9. High Speed Ice Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  10. miR-132 and miR-212 are increased in pancreatic cancer and target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kook; Henry, Jon C; Jiang, Jinmai; Esau, Christine; Gusev, Yuriy; Lerner, Megan R; Postier, Russell G; Brackett, Daniel J; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2011-03-25

    Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as differentially expressed in cancer, however the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. We report that two miRNAs located on chromosome 17p13, miR-132 and miR-212, are over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. Both miRNAs are predicted to target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, Rb1. Validation of this interaction was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and western blot in a pancreatic cancer cell line transfected with pre-miR-212 and pre-miR-132 oligos. Cell proliferation was enhanced in Panc-1 cells transfected with pre-miR-132/-212 oligos. Conversely, antisense oligos to miR-132/-212 reduced cell proliferation and caused a G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. The mRNA of a number of E2F transcriptional targets were increased in cells over expressing miR-132/-212. Exposing Panc-1 cells to the β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, terbutaline, increased the miR-132 and miR-212 expression by 2- to 4-fold. We report that over-expression of miR-132 and miR-212 result in reduced pRb protein in pancreatic cancer cells and that the increase in cell proliferation from over-expression of these miRNAs is likely due to increased expression of several E2F target genes. The β2 adrenergic pathway may play an important role in this novel mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating miR-583 and miR-663 Refer to ZHENG Differentiation in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM ZHENG as the key pathological principle is to understand the human homeostasis and guide TCM treatment. Here, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs were utilized to differentiate between ZHENGs including liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome (LGDHS and liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome (LKYDS in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Sera samples of CHB patients with LGDHS (n=35, LKYDS (n=24, and healthy controls (Ctrls, n=21 were analyzed by microarray and real-time RT-PCR. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curves were established to evaluate the levels of serum miRNA for discriminating LGDHS and LKYDS. The target genes of miRNAs were predicted by TargetScan. Gene Ontology (GO and pathways were analyzed using DAVID tool. The results showed that 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed between LGDHS and LKYDS (fold change >2.0 and P<0.01. Circulating miR-583 and miR-663 were significantly higher (P<0.001 in CHB patients with LGDHS than those with LKYDS and Ctrls. ROC curve analysis revealed that miR-583 and miR-663 were sensitive and specific enough to distinguish LGDHS from LKYDS. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that 354 putative targets for miR-583 and 68 putative targets for miR-663 were mainly involved in Axon guidance, Neurotrophin, and MAPK signaling pathway. miR-583 and miR-663 may be potential markers for ZHENG differentiation in CHB.

  12. Ice data management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, B.F. (Compusult Ltd. (Canada)); Lapp, D.J.; Balko, C.L. (Norland Science and Engineering Ltd. (Canada)); Hancock, K.E.; Lapp, P.A. (Lapp-Hancock Associates Ltd. (Canada))

    1989-07-01

    Oil and gas companies engaged in exploration and production drilling off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador must cope with the seasonal presence of pack ice and icebergs. This task is assisted through ice data management systems. In late 1983, the 3 oil companies planning drilling programs in winter 1984 responded to a set of regulatory guidelines/directives regarding winter drilling on the Grand Banks by establishing a cooperative arrangement known as the Grand Banks Operators' Joint Ice Management Plan. In 1984 and 1985, the plan called for the establishment and operation of a central land-based ice data management system. This study analysed the 1985 system and future ice data management requirements. The downturn in exploration drilling offshore Newfoundland and Labrador which began in 1986 led to the implementation by active drilling companies of a decentralized joint ice data management system. In view of the forecast of a continued low level of drilling activity, it is concluded that the decentralized system is better suited to industry and regulatory requirements. The conceptual design of such a system includes standardization by industry of the specifications each company provides to the contractors who provide data communications services and ice data management system components. It is recommended that a working group be established, to include representatives of the oil industry, industry regulators, ice management contractors and other interested parties, to develop a detailed specification whereby the subsystems in a decentralized system can most efficiently and effectively meet the data management requirements of the Joint Ice Management Plan. 15 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Observing Arctic Sea Ice from Bow to Screen: Introducing Ice Watch, the Data Network of Near Real-Time and Historic Observations from the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, A.; Hutchings, J. K.; Green, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Ice Watch Program is an open source forum to access in situ Arctic sea ice conditions. It provides the research community and additional stakeholders a convenient resource to monitor sea ice and its role in understanding the Arctic as a system by implementing a standardized observation protocol and hosting a multi-service data portal. International vessels use the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST) software to report near-real time sea ice conditions while underway. Essential observations of total ice concentration, distribution of multi-year ice and other ice types, as well as their respective stage of melt are reported. These current and historic sea ice conditions are visualized on interactive maps and in a variety of statistical analyses, and with all data sets available to download for further investigation. The summer of 2012 was the debut of the ASSIST software and the Ice Watch campaign, with research vessels from six nations reporting from a wide spatio-temporal scale spanning from the Beaufort Sea, across the North Pole and Arctic Basin, the coast of Greenland and into the Kara and Barents Seas during mid-season melt and into the first stages of freeze-up. The 2013 summer field season sustained the observation and data archiving record, with participation from some of the same cruises as well as other geographic and seasonal realms covered by new users. These results are presented to illustrate the evolution of the program, increased participation and critical statistics of ice regime change and record of melt and freeze processes revealed by the data. As an ongoing effort, Ice Watch/ASSIST aims to standardize observations of Arctic-specific sea ice features and conditions while utilizing nomenclature and coding based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards and the Antarctic Sea Ice and Processes & Climate (ASPeCt) protocol. Instigated by members of the CliC Sea Ice Working Group, the program has evolved with

  14. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  15. Synchronizing ice cores from the Renland and Agassiz ice caps to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Fischer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Four ice cores from the Agassiz ice cap in the Canadian high arctic and one ice core from the Renland ice cap in eastern Greenland have been synchronized to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) which is based on annual layer counts in the DYE-3, GRIP and NGRIP ice cores. Volcanic....... Annual layer thicknesses in the Agassiz ice cores point to a well-developed Raymond bump in the Agassiz ice cap....... reference horizons, seen in electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) have been used to carry out the synchronization throughout the Holocene. The Agassiz ice cores have been matched to the NGRIP ice core ECM signal, while the Renland core has been matched to the GRIP ice core ECM signal, thus tying...

  16. miR-10a and miR-204 as a Potential Prognostic Indicator in Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Cheol Son

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and characterize microRNAs (miRNAs that are related to radiosensitivity in low-grade gliomas (LGGs. The miRNA expression levels in radiosensitive and radioresistant LGGs were compared using The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and differentially expressed miRNAs were identified using the EBSeq package. The miRNA target genes were predicted using Web databases. Fifteen miRNAs were differentially expressed between the groups, with miR-10a and miR-204 being related to overall survival (OS of patients with LGG. Patients with upregulated miR-10a expression had a higher mortality rate and shorter OS time, whereas patients with downregulated miR-204 expression had a lower mortality rate and longer OS time. Two genes, HSP90AA1 and CREB5 , were targets for both miRNAs. Thus, this study suggests that expression of miR-10a and miR-204 is significantly related to both radiosensitivity and the survival of patients with LGG. These miRNAs could therefore act as clinical biomarkers for LGG prognosis and diagnosis.

  17. Ice nucleation terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, G.; DeMott, P.; Möhler, O.; Whale, T. F.

    2014-08-01

    Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  18. Proceedings of ICED'09

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED'09, was held August 24-27 2009 at Stanford University, California, USA. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of development and design....... The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 379 papers were presented at ICED’09, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics concerned with design...

  19. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  20. The seeding of ice algal blooms in Arctic pack ice: The multiyear ice seed repository hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lasse M.; Laney, Samuel R.; Duarte, Pedro; Kauko, Hanna M.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Mundy, Christopher J.; Rösel, Anja; Meyer, Amelie; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Peeken, Ilka; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Róźańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Wiktor, Józef; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) from January to June 2015 the pack ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was studied during four drifts between 83° and 80°N. This pack ice consisted of a mix of second year, first year, and young ice. The physical properties and ice algal community composition was investigated in the three different ice types during the winter-spring-summer transition. Our results indicate that algae remaining in sea ice that survived the summer melt season are subsequently trapped in the upper layers of the ice column during winter and may function as an algal seed repository. Once the connectivity in the entire ice column is established, as a result of temperature-driven increase in ice porosity during spring, algae in the upper parts of the ice are able to migrate toward the bottom and initiate the ice algal spring bloom. Furthermore, this algal repository might seed the bloom in younger ice formed in adjacent leads. This mechanism was studied in detail for the dominant ice diatom Nitzschia frigida. The proposed seeding mechanism may be compromised due to the disappearance of older ice in the anticipated regime shift toward a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.

  1. Wave-ice Interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    single buoys that were moved from place to place. These new data, obtained within the comprehensive set of ocean, ice and atmosphere sensors and remote...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- ice interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone Prof...between ocean waves and a sea ice cover, in terms, of scattering, attenuation, and mechanical effect of the waves on the ice . OBJECTIVES The

  2. Identification of miR-93 as a suitable miR for normalizing miRNA in plasma of tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Simone E; Chan, Brian; Ellis, Magda; Yang, YuRong; Plit, Marshall L; Guan, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue. New tests to aid diagnoses and monitor the response to therapy are urgently required. There is growing interest in the use of microRNA (miRNA) profiles as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive markers in a range of clinical and infectious diseases, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, however, challenges exist to accurately normalise miRNA levels in cohorts. This study examined the appropriateness of 12 miRs and RNU6B to normalise circulating plasma miRNA levels in individuals with active TB from 2 different geographical and ethnic regions. Twelve miRs (let-7, miR-16, miR-22, miR-26, miR-93, miR-103, miR-191, miR-192, miR-221, miR-423, miR-425 and miR-451) and RNU6B were selected based on their reported production by lung cells, expression in blood and previous use as a reference miRNA. Expression levels were analysed in the plasma of newly diagnosed TB patients from Australia and China compared with individuals with latent TB infection and healthy volunteers. Analysis with both geNorm and NormFinder software identified miR-93 as the most suitable reference miR in both cohorts, either when analysed separately or collectively. Interestingly, there were large variations in the expression levels of some miRs, in particular miR-192 and let-7, between the two cohorts, independent of disease status. These data identify miR-93 is a suitable reference miR for normalizing miRNA levels in TB patients, and highlight how environmental, and possibly ethnic, factors influence miRNA expression levels, demonstrating the necessity of assessing the suitability of reference miRs within the study population. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. The analysis of microRNAs miR-200C and miR-145 expression in colorectal cancer of different molecular subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelygin, Y A; Shubin, V P; Frolov, S A; Achkasov, S I; Sushkov, O I; Tsukanov, A S; Kashnikov, V N; Pospekhova, N I

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of microRNAs miR-200c and miR-145 in two groups of colorectal cancer differing by the presence/absence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMF) were studied. In the EMF-positive cancer, the level of miR-145 is increased, whereas the level of miR-200c is reduced. The reverse situation is observed in the EMI-negative cancer. MiR-145 can serve as a marker of the mesenchymal subtype of cancer. Gene expression profiles and microRNAs allow prognostically unfavorable tumors of the mesenchymal subtype to be distinguished.

  4. Mature miR-184 and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thian-Sze; Ho, Wai-Kuen; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Ng, Raymond Wai-Man; Wei, William Ignace

    2009-02-15

    Human microRNA 184 (miR-184) is overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue. In vitro inhibition of miR-184 levels could induce apoptosis and hinder proliferation of tongue SCC cells. Patients with tongue SCC have high plasma miR-184 levels. Plasma miR-184 is likely associated with the tumor load. Surgical removal of the primary tumor reduced plasma miR-184 levels significantly. The data suggested that miR-184 is linked to the pathogenesis of tongue SCC. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the use of microRNA-based serological markers in monitoring tongue SCC.

  5. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  6. Mature miR-184 as Potential Oncogenic microRNA of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thian-Sze; Liu, Xiao-Bing; Wong, Birgitta Yee-Hang; Ng, Raymond Wai-Man; Yuen, Anthony Po-Wing; Wei, William Ignace

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microRNA expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue. Expression levels of 156 human mature microRNAs were examined using real-time quantitative PCR (Taq Man MicroRNA Assays; Human Panel) on laser microdissected cells of 4 tongue carcinomas and paired normal tissues. Expression of mature miR-184 was further validated in 20 paired tongue SCC and the normal tissues. Potential oncogenic functions of miR-184 were evaluated in tongue SCC cell lines (Cal27, HN21B, and HN96) with miR-184 inhibitor. Plasma miR-184 levels were evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. Using 3-fold expression difference as a cutoff level, we identified 24 up-regulated mature miRNAs including miR-184, miR-34c, miR-137, miR-372, miR-124a, miR-21, miR-124b, miR-31, miR-128a, miR-34b, miR-154, miR-197, miR-132, miR-147, miR-325, miR-181c, miR-198, miR-155, miR-30a-3p, miR-338, miR-17-5p, miR-104, miR-134, and miR-213; and 13 down-regulated mature miRNAs including miR-133a, miR-99a, miR-194, miR-133b, miR-219, miR-100, miR-125b, miR-26b, miR-138, miR-149, miR-195, miR-107, and miR-139. Overexpression of miR-184 was further validated in 20 paired tongue SCC and normal tissues (P = 0.002). Inhibition of miR-184 in tongue SCC cell lines could reduce cell proliferation rate. Down-regulation of c-Myc was observed in two cell lines in response to miR-184 inhibitor. Suppressing miR-184 could induce apoptosis in all three cell lines. Plasma miR-184 levels were significantly higher in tongue SCC patients in comparison with normal individuals, and the levels were significantly reduced after surgical removal of the primary tumors. Overexpression of miR-184 might play an oncogenic role in the antiapoptotic and proliferative processes of tongue SCC. In addition, plasma miR-184 levels were associated with the presence of primary tumor. Further studies on the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in tongue SCC as well as using plasma miRNAs as novel tumor

  7. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  8. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  9. Expression patterns of miR-34b, miR-34c, and miR-141 during aging and mechanical force application in periodontal ligament cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana Koliyath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Age changes as well as mechanotransduction events in periodontal ligament (PDL cells influence the outcome of mechanical forces as well as physiologic homeostasis in a larger way. Numerous studies have reported changes in inflammatory marker levels as well as cellular density as age advances with PDL fibroblasts as model. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate messenger RNAs in either up regulating or down regulating protein synthesis and forms the determinant of cellular function as well as maintenance of tissue homeostasis. No studies till now have utilized in vivo PDL cell model for assessing miRNA levels as age advances and to study their response to mechanical force application. This study forms the first of its kind and evaluated the expression pattern of three miRNAs - miR-34b, miR-34c, and miR-141 - in aging PDL cells as well as with orthodontic force application. Materials and Methods: Twelve subjects were recruited and divided into three groups and subjected to mechanical force application. First premolar teeth designated for extraction were selected as specimens from the first three groups (Groups A-C. Mechanical force was applied to first premolar teeth designated for therapeutic extraction as part of orthodontic treatment for 21 days in the fourth group (Group D. All teeth were carefully extracted, and PDL from middle third of the root was scraped with a scalpel. Cells isolated from aged as well as mechanical force applied human premolar teeth were subjected to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, miRNA analysis, and quantification with ImageJ software. Results: Age-dependent changes in miRNA - looking at the expression bands, miR-141 showed significant change in the Group C specimens when compared to other two groups. The expression of miR-34b and miR-34c showed a steady increase as age advanced with Group C values being significantly different statistically from Groups A and B. Mechanical force

  10. Ice age terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  11. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  12. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  13. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  14. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  15. Differential Expression of miR-155 and miR-21 in Tumor and Stroma Cells in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Sjö, Lene D

    2015-01-01

    OncomiRs miR-21 and miR-155 have been linked to lymphomagenesis, but information on their implication in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is limited. Here, we used locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization (ISH) detection techniques on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissue...... samples to identify miR-155 and miR-21 at the cellular level in 56 patients diagnosed with DLBCL, and compared them to miR array data. miR-155 was observed in tumor cells in 19/56 (33.9%) of the samples evaluated by ISH. miR-21 was localized to the stromal compartment in 41/56 (73.2%). A subset of these......-scores in the stromal cells (P=0.002), whereas no association between miR array data and ISH of miR-21 in tumor cells was observed (P=0.673). We found no association of miR-155 and miR-21 with overall survival or germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) versus non-GCB-like subtypes of DLBCL. In conclusion, miR-ISH added...

  16. Overexpression of miR-31 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) from Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xiao; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Qing; Chen, Mengya; Han, Renfang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Shengqian; Pan, Faming

    2017-11-18

    BACKGROUND miRNAs play vital roles in regulating immunologic functions and autoimmunity. However, the levels of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a have not been explored in AS, but were verified to play vital roles in other immunological diseases. The aim of our study was to examine whether the expressions of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a are abnormal in AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients with AS and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS The expression of miR-31 was increased in AS patients compared with healthy controls (p=0.001). Furthermore, we detected no significant differences in the expressions of miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a between AS patients and healthy controls. However, the expression levels of the 4 miRNAs were all significantly different between less active AS and more active AS, with higher levels in more active AS. Moreover, no significant correlations were found between the 4 miRNAs levels with the clinical characteristics in the patients with AS. Interestingly, the expression levels of miR-31, miR-155, and miR-16 in PBMCs were significantly positively correlated with the ESR in new AS patients but not old AS patients. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that miR-31 is overexpressed in PBMCs of AS patients. Furthermore, miR-31, miR-155, miR-16 and miR-181a may be associated with AS disease activity.

  17. Electrical Properties of Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    carriers in ice. T U] P2 P3 PU4 (00C (m2 V s) (m21V S) (M21V s) (m2/V s) Method used Reference -13 to -36 (1.1±O..1)xl0𔄁 Analysis of Kunst and...Chapter 18. In Ice, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., p. 783-7 99 . Kunst , M. and J. Warnan (1983) Nanosecond time-resolved

  18. Aircraft icing and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology

    OpenAIRE

    MA, QINGLIN

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is Aircraft Icing and Aircraft Icing and Thermo-Mechanical Expulsion De-icing Technology. The main objectives are to investigate aircraft icing meteorology and effects on aircraft, ice protection systems and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology. Initially, the research project focuses on aircraft icing meteorology, ice accumulation and icing effects on flight safety. A basic understanding of aircraft icing is explained, including icing conditions and par...

  19. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  20. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  1. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  2. Screening of the Seed Region of MIR184 in Keratoconus Patients from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Helwa, Inas; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman; Strickland, Shelby; Hauser, Michael A; Allingham, R Rand; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that control various biological processes. The role of many identified miRNAs is not yet resolved. Recent evidence suggests that miRNA mutations and/or misexpression may contribute to genetic disorders. Point mutations in the seed region of MIR184 have been recently identified in Keratoconus (KC) patients with or without other corneal and lens abnormalities. We investigated mutations within MIR184 in KC patients from Saudi Arabia and examined the relative expression of miR-184 and miR-205 in human cornea. Ethnically matched KC cases (n = 134) were recruited and sequencing was performed using PCR-based Sanger sequencing and analyzed using the Sequencher 5.2 software. Expression of miR-184 and miR-205 was profiled in postmortem unaffected ocular tissues obtained from donors with no history of ocular diseases. miR-184 expression was 15-fold higher than that of miR-205 in cornea samples. No mutation(s) within the screened genomic region of MIR184 in KC cases was detected. This suggests that mutation in MIR184 is a rare cause of KC alone and may be more relevant to cases of KC associated with other ocular abnormalities. The increased expression of miR-184 versus miR-205 in normal cornea samples implies a possible role of miR184 in cornea development and/or corneal diseases.

  3. Retinoic acid induces HL-60 cell differentiation via the upregulation of miR-663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuan Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line HL-60 can be induced by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA; however, the mechanism regulating this process has not been fully characterized. Methods Using bioinformatics and in vitro experiments, we identified the microRNA gene expression profile of HL-60 cells during ATRA induced granulocytic differentiation. Results Six microRNAs were upregulated by ATRA treatment, miR-663, miR-494, miR-145, miR-22, miR-363* and miR-223; and three microRNAs were downregulated, miR-10a, miR-181 and miR-612. Additionally, miR-663 expression was regulated by ATRA. We used a lentivirus (LV backbone incorporating the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV-F promoter to drive miR-663 expression, as the CMV (Cytomegalovirus promoter is ineffective in some lymphocyte cells. Transfection of LV-miR-663 induced significant HL-60 cell differentiation in vitro. Conclusions Our results show miR-663 may play an important role in ATRA induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Lentivirus delivery of miR-663 could potentially be used directly as an anticancer treatment in hematological malignancies

  4. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  5. Clinical significance of miR-140-5p and miR-193b expression in patients with breast cancer and relationship to IGFBP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Güllü

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The functional role of IGFBP5 in breast cancer is complicated. Experimental and bioinformatics studies have shown that IGFBP5 is targeted by miR-140-5p and miR-193b, although this has not yet been proven in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-140-5p and miR-193b in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue and assess its correlation with IGFBP5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. IGFBP5 protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically and IGFBP5, miR-140 and miR-193b mRNA expression levels were analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. Tumor tissue had higher miR-140-5p expression than adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.015. Samples with no immunohistochemical staining for IGFBP5 showed increased miR-140-5p expression (p = 0.009. miR-140-5p expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinomas (p = 0.002, whereas basal-like tumors had decreased expression of miR-140-5p compared to other tumors (p = 0.008. Lymph node-positive samples showed an approximately 13-fold increase in miR-140-5p expression compared to lymph node-negative tissue (p = 0.049. These findings suggest that miR-140-5p, but not miR-193b, could be an important determinant of IGFBP5 expression and clinical phenotype in breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the expressional regulation of IGFBP5 by miR-140-5p.

  6. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  7. Annual Arctic sea ice less reflective than old ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    In the Arctic Ocean the blanket of permanent sea ice is being progressively replaced by a transient winter cover. In recent years the extent of the northern ocean's ice cover has declined. The summer melt season is starting earlier, the winter freeze is happening later, the areal extent of the ice has decreased, and more ice is failing to last through the summer. A key uncertainty in this ongoing climate transformation is how seasonal sea ice affects and responds to climate dynamics as compared to the traditional multiyear sea ice. Tackling an important branch of this issue, Perovich and Polashenski analyze how the albedo of seasonal sea ice changes throughout the summer melt season. The ice's albedo affects how much sunlight enters the system and hence influences biological productivity, ice extent, and future rates of warming.

  8. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  9. miR-216 and miR-217 expression is reduced in transgenic mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, knockout of miR-216/miR-217 host gene is embryonic lethal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Sutaria, Dhruvitkumar S; Jiang, Jinmai; Elgamal, Ola A; Amari, Foued; Allard, David; Grippo, Paul J; Coppola, Vincenzo; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    Mice harboring a G12D activating Kras mutation are among the most heavily studied models in the field of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) research. miRNAs are differentially expressed in PDAC from patients and mouse models of PDAC. To better understand the relationship that Kras activation has on miRNA expression, we profiled the expression of 629 miRNAs in RNA isolated from the pancreas of control, young, and old P48(+/Cre);LSL-KRAS(G12D) as well as PDX-1-Cre;LSL-KRAS(G12D) mice. One hundred of the differentially expressed miRNAs had increased expression in the advanced disease (old) P48(+/Cre);LSL-KRAS(G12D) compared to wild-type mice. Interestingly, the expression of three miRNAs, miR-216a, miR-216b, and miR-217, located within a ∼30-kbp region on 11qA3.3, decreased with age (and phenotype severity) in these mice. miR-216/-217 expression was also evaluated in another acinar-specific ELa-Kras(G12D) mouse model and was downregulated as well. As miR-216/-217 are acinar enriched, reduced in human PDAC and target KRAS, we hypothesized that they may maintain acinar differentiation or represent tumor suppressive miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, we deleted a 27.9-kbp region of 11qA3.3 containing the miR-216/-217 host gene in the mouse's germ line. We report that germ line deletion of this cluster is embryonic lethal in the mouse. We estimate that lethality occurs shortly after E9.5. qPCR analysis of the miR-216b and miR-217 expression in the heterozygous animals showed no difference in expression, suggesting haplosufficiency by some type of compensatory mechanism. We present the differential miRNA expression in Kras(G12D) transgenic mice and report lethality from deletion of the miR-216/-217 host gene in the mouse's germ line.

  10. Identification of miR-10b, miR-26a, miR-146a and miR-153 as potential triple-negative breast cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fkih M'hamed, Insaf; Privat, Maud; Ponelle, Flora; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Kenani, Abderraouf; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-12-01

    Familial triple-negative breast cancers are often linked to mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene. In sporadic triple-negative breast cancers BRCA1 is frequently inactivated at the transcriptional level, and it has been reported that this inactivation may be brought about by promoter methylation. More recently, it was found that BRCA1 may also be regulated at the post-transcriptional level by miRNAs. Here, we explored the expression of putative BRCA1-regulating miRNAs in sporadic human triple-negative breast cancer cells. Nine sporadic human breast cancer-derived cell lines and one benign breast epithelium-derived cell line were assessed for their hormone receptor, growth factor receptor and cytokeratin status by immunocytochemistry. The expression of 5 selected miRNAs predicted to target BRCA1 was assessed using qRT-PCR in the 10 cell lines. In addition, expression profiles of 84 known breast cancer-associated miRNAs were established in these 10 cell lines using PCR Array and qRT-PCR, respectively. The putative role of pre-selected candidate miRNAs in breast cancer development was assessed through exogenous expression of these miRNAs and their anti-miRNAs ('antagomirs') in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer-derived cells. Based on our expression profiling results, four candidate miRNAs (miR-10b, miR-26a, miR-146a and miR-153) were selected as being potentially involved in triple-negative breast cancer development. Exogenous expression assays revealed that miR-10b and miR-26a, but not miR-146a, can down-regulate the expression of BRCA1 in both triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and luminal epithelial MCF7 breast cancer-derived cells, whereas miR-153 could down-regulate BRCA1 expression only in MCF7 cells. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data confirmed that miR-146a is significantly higher expressed in triple-negative breast tumors compared to other (non triple-negative) breast tumors. Our work provides evidence for the involvement of specific mi

  11. Regulation of turkey myogenic satellite cell migration by MicroRNAs miR-128 and miR-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, S G; Harding, R L

    2017-06-01

    Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration. Satellite cell migration is an essential step for both proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, satellite cells will migrate and align to form new myofibers or donate their nuclei to existing myofibers leading to muscle fiber hypertrophy or regeneration. Transient transfection of miRNA specific mimics to each miRNA reduced migration of satellite cells following a cell culture scratch at 72 h of proliferation when the cultures were 90 to 100% confluent. However, only the migration in cells transfected with miR-24 mimics at 24 and 30 h following the scratch was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to around 70% of the distance migrated by controls. Alternately, transfection with inhibitors specific to miR-128 or miR-24 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased migration between 147 and 252% compared to their controls between 24 and 48 h following the scratch. These data demonstrate that miR-128 and miR-24 play a role in myogenic satellite cell migration, which will impact muscle development and growth. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ice . The ROV and all sensors were tested extensively at WHOI. This platform will complement the AUV by performing rapid, short under ice ...Bruncin, 3) two WHOI-built IMBs also equipped with acoustic snow depth sensors and CTDs, and 4) one CRREL Seasonal Sea Ice Zone IMB. In addition, an...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- Ice and Air- Ice -Ocean Interaction During the

  13. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  14. Adrenaline inhibits osteogenesis via repressing miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danying; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic signaling is involved in bone homeostasis; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the psychological stress mediator adrenaline inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hMSC) by reducing microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression. Briefly, adrenaline significantly inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as observed with both Alizarin red staining and maker gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, OCN, and OPN). During this process, miR-21 was suppressed by adrenaline via inhibition of histone acetylation, as verified by H3K9Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiR-21 was confirmed to promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation, and overexpression of miR-21 reversed the impeditive effect of adrenaline on hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-21 is responsible for the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of hMSC osteogenic differentiation. These findings indicate a regulation of bone metabolism by psychological stress and also provide a molecular basis for psychological stress-associated bone diseases. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test Conducted on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Monica I.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1999-01-01

    Colloids are tiny (submicron) particles suspended in fluid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test (BCAT) is part of an extensive series of experiments planned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals. These crystals may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices. Windows made of liquid crystals are already in the marketplace. These windows change their appearance from transparent to opaque when a weak electric current is applied. In the future, if the colloidal crystals can be made to control the passage of light through them, such products could be made much more cheaply. These experiments require the microgravity environment of space because good quality crystals are difficult to produce on Earth because of sedimentation and convection in the fluid. The BCAT experiment hardware included two separate modules for two different experiments. The "Slow Growth" hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera with a 250- exposure photo film cartridge. The camera was aimed toward the sample module, which contained 10 separate colloid samples. A rack of small lights provided backlighting for the photographs. The BCAT hardware was launched on the shuttle and was operated aboard the Russian space station Mir by American astronauts John Blaha and David Wolf (launched September 1996 and returned January 1997; reflown September 1997 and returned January 1998). To begin the experiment, one of these astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles and break up any crystals that might have already formed. Once the samples were mixed and

  16. Inhibition of the miR-17-92 Cluster Separates Stages of Palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, R J; Yu, W; Holton, N; Cao, H; Amendt, B A

    2017-10-01

    The role that noncoding regions of the genome play in the etiology of cleft palate is not well studied. A novel method of microRNA (miR) inhibition that allows for specific miR knockdown in vivo has been developed by our laboratory. To further understand the role of miRs in palatogenesis, we used a new mouse model to inhibit specific miRs within the miR-17-92 cluster. Transgenic mice expressing inhibitory complexes for miR-17 and miR-18 manifested a clefting phenotype that was distinct from that observed in mice carrying inhibitory complexes for miR-17, miR-18, miR-19, and miR-92. An in silico candidate gene analysis and bioinformatics review led us to identify TGFBR2 as a likely target of miR-17 and miR-19 family members. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments showed that TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 expression levels were elevated in the palates of these miR transgenic embryos at embryonic day 15.5. RT-PCR data also showed that the expression of mature miRs from the miR-17-92 cluster was significantly decreased in the transgenic embryos. Decreased expression of TGFB pathway signaling ligands was also observed. Experiments in cells showed that inhibition of miR-17 and miR-18 was sufficient to induce increases in expression of TGFB receptors, while a concomitant decrease in TGFB signaling ligands was not observed. RT-PCR of mature miR-17-92 in cells demonstrated the selectivity and specificity of inhibitory complexes. While this study builds on previous studies that have implicated miR-17-92 in the regulation of important molecular components of the TGFB signaling pathway, it is likely that interactions remain to be elucidated between miR-17-92 and as-of-yet unidentified molecules important for the control of palatogenesis. The differential regulation of palatogenesis by members of the miR-17-92 cluster indicates that several gene combinations regulate palate elevation and extension during development.

  17. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  18. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  19. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  20. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of ship resistance in level ice based on empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Yeob Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical model to predict ship resistance in level ice based on Lindqvist's model is presented. This model assumes that contact between the ship and the ice is a case of symmetrical collision, and two contact cases are considered. Submersion force is calculated via Lindqvist's formula, and the crushing and breaking forces are determined by a concept of energy consideration during ship and ice impact. The effect of the contact coefficient is analyzed in the ice resistance prediction. To validate this model, the predicted results are compared with model test data of USCGC Healy and icebreaker Araon, and full-scale data of the icebreaker KV Svalbard. A relatively good agreement is achieved. As a result, the presented model is recommended for preliminary total resistance prediction in advance of the evaluation of the icebreaking performance of vessels. Keywords: Semi-empirical model, Ship resistance, Level ice, Breaking force, Icebreaking performance

  2. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others. In t...... a steady state with respect to the reference climate at the end of the simulation and that the mass balance of the ice sheet at this time was more sensitive to recent climate fluctuations than the temperature forcing in the early or mid-Holocene.......Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others....... In this PhD project, the use of ice flow models for the interpretation of the age-structure of the Greenland ice sheet, i.e. the depth within the ice, at which ice deposited at given times are found at present day. Two different observational data sets of this archive were investigated. Further, paleo...

  3. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  4. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  6. miR-145 and miR-143 Regulate Odontoblast Differentiation through Targeting Klf4 and Osx Genes in a Feedback Loop*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Lin, Heng; Zhang, Li; Sun, Qin; Yuan, Guohua; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Dentin tissue is derived from mesenchymal cells induced into the odontoblast lineage. The differentiation of odontoblasts is a complex process regulated by several transcriptional factor signaling transduction pathways. However, post-translational regulation of these factors during dentinogenesis remains unclear. To further explore the mechanisms, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) during odontoblast differentiation. We profiled the miRNA expression pattern during mouse odontoblast differentiation using a microarray assay and identified that miR-145 and miR-143 were down-regulated during this process. In situ hybridization verified that the two miRNAs were gradually decreased during mouse odontoblast differentiation. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments revealed that down-regulation of miR-145 and miR-143 could promote odontoblast differentiation and increased Dspp and Dmp1 expression in mouse primary dental pulp cells and vice versa. We found that miR-145 and miR-143 controlled odontoblast differentiation through several mechanisms. First, KLF4 and OSX bind to their motifs in Dspp and Dmp1 gene promoters and up-regulate their transcription thereby inducing odontoblast differentiation. The miR-145 binds to the 3′-UTRs of Klf4 and Osx genes, inhibiting their expression. Second, KLF4 repressed miR-143 transcription by binding to its motifs in miR-143 regulatory regions as detected by ChIP assay and dual luciferase reporter assay. Third, miR-143 regulates odontoblast differentiation in part through miR-145 pathway. Taken together, we for the first time showed that the miR-143 and miR-145 controlled odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation through KLF4 and OSX transcriptional factor signaling pathways. PMID:23430263

  7. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  8. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  9. Data archaeology at ICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.

  10. IDEOLOGICALLY CHALLENGING ENTERTAINMENT (ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lori Chalmers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically Challenging Entertainment (ICE is entertainment that challenges ‘us vs. them’ ideologies associated with radicalization, violent conflict and terrorism. ICE presents multiple perspectives on a conflict through mainstream entertainment. This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings of ICE, the first ICE production and the audience responses to it. The first ICE production was Two Merchants: The Merchant of Venice adapted to challenge ideologies of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views. Each performance included two versions of the adaptation: a Jewish dominated society with an Arab Muslim minority, contrasted with an Arab Muslim dominated society and a Jewish minority. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views to become more tolerant of differences away from ideological radicalization. Of audience members who did not initially agree with the premise of the production, 40% reconsidered their ideological views, indicating increased tolerance, greater awareness of and desire to change their own prejudices. In addition, 86% of the audience expressed their intention to discuss the production with others, thereby encouraging critical engagement with, and broader dissemination of the message. These outcomes suggest that high quality entertainment – as defined by audience responses to it - can become a powerful tool in the struggle against radicalised ideologies.

  11. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  12. Expression of miR-15a, miR-145, and miR-182 in granulosa-lutein cells, follicular fluid, and serum of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Mohammad; Nekoonam, Saeid; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Arefian, Ehsan; Mahdian, Reza; Azizi, Elham; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam; Amidi, Fardin

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies that affects women in reproductive age. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in normal function of female reproductive system and folliculogenesis. Deregulated expression of miRNAs in PCOS condition may be significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of PCOS. We determined relative expression of miR-15a, miR-145, and miR-182 in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs), follicular fluid (FF), and serum of PCOS patients. Human subjects were divided into PCOS (n = 20) and control (n = 21) groups. GLCs, FF, and serum were isolated and stored. RNA isolation was performed and cDNA was reversely transcribed using specific stem-loop RT primers. Relative expression of miRNAs was calculated after normalization against U6 expression. Correlation of miRNAs' expression level with basic clinical features and predictive value of miRNAs in FF and serum were appraised. Relative expression of miR-145 and miR-182 in GLCs was significantly decreased in PCOS, but miR-182 in FF of PCOS patients revealed up-regulated levels. Significant correlations between level of miRNAs in FF and serum and hormonal profile of subjects were observed. MiR-182 in FF showed a significant predictive value with AUC of 0.73, 76.4% sensitivity, and 70.5% specificity which was improved after combination of miR-182 and miR-145. A significant dysregulation of miR-145 and miR-182 in GLCs of PCOS may indicate their involvement in pathogenesis of PCOS. Differential up-regulation of miR-182 in FF of PCOS patients with its promising predictive values for discrimination of PCOS reinforced the importance of studying miRNAs' profile in FF.

  13. MiR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhao; Leung, Frankie; Lu, William W

    2016-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β), ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2), and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  14. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β, ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2, and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  15. Analyses in human urothelial cells identify methylation of miR-152, miR-200b and miR-10a genes as candidate bladder cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christina U; Bryk, Oleksandr; Meier, Swetlana; Lang, Kerstin; Rozynek, Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko U

    2013-08-16

    Urinary miRNAs are discussed as potential biomarkers for bladder cancer. The majority of miRNAs, however, are downregulated, making it difficult to utilize reduced miRNA signals as reliable diagnostic tools. Because the downregulation of miRNAs is frequently associated with hypermethylation of the respective regulative sequences, we studied whether DNA hypermethylation might serve as an improved diagnostic tool compared to measuring downregulated miRNAs. miRNA expression arrays and individual qPCR were used to identify and confirm miRNAs that were downregulated in malignant urothelial cells (RT4, 5637 and J82) when compared to primary, non-malignant urothelial cells (HUEPC). DNA methylation was determined by customized PCR-arrays subsequent to methylation-sensitive DNA-restriction and by mass spectrometry. miRNA expression and DNA methylation were determined in untreated cells and in cultures treated with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. miR-200b, miR-152 and miR-10a displayed differential expression and methylation among untreated cancer cell lines. In addition, reduced miRNA expression of miR-200b, miR-152, and miR-10a was associated with increased DNA methylation in malignant cells versus HUEPC. Finally, the demethylation approach revealed a causal relationship between both parameters for miR-152 in 5637 and also suggests a causal connection of both parameters for miR-200b in J82 and miR-10a in 5637. In conclusion, our studies in multiple bladder cancer cell lines and primary non-malignant urothelial cells suggest that hypermethylation of miR-152, miR-10a and miR-200b regulative DNA sequences might serve as epigenetic bladder cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infrared Thermal Signature Evaluation of a Pure and Saline Ice for Marine Operations in Cold Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine operations in cold climates are subjected to abundant ice accretion, which can lead to heavy ice loads over larger surface area. For safe and adequate operations on marine vessels over a larger area, remote ice detection and ice mitigation system can be useful. To study this remote ice detection option, lab experimentation was performed to detect the thermal gradient of ice with the infrared camera. Two different samples of ice blocks were prepared from tap water and saline water collected from the North Atlantic Ocean stream. The surfaces of ice samples were observed at room temperature. A complete thermal signature over the surface area was detected and recorded until the meltdown process was completed. Different temperature profiles for saline and pure ice samples were observed, which were kept under similar conditions. This article is focused to understand the experimentation methodology and thermal signatures of samples. However, challenges remains in terms of the validation of the detection signature and elimination of false detection.

  17. Illumina microRNA profiles reveal the involvement of miR397a in Citrus adaptation to long-term boron toxicity via modulating secondary cell-wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Hao; Qi, Yi-Ping; Wen, Shou-Xing; Guo, Peng; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-03-10

    The mechanisms underlying tolerance to B-toxicity in plants are still controversial. Our previous studies indicated that B-toxicity is mainly limited to leaves in Citrus and that alternations of cell-wall structure in vascular bundles are involved in tolerance to B-toxicity. Here, miRNAs and their expression patterns were first identified in B-treated Citrus sinensis (tolerant) and C. grandis (intolerant) leaves via high-throughput sequencing. Candidate miRNAs were then verified with molecular and anatomical approaches. The results showed that 51 miRNAs in C. grandis and 20 miRNAs in C. sinensis were differentially expressed after B-toxic treatment. MiR395a and miR397a were the most significantly up-regulated miRNAs in B-toxic C. grandis leaves, but both were down-regulated in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves. Four auxin response factor genes and two laccase (LAC) genes were confirmed through 5'-RACE to be real targets of miR160a and miR397a, respectively. Up-regulation of LAC4 resulted in secondary deposition of cell-wall polysaccharides in vessel elements of C. sinensis, whereas down-regulation of both LAC17 and LAC4, led to poorly developed vessel elements in C. grandis. Our findings demonstrated that miR397a plays a pivotal role in woody Citrus tolerance to B-toxicity by targeting LAC17 and LAC4, both of which are responsible for secondary cell-wall synthesis.

  18. Ice Cores of the National Ice Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides...

  19. IceBridge PARIS L2 Ice Thickness V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains contains Greenland ice thickness measurements acquired using the Pathfinder Advanced Radar Ice Sounder (PARIS).The data were collected as part...

  20. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  1. On the ice nucleation spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population. The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign

  2. Evaluation of the ice thickness by means of the radio interferential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskij, Vasily; Lagunov, Alexey; Orlov, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    The Arctic has a strategic importance for Russia. Many countries of the world are interested in the industrial use of the Northern sea route. A vast part of the Arctic Ocean is covered with ice. For vessels plotting knowing thickness of ice is essential. The method of remote sensing and the radar method are the most often applied ones for determining ice thickness. The first method is a very expensive and difficult in operation. The radar method is more operational but because of rather high weight of the equipment it requires going out on the ice or measurements from an aircraft or a helicopter. Going on the ice is not always possible in the Arctic from the perspective of human security. Planes and helicopters are just some of the types of large vessels. For smaller vessels we proposed a method of using unmanned aerial vehicles. Being of low price they do the work promptly. In this work we used a radiointerferential method based on fast Fourier transform implemented in software. We built a mathematical model on the basis of which a prototype was created. For the study the frequencies of 2, 3 and 4 MHz were used. The method was tested on ice samples with a thickness from 5 to 25 cm. The measurement error didn't exceed 12 %. With increasing frequency the error also increased. The snow on the ice surface had no significant influence on the measurement accuracy. Laboratory tests were successful and the confirmation of the results in the field studies is required. In prospective, this method can be applied to measure the ice thickness of up to 25 m.

  3. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  4. miR-19, miR-345, miR-519c-5p serum levels predict adverse pathology in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Serum microRNAs hold great promise as easily accessible and measurable biomarkers of disease. In prostate cancer, serum miRNA signatures have been associated with the presence of disease as well as correlated with previously validated risk models. However, it is unclear whether miRNAs can provide independent prognostic information beyond current risk models. Here, we focus on a group of low-risk prostate cancer patients who were eligible for active surveillance, but chose surgery. A major criteria for the low risk category is a Gleason score of 6 or lower based on pre-surgical biopsy. However, a third of these patients are upgraded to Gleason 7 on post surgical pathological analysis. Both in a discovery and a validation cohort, we find that pre-surgical serum levels of miR-19, miR-345 and miR-519c-5p can help identify these patients independent of their pre-surgical age, PSA, stage, and percent biopsy involvement. A combination of the three miRNAs increased the area under a receiver operator characteristics curve from 0.77 to 0.94 (p<0.01. Also, when combined with the CAPRA risk model the miRNA signature significantly enhanced prediction of patients with Gleason 7 disease. In-situ hybridizations of matching tumors showed miR-19 upregulation in transformed versus normal-appearing tumor epithelial, but independent of tumor grade suggesting an alternative source for the increase in serum miR-19a/b levels or the release of pre-existing intracellular miR-19a/b upon progression. Together, these data show that serum miRNAs can predict relatively small steps in tumor progression improving the capacity to predict disease risk and, therefore, potentially drive clinical decisions in prostate cancer patients. It will be important to validate these findings in a larger multi-institutional study as well as with independent methodologies.

  5. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  6. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.

    2017-12-01

    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  7. MiR-578 and miR-573 as potential players in BRCA-related breast cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Katia; De Summa, Simona; Pinto, Rosamaria; Pilato, Brunella; Palumbo, Orazio; Merla, Giuseppe; Simone, Gianni; Tommasi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of microRNA (miRNAs), a new class of small RNA molecules, in governing angiogenesis has been well described. Our aim was to investigate miRNA-mediated regulation of angiogenesis in a series of familial breast cancers stratified by BRCA1/2 mutational status in BRCA carriers and BRCA non-carriers (BRCAX). Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays were used to perform miRNA expression analysis on 43 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue familial breast cancers (22 BRCA 1/2-related and 21 BRCAX). Pathway enrichment analysis was carried out with the DIANA miRPath v2.0 web-based computational tool, and the miRWalk database was used to identify target genes of deregulated miRNAs. An independent set of 8 BRCA 1/2-related and 11 BRCAX breast tumors was used for validation by Real-Time PCR. In vitro analysis on HEK293, MCF-7 and SUM149PT cells were performed to best-clarify miR-573 and miR-578 role. A set of 16 miRNAs differentially expressed between BRCA 1/2-related and BRCAX breast tumors emerged from the profile analysis. Among these, miR-578 and miR-573 were found to be down-regulated in BRCA 1/2-related breast cancer and associated to the Focal adhesion, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathways. Our data highlight the role of miR-578 and miR-573 in controlling BRCA 1/2-related angiogenesis by targeting key regulators of Focal adhesion, VEGF and HIF-1 signaling pathways.

  8. Vacancy Concentration in Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1977-01-01

    Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10.......Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10....

  9. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  10. MiR-138 Suppresses Cell Proliferation by Targeting Bag-1 in Gallbladder Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Weng, Mingzhe; Quan, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background MiR-138 is frequently downregulated in different cancer types and is thought to be involved in the progression of tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-138 involvement in gallbladder carcinoma still remains unknown. Methods The expression of miR-138 in 49 gallbladder carcinoma samples and paired normal gallbladder samples was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. The biological functions of miR-138 and Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1) on cell proliferation were examined using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and apoptosis assays. Targets of miR-138 were predicted using bioinformatics and validated using luciferase reporter and Western blot analyses. The in vivo effects of miR-138 were examined using subcutaneous inoculation of gallbladder carcinoma cells in Balb/c nude mice. Results Compared with their paired normal gallbladder samples, the gallbladder carcinoma samples had decreased expression of miR-138 and increased expression of Bag-1. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Bag-1 was defined as a novel target of miR-138. Both the inhibition of Bag-1 by miR-138 and the silencing of Bag-1 by siRNA led to alterations of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax. Restoring expression of Bag-1 eliminates the effects of miR-138 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-138 markedly inhibited the growth of tumors in the gallbladder carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice. Conclusions Expression of miR-138 is frequently reduced in gallbladder carcinoma when compared to normal cells. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited cell proliferation by directly suppressing the expression of Bag-1. These results suggest that miR-138 plays an important role in inhibiting the growth of gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:25962180

  11. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan [Department of Endocrinology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yang, Li [Department of Endocrinology, Hunan Province Geriatric Hospital, Changsha, Hunan 410001 (China); Li, Yu [Department of Endocrinology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Jiang, Tie-Jian, E-mail: jiangtiejian@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2014-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis.

  12. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165836.html Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation Drug will treat adults with a condition called ... to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). In a media ...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. PCs and networking for oceanographic research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    This paper, first describes briefly the evolution of data acquisition techniques and different system implementation, on board research vessels. A data acquisition system being developed for a coastal research vessel is then described which is based...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  1. miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Hsieh, James; Rao, Prakash K; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-11-05

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.

  2. Alcohol-dysregulated miR-30a and miR-934 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Maarouf A; Kuo, Selena Z; Rahimy, Elham; Zou, Angela E; Korrapati, Avinaash; Rahimy, Mehran; Kim, Elizabeth; Zheng, Hao; Yu, Michael Andrew; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol promotes HNSCC pathogenesis and progression remain poorly understood. Our study sought to identify microRNAs that are dysregulated in alcohol-associated HNSCC and investigate their contribution to the malignant phenotype. Using RNA-sequencing data from 136 HNSCC patients, we compared the expression levels of 1,046 microRNAs between drinking and non-drinking cohorts. Dysregulated microRNAs were verified by qRT-PCR in normal oral keratinocytes treated with biologically relevant doses of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The most promising microRNA candidates were investigated for their effects on cellular proliferation and invasion, sensitivity to cisplatin, and expression of cancer stem cell genes. Finally, putative target genes were identified and evaluated in vitro to further establish roles for these miRNAs in alcohol-associated HNSCC. From RNA-sequencing analysis we identified 8 miRNAs to be significantly upregulated in alcohol-associated HNSCCs. qRT-PCR experiments determined that among these candidates, miR-30a and miR-934 were the most highly upregulated in vitro by alcohol and acetaldehyde. Overexpression of miR-30a and miR-934 in normal and HNSCC cell lines produced up to a 2-fold increase in cellular proliferation, as well as induction of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2. Upon inhibition of these miRNAs, HNSCC cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to cisplatin and reduced matrigel invasion. miRNA knockdown also indicated direct targeting of several tumor suppressor genes by miR-30a and miR-934. Alcohol induces the dysregulation of miR-30a and miR-934, which may play crucial roles in HNSCC pathogenesis and progression. Future investigation of the alcohol-mediated pathways effecting these transformations will prove valuable for furthering the understanding and treatment of alcohol-associated HNSCC.

  3. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  4. Thin ice and storms: Sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Cheng, Bin; Doble, Martin; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Haapala, Jari; Hughes, Nick; Kaleschke, Lars; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Arctic sea ice has displayed significant thinning as well as an increase in drift speed in recent years. Taken together this suggests an associated rise in sea ice deformation rate. A winter and spring expedition to the sea ice covered region north of Svalbard-the Norwegian young sea ICE2015 expedition (N-ICE2015)—gave an opportunity to deploy extensive buoy arrays and to monitor the deformation of the first-year and second-year ice now common in the majority of the Arctic Basin. During the 5 month long expedition, the ice cover underwent several strong deformation events, including a powerful storm in early February that damaged the ice cover irreversibly. The values of total deformation measured during N-ICE2015 exceed previously measured values in the Arctic Basin at similar scales: At 100 km scale, N-ICE2015 values averaged above 0.1 d-1, compared to rates of 0.08 d-1 or less for previous buoy arrays. The exponent of the power law between the deformation length scale and total deformation developed over the season from 0.37 to 0.54 with an abrupt increase immediately after the early February storm, indicating a weakened ice cover with more free drift of the sea ice floes. Our results point to a general increase in deformation associated with the younger and thinner Arctic sea ice and to a potentially destructive role of winter storms.

  5. Ice sails of the Karakoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Evatt, Geoffrey W.; Mallinson, Amy; Abrahams, I. David; Heil, Matthias; Nicholson Nicholson, Lindsey; Fowler, Andrew; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Ice sails are clean ice features that protrude from the surface of debris covered glaciers, and can grow to more than 25 m in elevation. Observations of these features date back to the first exploration of the glaciers and mountains in the Karakoram (in 1864), where they seem to occur preferentially. Even though melt rates beneath supraglacial debris and of clean ice should be rather different, ice sails can exist in equilibrium for decades. However, no detailed scientific analysis of ice sails has been carried out until now. The apparent restriction of ice sail existence to high elevation, dry atmosphere and long and flat debris covered glaciers, suggests that they require low debris thickness and a high evaporative heat flux for survival. We postulate that ice sails can develop from one of two mechanisms, both of which require clean ice to be surrounded by debris covered ice, where the debris layer is shallow enough for the ice beneath it to melt faster than the clean ice, i.e. typical debris thicknesses of less than 5-10 cm. Our image analysis confirms that ice sails can persist for decades. Debris layer thickening eventually causes a reversal in the relative melt rates and the ice sails submerge back into the glacier. During their stable phase, the slope of the ice sail faces constantly adjusts to the available melt energy, so that a steady state with the surrounding ice melt can be reached. This can be demonstrated by application of an energy balance model and use of the well-known Östrem-curve for sub-debris ice melt.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of miR-212 expression in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Incoronato

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that microRNA expression in cancer may be regulated by epigenetic events. Recently, we found that in lung cancer miR-212 was strongly down-regulated. However, mechanisms involved in the regulation of miR-212 expression are unknown. Therefore, we addressed this point by investigating the molecular mechanisms of miR-212 silencing in lung cancer. We identified histone modifications rather than DNA hypermethylation as epigenetic events that regulate miR-212 levels in NSCLC. Moreover, we found that miR-212 silencing in vivo is closely associated with the severity of the disease.

  7. miR-34 and p53: New Insights into a Complex Functional Relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro

    Full Text Available miR-34, a tumor suppressor miRNA family transcriptionally activated by p53, is considered a critical mediator of p53 function. However, knockout of the mouse miR-34 family has little or no effect on the p53 response. The relative contribution of different miR-34 family members to p53 function or how much p53 relies on miR-34 in human cells is unclear. Here we show that miR-34a has a complex effect on the p53 response in human cells. In HCT116 cells miR-34a overexpression enhances p53 transcriptional activity, but the closely related family members, miR-34b and miR-34c, even when over-expressed, have little effect. Both TP53 itself and MDM4, a strong p53 transactivation inhibitor, are direct targets of miR-34a. The genes regulated by miR-34a also include four other post-translational inhibitors of p53. miR-34a overexpression leads to variable effects on p53 levels in p53-sufficient human cancer cell lines. In HCT116, miR-34a overexpression increases p53 protein levels and stability. About a quarter of all mRNAs that participate in the human p53 network bind to biotinylated miR-34a, suggesting that many are direct miR-34a targets. However, only about a fifth of the mRNAs that bind to miR-34a also bind to miR-34b or miR-34c. Two human cell lines knocked out for miR-34a have unimpaired p53-mediated responses to genotoxic stress, like mouse cells. The complex positive and negative effects of miR-34 on the p53 network suggest that rather than simply promoting the p53 response, miR-34a might act at a systems level to stabilize the robustness of the p53 response to genotoxic stress.

  8. Distinct roles for miR-1 and miR-133a in the proliferation and differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prakash K; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shields, Lauren; Hyde, Greg; Yuan, Bingbing; Shepherd, Christopher J; Shipley, Janet; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in the pediatric population. As this tumor has an undifferentiated myogenic phenotype, agents that promote differentiation hold particular promise as part of a novel therapeutic approach to combat this type of cancer. In this report, we focus on the contribution of two microRNAs (miRNAs) in rhabdomyosarcomas. Levels of miR-1 and miR-133a are drastically reduced in representative cell lines from each major rhabdomyosarcoma subtype (embryonal and alveolar). Introduction of miR-1 and miR-133a into an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma-derived cell line is cytostatic, thereby suggesting a tumor suppressor-like role for these myogenic miRNAs. Transcriptional profiling of cells after miR-1 and miR-133a expression reveals that miR-1 (but not miR-133a) exerts a strong promyogenic influence on these poorly differentiated tumor cells. We identify mRNAs that are down-regulated by these miRNAs and propose roles for miR-1 and miR-133a in repressing isoforms of genes that are normally not expressed in muscle. Finally, we show that mRNA targets of miR-1 and miR-133a are up-regulated in rhabdomyosarcomas, suggesting a causative role for these miRNAs in the development of rhabdomyosarcomas. More important, these results point to the promise of enhancing rhabdomyosarcoma therapy using miRNAs as agents that mediate cytostasis and promote muscle differentiation.

  9. Increased Brain-Specific MiR-9 and MiR-124 in the Serum Exosomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong Ji

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the alternation in serum exosome concentrations and the levels of serum exosomal miR-9 and miR-124, two brain-specific miRNAs, in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients and to explore the predictive values of these miRNAs for AIS diagnosis and damage evaluation. Sixty-five patients with AIS at the acute stage were enrolled and 66 non-stroke volunteers served as controls. Serum exosomes isolated by ExoQuick precipitations were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and western blotting. The levels of exosomal miR-9 and miR-124 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Compared with controls, the concentration of serum exosomes and the median levels of serum exosomal miR-9 and miR-124 were significantly higher in AIS patients (p<0.01. The levels of both miR-9 and miR-124 were positively correlated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, infarct volumes and serum concentrations of IL-6. The areas under the curve for exosomal miR-9 and miR-124 were 0.8026 and 0.6976, respectively. This proof of concept study suggests that serum exosomal miR-9 and miR-124 are promising biomarkers for diagnosing AIS and evaluating the degree of damage caused by ischemic injury. However, further studies are needed to explore the potential roles of the exosomes released from brain tissues in post stroke complications.

  10. MiR-92a and miR-486 are potential diagnostic biomarkers for mercury poisoning and jointly sustain NF-κB activity in mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Enmin; Guo, Jun; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Hengdong; Liu, Xin; Cai, Wenyan; Zhong, Lixin; Zhu, Baoli

    2017-11-22

    Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury is a public health concern worldwide. Although the altered epigenetic regulatory features, such as microRNA, have been associated with mercury exposure, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well illuminated. This study aimed to confirm that hsa-miR-92a and hsa-miR-486 are novel diagnostic biomarkers of occupational mercury poisoning, and to explore the underlying mechanism of miR-92a and miR-486 in mercury toxicity. RT-qPCR assays and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to confirm the diagnostic value of miR-92a and miR-486 as biomarkers of occupational mercury poisoning. Dual-luciferase assay was applied to confirm the target gene of miR-92a and miR-486 in vitro. Then, we established an in-vitro model where miR-92a and miR-486 were overexpressed or knocked down in HEK-293 and HUVEC cells. RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression levels. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Results show that miR-92a and miR-486 expression levels were up-regulated in workers exposed to occupational mercury. Upregulation of miR-92a and miR-486 may play a crucial role in mercury toxicity by jointly activating the NF-κB signaling pathway via targeting KLF4 and Cezanne, respectively.

  11. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-11-10

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  12. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  13. Future Interannual Variability of Arctic Sea Ice Area and its Implications for Marine Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Mioduszewski, J.; Holland, M. M.; Wang, M.; Landrum, L.

    2016-12-01

    As both a symbol and driver of ongoing climate change, the diminishing Arctic sea ice pack has been widely studied in a variety of contexts. Most research, however, has focused on time-mean changes in sea ice, rather than on short-term variations that also have important physical and societal consequences. In this study we test the hypothesis that interannual Arctic sea ice variability will increase in the future by utilizing a set of 40 independent simulations from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble for the 1920-2100 period. The model projects that ice variability will indeed grow substantially in all months but with a strong seasonal dependence in magnitude and timing. The variability increases most during late autumn (November-December) and least during spring. This increase proceeds in a time-transgressive manner over the course of the year, peaking soonest (2020s) in late-summer months and latest (2090s) during late spring. The variability in every month is inversely correlated with the average melt rate, resulting in an eventual decline in both terms as the ice pack becomes seasonal by late century. These projected changes in sea ice variations will likely have significant consequences for marine navigation, which we assess with the empirical Ice Numeral (IN) metric. A function of ice concentration and thickness, the IN quantifies the difficulty in traversing a transect of sea ice-covered ocean as a function of vessel strength. Our results show that although increasingly open Arctic seas will mean generally more favorable conditions for navigation, the concurrent rise in the variability of ice cover poses a competing risk. In particular, future intervals featuring the most rapid declines in ice area that coincide with the highest interannual ice variations will offer more inviting shipping opportunities tempered by less predictable navigational conditions.

  14. miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-155 increase expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and support HSP10 in an In vitro sepsis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs play an essential role in inflammation processes including sepsis. This study aimed to identify miRNAs as candidates for therapies that are involved in the innate immune response and to assess their potential functions in the activation of the endothelium. We stimulated THP-1 monocytes with 10 ng/ml LPS for 4 h and used the supernatant for the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC or human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC for 16 h. miRNA array analysis (of 1,891 miRNAs identified a 1.5-fold upregulation of miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-155 in stimulated endothelial cells. HUVEC were transfected with miRNA inhibitors for miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-155 to investigate the function of these miRNAs in endothelial inflammatory pathways. Inhibition of miR-146a resulted in a diminished release of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 by respective 68% and 55% (P<0.001. Inhibition of miR-146b reduced the expression of IL-6 by 49% (P<0.001. Inhibition of miR-155 reduced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 by respective 31% (P<0.001 and 14%. The inhibition of miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-155 reduced the release of HSP10 by 50%, 35%, and 69% (P<0.05, respectively, but did not influence the expression of HSP27 or TXA2. In conclusion, miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-155 are exerting anti-inflammatory properties by down-regulating IL-6 and IL-8, and influencing the expression of HSP10 in the activated endothelium. We provide evidence for the central role of selected miRNAs in sepsis and their use in the development of small interfering RNA therapeutics to target immune cells and sepsis pathways.

  15. 50 CFR 660.305 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.305 Section 660.305 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.305 Vessel identification. (a) Display. The operator of a vessel that is over 25 ft (7.6 m...

  16. 50 CFR 660.704 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.704 Section 660.704 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.704 Vessel identification. (a) General. This section only applies to commercial fishing vessels...

  17. 50 CFR 660.504 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.504 Section 660.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.504 Vessel identification. (a) Official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this subpart must...

  18. 50 CFR 665.16 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 665.16 Section 665... identification. (a) Applicability. Each fishing vessel subject to this part, except those identified in paragraph (e) of this section, must be marked for identification purposes, as follows: (1) A vessel that is...

  19. miR-23a, miR-146a and miR-301a confer predisposition to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome but not to Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shengping; Ye, Zi; Liao, Dan; Bai, Lin; Liu, Yunjia; Zhang, Jun; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-28

    Ninety-eight miRNAs are involved in the immune response. However, the genetic roles of these miRNAs remain unclear in Behcet's disease (BD) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome. This study aimed to explore the association and functional roles of copy number variants (CNV) in several miRNAs with BD and VKH syndrome. Genotyping of CNVs was examined by TaqMan PCR. The expression of miR-23a, transfection efficiency and cytokine production were measured by real-time PCR, flow cytometry or ELISA. First, replication and combined studies for miR-23a, miR-146a and miR-301a demonstrated a similar association with VKH syndrome (Combined: P = 5.53 × 10(-8); P = 8.43 × 10(-31); P = 9.23 × 10(-8), respectively). No association of CNVs of the above mentioned miRNAs was observed in BD patients. mRNA expression of miR-23a showed a positive association with its copy numbers. Additionally, individuals with high copy number of miR-23a show an increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by stimulated PBMCs. miR-23a transfected ARPE-19 cells modulated the production of IL-6 and IL-8, but not MCP-1. Our results suggest that CNVs of miR-146a, miR-23a and miR-301a confer susceptibility to VKH syndrome, but not to BD. The contribution of miR-23a to VKH syndrome may be mediated by increasing the production of IL-6.

  20. Polar vessel hullform design based on the multi-objective optimization NSGA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Fei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] With the increasing exploitation of the Arctic abundant oil and gas resources, a large number of ships which meet the polar navigational requirements are needed.[Methods] In this paper, the fast elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA Ⅱ is applied to the hull optimization, and the multi-objective optimization method of polar vessel design is proposed. With the optimization goal of resistance and icebreaking resistance, filtering hull forms through the standard of polar vessel displacement and EEDI, fast ship hull optimization that satisfy the ice-ship dead weight and EEDI requirements has been achieved. Taking a 65 000 t shuttle tanker as an example, full parametric modeling method is adopted, the hull optimization of three different bow forms is conducted through the polar vessel multi-objective optimization method.[Results] The ship hull after optimization can satisfy the IA class navigation require, where the resistance in calm water decreases up to 12.94%, and the minimum propulsion power in ice field has a 27.36% reduction.[Conclusions] The feasibility and validity of the NSGA Ⅱ applying in polar vessel design is verified.

  1. Analysis on ice resistance and ice response of ships sailing in brash ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to explore the interaction between a hull and crushed ice, [Methods] a discrete element model is combined with Euler multiphase flow. The force of a hull under different speeds and different ice levels is calculated, and the motion response of ice during ship-ice interaction discussed. The reasons for ice resistance and movement change are explained intuitively. [Results] The ice resistance of the hull is obtained, mainly due to the friction and collision of the crushed ice and hull surface, which increases with the increase of the speed, but when the speed increases to a certain value, the crushing resistance no longer increases and even reduces the trend. [Conclusions] This provides a reference for the optimization of ship type for ice zones, as well as propeller design.

  2. Polar Stereographic Valid Ice Masks Derived from National Ice Center Monthly Sea Ice Climatologies, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These valid ice masks provide a way to remove spurious ice caused by residual weather effects and land spillover in passive microwave data. They are derived from the...

  3. miR-9: a versatile regulator of neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Coolen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soon after its discovery, microRNA-9 (miR-9 attracted the attention of neurobiologists, since it is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Functional analyses in different vertebrate species have revealed a prominent role of this microRNA in balancing proliferation in embryonic neural progenitor populations. Key transcriptional regulators such as FoxG1, Hes1 or Tlx, were identified as direct targets of miR-9, placing it at the core of the gene network controlling the progenitor state. Recent data also suggest that this function could extend to adult neural stem cells. Other studies point to a role of miR-9 in differentiated neurons. Moreover miR-9 has been implicated in human brain pathologies, either displaying a protective role, such as in Progeria, or participating in disease progression in brain cancers. Altogether functional studies highlight a prominent feature of this highly conserved microRNA, its functional versatility, both along its evolutionary history and across cellular contexts.

  4. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  5. miR-145a-5p Promotes Myoblast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of 18–22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and have been shown to play an important role during myoblast differentiation. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-145a-5p was gradually increased during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, and miR-145a-5p inhibitors or mimics significantly suppressed or promoted the relative expression of specific myogenesis related marker genes. Moreover, overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p enhanced or repressed the expression of some special genes involved in the endogenous Wnt signaling pathway during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, including Wnt5a, LRP5, Axin2, and β-catenin. These results indicated that miR-145a-5p might be considered as a new myogenic differentiation-associated microRNA that can promote C2C12 myoblast differentiation by enhancing genes related to myoblasts differentiation.

  6. Altered Expressions of miR-1238-3p, miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p in the Formation of Chronic Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ferah; Bal, Salih Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Akalın, Halis; Goral, Guher; Oral, Haluk Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is still endemic in developing countries. Despite early diagnosis and treatment of patients, chronic infections are seen in 10-30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors that play roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute infection into chronic infection. Here, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls by using miRNA array, and the results of the miRNA array were validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Four miRNAs were expressed in the chronic group but were not expressed in acute and control groups. Among these miRNAs, the expression level of miR-1238-3p was increased while miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p were decreased ( p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be markers for chronic cases. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes involved in endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and its chemokine signaling pathway indicate their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human PBMC to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis.

  7. Classification of Sparkling Wine Style and Quality by MIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the suitability of attenuated total reflection (ATR mid-infrared (MIR spectroscopy, combined with principal component analysis (PCA and partial least squares (PLS regression, was evaluated as a rapid analytical technique for the classification of sparkling wine style and quality. Australian sparkling wines (n = 139 comprising a range of styles (i.e., white, rosé, red, Prosecco and Moscato were analyzed by ATR-MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. The MIR spectra of 50 sparkling white wines, produced according to four different production methods (i.e., Carbonation, Charmat, Transfer and Methodé Traditionelle were also evaluated against: (i quality ratings determined by an expert panel; and (ii sensory attributes rated by a trained sensory panel. Wine pH, titratable acidity (TA, residual sugar (RS, alcohol and total phenolic content were also determined. The sparkling wine styles were separated on the PCA score plot based on their MIR spectral data; while the sparkling white wines showed separation based on production method, which strongly influenced the style and sensory properties of wine (i.e., the intensity of fruit versus yeast-derived characters. PLS calibrations of 0.73, 0.77, 0.82 and 0.86 were obtained for sweetness, tropical fruit, confectionary and toasty characters (on the palate, respectively.

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ON-BOARD FISHING VESSEL HANDLING IN MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Serratore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of different manipulation techniques applied on board fishing vessel, on the microbiological quality of the flesh of European hake (Merluccius merluccius during storage at +3°C ± 1°C for a time (T of 10 days after landing (T1-T10. Samples of fish were taken from a fishing vessel of the Adriatic Sea and from one of the Tyrrhenian Sea, treated on-board under different icing conditions: 1 a low ice/product weight ratio and 2 an optimal ice/product weight ratio, up to 1:3 (3. Spoilage bacteria as Total Bacterial Count (TBC and specific spoilage bacteria as Sulphide Producing Bacteria (SPB were enumerated in fish flesh as Colony Forming Units (CFU/g on Plate Count Agar and Lyngby Agar at 20°C for 3-5 days. TBC of the Adriatic fishes (gutted on-board resulted 103 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 104-105 at T10, whereas TBC of the Tyrrhenian fishes (not gutted on-board resulted 10-102 UFC/g at T2- T3, 103 at T6, and 104-105 at T10. SPB resulted 10- 102 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 103- 104 at T10, with absolute values higher in the Adriatic fishes, in respect with the Tyrrhenian fishes, and in the low icing conditions in respect with the optimal icing condition. At the experimented condition, the lowering of the microbiological quality of fish flesh during storage, seems to be more dependent on the gutting versus not gutting on-board practice rather than on the low versus optimal icing treatment.

  9. miR-19, a component of the oncogenic miR-17∼92 cluster, targets the DNA-end resection factor CtIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hühn, D; Kousholt, A N; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-19 (miR-19) was recently identified as the key oncogenic component of the polycistronic miR-17∼92 cluster, also known as oncomiR-1, which is frequently upregulated or amplified in multiple tumor types. However, the gene targets and the pathways underlying the tumor-promoting activity of mi...... in reduced HR levels and DNA damage hypersensitivity. By downregulating CtIP, miR-19 overexpression suppresses the faithful repair of DSBs that is crucial for genome maintenance. Our findings thus provide new mechanistic insight into the oncogenic role of the miR-17∼92 cluster.Oncogene advance online...

  10. IceCube SWIRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongliang L.

    2017-01-01

    Clouds, ice clouds in particular, are a major source of uncertainty in climate models. Submm-wave sensors fill the sensitivity gap between MW and IR.Cloud microphysical properties (particle size and shape) account for large (200 and 40) measurement uncertainty.

  11. IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlers, Markus Tobias; Halzen, F.

    2017-01-01

    We review the status of the IceCube observations of cosmic neutrinos. We investigate model-independent constraints on the properties of the sources where they originate. Specifically, we evaluate the multimessenger relations connecting neutrino, gamma ray, and cosmic ray observations and conclude...

  12. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  13. The little ice age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence of its impact in other parts of the world includes the records of sea-ice extent near Iceland and Greenland, the fate of the Viking settlements in Greenland, and many other suggestions that the climate was colder in the recent past than it is today. Jean Grove's book is an authoritative, superbly documented, and excellently written summary of the abundant evidence of climatic change during the last few centuries in the context of broader climatic variations of the last 10,000 years. This summary provides a much-needed perspective for considering the magnitude and frequency of natural climatic variations in the past, given predictions for the future. In the final chapter, Grove notes that natural climatic variations, including another minor ice age, might be expected in the future but at the end of the Little Ice Age coincided with the increased burning of fossil fuels during the industralization of Europe and North America. This coincidence does indeed suggest that modern scientists already have had a significant impact on the global climate.

  14. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41327697X; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  15. miR-297 acts as an oncogene by targeting GPC5 in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunchuan; Zhao, Jianyong; Yin, Xiaoming; Yuan, Xiangkun; Guo, Jianfei; Bi, Jianqiang

    2016-10-01

    Emerging studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis of many developing human tumours. However, the functions and mechanisms of miR-297 in lung cancer have, up to now, been largely undefined. Here, miR-297 expression was measured in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines, using qRT-PCR. Lung adenocarcinoma cell line was treated with an miR-297 mimic. MTT and colony analysis were performed to detect cell proliferation and colony formation. The direct target gene of miR-297 was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assays. We demonstrated that miR-297 expression was upregulated in lung adenocarcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues. Expression of miR-297 was also upregulated in tested lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-297 enhanced lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-297 promoted cell migration and invasion. In addition, we identified Glypican-5 (GPC5) as a direct target gene of miR-297 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Expression of GPC5 was downregulated in both lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, expression of GPC5 was inversely associated with expression of miR-297 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. These results suggest that miR-297 acted as an oncogenic miRNA, partly by targeting GPC5, adenocarcinoma of the lung. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. miR-133a Enhances the Protective Capacity of Cardiac Progenitors Cells after Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izarra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available miR-133a and miR-1 are known as muscle-specific microRNAs that are involved in cardiac development and pathophysiology. We have shown that both miR-1 and miR-133a are early and progressively upregulated during in vitro cardiac differentiation of adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs, but only miR-133a expression was enhanced under in vitro oxidative stress. miR-1 was demonstrated to favor differentiation of CPCs, whereas miR-133a overexpression protected CPCs against cell death, targeting, among others, the proapoptotic genes Bim and Bmf. miR-133a-CPCs clearly improved cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction model by reducing fibrosis and hypertrophy and increasing vascularization and cardiomyocyte proliferation. The beneficial effects of miR-133a-CPCs seem to correlate with the upregulated expression of several relevant paracrine factors and the plausible cooperative secretion of miR-133a via exosomal transport. Finally, an in vitro heart muscle model confirmed the antiapoptotic effects of miR-133a-CPCs, favoring the structuration and contractile functionality of the artificial tissue.

  17. miR-612 suppresses the stemness of liver cancer via Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Liver Cancer Institute and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Zhong-Hua [Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wen, Duo; Wan, Jin-Liang; Liu, Dong-Li; Zhang, Shu; Cui, Jie-Feng; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu [Liver Cancer Institute and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia [Liver Cancer Institute and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wu, Wei-Zhong, E-mail: wu.weizhong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Liver Cancer Institute and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • miR-612 suppresses tumorsphere and clone formation of HCC cells. • miR-612 reduces drug resistance of HCC cells. • miR-612 suppresses tumorigenesis of HCC in NOD/SCID mice. • miR-612 inhibits an invasive frontier of HCC xenografts. • miR-612 suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling. - Abstract: Previous research showed that microRNA-612 (miR-612) has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AKT2 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-612, through which the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of HCC were inhibited. Our present findings reveal that miR-612 is able to suppress the stemness of HCC by reducing the number and size of tumorspheres as well as clone formation in soft agar, and to relieve drug resistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. In addition, miR-612 hampered the capacity of tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice and redistributed the tumor invasive frontier of miR-612-modulating cells. Finally, our findings suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required in the regulation of EMT-associated stem cell-like traits by miR-612.

  18. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  19. Ice Roughness in Short Duration SLD Icing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Reed, Dana; Vargas, Mario; Kreeger, Richard E.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Ice accretion codes depend on models of roughness parameters to account for the enhanced heat transfer during the ice accretion process. While mitigating supercooled large droplet (SLD or Appendix O) icing is a significant concern for manufacturers seeking future vehicle certification due to the pending regulation, historical ice roughness studies have been performed using Appendix C icing clouds which exhibit mean volumetric diameters (MVD) much smaller than SLD clouds. Further, the historical studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness using multiple images of roughness elements. In this study, the ice roughness developed on a 21-in. NACA 0012 at 0deg angle of attack exposed to short duration SLD icing events was measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The MVD's used in the study ranged from 100 micrometer to 200 micrometers, in a 67 m/s flow, with liquid water contents of either 0.6 gm/cubic meters or 0.75 gm/cubic meters. The ice surfaces were measured using a Romer Absolute Arm laser scanning system. The roughness associated with each surface point cloud was measured using the two-dimensional self-organizing map approach developed by McClain and Kreeger (2013) resulting in statistical descriptions of the ice roughness.

  20. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-11-01

    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  1. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  2. Ice particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Granular interactions of ice occur in a range of geophysical, astrophysical and industrial applications. For example, Saturn's Rings are composed of icy particles from micrometers to kilometres in size - inertial and yet too small to interact gravitationally. In clouds, ice crystals are smashed to pieces before they re-aggregate to for snow floccules in a process that is very much open to interpretation. In a granular flow of ice particles, the energy spent in collisions can lead to localized surface changes and wetting, which in turn can promote aggregation. To understand the induced wetting and its effects, we present two novel experimental methods which provide snippets of insight into the collisional behaviour of macroscopic ice particles. Experiment 1: Microgravity experiments provide minute details of the contact between the ice particles during the collision. A diamagnetic levitation technique, as alternative to the parabolic flight or falling tower experiments, was used to understand the collisional behaviour of individual macroscopic icy bodies. A refrigerated cylinder, that can control ambient conditions, was inserted into the bore of an 18 Tesla superconducting magnet and cooled to -10°C. Initial binary collisions were created, where one 4 mm ice particle was levitated in the magnet bore whilst another particle was dropped vertically from the top of the bore. The trajectories of both particles were captured by high speed video to provide the three-dimensional particle velocities and track the collision outcome. Introducing complexity, multiple particles were levitated in the bore and an azimuthal turbulent air flow introduced, allowing the particles to collide with other particles within a coherent fluid structure (mimicking Saturn's rings, or an eddy in a cloud). In these experiments, a sequence of collisions occur, each one different to the previous one due to the changes in surface characteristics created by the collisions themselves. Aggregation

  3. Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennault, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  4. Itinerant spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Masafumi

    2014-03-01

    Spin ice is a prototypical frustrated magnet defined on a pyrochlore lattice. The ground state of spin ice is described by a simple rule called ``ice rule'': out of four spins on a tetrahedron, two spins point inward, while the other two outward. This simple rule is not sufficient to determine the spin configuration uniquely, but it leaves macroscopic degeneracy in the ground state. Despite the macroscopic degeneracy, however, the ground state is not completely disordered, but it exhibits algebraic spatial correlation, which characterizes this state as ``Coulomb phase'' where various exotic properties, such as monopole excitations and unusual magnetic responses are observed. Given the peculiar spatial correlation, it is interesting to ask what happens if itinerant electrons coexist and interact with spin ice. Indeed, this setting is relevant to several metallic Ir pyrochlore oxides, such as Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), where Ir 5d itinerant electrons interact with Ln 4f localized moments. In these compounds, anomalous transport phenomena have been reported, such as non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of Hall conductivity and low-temperature resistivity upturn. To address these issues, we adopt a spin-ice-type Ising Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice, and solve this model by applying the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the perturbation expansion in terms of the spin-electron coupling. As a result, we found that (i) the resistivity shows a minimum at a characteristic temperature below which spin ice correlation sets in. Moreover, (ii) the Hall conductivity shows anisotropic and non-monotonic magnetic field dependence due to the scattering from the spatially extended spin scalar chirality incorporated in spin ice manifold. These results give unified understanding to the thermodynamic and transport properties of Ln2Ir2O7 (Ln=Pr, Nd), and give new insights into the role of geometrical frustration in itinerant systems. This work has been done in

  5. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice-Albedo Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice-albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  6. Epigenetic Repression of miR-218 Promotes Esophageal Carcinogenesis by Targeting ROBO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available miR-218, consisting of miR-218-1 at 4p15.31 and miR-218-2 at 5q35.1, was significantly decreased in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in our previous study. The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant methylation is associated with miR-218 repression. Bisulfite sequencing analysis (BSP, methylation specific PCR (MSP, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment assay were applied to determine the methyaltion status of miR-218 in cells and clinical samples. In vitro assays were performed to explore the role of miR-218. Results showed that miR-218-1 was significantly CpG hypermethylated in tumor tissues (81%, 34/42 compared with paired non-tumor tissues (33%, 14/42 (p < 0.05. However, no statistical difference was found in miR-218-2. Accordingly, expression of miR-218 was negatively correlated with miR-218-1 methylation status (p < 0.05. After demethylation treatment by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, there was a 2.53- and 2.40-fold increase of miR-218 expression in EC109 and EC9706, respectively. miR-218 suppressed cell proliferation and arrested cells at G1 phase by targeting 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR of roundabout guidance receptor 1 (ROBO1. A negative correlation was found between miR-218 and ROBO1 mRNA expression in clinical samples. In conclusion, our results support that aberrant CpG hypermethylation at least partly accounts for miR-218 silencing in ESCC, which impairs its tumor-suppressive function.

  7. PPARγ inhibits ovarian cancer cells proliferation through upregulation of miR-125b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shuang, E-mail: luoshuangsch@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Suining Central Hospital, Suining (China); Wang, Jidong [Department of Gynecology and Obsterics, Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan (China); Ma, Ying [Department of Otorhinolaryngolgy, Suining Central Hospital, Suining (China); Yao, Zhenwei [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Pan, Hongjuan [Department of Gynecology and Obsterics, Zhongshan Hospital, Wuhan (China)

    2015-06-26

    miR-125b has essential roles in coordinating tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and chemotherapy recurrence. In ovarian cancer miR-125b has been shown to be downregulated and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting proto-oncogene BCL3. PPARγ, a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects through inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation and apoptosis by targeting the tumor related genes. However, it is unclear whether miR-125b is regulated by PPARγ in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that the miR-125b downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Ligands-activated PPARγ suppressed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and this PPARγ-induced growth inhibition is mediated by the upregulation of miR-125b. PPARγ promoted the expression of miR-125b by directly binding to the responsive element in miR-125b gene promoter region. Thus, our results suggest that PPARγ can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer by upregulating miR-125b which inhibition of proto-oncogene BCL3. These findings will extend our understanding of the function of PPARγ in tumorigenesis and miR-125b may be a therapeutic intervention of ovarian cancer. - Highlights: • miR-125b is down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cells. • PPARγ upregulates miR-125b and downregulates its target gene BCL3 expression. • Silence of miR-125b attenuates PPARγ-mediated growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells. • PPARγ promotes the transcription of miR-125b via binding to PPARE in miR-125b gene promoter region.

  8. Mechanism research of miR-181 regulating human lens epithelial cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of miR-181 in the lens tissue of cataract and the regulating mechanism of miR-181 on apoptosis of human lens epithelial cell.METHODS:Real time q-PCR was used to measure the expression of miR-181 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model. miR-181 mimic and inhibitor were transfected using Lipofectamine 2 000 to regulate the expression of miR-181, and then Real time q-PCR was used to verify transfection efficiency. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell apoptosis rate. RESULTS: Compared with control group, the expression of miR-181 was significantly higher in both the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model; the relative expression of miR-181 in lens epithelial cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, whereas decreased in cells transfected with miR-181 inhibitor; the apoptosis rate of cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, while reduced in miR-181 inhibitor group. Each result was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: High expression of miR-181 is detected in anterior lens capsule of age-related cataract. miR-181 might play a certain role in the pathogenesis of cataract via promoting human lens epithelial cell apoptosis. miR-181 probably becomes a new approach for the nonoperative treatment of cataract, but the concrete mechanism still needs to be further studied.

  9. miR-543 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting SIRT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan; Dong, Guoying [Institute of Pathogen Biology/Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang, Bo [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Gao, Wei [Department of Pathology, Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan 250013 (China); Yang, Qing, E-mail: yangqing07@sdu.edu.cn [Institute of Pathogen Biology/Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2016-01-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, exerts inhibitory effects on tumorigenesis and is downregulated in gastric cancer. However, the role of microRNAs in the regulation of SIRT1 in gastric cancer is still largely unknown. Here, we identified miR-543 as a predicted upstream regulator of SIRT1 using 3 different bioinformatics databases. Mimics of miR-543 significantly inhibited the expression of SIRT1, whereas an inhibitor of miR-543 increased SIRT1 expression. MiR-543 directly targeted the 3′-UTR of SIRT1, and both of the two binding sites contributed to the inhibitory effects. In gastric epithelium-derived cell lines, miR-543 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, and overexpression of SIRT1 rescued the above effects of miR-543. The inhibitory effects of miR-543 on SIRT1 were also validated using clinical gastric cancer samples. Moreover, we found that miR-543 expression was positively associated with tumor size, clinical grade, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients. Our results identify a new regulatory mechanism of miR-543 on SIRT1 expression in gastric cancer, and raise the possibility that the miR-543/SIRT1 pathway may serve as a potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • SIRT1 is a novel target of miR-543. • miR-543 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by targeting SIRT1. • miR-543 is upregulated in GC and positively associated with tumor size, clinical grade, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. • miR-543 is negatively correlated with SIRT1 expression in gastric cancer tissues.

  10. The IceProd Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2015-01-01

    IceCube is a one-gigaton instrument located at the geographic South Pole, designed to detect cosmic neutrinos, iden- tify the particle nature of dark matter, and study high-energy neutrinos themselves. Simulation of the IceCube detector and processing of data require a significant amount...... of computational resources. IceProd is a distributed management system based on Python, XML-RPC and GridFTP. It is driven by a central database in order to coordinate and admin- ister production of simulations and processing of data produced by the IceCube detector. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of other...

  11. Ice accretion simulations on airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, S.; Uğur, N.; Görgülü, I.; Tatar, V.

    2017-06-01

    Ice shape predictions for a NACA0012 airfoil and collection efficiency predictions for the Twin Otter airfoil are obtained and presented. The results are validated with reference numerical and experimental data. Ice accretion modeling mainly consists of four steps: flow field solution; droplet trajectory calculations; thermodynamic analyses; and ice accretion simulation with the Extended Messinger Model. The models are implemented in a FORTRAN code to perform icing analyses for twodimensional (2D) geometries. The results are in good agreement with experimental and numerical reference data. It is deduced that increasing computational layers in calculations improves the ice shape predictions. The results indicate that collection efficiencies and impingement zone increase with increasing droplet diameter.

  12. Information on fishing vessels and gear dimensions working in areas 35F1-4 and 36F1-4 of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlen, van B.; Bol, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study gives an extract from the Dutch VIRIS database for ICES rectangles 35F1 to 35F4 and 36F1 to 36F4 over the years 2003#2007 by gear type and vessel power. The most common gear type in this area in the beam trawl and most common vessel classes are those with 221 kW (300 hp) and 1471 kW (2000

  13. The Influence of Platelet Ice and Snow on Antarctic Land-fast Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Sea ice fastened to coasts, icebergs and ice shelves is of crucial importance for climate- and ecosystems. Near Antarctic ice shelves, this land-fast sea ice exhibits two unique characteristics that distinguish it from most other sea ice: 1) Ice platelets form and grow in super-cooled water, which originates from ice shelf cavities. The crystals accumulate beneath the solid sea-ice cover and are incorporated into the sea-ice fabric, contributing between 10 and 60% to the mas...

  14. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaei Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas, burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19–25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32 healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients.

  15. The expression of miR-181a-5p and miR-371b-5p in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, S; Mutlu, H; Kirkbes, S; Eroglu, S; Kabukcuoglu, Y S; Kabukcuoglu, F; Duymus, T M; ISık, M; Ulasli, M

    2015-07-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors of chondrocytes that affect bones and joints, and it represents the third most common type of primary bone tumors. Chondrosarcoma is difficult to treat because it is relatively resistant to both chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, surgery remains the best available treatment. It is important to find new diagnostic markers and improve treatment options. miRNAs are small non-coding transcripts (19-25 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression via targeting complementary sequences within messenger RNAs (mRNAs). miRNAs have been shown to be involved in regulation of many biochemical pathways. Dysregulated expression of many miRNAs has also been associated with multiple human diseases, such as cancer. 18 surgical chondrosarcoma specimens were obtained from patients. RNA extractions were performed from decalcified paraffin embedded tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of miR-181a and miR-371b in patients with chondrosarcoma by using RT-PCR and to evaluate the relationship between these miRNAs and chondrosarcoma. miR-181a was found to be upregulated in chondrosarcoma specimens whereas no significant alteration was found for miR-371b expression. It has been proposed that miRNA expression studies might be used as diagnostic, prognostic marker in cancer. miRNA expression data produced in our study may contribute future chondrosarcoma diagnosis and therapy.

  16. miR-27b and miR-23b Modulate Cardiomyocyte Differentiation from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Vilches

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse types of stem cells represent a potentially attractive source of cardiac cells for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, most of the functional benefits reported for stem cell have been modest and mainly due to paracrine effects rather than differentiation into cardiomyocytes of the applied cells. Therefore, new tools need to be developed in order to improve the efficiency of stem cell differentiation towards specific cardiovascular lineages. Here we show that microRNAs that display early differential expression during ventricular maturation, such as miR-27b, inhibits cardiac differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells whereas miRNAs that display late differential expression, such as miR-23b, regulates the beating phenotype during in vitro cardiac differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs. This study could have an impact on regenerative medicine since we showed that miR-27b and miR-23b overexpression differentially modify the ESC cell fate towards the cardiac lineage.

  17. Common miR-590 Variant rs6971711 Present Only in African Americans Reduces miR-590 Biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Lin

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are recognized as important regulators of cardiac development, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic variations which cause alterations in miRNA:target interactions can lead to disease. We hypothesized that genetic variations in miRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis might be involved in generation of the cardiac phenotype in patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. To investigate this question, we Sanger sequenced 18 miRNA genes previously implicated in myocyte hypertrophy/fibrosis and apoptosis, using genomic DNA isolated from the leukocytes of 199 HCM patients. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6971711, C57T SNP at the 17th position of mature miR-590-3p (= 57th position of pre-miR-590 that is common in individuals of African ancestry. SNP frequency was higher in African American HCM patients (n = 55 than ethnically-matched controls (n = 100, but the difference was not statistically significant (8.2% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.5. Using a cell culture system, we discovered that presence of this SNP resulted in markedly lower levels of mature miR-590-5p (39 ± 16%, p<0.003 and miR-590-3p (20 ± 2%, p<0.003, when compared with wild-type (WT miR-590, without affecting levels of pri-miR-590 and pre-miR-590. Consistent with this finding, the SNP resulted in reduced target suppression when compared to WT miR-590 (71% suppression by WT vs 60% suppression by SNP, p<0.03. Since miR-590 can regulate TGF-β, Activin A and Akt signaling, SNP-induced reduction in miR-590 biogenesis could influence cardiac phenotype by de-repression of these signaling pathways. Since the SNP is only present in African Americans, population studies in this patient population would be valuable to investigate effects of this SNP on myocyte function and cardiac physiology.

  18. Control of the Antarctic ice sheet by ocean ice interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, John; May, Joel; Simmonds, Ian

    2006-02-01

    The Antarctic ice cap is the largest ice sheet of modern times. It is of considerable importance to predict the sea level variability due to the associated changes in ice volume. We present the results of a simple grounded ice sheet model, developed from Oerlemans [Oerlemans, J., 2002. Global dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, Climate Dynamics 19, 85-93.], in which the net oceanic evaporation influences the ice cap volume in two ways, through changes in: (i) the accumulation rate, and (ii) the mean sea level. The net evaporation changes are driven by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly time series of Howard [Howard, W.R., 1997. A warm future in the past, Nature, 388, 418-419.] for the subantarctic Southern Ocean over the period 220 kyr to the present. The effect of the waxing and waning of the northern hemisphere ice sheets is integrated into the model using an independent model, in which ice melting depends on the SST anomaly and ice calving depends on the sea level anomaly. A series of analytical expressions are derived for the related properties of the coupled ocean-ice system applicable over time scales of 100 kyr, which show, in particular, that the Antarctic ice cap volume changes are due mainly to the effects of the northern hemisphere ice sheets on sea level (which influences ice calving), rather than directly to changes in SST, and hence the ice cap volume is greatest during interglacial periods. This conclusion, which is independent of the specification of the ice melting regime for the northern hemisphere ice sheets, strongly suggests that the changes in accumulation flux estimated from the Vostok proxy temperature data and used in other studies of the Antarctic mass balance have been overestimated. A simple expression is also presented for the lag of ice cap volume to SST, and it is found that the predictions for the mean sea level variability are similar to observations for a melting flux of the northern hemisphere ice sheets about twice their

  19. Chronic administration of proanthocyanidins or docosahexaenoic acid reverses the increase of miR-33a and miR-122 in dyslipidemic obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baselga-Escudero

    Full Text Available miR-33 and miR-122 are major regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver, and their deregulation has been linked to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the biological importance of these miRNAs has been defined using genetic models. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of miR-122 and miR-33a in rat liver correlate with lipemia in nutritional models. For this purpose, we analyzed the levels of miRNA-33a and miR-122 in the livers of dyslipidemic cafeteria diet-fed rats and of cafeteria diet-fed rats supplemented with proanthocyanidins and/or ω-3 PUFAs because these two dietary components are well-known to counteract dyslipidemia. The results showed that the dyslipidemia induced in rats that were fed a cafeteria diet resulted in the upregulation of miR-33a and miR-122 in the liver, whereas the presence of proanthocyanidins and/or ω-3 PUFAs counteracted the increase of these two miRNAs. However, srebp2, the host gene of miR-33a, was significantly repressed by ω-3 PUFAs but not by proanthocyanidins. Liver mRNA levels of the miR-122 and miR-33a target genes, fas and pparβ/δ, cpt1a and abca1, respectively, were consistent with the expression of these two miRNAs under each condition. Moreover, the miR-33a and abca1 levels were also analyzed in PBMCs. Interestingly, the miR-33a levels evaluated in PBMCs under each condition were similar to the liver levels but enhanced. This demonstrates that miR-33a is expressed in PBMCs and that these cells can be used as a non-invasive way to reflect the expression of this miRNA in the liver. These findings cast new light on the regulation of miR-33a and miR-122 in a dyslipidemic model of obese rats and the way these miRNAs are modulated by dietary components in the liver and in PBMCs.

  20. Differential effects of miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p on SiHa cells proliferation apoptosis, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jesus Adrian [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat, E-mail: lalvarez@cinvestav.mx [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p functions in SiHa cells. {yields} We study miRNA effect on cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, apoptosis, cell motility and invasion. {yields} We find that miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p inhibition of proliferation and anchorage independent growth are exclusive to SiHa cells. {yields} miR-34c-3p induces apoptosis and inhibits cell motility and invasion in SiHa cells. {yields} In this study we conclude that miR-34c-3p functions as a tumor suppressor differ from miR-34c-5p. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate expression of several genes associated with human cancer. Here, we analyzed the function of miR-34c, an effector of p53, in cervical carcinoma cells. Expression of either miR-34c-3p or miR-34c-5p mimics caused inhibition of cell proliferation in the HPV-containing SiHa cells but not in other cervical cells irrespective of tumorigenicity and HPV content. These results suggest that SiHa cells may lack of regulatory mechanisms for miR-34c. Monolayer proliferation results showed that miR-34c-3p produced a more pronounced inhibitory effect although both miRNAs caused inhibition of anchorage independent growth at similar extent. However, ectopic expression of pre-miR-34c-3p, but not pre-miR-34c-5p, caused S-phase arrest in SiHa cells triggering a strong dose-dependent apoptosis. A significant inhibition was observed only for miR-34c-3p on SiHa cells migration and invasion, therefore implying alternative regulatory pathways and targets. These results suggest differential tumor suppressor roles for miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p and provide new insights in the understanding of miRNA biology.

  1. miR-127 Protects Proximal Tubule Cells against Ischemia/Reperfusion: Identification of Kinesin Family Member 3B as miR-127 Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Fraile, Elia; Ramos, Edurne; Sáenz-Morales, David; Conde, Elisa; Blanco-Sánchez, Ignacio; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; del Peso, Luis; Cuppen, Edwin; Brüne, Bernhard; Bermejo, María Laura García

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is at the basis of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury. Molecular mechanisms underlying proximal tubule response to I/R will allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for both clinical settings. microRNAs have emerged as crucial and tight regulators of the cellular response to insults including hypoxia. Here, we have identified several miRNAs involved in the response of the proximal tubule cell to I/R. Microarrays and RT-PCR analysis of proximal tubule cells submitted to I/R mimicking conditions in vitro demonstrated that miR-127 is induced during ischemia and also during reperfusion. miR-127 is also modulated in a rat model of renal I/R. Interference approaches demonstrated that ischemic induction of miR-127 is mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) stabilization. Moreover, miR-127 is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion maintenance, since overexpression of miR-127 maintains focal adhesion complex assembly and the integrity of tight junctions. miR-127 also regulates intracellular trafficking since miR-127 interference promotes dextran-FITC uptake. In fact, we have identified the Kinesin Family Member 3B (KIF3B), involved in cell trafficking, as a target of miR-127 in rat proximal tubule cells. In summary, we have described a novel role of miR-127 in cell adhesion and its regulation by HIF-1α. We also identified for the first time KIF3B as a miR-127 target. Both, miR-127 and KIF3B appear as key mediators of proximal epithelial tubule cell response to I/R with potential al application in renal ischemic damage management. PMID:22962609

  2. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  3. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  4. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  5. GPR capabilities for ice thickness sampling of low salinity ice and for detecting oil in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalumiere, Louis [Sensors by Design Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This report discusses the performance and capabilities test of two airborne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500, for monitoring low salinity snow and ice properties which was used to measure the thickness of brackish ice on Lake Melville in Labrador and on a tidal river in Prince Edward Island. The work of other researchers is documented and the measurement techniques proposed are compared to the actual GPR approach. Different plots of GPR data taken over snow and freshwater ice and over ice with changing salinity are discussed. An interpretation of brackish ice GPR plots done by the Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500 systems is given based on resolution criterion. Additionally, the capability of the BIO helicopter-borne GPR to detect oil-in-ice has been also investigated, and an opinion on the likelihood of the success of GPR as an oil-in-ice detector is given.

  6. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  7. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  8. Skating on slippery ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. van Leeuwen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction of a stationary moving skate on smooth ice is investigated, in particular in relation to the formation of a thin layer of water between skate and ice. It is found that the combination of ploughing and sliding gives a friction force that is rather insensitive for parameters such as velocity and temperature. The weak dependence originates from the pressure adjustment inside the water layer. For instance, high velocities, which would give rise to high friction, also lead to large pressures, which, in turn, decrease the contact zone and so lower the friction. The theory is a combination and completion of two existing but conflicting theories on the formation of the water layer.

  9. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  10. Concussion in ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Wecht, Daniel A; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-01-01

    Ice hockey is an aggressive and fast-paced sport which has a high risk of injury, concussions in particular. Although serious head injury has been recognized for nearly 50 years, an increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness. As a result, the National Hockey League (NHL) and other professional leagues around the world have initiated concussion protocols in order to better prevent, recognize, and treat concussions. With over 1,000,000 youth hockey participants in Canada and the USA combined, concussion is an issue that reaches beyond the professional level. In this report we review the incidence, evaluation, treatment, return-to-play protocol, and prevention efforts related to concussion in ice hockey. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. miR-125/Pokemon auto-circuit contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangqian; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of human malignant tumor occurring in hepatic tissues with high mortality. Patients benefit little from current therapeutic modalities, at least partially due to the lack of complete elucidation of molecular network regulating HCC. miR-125 and Pokemon are well-recognized tumor suppressor and oncogenes for HCC, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism by which the two genes exert their functions and the relationship between miR-125 and Pokemon is still unexplored yet. In this study, we found that there is an inverse association between miR-125 and Pokemon expression levels in HCC specimen and cell lines. Online database mining indicated that there are three putative mRNA recognition elements (MREs) of miR-125 within 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of Pokemon. MREs of miR-125 confer the expression of luciferase with a miR-125-dependent fashion. The alteration in miR-125 abundance regulates the expression of Pokemon at both protein and mRNA levels. Overexpression of Pokemon is able to abrogate the inhibitory effect of miR-125 on HCC progression. Further study showed that Pokemon inhibits the expression of miR-125 by binding of recognition sites within its promoter. In conclusion, we found that there is an auto-regulatory circuit consisting of miR-125 and Pokemon, which promotes the progression of HCC and may be a promising therapeutic target in clinical HCC treatment.

  12. MiR-145 functions as a tumor suppressor targeting NUAK1 in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xinkui; Sun, Daoyi; Chai, Hao; Shan, Wengang [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Yue [Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Pu, Liyong [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Feng, E-mail: docchengfeng@njmu.edu.cn [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-18

    The dysregulation of micro (mi)RNAs is associated with cancer development. The miRNA miR-145 is downregulated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); however, its precise role in tumor progression has not yet been elucidated. Novel (nua) kinase family (NUAK)1 functions as an oncogene in various cancers and is a putative target of miR-145 regulation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of NUAK1 by miR-145 in ICC. We found that miR-145 level was significantly decreased in ICC tissue and cell lines, which corresponded with an increase in NUAK1 expression. NUAK1 was found to be a direct target of miR-145 regulation. The overexpression of miR-145 in ICC cell lines inhibited proliferation, growth, and invasion by suppressing NUAK1 expression, which was associated with a decrease in Akt signaling and matrix metalloproteinase protein expression. Similar results were observed by inhibiting NUAK1 expression. These results demonstrate that miR-145 can prevent ICC progression by targeting NUAK1 and its downstream effectors, and can therefore be useful for clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy of ICC. - Highlights: • MiR-145 suppresses ICC proliferation and invasion abilities. • We demonstrated that miR-145 directly targets NUAK1 in ICC. • MiR-145 expression in ICC was associated with Akt signaling and MMPs expression.

  13. miR-155 promotes cutaneous wound healing through enhanced keratinocytes migration by MMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longlong; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; Yang, Chen; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation, re-epithelization and tissue remodeling are three essential steps during wound healing. The re-epithelization process plays the most important role which mainly involves keratinocyte proliferation and migration. miR-155 has been reported to participate in cell migration and transformation, however, its function in skin wound healing is largely unknown. Here we hypothesize that overexpression of miR-155 at wound edges could accelerate wound healing mediated by enhanced keratinocyte migration. To test this hypothesis, direct local injection of miR-155 expression plasmid to wound edges was conducted to overexpress miR-155 in vivo. Results shown that miR-155 significantly promoted wound healing and re-epithelization compared to control, while did not affect wound contraction. Also, miR-155 overexpression accelerated primarily cultured keratinocyte migration in vitro, but had no effect on cell proliferation. Importantly, western blot analysis shown that MMP-2 was significantly upregulated whiles its inhibitor TIMP-1 downregulated after miR-155 treatment. Moreover, the use of ARP-101, an MMP-2 inhibitor, effectively attenuated the accelerative effects on cell migration induced by miR-155. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-155 has the promote effect on wound healing that is probably mediated by accelerating keratinocyte migration via upregulated MMP-2 level. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic effect of miR-155 on wound healing.

  14. miR-11 regulates pupal size of Drosophila melanogaster via directly targeting Ras85D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play diverse roles in various physiological processes during Drosophila development. In the present study, we reported that miR-11 regulates pupal size during Drosophila metamorphosis via targeting Ras85D with the following evidences: pupal size was increased in the miR-11 deletion mutant; restoration of miR-11 in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant; ectopic expression of miR-11 in brain insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and whole body shows consistent alteration of pupal size; Dilps and Ras85D expressions were negatively regulated by miR-11 in vivo; miR-11 targets Ras85D through directly binding to Ras85D 3'-untranslated region in vitro; removal of one copy of Ras85D in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant. Thus, our current work provides a novel mechanism of pupal size determination by microRNAs during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. MiR-32 promotes gastric carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Kruppel-like factor 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chao [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Yu, Jianchun, E-mail: yu_jchpumch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Yuqin [Cell Culture Center, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005 (China); Kang, Weiming; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2015-11-27

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignant cancer worldwide and is highly lethal because of its fast growth. Currently, the clinical therapy options for GC remain limited. MiR-32 has been reported as an oncogenic microRNA in many cancers, but its role in GC is unclear. Here, we found that miR-32 was overexpressed in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissue, and miR-32 was higher in GC patients' plasma compared with healthy individuals. Furthermore, we have identified miR-32 to be oncogenic, by promoting gastric cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a direct target of miR-32. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells. We conclude that miR-32 promotes GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting KLF4, suggesting that the miR-32-KLF4 pathway may be useful in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. - Highlights: • miR-32 was overexpression in GC tissues than adjacent normal tissue. • miR-32 was higher in GC patients' plasma compared with healthy people. • miR-32 promotes GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting KLF4.

  16. Ice Sheet Retention Structures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A L % . - .& .4% I% REPORT83n30US Army Corps* RE RT 3-30of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engingering ...Journal of the Technical Councils of ASCI, search Report 206. AD666205. Proceedings of the American Society of’Civil Engi- Ekizian, H., Jr. (1976...and G.D. Ashton (1978) Entrainment search Council, Ottawa. of ice floes into a submerged outlet. Proceedings of Uzuner, M.S. and J.F. Kennedy (1972

  17. In Vivo Expression of miR-32 Induces Proliferation in Prostate Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latonen, Leena; Scaravilli, Mauro; Gillen, Andrew; Hartikainen, Samuli; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Kujala, Paula; Poutanen, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2017-08-19

    miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and are often deregulated in cancer. We have previously shown that miR-32 is an androgen receptor-regulated miRNA overexpressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer and that miR-32 can improve prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. To assess the effects of miR-32 in vivo, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing miR-32 in the prostate. The study indicated that transgenic miR-32 expression increases replicative activity in the prostate epithelium. We further observed an aging-associated increase in the incidence of goblet cell metaplasia in the prostate epithelium. Furthermore, aged miR-32 transgenic mice exhibited metaplasia-associated prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia at a low frequency. When crossbred with mice lacking the other allele of tumor-suppressor Pten (miR-32xPten(+/-) mice), miR-32 expression increased both the incidence and the replicative activity of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions in the dorsal prostate. The miR-32xPten(+/-) mice also demonstrated increased goblet cell metaplasia compared with Pten(+/-) mice. By performing a microarray analysis of mouse prostate tissue to screen downstream targets and effectors of miR-32, we identified RAC2 as a potential, and clinically relevant, target of miR-32. We also demonstrate down-regulation of several interesting, potentially prostate cancer-relevant genes (Spink1, Spink5, and Casp1) by miR-32 in the prostate tissue. The results demonstrate that miR-32 increases proliferation and promotes metaplastic transformation in mouse prostate epithelium, which may promote neoplastic alterations in the prostate. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cigarette smoke mediates epigenetic repression of miR-217 during esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Inchauste, S; Guo, H; Shan, J; Xiao, Z; Xu, H; Miettenen, M; Zhang, M R; Hong, J A; Raiji, M T; Altorki, N K; Casson, A G; Beer, D G; Robles, A I; Bowman, E D; Harris, C C; Steinberg, S M; Schrump, D S

    2015-10-29

    Although microRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human malignancies, limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which these noncoding RNAs contribute to initiation and progression of tobacco-induced esophageal cancers. In this study, array and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were used to examine miR expression in immortalized esophageal epithelia (IEE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells cultured in normal media with or without cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Under relevant exposure conditions, CSC significantly decreased miR-217 expression in these cells. Endogenous levels of miR-217 expression in cultured EAC cells (EACC)/primary EACs were significantly lower than those observed in IEE/ paired normal esophageal tissues. RNA crosslink immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot experiments demonstrated direct interaction of miR-217 with kallikrein 7 (KLK7), encoding a putative oncogene not previously implicated in EAC. Repression of miR-217 correlated with increased levels of KLK7 in primary EACs, particularly those from smokers. Chromatin and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CSC-mediated repression of miR-217 coincided with DNMT3b-dependent hypermethylation and decreased occupancy of nuclear factor 1 within the miR-217 genomic locus. Deoxyazacytidine induced miR-217 expression and downregulated KLK7 in EACC; deoxyazacytidine also attenuated CSC-mediated miR-217 repression and upregulation of KLK7 in IEE and EACC. Overexpression of miR-217 significantly decreased, whereas overexpression of KLK7 increased proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of EACC. Collectively, these data demonstrate that epigenetic repression of miR-217 contributes to the pathogenesis of EAC via upregulation of KLK7 and suggest that restoration of miR-217 expression may be a novel treatment strategy for these malignancies.

  19. The miR-383-LDHA axis regulates cell proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in hepatocellular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To explore the correlation between expression patterns and functions of miR-383 and LDHA in hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Materials and Methods: We detected the expression of miR-383 and LDHA in 30 HCC tissues and their matched adjacent normal tissues using qRT-PCR. Then we performed MTT assay, foci formation assay, transwell migration assay, glucose uptake assay and lactate production assay to explore the function of miR-383 in cell proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in HCC cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay was used to explore whether LDHA was a target gene of miR-383. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to further confirm LDHA was targeted by miR-383. Then the above functional experiments were repeated to see whether the function of LDHA could be inhibited by miR-383. Results: The results of qRT-PCR showed that miR-383 was down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with their matched adjacent normal tissues. Functional experiments showed that overexpression of miR-383 significantly suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and glycolysis. Luciferase reporter assay showed LDHA was a target gene of miR-383 and expression of LDHA was inversely correlated with that of miR-383 in HCC. Besides, increased cell proliferation, invasion and glycolysis triggered by LDHA could be inhibited by overexpression of miR-383 in HCC cell lines. Conclusion: Our study proved that miR-383 is down-regulated in HCC and acts as a tumor suppressor through targeting LDHA. Targeting the miR-383-LDHA axis might be a promising strategy in HCC treatment.

  20. miR-935 suppresses gastric signet ring cell carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Notch1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chao [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Yu, Jianchun, E-mail: yu_jchpumch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Kang, Weiming [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Yuqin [Cell Culture Center, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005 (China); Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRCC) is a unique pathological type of gastric carcinoma that is extremely invasive and has a poor prognosis. Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been closely linked to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and has been considered as a powerful prognostic marker. The function of miR-935 has never been reported in cancer before. We found, using microRNA array, that expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell lines is lower than in non-GSRCC cell lines, and enhanced expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell-lines inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Notch1 as a direct target of miR-935. Knockdown of Notch1 reduced proliferation, migration/invasion of GSRCC cells, and overexpression Notch1's activated form (Notch intracellular domain) could rescue miR-935's tumor suppressive effect on GSRCC. Expression of miR-935 was lower in gastric carcinoma tissue than in paired normal tissue samples, and lower in GSRCC than in non-GSRCC. Our results demonstrate the inverse correlation between the expression of miR-935 and Notch1 in gastric tissues. We conclude that miR-935 inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting Notch1, suggesting potential applications of the miR-935-Notch1 pathway in gastric cancer clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, especially in gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GC tissue than in paired normal tissue. • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GSRCC tissue than in non-GSRCC. • Enhanced expression of miR-935 suppresses tumorigenesis of GSRCC. • Notch1 is a direct target of miR-935.

  1. Inhibition of the miR-155 target NIAM phenocopies the growth promoting effect of miR-155 in B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; de Jong, Debora; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Kortman, Gertrud; Winkle, Melanie; Rutgers, Bea; Koerts, Jasper; Visser, Lydia; Diepstra, Arjan; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated an important role for miR-155 in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma. Highly elevated levels of miR-155 were indeed observed in most B-cell lymphomas with the exception of Burkitt lymphoma (BL). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the oncogenic role of

  2. Aneurysm-Specific miR-221 and miR-146a Participates in Human Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premakumari Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Altered microRNA expression is implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine microRNA signatures in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs compared with control non-aneurysmal aortic specimens. We evaluated the expression of fifteen selected microRNA in human TAA and AAA operative specimens compared to controls. We observed significant upregulation of miR-221 and downregulation of miR-1 and -133 in TAA specimens. In contrast, upregulation of miR-146a and downregulation of miR-145 and -331-3p were found only for AAA specimens. Upregulation of miR-126 and -486-5p and downregulation of miR-30c-2*, -155, and -204 were observed in specimens of TAAs and AAAs. The data reveal microRNA expression signatures unique to aneurysm location and common to both thoracic and abdominal pathologies. Thus, changes in miR-1, -29a, -133a, and -221 are involved in TAAs and miR-145, -146, and -331-3p impact AAAs. This work validates prior studies on microRNA expression in aneurysmal diseases.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can coordinate the main pathways involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating gene expression. To explore the resistance to mastitis in cows, miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p were identified in bovine mammary gland tissue and 14 potential target genes belonging to the chemokine signaling pathway, the arginine and proline metabolism pathway and the mRNA surveillance pathway were predicted. Subsequently, we estimated the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in cow mammary tissues by using stem-loop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in the mastitis-infected mammary tissues (n = 5 was significantly downregulated 0.14-fold (p < 0. 01 and upregulated 3.34-fold (p < 0. 01, respectively, compared to healthy tissues (n = 5. Our findings reveal that miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p may have important roles in resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle.

  4. Oncogenic miR-19a and miR-19b co-regulate tumor suppressor MTUS1 to promote cell proliferation and migration in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT MTUS1 (microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 has been identified that can function as a tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. However, the function and mechanisms underlying the regulation of MTUS1 are unclear. In the present study, we reported that miR-19a and miR-19b (miR-19a/b promote proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells by targeting MTUS1. First, MTUS1 was proved to function as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and was linked to cell proliferation and migration promotion. Second, an inverse correlation between miR-19a/b expression and MTUS1 mRNA/protein expression was noted in human lung cancer tissues. Third, MTUS1 was appraised as a direct target of miR-19a/b by bioinformatics analysis. Fourth, direct MTUS1 regulation by miR-19a/b in lung cancer cells was experimentally affirmed by cell transfection assay and luciferase reporter assay. Finally, miR-19a/b were shown to cooperatively repress MTUS1 expression and synergistically regulate MTUS1 expression to promote lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, our findings have provided the first clues regarding the roles of miR-19a/b, which appear to function as oncomirs in lung cancer by downregulating MTUS1.

  5. Field measurement of local ice pressures on the ARAON in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak-Kee Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted four field measurements of local ice pressure during the icebreaking voyage of the icebreaking research vessel “ARAON” in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas from July to August of 2010. For measurements, 14 strain gauges, including 8 strain gauge rosettes, were set on the bow of the port side. Influence coefficients were determined using a finite element model of the instrumented area and they were used to convert the measured strains on the hull structure to local ice pressures. The converted maximum pressure was calculated as 2.12 MPa on an area of 0.28 m2. Pressure-area curves were developed from the surveyed pressure data and the results were compared with previously measured data. The study results are expected to provide an understanding of local ice pressures and thus be useful in the structural design of ice class ships.

  6. miR160 and miR166/165 Contribute to the LEC2-Mediated Auxin Response Involved in the Somatic Embryogenesis Induction in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Wójcik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNA molecules that are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of the genes that control various developmental processes in plants, including zygotic embryogenesis (ZE. miRNAs are also believed to regulate somatic embryogenesis (SE, a counterpart of the ZE that is induced in vitro in plant somatic cells. However, the roles of specific miRNAs in the regulation of the genes involved in SE, in particular those encoding transcription factors (TFs with an essential function during SE including LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2, remain mostly unknown. The aim of the study was to reveal the function of miR165/166 and miR160 in the LEC2-controlled pathway of SE that is induced in in vitro cultured Arabidopsis explants.In ZE, miR165/166 controls the PHABULOSA/PHAVOLUTA (PHB/PHV genes, which are the positive regulators of LEC2, while miR160 targets the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARF10, ARF16, ARF17 that control the auxin signaling pathway, which plays key role in LEC2-mediated SE. We found that a deregulated expression/function of miR165/166 and miR160 resulted in a significant accumulation of auxin in the cultured explants and the spontaneous formation of somatic embryos. Our results show that miR165/166 might contribute to SE induction via targeting PHB, a positive regulator of LEC2 that controls embryogenic induction via activation of auxin biosynthesis pathway (Wójcikowska et al., 2013. Similar to miR165/166, miR160 was indicated to control SE induction through auxin-related pathways and the negative impact of miR160 on ARF10/ARF16/ARF17 was shown in an embryogenic culture. Altogether, the results suggest that the miR165/166- and miR160-node contribute to the LEC2-mediated auxin-related pathway of embryogenic transition that is induced in the somatic cells of Arabidopsis. A model summarizing the suggested regulatory interactions between the miR165/166-PHB and miR160-ARF10/ARF16/ARF17 nodes that control SE induction in

  7. miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p Negatively Regulate Twist1 to Repress Gastric Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Hou, Jingjing; Li, Zengpeng; Zheng, Zihan; Wei, Jie; Song, Dan; Hu, Tao; Wu, Qiao; Yang, James Y.; Cai, Jian-chun

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a novel class of gene regulators that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In our current study, we investigated the role of miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p in the regulation of Twist1 expression and EMT process. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that on the 3' UTR of Twist1, there are two conserved miRNA recognition sites for miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p respectively. Interestingly, overexpression of miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p significantly suppressed the activity of luciferase reporter containing Twist1-3' UTR, reduced mRNA and protein level of EMT related genes such as TWIST1, N-cadherin, α-SMA and Fibronectin, and repressed MMP9 and MMP2 activity, as well as cell migration and invasion. Conversely, inhibition of miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p significantly increased TWIST1, N-cadherin, α-SMA and Fibronectin protein expression. In addition, Twist1 co-transfection significantly ameliorated the loss of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, overexpression of miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p dramatically suppressed the ability of BGC823 cells to form colonies in vitro and develop tumors in vivo in nude mice. Finally, qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p were significantly reduced in clinical gastric cancer tissue, whereas Twist1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated, suggesting that this aberrant down-regulation of miR-15a-3p and miR-16-1-3p might be associated with the abnormal regulation of Twist1 and the EMT process in gastric cancer development. Our results help to elucidate a novel and important mechanism for the regulation of Twist1 in the development of cancer. PMID:28123352

  8. miR-34a sensitizes lung cancer cells to cisplatin via p53/miR-34a/MYCN axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changshan; Lu, Pingfang; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the most potent and widespread used chemotherapy drug for lung cancer treatment. However, a large proportion of NSCLC patients were insensitive to chemotherapy. This study explored the role of miR-34a in regulating sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin and its downstream targets. The quantitative PCR result showed that miR-34a expression was upregulated in cisplatin sensitive NSCLC patients compared cisplatin insensitive NSCLC controls. By applying loss-and-gain function analysis, we demonstrated that miR-34a directly targeted to MYCN to sensitize NSCLC cells to cisplatin. In addition, p53 was found to monitor the expression of miR-34a in NSCLC cells after cisplatin treatment. Therefore, the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells was modulated via p53/miR-34a/MYCN axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GenIce: Hydrogen-Disordered Ice Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2018-01-05

    GenIce is an efficient and user-friendly tool to generate hydrogen-disordered ice structures. It makes ice and clathrate hydrate structures in various file formats. More than 100 kinds of structures are preset. Users can install their own crystal structures, guest molecules, and file formats as plugins. The algorithm certifies that the generated structures are completely randomized hydrogen-disordered networks obeying the ice rule with zero net polarization. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Assmy

    Full Text Available During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  11. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  12. Functionality of Sea Ice Data Sources on the NSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of available official sources of sea ice data for the Northern Sea Route to date is low. In recent years a large number of new publicly available sources have appeared. Their functionality for purposes of route planning has yet to be evaluated. This study presents results of qualitative and expert analyses of various sources. It is proposed to use new indicators to enable comparison of functionality of data sources. New sources provide the technical progress that is instrumental in reducing the amount of effort and influence of the human factor in the decision-making system. The study also presents solutions to the problem of limited bandwidth available at high latitudes with Iridium satellite system. Presented solutions can be used on any vessel by any company or navigator to implement or design the decision support system related to route planning in ice in accordance with the requirements of the ISM Code and concept of e-Navigation.

  13. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  14. miR-191: An emerging player in disease biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu eKulshreshtha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20 and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn’s, pulmonary hypertension and Alzheimer’s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target.

  15. MiR-143 and miR-135 inhibitors treatment induces skeletal myogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxia; Deng, Tianzheng; Li, Hongshi; Li, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) possess pluripotent properties that allow them to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, which can be potentially used in tissue regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study is to explore the effect of miRNAs on the myogenic differentiation of human adult DPSCs and seek for some potential biological factors for stable and feasible application in DPSC myogenic differentiation. Human adult DPSCs were isolated from normal impacted third molars were treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine to induce to myogenic differentiation in vitro. During this process the levels of myomiRNAs and myogenic marker genes were detected by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Then antisense oligonucleotides of miR-143 and miR-135 were transfected into DPSCs to explore their effects on myogenic differentiation. Gene expression detection and MyHC immunofluorescence microscopy analysis were applied to characterize the myogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Expression of miR-135 and miR-143 was markedly decreased in myoblast DPSCs induced by 5-Aza. Part of the DPSCs treated with miR-135 or miR-143 inhibitors showed apparent myocytic properties and eventually fused to form myotubes. Co-transfection of miR-135 and miR-143 inhibitors impelled half of DPSCs to form myotubes. MiR-135 and miR-143 inhibitors could induce myogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Our findings indicated that miRNAs could exert a decisive function in induction of myogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combination of miR-125b and miR-27a enhances sensitivity and specificity of AFP-based diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Duo; Chen, Liwei; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Xia; Xi, Qing; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Ning; Guo, Hua

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive biomarkers of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could offer immense benefits. Currently available tumor markers for HCC are of not much clinical relevance. In this study, we investigated the potential for using a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel tumor markers in conjunction with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for diagnosis of HCC. Serum expression of four miRNAs was assessed in 150 subjects (90 cases of HCC and 60 cases without cancer) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the potential use of miRNAs for detection of HCC. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. A panel of serum miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-223, miR-27a, and miR-26a) used in conjunction with AFP helped differentiate HCC patients from those in the non-cancer group after adjusting for age and gender, with the area under the curve of 0.870. In addition, the use of miR-125b/miR-27a panel differentiated HBV-related early-stage HCC with a high sensitivity (80.0 %) and specificity (87.2 %) in AFP-negative (-) subjects. A combination of serum miR-125b, miR-223, miR-27a, and miR-26a as a second-line tests could help detect HCC in AFP (-) subjects. The panel of miR-125b/miR-27a/AFP had a higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of early-stage HCC as compared to that of a single marker.

  17. El examen MIR, su cambio como una opción estratégica The MIR examination, the change as a strategic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vázquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen MIR es un punto estratégico capaz de promover cambios en cascada en su entorno, con repercusiones tanto en la etapa de licenciatura como en la de especialización. Actualmente, la implantación de un nuevo currículo basado en competencias y las nuevas metodologías de entrenamiento y evaluación, aconsejan adecuar el examen MIR a las necesidades actuales. El rediseño del examen MIR requiere incrementar el número de preguntas y apoyarlas con iconografía, y relacionarlas con competencias predeterminadas, a la vez que se incorpora la evaluación objetiva de habilidades. Este cambio requiere más tiempo para realizar los exámenes, una gestión más ágil, equipos multidisciplinares de diseño y centros acreditados. El soporte informático debe dar cobertura al 100% de las actividades del examen MIR. La equidad, la transparencia y la accesibilidad deben ser los valores del examen MIR.The MIR examination constitutes a strategic point which is capable of promoting cascading changes in its environment with repercussions at both the undergraduate and specialisation stages. At present, the implementation of a new skills-based syllabus and new training and evaluation methodologies make it necessary to adapt the MIR examination to current needs. The redesign of the MIR examination requires an increase in the number of questions; these must be supported with iconography and related to predetermined competences along with the incorporation of objective skills evaluation. This change requires more examination time, more efficient management, multi-disciplinary design teams and accredited centres. Information technology support must provide 100% cover to the MIR examination activities. Equity, transparency and accessibility must be the values of the MIR examination.

  18. MiR-375 and miR-200c as predictive biomarkers of islet isolation and transplantation in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Takita, Morihito; Kanak, Mazhar A; Haque, Waqas Z; Chang, Charles; Saravanan, Prathab Balaji; Lawrence, Michael C; Levy, Marlon F; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2016-09-01

    Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a promising treatment for refractory chronic pancreatitis. Predictable biomarkers for the endocrine function after transplantation would be helpful in selecting patients for TPIAT. This study aims to identify novel biomarkers for predicting the outcome of islet isolation and transplantation in TPIAT patients. This paper studied microRNA of 31 TPIAT patients and 11 deceased donors from plasma samples before TPIAT. MiR-7, miR-200a, miR-200c, miR-320, and miR-375 were analyzed along with patient characteristics and the outcomes of islet isolation and transplantation via univariate and multivariate regression analysis. MiR-375 before TPIAT showed a significant correlation with ∆C-peptide (r = -0.396, P = 0.03) and post-digestion islet count (r = -0.372, P = 0.04). And also miR-200c was significantly correlated with insulin requirement, C-peptide, and SUITO index at 1 year after transplantation. Moreover it was confirmed that miR-200c was a predictable factor of endocrine outcome in multi regression analysis (coefficient = -7.081, P = 0.001). We concluded that miR-375 and miR-200c could potentially serve as novel biomarkers in predicting the islet yield in islet isolation and the metabolic function after transplantation for chronic pancreatitis patients. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  19. Declining Physical Performance Associates with Serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a in Aging Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Kangas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with systemic inflammation and cellular apoptosis accelerating physiological dysfunctions. Whether physically active way of life affects these associations is unclear. This study measured the levels of serum inflammatory and apoptotic molecules, their change over 10 years, and their associations with physical performance in sprint-trained male athletes. HsCRP, cell counts, HGB, FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a were measured cross-sectionally (n=67, 18–90 yrs and serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a and their aging-related associations with physical performance were assessed over a 10-year follow-up (n=49, 50–90 yrs. The cross-sectional study showed positive age correlations for neutrophils and negative for lymphocytes, red blood cells, HGB, FasL, and miR-146a. During the 10-year follow-up, FasL decreased (P=0.017 and miR-21 (P<0.001 and miR-146a (P=0.005 levels increased. When combining the molecule levels, aging, and physical performance, FasL associated with countermovement jump and bench press (P<0.001, miR-21 and miR-146a with knee flexion (P=0.023; P<0.001, and bench press (P=0.004; P<0.001 and miR-146a with sprint performance (P<0.001. The studied serum molecules changed in an age-dependent manner and were associated with declining physical performance. They have potential as biomarkers of aging-related processes influencing the development of physiological dysfunctions. Further research is needed focusing on the origins and targets of circulating microRNAs to clarify their function in various tissues with aging.

  20. Declining Physical Performance Associates with Serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a in Aging Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen, Markku; Suominen, Harri; Kovanen, Vuokko; Korhonen, Marko T.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with systemic inflammation and cellular apoptosis accelerating physiological dysfunctions. Whether physically active way of life affects these associations is unclear. This study measured the levels of serum inflammatory and apoptotic molecules, their change over 10 years, and their associations with physical performance in sprint-trained male athletes. HsCRP, cell counts, HGB, FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a were measured cross-sectionally (n = 67, 18–90 yrs) and serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a and their aging-related associations with physical performance were assessed over a 10-year follow-up (n = 49, 50–90 yrs). The cross-sectional study showed positive age correlations for neutrophils and negative for lymphocytes, red blood cells, HGB, FasL, and miR-146a. During the 10-year follow-up, FasL decreased (P = 0.017) and miR-21 (P < 0.001) and miR-146a (P = 0.005) levels increased. When combining the molecule levels, aging, and physical performance, FasL associated with countermovement jump and bench press (P < 0.001), miR-21 and miR-146a with knee flexion (P = 0.023; P < 0.001), and bench press (P = 0.004; P < 0.001) and miR-146a with sprint performance (P < 0.001). The studied serum molecules changed in an age-dependent manner and were associated with declining physical performance. They have potential as biomarkers of aging-related processes influencing the development of physiological dysfunctions. Further research is needed focusing on the origins and targets of circulating microRNAs to clarify their function in various tissues with aging. PMID:28127562

  1. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...... to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System...... Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...

  2. MiR-564 functions as a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer by targeting ZIC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Jia, Lin [Department of Nephrology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Guo, Qiaojuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350000 (China); Ren, Hui; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Ren, Qingrong [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Hu, Yanping, E-mail: huyp1989@163.com [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Xie, Tao, E-mail: xietao930@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2015-11-27

    Although miR-564 was reported to be dysregulated in human malignancy, the function and mechanism of miR-564 in tumorigenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-564 frequently downregulated in lung cancer cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, motility, and the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. Moreover, we identified zic family member 3 (ZIC3) as a direct target of miR-564. ZIC3 overexpression impaired the suppressive effects of miR-564 on the capacity of lung cancer cells for proliferation and motility. Finally, we detected the expression level of miR-564 and ZIC3 protein in tissue specimens, and found a significant negative correlation between them. Patients with low levels of miR-564 showed a poorer overall survival. Taken together, our present study revealed the tumor suppressor role of miR-564, indicating restoration of miR-564 as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • MiR-564 inhibits cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. • miR-564 suppresses the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cell in vivo. • ZIC3 is a direct and functional target of miR-564. • The expression of miR-564 was negatively correlated with ZIC3 protein in tumors. • Both low miR-564 and high ZIC3 was associated with tumor stage and prognosis.

  3. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  4. Mir-434-5p mediates skin whitening and lightening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David TS Wu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available David TS Wu, Jack S Chen, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung LinInstitute of Mello Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCAbstract: Utilization of gene silencing effectors, such as microRNA (miRNA and small airpin RNA (shRNA, provides a powerful new strategy for human skin care in vivo, particularly for hyperpigmentation treatment and aging prevention. In this study, tyrosinase (Tyr, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin (black pigment biosynthesis, was served as a target for treatment of hyperpigmentation in mouse and human skins. There are over 54 native microRNA capable of silencing human tyrosinase for skin whitening and lightening. To this, we have designed a mir-434-5p homologue and used it to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of miRNA-mediated skin whitening and lightening in vitro and in vivo. Under the same experimental condition in the trials, Pol-II-directed intronic mir-434-5p expression did not cause any detectable sign of cytotoxicity, whereas siRNAs targeting the same sequence often induced certain nonspecific mRNA degradation as previously reported. Because the intronic miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is tightly regulated by multiple intracellular surveillance systems, including Pol-II transcription, RNA splicing, exosomal digestion and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD, the current findings underscore the fact that intronic miRNA agents, such as manually re-designed mir-434-5p homologues, are effective, target-specific and safe to be used for skin whitening without any detectable cytotoxic effect. Given that the human skins also express a variety of other native miRNAs, we may re-design these miRNAs based on their individual functions for skin care, which may provide significant insights into areas of opportunity for new cosmetic and/or therapeutical applications.Keywords: microRNA, miRNA, mir-434, intron, gene silencing, RNAi, tyrosinase, melanin, cosmetics, pigmentation, skin whitening

  5. MIR-biospectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in cancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Laurinda F S; Lima, Kássio M G

    2016-08-02

    This review focuses on chemometric techniques applied in MIR-biospectroscopy for cancer diagnosis and analysis over the last ten years of research. Experimental applications of chemometrics coupled with biospectroscopy are discussed throughout this work. The advantages and drawbacks of this association are also highlighted. Chemometric algorithms are evidenced as a powerful tool for cancer diagnosis, classification, and in different matrices. In fact, it is shown how chemometrics can be implemented along all different types of cancer analyses.

  6. THE INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    ICE was built during 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). ICE was a proton and antiproton storage ring, built to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project to be launched in 1978. More on the ICE experimental programme with 7802099. See also 7809081, 7908242.

  7. PSL Icing Facility Upgrade Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas A.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, the PSL is capable of simulating icing events at altitude in a groundtest facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 to 40,000 ft at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60 to +15 degF. This paper and presentation will be part of a series of presentations on PSL Icing and will cover the development of the icing capability through design, developmental testing, installation, initial calibration, and validation engine testing. Information will be presented on the design criteria and process, spray bar developmental testing at Cox and Co., system capabilities, and initial calibration and engine validation test. The PSL icing system was designed to provide NASA and the icing community with a facility that could be used for research studies of engine icing by duplicating in-flight events in a controlled ground-test facility. With the system and the altitude chamber we can produce flight conditions and cloud environments to simulate those encountered in flight. The icing system can be controlled to set various cloud uniformities, droplet median volumetric diameter (MVD), and icing water content (IWC) through a wide variety of conditions. The PSL chamber can set altitudes, Mach numbers, and temperatures of interest to the icing community and also has the instrumentation capability of measuring engine performance during icing testing. PSL last year completed the calibration and initial engine validation of the facility utilizing a Honeywell ALF502-R5 engine and has duplicated in-flight roll back conditions experienced during flight testing. This paper will summarize the modifications and buildup of the facility to accomplish these tests.

  8. 2006 Program of Study: Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Schlosser Columbia University Christian Schoof University of British Columbia Tiffany Shaw University of Toronto Edward Spiegel Columbia University... Thorndike [31] with additions to allow for partial ice cover, an ocean mixed layer which is always active, a simple paranieterization of ice dynaiics...It is an extension of the model of Thorndike ([31], hereafter T92), which is a single-column model with representations of vertical sea ice

  9. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy.

  10. p16(INK4a translation suppressed by miR-24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Lal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a increases during aging and replicative senescence.Here, we report that the microRNA miR-24 suppresses p16 expression in human diploid fibroblasts and cervical carcinoma cells. Increased p16 expression with replicative senescence was associated with decreased levels of miR-24, a microRNA that was predicted to associate with the p16 mRNA coding and 3'-untranslated regions. Ectopic miR-24 overexpression reduced p16 protein but not p16 mRNA levels. Conversely, introduction of antisense (AS-miR-24 blocked miR-24 expression and markedly enhanced p16 protein levels, p16 translation, and the production of EGFP-p16 reporter bearing the miR-24 target recognition sites.Together, our results suggest that miR-24 represses the initiation and elongation phases of p16 translation.

  11. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  12. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  13. MiR-146a/b: a family with shared seeds and different roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Mark R; Kriegel, Alison J

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs are small, noncoding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs consists of two member genes, MIR146A and MIR146B These two microRNAs are located on different chromosomes and exhibit differential regulation in many cases. However, they are nearly identical in sequence, sharing a seed region, and are thus predicted to target the same set of genes. A large proportion of the microRNA (miR)-146 literature focuses on its role in regulating the innate immune response in the context of various pathologies by modulating two widely studied target genes in the toll-like receptor signaling cascade. A growing subset of the literature reports a role of miR-146 in cardiovascular and renal disease, and data suggest there is exciting potential for miR-146 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Nevertheless, the published literature is confounded by unclear and imprecise language concerning the specific effects of the two miR-146 family members. The present review will compare the genomic origin and regulation of miR-146a and miR-146b, discuss some approaches to overcome analytical and experimental challenges, and summarize findings in major areas of miR-146 research. Moving forward, careful evaluation of miR-146a/b specificity in analytical and experimental approaches will aid researchers in elucidating the functional relevance of differential regulation of the miR-146 family members in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. MiR-20a is upregulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer and targets LIMK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports regarding the function of miR-20a in a variety of cancer types and we previously found it to be dysregulated in sporadic versus familial papillary thyroid cancer. In this study, we studied the expression of miR-20a in normal, benign and malignant thyroid samples, and its effect on thyroid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of miR-20a in normal, benign and malignant thyroid tissue was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Thyroid cancer cells were transfected with miR-20a and the effect on cellular proliferation, tumor spheroid formation, and invasion was evaluated. Target genes of miR-20 were determined by genome-wide mRNA expression analysis with miR-20a overexpression in thyroid cancer cells and target prediction database. Target genes were validated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, and luciferase assays. MiR-20a expression was significantly higher in anaplastic thyroid cancer than in differentiated thyroid cancer, and benign and normal thyroid tissues. MiR-20a significantly inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in vitro (p<0.01 and in vivo (p<0.01, tumor spheroid formation (p<0.05 and invasion (p<0.05 in multiple thyroid cancer cell lines. We found that LIMK1 was a target of miR-20a in thyroid cancer cell lines and direct knockdown of LIMK1 recapitulated the effect of miR-20a in thyroid cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that miR-20a plays a role as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer cells and targets LIMK1. Our findings suggest the upregulated expression of miR-20a in anaplastic thyroid cancer counteracts thyroid cancer progression and may have therapeutic potential.

  15. miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in astrocytoma by targeting RASGRF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danni; Xue, Lian; Shao, Naiyuan; Qu, Hongtao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Suinuan; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin; Zhi, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Astrocytoma is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors and has both high mortality and a poor 5-year survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Although we have demonstrated that miR-137 is downregulated in astrocytoma tissues, the role of miR-137 in astrocytoma still remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of miR-137 and its possible target genes in astrocytoma. miR-137 was significantly downregulated in astrocytoma tissues, and its expression level was inversely correlated with the clinical stage. Restoring miR-137 was able to dramatically inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and enhance apoptosis in vitro, whereas silencing its expression inhibited these processes. By overexpressing or inhibiting miR-137 in cancer cells, we experimentally confirmed that miR-137 directly recognized the 3'-UTR (3'-untranslated region) of the RASGRF1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1) transcript and regulated RASGRF1 expression. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was observed between miR-137 levels and RASGRF1 protein levels, but not mRNA levels, in astrocytoma samples. The silencing of RASGRF1 resulted in similar effects to miR-137 restoration in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of RASGRF1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-137. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in astrocytoma by targeting RASGRF1. These findings suggest that miR-137 may serve as a novel therapeutic target in astrocytoma treatment.

  16. Combining Anti-Mir-155 with Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Fanini, Francesca; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Ivan, Cristina; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Xiao, Lianchun; Vannini, Ivan; Redis, Roxana S; D'Abundo, Lucilla; Zhang, Xinna; Nicoloso, Milena S; Rossi, Simona; Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Ferracin, Manuela; Morabito, Fortunato; Neri, Antonino; Ruvolo, Peter P; Ruvolo, Vivian R; Pecot, Chad V; Amadori, Dino; Abruzzo, Lynne; Calin, Steliana; Wang, Xuemei; You, M James; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Orlowski, Robert; Plunkett, William; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Davuluri, Ramana V; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Negrini, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Keating, Michael J; Fabbri, Muller; Calin, George A

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The oncogenic miR-155 is upregulated in many human cancers, and its expression is increased in more aggressive and therapy-resistant tumors, but the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-155-induced therapy resistance are not fully understood. The main objectives of this study were to determine the role of miR-155 in resistance to chemotherapy and to evaluate anti-miR-155 treatment to chemosensitize tumors.Experimental Design: We performed in vitro studies on cell lines to investigate the role of miR-155 in therapy resistance. To assess the effects of miR-155 inhibition on chemoresistance, we used an in vivo orthotopic lung cancer model of athymic nude mice, which we treated with anti-miR-155 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. To analyze the association of miR-155 expression and the combination of miR-155 and TP53 expression with cancer survival, we studied 956 patients with lung cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Results: We demonstrate that miR-155 induces resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents in vitro, and that downregulation of miR-155 successfully resensitizes tumors to chemotherapy in vivo We show that anti-miR-155-DOPC can be considered non-toxic in vivo We further demonstrate that miR-155 and TP53 are linked in a negative feedback mechanism and that a combination of high expression of miR-155 and low expression of TP53 is significantly associated with shorter survival in lung cancer.Conclusions: Our findings support the existence of an miR-155/TP53 feedback loop, which is involved in resistance to chemotherapy and which can be specifically targeted to overcome drug resistance, an important cause of cancer-related death. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); 2891-904. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. miR-200a-3p promotes β-Amyloid-induced neuronal apoptosis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qi-Shun Zhang

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... The aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-200a-3p have been reported in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in recent researches. Nevertheless, the role of miR-200a-3p in AD has not been characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine whether miR-200a-3p ...

  18. MiR-214 suppressed ovarian cancer and negatively regulated semaphorin 4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Honglin; Ma, Lan; Hou, Youfang; Pan, Jing; Sun, Chunyi; Yang, Yingying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common human malignancies in women. MiR-214 and semaphorin 4D (sema 4D) were found to be abhorrently expressed and involved in the progress of several kinds of malignant cancers. This study is aimed to investigate the cellular role of miR-214 and demonstrate that miR-214 negatively regulated sema 4D in ovarian cancer cells. The data showed that miR-214 expression was consistently lower in ovarian cancer tissues and cells than those in the normal controls. Over-expression of miR-214 in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. It was suggested that miR-214 functioned as the tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that miR-214 possibly regulated sema 4D by binding the sema 4D messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Sema 4D mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and SKOV-3 cells. Up-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cell line suppressed the sema 4D expression in both protein and nucleic acid levels. While, down-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cells would increase sema 4D protein and nucleic acid expression levels. The effects of miR-214 up- and down-regulation on luciferase activities of wild-type (WT) sema 4D 3'-UTR were completely removed upon introduction of mutation in 3'-UTR of WT sema 4D. Therefore, the data also demonstrated that sema 4D was the direct target of miR-214 and was negatively regulated by miR-214 in ovarian cancer cells.

  19. miR-200a-3p promotes b-Amyloid-induced neuronal apoptosis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-200a-3p have been reported in the brains of Alzheimer'sdisease (AD) patients in recent researches. Nevertheless, the role of miR-200a-3p in AD has not been characterized. Thepurpose of this study was to examine whether miR-200a-3p regulated b-Ameyloid ...

  20. Association of human microRNAs miR-22 and miR-491 polymorphisms with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Borah; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Se-Woong; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hyun Seok; An, Hui Jeong; Kim, Jung O; Choi, Tai Kiu; Kim, Nam Keun; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNA) in psychiatric disorders has been recently recognized. Several miRNA polymorphisms have been found to be associated with panic disorder (PD) in European populations. However, the association of miRNA polymorphisms on PD has not been reported in Asian populations. We evaluated the effect of miR-22 and miR-491 polymorphisms on susceptibility to PD in a Korean population. Genotyping for four polymorphic variants of the primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) regions of miR-22 (rs8076112 and rs6502892) and miR-491 (rs4977831 and rs2039391) was performed using blood samples of 341 Korean patients with PD and 229 healthy control subjects. To evaluate PD phenotypes, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) were administered. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be associated with PD: rs8076112 miR-22 and rs4977831 and miR-491 rs2039391. The rs8076112C/rs6502892C haplotypes of miR-22 and rs4977831G/rs2039391G and rs4977831A/rs2039391A haplotypes of miR-491 were significantly overrepresented in patients with PD than in healthy control subjects. In combination analysis, miR-22 rs8076112AC/rs6502892CC and rs8076112CC/rs6502892CC and miR-491 rs4977831AG/rs2039391AA were more frequent in patients with PD. Among the phenotype assessments, ASI-R scores were significantly associated with miR-22 rs6502892 in the subgroup with the agoraphobic phenotype. The results should be considered preliminary due to the relatively small sample size and the selection of only four SNPs. This is the first report to show possible associations of miR-22 and miR-491 with genetic susceptibility to PD in a Korean population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

    2014-06-17

    Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted.

  2. Ice storm `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, F.; Trant, D.; Filoso, J.; Van Wesenbeeck, P. [Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environment Statistics Program

    1998-12-31

    As much as 100 millimeters of freezing rain fell on central and eastern Canada between January 4 to 10, 1998. This study concentrates on Canada`s St. Lawrence River Valley where total precipitation exceeded 73 mm in Kingston, 85 mm in Ottawa and 100 mm in areas south of Montreal. By comparison, the largest previously recorded ice storms left between 30 and 40 mm of ice. A state of emergency was declared for the affected regions. 56 per cent of Quebec`s population and 11 per cent of Ontario`s population were affected by the storm. Over 1000 power transmission towers collapsed and more than 30,000 wooden utility poles were brought down. In Quebec, nearly 1.4 million customers were left without electricity. In Ontario that number was about 230,000. While some manufacturers benefited directly from the storm, including makers of hydro and telephone poles, batteries and specialized electrical equipment, the overall economic losses for Montreal and Ottawa were high as estimates run to $585 million and $114 million, respectively. Almost 5 million sugar maple taps in Quebec and Ontario were located and suffered some damage in the affected areas. Nearly one-quarter (274,000) of all dairy cows were also located in the affected areas. Since in the absence of electricity they could not be milked, many of them suffered from mastitis. Many succumbed, others that survived may never attain their former level of productivity. As of June 1998, over 600,000 insurance claims totaling one billion dollars had been filed by Canadian households and businesses from the area affected by the ice storm.1 fig.

  3. MiR-106b and MiR-15b modulate apoptosis and angiogenesis in myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Yang, Dan; Xie, Ping; Ren, Guomin; Sun, Guibo; Zeng, Xu; Sun, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are identified as crucial gene regulators in response to myocardial infarction (MI). However, the overall relationships between miRNAs and the gene targets which contribute to the cellular phenotypes in MI are not fully elucidated. To make a better understanding towards functional roles of miRNAs in MI, useful information was mined through bioinformatic techniques. MI-related miRNAs were retrieved from publications, and PicTar, TargetScanS, and miRanda programs were used to predict their gene targets. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses of gene targets were applied to uncover functional roles of miRNAs. The miRNA-gene networks were illustrated by Pajek tool. Finally, validation experiments were performed towards two important miRNAs in the networks. Up to 119 MI-related miRNAs were retrieved from publications. GO and pathway analyses for their predicted gene targets demonstrated that these dysregulated miRNAs were enriched in cardiovascular-related phenotypes. Through illustrating miRNA-gene networks, overall relationships between miRNAs and gene targets were detected especially in processes of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Moreover, experimental data supported bioinformatic predictions that miR-106b served as an anti-apoptotic modulator through inhibition of p21 expression and miR-15b displayed anti-angiogenesis activity. The miRNAs played essential roles in pathological processes of MI. Further, miR-106b and miR-15b maybe mediated as robust regulators in apoptosis or angiogenesis following MI, respectively. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Alternating current breakdown voltage of ice electret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshika, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Okumura, T.; Muramoto, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Ice has low environmental impact. Our research objectives are to study the availability of ice as a dielectric insulating material at cryogenic temperatures. We focus on ferroelectric ice (iceXI) at cryogenic temperatures. The properties of iceXI, including its formation, are not clear. We attempted to obtain the polarized ice that was similar to iceXI under the applied voltage and cooling to 77 K. The polarized ice have a wide range of engineering applications as electronic materials at cryogenic temperatures. This polarized ice is called ice electret. The structural difference between ice electret and normal ice is only the positions of protons. The effects of the proton arrangement on the breakdown voltage of ice electret were shown because electrical properties are influenced by the structure of ice. We observed an alternating current (ac) breakdown voltage of ice electret and normal ice at 77 K. The mean and minimum ac breakdown voltage values of ice electret were higher than those of normal ice. We considered that the electrically weak part of the normal ice was improved by applied a direct electric field.

  5. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been

  6. Tropospheric characteristics over sea ice during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert; Hudson, Stephen; Cohen, Lana; Rinke, Annette; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, the Arctic Ocean region has shifted towards a younger and thinner sea-ice regime. The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in this new ice regime north of Svalbard. Here we analyze upper-air measurements made by radiosondes launched twice daily together with surface meteorology observations during N-ICE2015 from January to June 2015. We study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, sudden increases in moisture content and temperature, temperature inversions and boundary layer dynamics. The influence of synoptic cyclones is strongest under polar night conditions, when radiative cooling is most effective and the moisture content is low. We find that transitions between the radiatively clear and opaque state are the largest drivers of changes to temperature inversion and stability characteristics in the boundary layer during winter. In spring radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. The unique N-ICE2015 dataset is used for case studies investigating changes in the vertical structure of the atmosphere under varying synoptic conditions. The goal is to deepen our understanding of synoptic interactions within the Arctic climate system, to improve model performance, as well as to identify gaps in instrumentation, which precludes further investigations.

  7. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change

  8. MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen, E-mail: lizhen7111@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Liu, Yun-hui; Diao, Hong-yu [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Ma, Jun [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001 (China); Yao, Yi-long [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China)

    2015-12-25

    In this study, we analyzed the functional role of miR-661 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that overexpression of miR-661 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. MiRNA target prediction algorithms implied that hTERT is a candidate target gene for miR-661. A fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that miR-661 could lead to hTERT gene silencing by recognizing and specifically binding to the predicted site of the hTERT mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) specifically. Furthermore, hTERT knockdown significantly decreased the growth and viability of glioma cells. These results indicate that miR-661 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT. - Highlights: • MiR-661 was downregulated in glioma tissues and functional as a tumor suppressor. • MiR-661 modulates cell proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. • MiR-661 directly target hTERT in glioma cells. • MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell tumorgenesis by targeting hTERT.

  9. Mir30c Is Involved in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy through Regulation of Cardiac Autophagy via BECN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors have been shown to promote the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. A link has previously been found between Mir30 and autophagy in cancer cells and in the heart, but the role of Mir30 in diabetic heart has not been studied. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we found that the depletion of Mir30c and induction of BECN1 enhanced autophagy in diabetic (db/db hearts and in cardiomyocytes treated with the fatty acid palmitate. We verified that Mir30c repressed BECN1 expression by direct binding to the BECN1 3′ UTRs. Mir30c overexpression inhibited the induction of BECN1 and subsequent autophagy in diabetic hearts and improved cardiac function and structure in diabetic mice. However, these effects were abrogated by BECN1 overexpression. Similarly, Mir30c knockdown resulted in increased BECN1 levels and autophagic flux, aggravating cardiac abnormalities. We also show that SP1, an important transcriptional factor in energy metabolism regulation, is a key upstream activator of Mir30c that binds the promoter region of Mir30c. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Mir30c and subsequent activation of BECN1 promotes autophagy, contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. This observation suggests a theoretical ground for developing microRNA-based therapeutics against diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting autophagy.

  10. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with combined TP53 mutation and MIR34A methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Fazila; Hother, Christoffer; Kulosman, Gorjan

    2014-01-01

    MiR34A, B and C have been implicated in lymphomagenesis, but information on their role in normal CD19+ B-cells (PBL-B) and de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is limited. We show that in normal and activated B-cells miR34A-5p plays a dominant role compared to other miR34 family members....... Only miR34A-5p is expressed in PBL-B, and significantly induced in activated B-cells and reactive lymph nodes. In PBL-B, the MIR34A and MIR34B/C promoters are unmethylated, but the latter shows enrichment for the H3K4me3/H3K27me3 silencing mark. Nine de novo DLBCL cases (n=150) carry both TP53 mutation...... negative prognostic factor for survival (P=0.0002). In 2 DLBCL-cell lines with both TP53 mutation and promoter methylation of MIR34A, miR34A-5p is upregulated by 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine. Thus, the TP53/MIR34A "double hit" characterizes a very aggressive subgroup of DLBCL, which may be treatable...

  11. MicroRNA miR-125b induces senescence in human melanoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta

    2011-01-01

    in malignant melanoma producing lymph node micrometastases than in nonmetastasizing tumors. To get further insight into the functional role of miR-125b, we assessed whether its overexpression or silencing affects apoptosis, proliferation, or senescence in melanoma cell lines. We showed that overexpression...... of miR-125b induced typical senescent cell morphology, including increased cytoplasmatic/nucleus ratio and intensive cytoplasmatic ß-galactosidase expression. In contrast, inhibition of miR-125b resulted in 30-35% decreased levels of spontaneous apoptosis. We propose that downregulation of miR-125b...

  12. MiR-93 Controls Adiposity via Inhibition of Sirt7 and Tbx3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cioffi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conquering obesity has become a major socioeconomic challenge. Here, we show that reduced expression of the miR-25-93-106b cluster, or miR-93 alone, increases fat mass and, subsequently, insulin resistance. Mechanistically, we discovered an intricate interplay between enhanced adipocyte precursor turnover and increased adipogenesis. First, miR-93 controls Tbx3, thereby limiting self-renewal in early adipocyte precursors. Second, miR-93 inhibits the metabolic target Sirt7, which we identified as a major driver of in vivo adipogenesis via induction of differentiation and maturation of early adipocyte precursors. Using mouse parabiosis, obesity in mir-25-93-106b–/– mice could be rescued by restoring levels of circulating miRNA and subsequent inhibition of Tbx3 and Sirt7. Downregulation of miR-93 also occurred in obese ob/ob mice, and this phenocopy of mir-25-93-106b–/– was partially reversible with injection of miR-93 mimics. Our data establish miR-93 as a negative regulator of adipogenesis and a potential therapeutic option for obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  13. miR-17* suppresses tumorigenicity of prostate cancer by inhibiting mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant micro RNA (miRNA expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the miR-17-92 cluster is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The oncogenic function of mature miRNAs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster has been identified from the 5' arm of six precursors. However, the function of the miRNAs produced from the 3' arm of these precursors remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that miR-17* is able to suppress critical primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2 and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2. Transfection of miR-17* into prostate cancer PC-3 cells significantly reduces levels of the three antioxidant proteins and activity of the luciferase reporter under the control of miR-17* binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated regions of the three target genes. Disulfiram (DSF, a dithiolcarbomate drug shown to have an anticancer effect, induces the level of mature miR-17* and cell death in PCa cells, which can be attenuated by transfection of antisense miR-17*. Increasing miR-17* level in PC-3 cells by a Tet-on based conditional expression system markedly suppresses its tumorigencity. These results suggest that miR-17* may suppress tumorigenicity of prostate cancer through inhibition of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Epigenetic inactivation of the miR-124-1 in haematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yeung Wong

    Full Text Available miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR. Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, MM, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (p<0.001. Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study.

  15. Regulation of Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 monoubiquitination by miR-302

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Bharathi [Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, A. Madhan [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Jeong, Hoe-Su [Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Youl-Hee [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna, Suresh, E-mail: suresh.ramakris@gmail.com [Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kye-Seong, E-mail: ks66kim@hanyang.ac.kr [Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-16

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessively inherited multigene disease characterized by congenital defects, progressive bone marrow failure, and heightened cancer susceptibility. Monoubiquitination of the FA pathway member FANCD2 contributes to the repair of replication stalling DNA lesions. However, cellular regulation of FANCD2 monoubiquitination remains poorly understood. In the present study, we identified the miR-302 cluster as a potential regulator of FANCD2 by bioinformatics analysis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the major posttranscriptional regulators of a wide variety of biological processes, and have been implicated in a number of diseases. Expression of the exogenous miR-302 cluster (without miR-367) reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation. Furthermore, miR-302 cells showed extensive chromosomal breakage upon MMC treatment when compared to mock control cells. Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of miR-302 plays a critical role in the regulation of FANCD2 monoubiquitination, resulting in characteristic defects in DNA repair within cells. - Highlights: • miR-302 binds to the 3′UTR promoter of the FANCD2 gene to regulate gene expression. • miR-302 cluster down-regulates FANCD2 protein expression. • miR-302 cluster reduces FANCD2 monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation. • miR-302 exhibits the characteristic defects in DNA repair in cells.

  16. miR-613 inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cell via VEGFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junzhao; Yuan, Peng; Mao, Qixin [Breast Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Xie, Tian; Yang, Hanzhao [Breast Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Wang, Chengzheng, E-mail: wangchengzheng@126.com [Breast Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China)

    2016-09-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in breast cancer, has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-613 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene VEGFA. In breast cancer cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was inhibited by miR-613, while miR-613 inhibitor significantly promoted the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-613 mimics significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, whereas miR-613 inhibitors significantly increased cell migration and invasion. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-613 directly bound to the 3′ untranslated region of VEGFA, and western blotting showed that miR-613 suppressed the expression of VEGFA at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-613 negatively regulates VEGFA and inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Thus, miR-613 may represent a potential therapeutic molecule for breast cancer intervention.

  17. Epigenetic Repression of miR-218 Promotes Esophageal Carcinogenesis by Targeting ROBO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Li, Xiajun; Liao, Juan; Pu, Yuepu; Pan, Enchun; Wang, Yi; Yin, Lihong

    2015-11-20

    miR-218, consisting of miR-218-1 at 4p15.31 and miR-218-2 at 5q35.1, was significantly decreased in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in our previous study. The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant methylation is associated with miR-218 repression. Bisulfite sequencing analysis (BSP), methylation specific PCR (MSP), and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment assay were applied to determine the methyaltion status of miR-218 in cells and clinical samples. In vitro assays were performed to explore the role of miR-218. Results showed that miR-218-1 was significantly CpG hypermethylated in tumor tissues (81%, 34/42) compared with paired non-tumor tissues (33%, 14/42) (p ROBO1). A negative correlation was found between miR-218 and ROBO1 mRNA expression in clinical samples. In conclusion, our results support that aberrant CpG hypermethylation at least partly accounts for miR-218 silencing in ESCC, which impairs its tumor-suppressive function.

  18. MiR-24 is required for hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of miRNA, miR-24, in mouse hematopoietic progenitors increases monocytic/ granulocytic differentiation and inhibits B cell development. To determine if endogenous miR-24 is required for hematopoiesis, we antagonized miR-24 in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs and performed in vitro differentiations. Suppression of miR-24 resulted in an inability to produce blood and hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs from ESCs. The phenotype is not a general defect in mesoderm production since we observe production of nascent mesoderm as well as mesoderm derived cardiac muscle and endothelial cells. Results from blast colony forming cell (BL-CFC assays demonstrate that miR-24 is not required for generation of the hemangioblast, the mesoderm progenitor that gives rise to blood and endothelial cells. However, expression of the transcription factors Runx1 and Scl is greatly reduced, suggesting an impaired ability of the hemangioblast to differentiate. Lastly, we observed that known miR-24 target, Trib3, is upregulated in the miR-24 antagonized embryoid bodies (EBs. Overexpression of Trib3 alone in ESCs was able to decrease HPC production, though not as great as seen with miR-24 knockdown. These results demonstrate an essential role for miR-24 in the hematopoietic differentiation of ESCs. Although many miRNAs have been implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis, this is the first miRNA observed to be required for the specification of mammalian blood progenitors from early mesoderm.

  19. Growth-promoting role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layne Dylla

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs have been identified as potent regulators of both normal development and the hallmarks of cancer. Targeting of microRNAs has been shown to have preclinical promise, and select miR-based therapies are now in clinical trials. Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically aggressive pediatric cancer with little change in clinical outcomes despite improved chemotherapeutic regimens. There is a substantial need for new therapies to improve Ewing Sarcoma outcomes and to prevent chemotherapy-related secondary sequelae. Most Ewing Sarcoma tumors are driven by the EWS/Fli-1 fusion oncoprotein, acting as a gain-of-function transcription factor causing dysregulation of a variety of targets, including microRNAs. Our previous studies, and those of others, have identified upregulation of miRs belonging to the related miR-17~92a, miR-106b~25, and miR-106a~363 clusters in Ewing Sarcoma. However, the functional consequences of this have not been characterized, nor has miR blockade been explored as an anti-cancer strategy in Ewing Sarcoma. To simulate a potential therapeutic approach, we examined the effects of blockade of these clusters, and their component miRs. Using colony formation as a read-out, we find that blockade of selected individual cluster component miRs, using specific inhibitors, has little or no effect. Combinatorial inhibition using miR "sponge" methodology, on the other hand, is inhibitory to colony formation, with blockade of whole clusters generally more effective than blockade of miR families. We show that a miR-blocking sponge directed against the poorly characterized miR-106a~363 cluster is a particularly potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth in a subset of Ewing Sarcoma cell lines. We further identify upregulation of miR-15a as a downstream mechanism contributing to the miR-106a~363 sponge growth-inhibitory effect. Taken together, our studies provide support for a pro-oncogenic role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing Sarcoma, and

  20. miR-34a expands myeloid-derived suppressor cells via apoptosis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Anfei, E-mail: huang_anfei@163.com [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Haitao, E-mail: zhanghtjp@126.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen, Si, E-mail: chensisdyxb@126.com [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Xia, Fei, E-mail: xiafei87@gmail.com [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: 602744364@qq.com [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Dong, Fulu, E-mail: adiok0903@126.com [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Di, E-mail: dongfl@suda.edu.cn [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Xiong, Sidong, E-mail: sdxiong@suda.edu.cn [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Jinping, E-mail: j_pzhang@suda.edu.cn [Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-08-15

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population and show significant expansion under pathological conditions. microRNA plays important roles in many biological processes, whether microRNAs have a function in the expansion of MDSCs is still not very clear. In this study, miR-34a overexpression can induce the expansion of MDSCs in bone marrow chimera and transgenic mice model. The experimental results suggest that miR-34a inhibited the apoptosis of MDSCs but did not affect the proliferation of MDSCs. The distinct mRNA microarray profiles of MDSCs of wild type and miR-34a over-expressing MDSCs combined with the target prediction of miR-34a suggest that miR-34a may target genes such as p2rx7, Tia1, and plekhf1 to inhibit the apoptosis of MDSCs. Taken together, miR-34a contributes to the expansion of MDSCs by inhibiting the apoptosis of MDSCs. - Highlights: • Over-expression of miR-34a increases the number of MDSCs. • miR-34a inhibits the apoptosis of MDSCs, but does not affects their proliferation. • miR-34a may inhibit the apoptosis of MDSCs via targeting the p2rx7, Tia1 and plekhf1.

  1. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by overexpression of miR-214 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Haihua; Chen, Xiaofan; Fu, Shaozhi; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Hongfei; Feng, Qiang; Ni, Yiming

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. This study evaluated whether miR-214 plays a pivotal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In human tissues, miR-214 overexpression was determined to promote cardiac hypertrophy. We predicted miR-214 direct target by bioinformatics database and verifed it using luciferase dual reporting system. We silenced miR-214 using a specific antagomir in a pressure-overload mouse model of heart failure. Analysis of transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of miR-214 indicated that their hearts were 21% heavier than wild-type hearts and expressed several biochemical and functional markers consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. These findings include enlarged left ventricular internal diameters, wall thinning, reduced ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and an increased fetal gene expression. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-214 in cardiomyocytes. In vivo silencing of miR-214 using a specific antagomir rescued cardiac EZH2 expression and prevented cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-214 may induce pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in part by reducing EZH2 messenger RNA levels. MiR-214 may therefore be a potential therapeutic target for treating certain cardiac disease states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. miR-186 inhibits cell proliferation in multiple myeloma by repressing Jagged1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zengyan [Department of Hematology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Department of Hematology, Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical University, 661 Second Huanghe Street, Binzhou 256603 (China); Zhang, Guoqiang [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical University, 661 Second Huanghe Street, Binzhou 256603 (China); Yu, Wenzheng; Gao, Na [Department of Hematology, Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical University, 661 Second Huanghe Street, Binzhou 256603 (China); Peng, Jun, E-mail: junpeng885@sina.com [Department of Hematology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2016-01-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding ribonucleic acids that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and degradation. Accumulating experimental evidence supports a causal role of miRNAs in hematology tumorigenesis. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) remain to be established. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-186 is commonly downregulated in MM cell lines and patient MM cells. Ectopic expression of miR-186 significantly inhibited cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo, and induced cell cycle G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} arrest. Furthermore, miR-186 induced downregulation of Jagged1 protein expression by directly targeting its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Conversely, overexpression of Jagged1 rescued cells from miR-186-induced growth inhibition. Our collective results clearly indicate that miR-186 functions as a tumor suppressor in MM, supporting its potential as a therapeutic target for the disease. - Highlights: • miR-186 expression is decreased in MM. • miR-186 inhibits MM cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Jagged1 is regulated by miR-186. • Overexpression of Jagged1 reverses the effects of miR-186.

  4. Distinct transcriptional and processing regulations control miR167a level in tomato during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodder, Jayanti; Das, Rohit; Sarkar, Deepti; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Kundu, Pallob

    2017-10-12

    Besides their definite role in plant developmental processes miR167 also serve as mediator of stress response. Although differential expression of miR167 occurs during stresses, the regulatory-mechanism of biogenesis remained elusive. Therefore, using tomato as the model plant we have explored the mechanism of regulation of miR167a expression during stresses. Fungus or virus infections and exposure to cold stress raised the level of miR167a expression. Whereas, salt, drought and heat treatments resulted in the downregulation, indicating different stresses activated alternative mechanisms for miR167a regulation. Interestingly, the relative expression level of precursors in control versus temperature stressed plants differed from the pattern observed in the mature miR167a expression, suggesting that both transcriptional and processing regulation were important for biogenesis. The promoter-regulatory sequence of the major isoform MIR167a harbours several development and stress-related regulatory sites. Accordingly, promoter assays using transient transformation and transgenic tobacco plants proved stress-dependent regulation of the promoter. Further analyses corroborated the role of tomato DREB2A protein in the transcriptional regulation during temperature stress. Finally, in vitro assays established the importance of processing factors in cold-stress dependent efficient processing of MIR167a precursors. These data confirm distinct role of transcriptional and processing machinery in stress-influenced regulation of tomato miR167a biogenesis.

  5. MiR-940 Inhibited Cell Growth and Migration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Yang, Hongwei; Xing, Tianyong; Li, Jingdong; Li, Guangwu; Zhang, Lina; Deng, Shishan; Hu, Jiani; Zhao, Xiaobo; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the main type of cancer in women, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a unique subtype of breast cancer. The expression of miR-940 has been shown to play an important role in various cancers; however, the role of miR-940 in TNBC remains unknown. Material/Methods The expression of miR-940 in TNBC tissues or cells were tested by qRT-PCR; the expression of miR-940 in cells were overexpressed by miR-940 mimics, and suppressed by anti-miR-940. Bioinformatics algorithms from TargetScanHuman were used to predict the target genes of miR-940. The interaction between miR-940 and ZNF24 was confirmed by dual luciferase assays. The protein level was assayed by Western blot. Results TNBC tissues and cells showed lower miR-940 levels. Conclusions MiR-940 inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in TNBC. PMID:27731867

  6. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Manual," NASA-TM-102319, June 1990. 1-7 Ide, Robert F., "Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size Calibration of the NASA Lewis Icir.1 Research Tunnel...You Must," AOPA Pilot, Sept. 1981, pp. 52-63. Home, T. A., "Understanding Ice," AOPA Pilot, Feb. 1981, pp. 80-86. Houze , R. A., Jr.; Hobbs, P. V...34 Jahrbuch der Deutschen Luftfahrtforschung Ergunzungsband, pp. 106-111, 1938. Robert , P. A.; Stark, R. S., *Index of AIRL Reports (Supplement 1

  7. recurrent ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Korobeinikov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and dramatic changes in climate and glacial conditions have taken place during the last 2.5 million years of the earth's history. Huge ice sheets expanded and contracted periodically, at times covering large areas of North America and Europe. Global sea levels dropped and rose 100 m to 150 m in response to the growth and melting of glaciers, causing continental coast lines to move far into present sea areas and then retreated again. We will use a simple conceptual model to demonstrate that these climate and glacier fluctuations can be a consequence of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in models of the “ocean-land-atmosphere” system.

  8. Fire on ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G W

    1976-01-01

    Hockey is recognized as being one of the fastest and most demanding sports in the world, with a reputation for roughness and physical risk. The risk factor should be defined as the probability of the participant's sustaining injury. Because of our growing concern for the physical safety of both male and female ice hockey players at all age levels, this study was designed to: (1) examine the incidence of accidental and penalty-related injuries; (2) examine the nature and severity of the injuries; (3) analyze the physical risks; (4) identify the causative factors of risk; (5) recommend changes to enhance the sport's safety.

  9. The clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of AID, miR-181b, and miR-155 expression in adult patients with de novo B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangquan; Cao, Yang; Dong, Weimin; Lin, Yan; Wang, Qi; Wu, Wei; Hua, Xiaoying; Ling, Yun; Xie, Xiaobao; Hu, Shaoyan; Cen, Jiannong; Gu, Weiying

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, miR-181b and miR-155 expression in de novo adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Results showed that AID and miR-155 expression were higher in B-ALL patients than healthy controls, while miR-181b expression was lower in B-ALL patients. In addition, Ph(+) B-ALLs had higher AID expression than Ph(-) B-ALLs, and its high expression was associated with BCR-ABL. Moreover, B-ALL patients with AID(high) or miR-181b(low) expression had a shorter overall survival (OS). AID(high) with miR-181b(low), AID(high) with miR-155(low), miR-181b(low), miR-155(low), AID(high) with miR-181b(low) and miR-155(low) expression were associated with shorter OS. Combination of the three molecules are more accurate predictors for unfavorable OS compared with univariate group. Therefore, AID, miR-181b and miR-155 provide clinical prognosis of adult de novo B-ALL patients and may refine their molecular risk classification.

  10. Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ruddiman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the major ice-sheet variations during the last 2.7 million years is a long-standing mystery. Neither the dominant 41 000-year cycles in δ18O/ice-volume during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene nor the late-Pleistocene oscillations near 100 000 years is a linear ('Milankovitch' response to summer insolation forcing. Both responses must result from non-linear behavior within the climate system. Greenhouse gases (primarily CO2 are a plausible source of the required non-linearity, but confusion has persisted over whether the gases force ice volume or are a positive feedback. During the last several hundred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine δ18O have varied in phase at the 41 000-year obliquity cycle and nearly in phase within the ~100 000-year band. This timing rules out greenhouse-gas forcing of a very slow ice response and instead favors ice control of a fast CO2 response. In the schematic model proposed here, ice sheets responded linearly to insolation forcing at the precession and obliquity cycles prior to 0.9 million years ago, but CO2 feedback amplified the ice response at the 41 000-year period by a factor of approximately two. After 0.9 million years ago, with slow polar cooling, ablation weakened. CO2 feedback continued to amplify ice-sheet growth every 41 000 years, but weaker ablation permitted some ice to survive insolation maxima of low intensity. Step-wise growth of these longer-lived ice sheets continued until peaks in northern summer insolation produced abrupt deglaciations every ~85 000 to ~115 000 years. Most of the deglacial ice melting resulted from the same CO2/temperature feedback that had built the ice sheets. Several processes have the northern geographic origin, as well as the requisite orbital tempo and phasing, to be candidate mechanisms for ice-sheet control of CO2 and their own feedback.

  11. The microbiome of glaciers and ice sheets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandre M Anesio; Stefanie Lutz; Nathan A M Chrismas; Liane G Benning

    2017-01-01

    .... Habitats on glaciers and ice sheets with enough liquid water to sustain microbial activity include snow, surface ice, cryoconite holes, englacial systems and the interface between ice and overridden rock/soil...

  12. 76 FR 52241 - Activation of Ice Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... series airplane flying in icing conditions crashed outside of Buffalo, NY, killing 50 people. While icing... accretions because the ice will shed when the minimum thickness or mass required for shedding is reached...

  13. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  14. Vessel classification method based on vessel behavior in the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Daamen, W.; Vellinga, T.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) data have proven to be a valuable source to investigate vessel behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several

  15. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  16. 76 FR 59660 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel Monitoring System Requirements for the Commercial Bottomfish... compliance with federal identification requirements and carry and maintain a satellite- based vessel monitoring system (VMS). This collection of information is needed for permit issuance, to identify actual or...

  17. Effects of Topical Icing on Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Revascularization, and Myofiber Regeneration in Skeletal Muscle Following Contusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Daniel P; Barani Lonbani, Zohreh; Woodruff, Maria A; Parker, Tony J; Steck, Roland; Peake, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Contusion injuries in skeletal muscle commonly occur in contact sport and vehicular and industrial workplace accidents. Icing has traditionally been used to treat such injuries under the premise that it alleviates pain, reduces tissue metabolism, and modifies vascular responses to decrease swelling. Previous research has examined the effects of icing on inflammation and microcirculatory dynamics following muscle injury. However, whether icing influences angiogenesis, collateral vessel growth, or myofiber regeneration remains unknown. We compared the effects of icing vs. a sham treatment on the presence of neutrophils and macrophages; expression of CD34, von Willebrands factor (vWF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nestin; vessel volume; capillary density; and myofiber regeneration in skeletal after muscle contusion injury in rats. Muscle tissue was collected 1, 3, 7, and 28 d after injury. Compared with uninjured rats, muscles in rats that sustained the contusion injury exhibited major necrosis, inflammation, and increased expression of CD34, vWF, VEGF, and nestin. Compared with the sham treatment, icing attenuated and/or delayed neutrophil and macrophage infiltration; the expression of vWF, VEGF, and nestin; and the change in vessel volume within muscle in the first 7 d after injury (P icing did not influence capillary density in muscle 28 d after injury (P = 0.59). The percentage of immature myofibers relative to the total number of fibers was greater in the icing group than in the sham group 28 d after injury (P = 0.026), but myofiber cross-sectional area did not differ between groups after 7 d (P = 0.35) and 28 d (P = 0.30). In conclusion, although icing disrupted inflammation and some aspects of angiogenesis/revascularization, these effects did not result in substantial differences in capillary density or muscle growth.

  18. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no significant impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Meihls, Lisa N; El Khishen, Ahmed A; Kaster, Von; Steiner, Henry-York; Kurtz, Ryan

    2010-12-01

    Mortality of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Missouri sites in both 2005 and 2006. We made these comparisons by using wild-type western corn rootworm at three different egg densities (6,000, 3,000, and 1,500 eggs per m) so that the role of density-dependent mortality would be known. The mortality due to the mCry3A protein was 94.88% when averaged across all environments and both years. Fifty percent emergence of beetles was delayed approximately 5.5 d. Beetles were kept alive and their progeny evaluated on MIR604 and isoline corn in the greenhouse to determine whether survivorship on MIR604 in the field for one generation increased survivorship on MIR604 in the greenhouse in the subsequent generation. There was no significant difference in survivorship on MIR604 in greenhouse assays between larvae whose parents survived isoline and larvae whose parents survived MIR604 in the field the previous generation, indicating that many susceptible beetles survived MIR604 in the field the previous season along with any potentially resistant beetles. The data are discussed in terms of rootworm insect resistance management.

  19. Observations of snow-ice formation in a thinner Arctic sea ice regime during the N-ICE2015 campaign: influence of basal ice melt and storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Itkin, P.; Rösel, A.; Koenig, Z.; Villacieros-Robineau, N.; Granskog, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seven ice mass balance instruments deployed on different first-year and second-year ice floes, within a distance of 50 km near 83°N representing variable snow and ice conditions, documented the evolution of snow and ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard in Jan-Mar 2015. Frequent profiles of temperature and thermal resistivity proxy were recorded to distinguish changes in snow depth and ice thickness with 2 cm vertical resolution. Four instruments documented snow-ice formation which was clearly detectable in the simultaneous changes in thermal resistivity proxy, increased temperature and heat propagation through the underlying ice. Snow-ice formation restored a positive freeboard after storm-induced break-up of snow-loaded floes and/or after loss of buoyancy due to basal ice melt. In the case of break-up, when the ice was cold and not permeable, the rapid snow-ice formation, probably due to lateral intrusion of seawater, led to snow-ice layers at the ocean freezing temperature (-1.88°C). After the storm the instruments registered basal sea-ice melt over warm Atlantic waters. Basal ablation reached 71 cm and ocean heat fluxes peaked at 400 Wm-2. The warm ice was permeable and the gradual snow-ice formation probably involved vertical intrusion of brines and led to colder snow-ice (-3°C). In both cases, the exothermal reaction warmed the underlying sea-ice. N-ICE2015 campaign provided the first documentation of significant snow-ice formation in the Arctic ice pack with a fraction of snow-ice to total ice thickness 28%. Snow-ice formation may become a more important process in a thinner-ice Arctic.

  20. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is party to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is not party to SOLAS 74 but is party to the International Convention...