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Sample records for vessel disease svd

  1. Disruption of rich club organisation in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, Anil M.; Lawrence, Andrew; Norris, David G.; Barrick, Thomas R.; Markus, Hugh S.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they

  2. Structural network connectivity and cognition in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, A.M.; Dijk, E.; Zwiers, M.P.; van Norden, A.G.W.; de Laat, K.F.; Shumskaya, E.; Norris, David Gordon; de Leeuw, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and microbleeds, and brain atrophy, are related to cognitive impairment. However, these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for SVD do not account for all the clinical variances observed in subjects with

  3. Aging with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Dizziness: The Importance of Undiagnosed Peripheral Vestibular Disorders

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    Niccolò Cerchiai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed a link between cerebral small vessel white matter disease (SVD and dizziness: patients whose dizziness cannot be explained by vestibular disease show severe SVD and gait abnormalities; however, little is still known about how SVD can cause this symptom. The primary aim of this study is to examine the possible underlying causes of dizziness in neurovascular patients; this is in order to assess whether treatable causes could be routinely disregarded. A secondary aim is to possibly define a central oculomotor pattern induced per se by SVD. This could help the diagnosis of SVD-related dizziness. In this single-blind prospective study, 60 patients referred to a neurovascular clinic because of dizziness and SVD on imaging were divided into an L-SVD and a H-SVD group (low and high SVD burden, respectively, and then blindly examined with vestibulometric tests. In H-SVD group, the percentage of unexplained dizziness reached 82.8%. There was a higher prevalence of peripheral vestibular abnormalities in the L-SVD patient group (51.6% than in the H-SVD (17.2%; p = 0.012. We found no differences in central oculomotor findings between the two groups. Although oculomotricity does not show any consistent pattern, a severe SVD can directly represent a cause of dizziness. However, a patient with mild SVD is more likely to suffer by a peripheral vestibular disorder. Therefore, given the high incidence of vestibular disease in neurovascular or geriatric clinics, clinicians should be cautious when ascribing dizziness solely to the presence of SVD as easily treatable peripheral vestibular causes may be missed.

  4. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, D.; Labreuche, J.; Pico, F.; Scheltens, P.; Poirier, O.; Cambien, F.; Amarenco, P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) appears on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as leukoaraiosis (LA), état criblé (EC), and multiple lacunar infarctions (MLI). Although the pathophysiology of SVD is poorly understood, there is evidence of a genetic contribution. We sought to analyze

  5. [Serological examinations for swine vesicular disease (SVD) in a closed pig breeding herd using ELISA].

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    Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.

  6. Prioritization of Disease Susceptibility Genes Using LSM/SVD.

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    Gong, Lejun; Yang, Ronggen; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important tasks in the postgenome era. It is generally too expensive and time consuming to perform experimental validation for all candidate genes related to disease. Computational methods play important roles for prioritizing these candidates. Herein, we propose an approach to prioritize disease genes using latent semantic mapping based on singular value decomposition. Our hypothesis is that similar functional genes are likely to cause similar diseases. Measuring the functional similarity between known disease susceptibility genes and unknown genes is to predict new disease susceptibility genes. Taking autism as an instance, the analysis results of the top ten genes prioritized demonstrate they might be autism susceptibility genes, which also indicates our approach could discover new disease susceptibility genes. The novel approach of disease gene prioritization could discover new disease susceptibility genes, and latent disease-gene relations. The prioritized results could also support the interpretive diversity and experimental views as computational evidence for disease researchers.

  7. Apathy, but not depression, is associated with executive dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease.

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    Lohner, Valerie; Brookes, Rebecca L; Hollocks, Matthew J; Morris, Robin G; Markus, Hugh S

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of apathy and depression in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), and the relationships between both apathy and depression with cognition. To examine whether apathy is specifically related to impairment in executive functioning and processing speed. 196 patients with a clinical lacunar stroke and an anatomically corresponding lacunar infarct on MRI were compared to 300 stroke-free controls. Apathy and depression were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale, and cognitive functioning was assessed using an SVD cognitive screening tool, the Brief Memory and Executive Test, which measures executive functioning/processing speed and memory/orientation. Path analysis and binary logistic regression were used to assess the relation between apathy, depression and cognitive impairment. 31 participants with SVD (15.8%) met criteria for apathy only, 23 (11.8%) for both apathy and depression, and 2 (1.0%) for depression only. In the SVD group the presence of apathy was related to global cognition, and specifically to impaired executive functioning/processing speed, but not memory/orientation. The presence of depression was not related to global cognition, impaired executive functioning/processing speed or memory/orientation. Apathy is a common feature of SVD and is associated with impaired executive functioning/processing speed suggesting the two may share biological mechanisms. Screening for apathy should be considered in SVD, and further work is required to develop and evaluate effective apathy treatment or management in SVD.

  8. Impact of small vessel disease in the brain on gait and balance.

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    Pinter, Daniela; Ritchie, Stuart J; Doubal, Fergus; Gattringer, Thomas; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E; Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Pattie, Alison; Dickie, David A; Staals, Julie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2017-01-30

    Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71-74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity - WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients' performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects.

  9. Mnemonic function in small vessel disease and associations with white matter tract microstructure.

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    Metoki, Athanasia; Brookes, Rebecca L; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Morris, Robin G; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; Charlton, Rebecca A

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with deficits in working memory, with a relative sparing of long-term memory; function may be influenced by white matter microstructure. Working and long-term memory were examined in 106 patients with SVD and 35 healthy controls. Microstructure was measured in the uncinate fasciculi and cingula. Working memory was more impaired than long-term memory in SVD, but both abilities were reduced compared to controls. Regression analyses found that having SVD explained the variance in memory functions, with additional variance explained by the cingula (working memory) and uncinate (long-term memory). Performance can be explained in terms of integrity loss in specific white matter tract associated with mnemonic functions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Management of cerebral small vessel disease for the diagnosis and treatment of dementia].

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    Ihara, Masafumi

    2013-07-01

    With the demographic shift in life expectancy inexorably increasing in developed countries, dementia is set to become one of the most important health problems worldwide. In recent years, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has received much attention as an important cause of dementia. The reason for this is twofold: firstly, arteriosclerosis (type 1 SVD) is the leading cause of vascular cognitive impairment, and secondly, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA; type 2 SVD) is an almost invariable accompaniment of Alzheimer's disease. SVD is known to induce a variety of pathological changes; for example, type 1 SVD results in lacunar infarction, deep microbleeds, and white matter damage, while type 2 SVD leads to cortical microinfarcts, lobar microbleeds, and white matter damage. SVD is considered a spectrum of abnormalities, with the majority of patients experiencing symptoms from both type 1 and type 2 SVD as the disease progresses. The discouraging results of immunotherapy clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease have shifted the scientific attention from the classical neuron-centric approach towards a novel neurovascular approach. As arteries stiffen with age or with other co-morbid factors such as life-related diseases, amyloid β (Aβ) synthesis becomes upregulated, resulting in the deposition of insoluble Aβ not only in the parenchyma as senile plaques but also in the perivascular drainage pathways as CAA. Therefore, therapeutic strategies such as vasoactive drugs that enhance the patency of this Aβ drainage pathway may facilitate Aβ removal and help prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. Based on this emerging paradigm, clinical trials are warranted to investigate whether a neurovascular therapeutic approach can effectively halt cognitive decline and act as a preemptive medicine for patients at risk of dementia.

  11. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment : The relevance of central network connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network

  12. Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS study.

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    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. A number of disease features can be assessed on MRI including lacunar infarcts, T2 lesion volume, brain atrophy, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to disruption of white matter ultrastructure, and recently it has been suggested that additional information on the pattern of damage may be obtained from axial diffusivity, a proposed marker of axonal damage, and radial diffusivity, an indicator of demyelination. We determined the contribution of these whole brain MRI markers to cognitive impairment in SVD. Consecutive patients with lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis were recruited into the ongoing SCANS study of cognitive impairment in SVD (n = 115, and underwent neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI. SVD subjects displayed poor performance on tests of executive function and processing speed. In the SVD group brain volume was lower, white matter hyperintensity volume higher and all diffusion characteristics differed significantly from control subjects (n = 50. On multi-predictor analysis independent predictors of executive function in SVD were lacunar infarct count and diffusivity of normal appearing white matter on DTI. Independent predictors of processing speed were lacunar infarct count and brain atrophy. Radial diffusivity was a stronger DTI predictor than axial diffusivity, suggesting ischaemic demyelination, seen neuropathologically in SVD, may be an important predictor of cognitive impairment in SVD. Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD.

  13. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

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    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  14. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Frame Count in Single-Vessel Disease After Angioplasty

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    Chih-Hsuan Yen

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: In patients with SVD, the data of TIMI frame count in the nonstenotic vessels were similar to those without the disease, suggesting that the count in the normal artery is not affected by the adjacent stenotic artery. For the stenotic vessels, angioplasty had differential effects on each of the three arteries, indicating the existence of distinct properties, which is affected by calcium channel blockers, for individual coronary arteries in response to atherosclerosis and/or angioplasty.

  15. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging in Small Vessel Disease: Microstructural Integrity and Microvascular Perfusion Related to Cognition.

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    Zhang, C Eleana; Wong, Sau May; Uiterwijk, Renske; Staals, Julie; Backes, Walter H; Hoff, Erik I; Schreuder, Tobien; Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with cognitive impairment. This may be because of decreased microstructural integrity and microvascular perfusion, but data on these relationships are scarce. We determined the relationship between cognition and microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity in SVD patients, using intravoxel incoherent motion imaging-a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique designed to determine microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity simultaneously. Seventy-three patients with SVD and 39 controls underwent intravoxel incoherent motion imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Parenchymal diffusivity D (a surrogate measure of microstructural integrity) and perfusion-related measure fD* were calculated for the normal appearing white matter, white matter hyperintensities, and cortical gray matter. The associations between cognitive performance and D and fD* were determined. In SVD patients, multivariable analysis showed that lower fD* in the normal appearing white matter and cortical gray matter was associated with lower overall cognition (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively), lower executive function (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively), and lower information-processing speed (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively). D was not associated with cognitive function. In controls, no association was found between D, fD*, and cognition. In SVD patients, lower cognitive performance is associated with lower microvascular perfusion in the normal appearing white matter and cortical gray matter. Our results support recent findings that both cortical gray matter and normal appearing white matter perfusion may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in SVD. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR3786. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

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    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  17. Patients' psychological well-being and resilient coping protect from secondary somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) 1 year after vestibular disease.

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    Tschan, Regine; Best, Christoph; Beutel, Manfred E; Knebel, Achim; Wiltink, Jörg; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret

    2011-01-01

    Secondary somatoform dizziness and vertigo (SVD) is an underdiagnosed and handicapping psychosomatic disorder, leading to extensive utilization of health care and maladaptive coping. Few long-term follow-up studies have focused on the assessment of risk factors and little is known about protective factors. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to identify neurootological patients at risk for the development of secondary SVD with respect to individual psychopathological disposition, subjective well-being and resilient coping. In a prospective interdisciplinary study, we assessed mental disorders in n=59 patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders (n=15 benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, n=15 vestibular neuritis, n=8 Menière's disease, n=24 vestibular migraine) at baseline (T0) and 1 year after admission (T1). Psychosomatic examinations included the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), and a psychometric test battery measuring resilience (RS), sense of coherence (SOC), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). Subjective well-being significantly predicted the development of secondary SVD: Patients with higher scores of RS, SOC, and SWLS at T0 were less likely to acquire secondary SVD at T1. Lifetime mental disorders correlated with a reduced subjective well-being at T0. Patients with mental comorbidity at T0 were generally more at risk for developing secondary SVD at T1. Patients' dispositional psychopathology and subjective well-being play a major predictive role for the long-term prognosis of dizziness and vertigo. To prevent secondary SVD, patients should be screened for risk and preventive factors, and offered psychotherapeutic treatment in case of insufficient coping capacity.

  18. Association of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Toshitaka Umemura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent years, the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD and cognitive impairment has been attracting attention. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is also associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether CKD markers are associated with cognitive impairment independently of SVD in elderly diabetic patients. Methods: Seventy-nine type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 76.0 years were enrolled in the present study. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria and/or a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 2. SVD was evaluated by the presence and severity of silent brain infarcts (SBIs and white matter lesions (WMLs on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychological tests were assessed using four validated cognitive instruments. Results: In multiple linear regression analyses, albuminuria was associated with worse modified Stroop Color Word scores (β = 0.284, p = 0.017 and low eGFR was associated with reduced Digit Symbol Substitution scores (β = -0.224, p = 0.026 after adjustment for age, sex, education years, diabetes duration, hypertension, multiple SBIs, and advanced WMLs. In contrast, there were no significant associations between CKD markers and Mini-Mental State Examination or Word Recall scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that albuminuria and low eGFR are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction independently of SVD in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.

  19. Microvascular pathology and morphometrics of sporadic and hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain.

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    Craggs, Lucinda J L; Yamamoto, Yumi; Deramecourt, Vincent; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    Small vessel diseases (SVDs) of the brain are likely to become increasingly common in tandem with the rise in the aging population. In recent years, neuroimaging and pathological studies have informed on the pathogenesis of sporadic SVD and several single gene (monogenic) disorders predisposing to subcortical strokes and diffuse white matter disease. However, one of the limitations toward studying SVD lies in the lack of consistent assessment criteria and lesion burden for both clinical and pathological measures. Arteriolosclerosis and diffuse white matter changes are the hallmark features of both sporadic and hereditary SVDs. The pathogenesis of the arteriopathy is the key to understanding the differential progression of disease in various SVDs. Remarkably, quantification of microvascular abnormalities in sporadic and hereditary SVDs has shown that qualitatively the processes involved in arteriolar degeneration are largely similar in sporadic SVD compared with hereditary disorders such as cerebral autosomal arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Important significant regional differences in lesion location within the brain may enable one to distinguish SVDs, where frontal lobe involvement appears consistently with almost every SVD, but others bear specific pathologies in other lobes, such as the temporal pole in CADASIL and the pons in pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy or PADMAL. Additionally, degenerative changes in the vascular smooth muscle cells, the cerebral endothelium and the basal lamina are often rapid and more aggressive in genetic disorders. Further quantification of other microvascular elements and even neuronal cells is needed to fully characterize SVD pathogenesis and to differentiate the usefulness of vascular interventions and treatments on the resulting pathology. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

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    van der Vlugt Maureen J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white

  1. SVD-phy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Andrea; Lin, Jianyi; von Mering, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A successful approach for predicting functional associations between non-homologous genes is to compare their phylogenetic distributions. We have devised a phylogenetic profiling algorithm, SVD-Phy, which uses truncated singular value decomposition to address the problem of uninformative profiles...... at https://bitbucket.org/andrea/svd-phy CONTACT: lars.juhl.jensen@cpr.ku.dk....

  2. Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease

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    Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-02-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same

  3. Pattern and Rate of Cognitive Decline in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Prospective Study.

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    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting processing speed and executive function, is an important consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. To date, few longitudinal studies of cognition in SVD have been conducted. We determined the pattern and rate of cognitive decline in SVD and used the results to determine sample size calculations for clinical trials of interventions reducing cognitive decline.121 patients with MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis were enrolled into the prospective St George's Cognition And Neuroimaging in Stroke (SCANS study. Patients attended one baseline and three annual cognitive assessments providing 36 month follow-up data. Neuropsychological assessment comprised a battery of tests assessing working memory, long-term (episodic memory, processing speed and executive function. We calculated annualized change in cognition for the 98 patients who completed at least two time-points.Task performance was heterogeneous, but significant cognitive decline was found for the executive function index (p<0.007. Working memory and processing speed decreased numerically, but not significantly. The executive function composite score would require the smallest samples sizes for a treatment trial with an aim of halting decline, but this would still require over 2,000 patients per arm to detect a 30% difference with power of 0.8 over a three year follow-up.The pattern of cognitive decline seen in SVD over three years is consistent with the pattern of impairments at baseline. Rates of decline were slow and sample sizes would need to be large for clinical trials aimed at halting decline beyond initial diagnosis using cognitive scores as an outcome measure. This emphasizes the importance of more sensitive surrogate markers in this disease.

  4. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke

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    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this system...

  5. Associations between the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET), Activities of Daily Living, and Quality of Life in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

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    Hollocks, Matthew J; Brookes, Rebecca; Morris, Robin G; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-05-01

    In addition to neuropsychological difficulties, patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) can have reduced activities of daily living and a poorer quality of life compared to healthy adults. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET), is a cognitive screening tool designed to be sensitive to the neuropsychological profile of patients with SVD. While the BMET is sensitive to the cognitive consequences of SVD, it is unclear how well scores on this measure relate to functional outcomes. The aims of this study are to investigate the relationship between scores on the BMET and functional outcomes (activities of daily living and quality of life) in SVD, and to compare this with other commonly used cognitive screening tools. This study included 184 participants with SVD (mean age=63.2; SD=9.9) and 299 healthy controls (mean age=62.4; SD=13.8) who were tested using the BMET, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Stroke Specific - Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and measures of both instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL). After controlling for covariates the scores on the BMET, but not the MoCA or MMSE, were significantly related to poorer IADL and quality of life in the SVD group. In addition to the BMET scores, symptoms of depression were found to be significant associated with functional outcome. These results support the clinical utility of using of the BMET, in combination with a standardized depression questionnaire, during the early assessment of patients with SVD.

  6. Baseline characteristic of patients presenting with lacunar stroke and cerebral small vessel disease may predict future development of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Zidverc Trajkovic, Jasna; Svabic Medjedovic, Tamara; Veselinovic, Nikola; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Mijajlovic, Milija; Tomic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Zagorka; Norton, Melanie; Sternic, Nada

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with late-onset depression and increases the risk for depression after stroke. We aimed to investigate baseline predictors of depression after long-term follow-up in patients with SVD, initially presenting with first-ever lacunar stroke, free of depression and cognitive impairment. A total of 294 patients with SVD were evaluated 3-5 years after the qualifying event. We analyzed baseline demographic data, vascular risk factors, functional status expressed as a score on modified Rankin Scale (mRS), cognitive status, presence of depression, total number of lacunar infarcts and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI with Age-Related White Matter Changes scale total score (tARWMC) and Fazekas scale periventricular and deep subcortical scores. On follow-up, depression was registered in 117 (39.8%) SVD patients. At the baseline, patients with depression compared with non-depressed were older (64.4 vs 60.9 years; p = 0.007), had higher mRS score (2.8 ± 0.7 vs 1.5 ± 0.7; p depressed patients more frequently exhibited cognitive decline (75.2% depressed vs 56.5% non-depressed; p = 0.003). No difference was detected in risk factor frequency between groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted by age and gender revealed independent predictors of depression: baseline mRS >2 (HR 2.17, 95%CI 1.74-2.72; p cognitive decline on follow-up (HR 1.80, 95%CI 1.12-2.89; p = 0.015). Baseline functional status and severity of WMH and development of cognitive decline predict the occurence of late-onset depression in patients with SVD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. BOLD fMRI in the white matter as a marker of aging and small vessel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Makedonov

    Full Text Available Determine whether white matter signal fluctuation on T2* weighted BOLD contrast images are associated with aging and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD.Resting state BOLD data were collected with a 250 ms repetition time (TR to achieve unaliased, ungated cardiac sampled BOLD (cs-BOLD images on 11 young adult controls, 10 healthy older adult controls and 7 adults with extensive white matter hyperintensities (WMH from SVD. Tissue classes (WM and GM were segmented on T1 images. WMH were identified on FLAIR images in the SVD group. Raw physiological noise (σphysio and cardiac pulsatility (i.e. fluctuations at the cardiac frequency were calculated voxel wise and group differences were tested by ANOVA. It was also possible to calculate σphysio in 2s TR cardiac aliased whole-brain BOLD (wb-BOLD data (N = 84 obtained from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping.CS-BOLD metrics showed an aging and SVD effects (p<0.0005. Covariates such as thermal noise, WM volume and partial volume did not influence the significant aging effect seen on the cardiac pulsatility metric (p<0.017 but did influence the σphysio (p = 0.184. As a verification of the cs-BOLD findings, the wb-BOLD also showed a linear aging effect of σphysio in WM. In the SVD adults, cardiac pulsatility and σphysio were lower in WMH regions compared to normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions (p<0.0013 and p<0.002, respectively. Cardiac pulsatility was better able to distinguish WMH regions from NAWM than σphysio as measured by effect size (Cohen's d 2.2 and 0.88, respectively.NAWM was found to have graded increases in cardiac pulsations due to age and SVD, independently. Within SVD participants, WMH lesions had reduced physiological noise compared to NAWM. Cardiac pulsatility in resting BOLD data may provide a complementary dynamic measure of WM integrity to add to static FLAIR anatomical images.

  8. Review: molecular genetics and pathology of hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Craggs, L; Baumann, M; Kalimo, H; Kalaria, R N

    2011-02-01

    Advances in molecular genetics have enabled identification of several monogenic conditions involving small vessels predisposing to ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and diffuse white matter disease. With emphasis on cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), we review the molecular pathogenesis of recently characterized disorders including cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) and the Collagen type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1)-related disorders. CADASIL remains the most common hereditary small vessel disease (SVD) caused by >190 different mutations in the NOTCH3 gene, which encodes a cell-signalling receptor. Mutant NOTCH3 instigates degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells in small arteries and arterioles leading to recurrent lacunar infarcts. Mutations in the serine protease HTRA1 gene are associated with CARASIL. Aberrant HTRA1 activity results in increased transforming growth factor-β signalling provoking multiple actions including vascular fibrosis and extracellular matrix synthesis. The RVCL disorders characterized by profound retinopathy are associated with mutations in TREX1, which encodes an abundant 3'-5' DNA-specific exonuclease. TREX1 mutations lead to detrimental gain-of-function or insufficient quantities of enzyme. The COL4A1-related disorders are highly variable comprising four major phenotypes with overlapping systemic and central nervous system features including SVD with cerebral haemorrhages in children and adults. Mutant COL4A1 likely disrupts the extracellular matrix resulting in fragile vessel walls. The hereditary SVDs albeit with variable phenotypes demonstrate how effects of different defective genes converge to produce the characteristic arteriopathy and microvascular disintegration leading to vascular cognitive impairment. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and

  9. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup; Christensen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis. These monogenic disorders are often characterized by early-age stroke, but also by migraine, mood disturbances, vascular dementia and often gait disturbances. Some also present with extra-cerebral manifestations such as microangiopathy of the eyes and kidneys. Many present with clinically recognizable syndromes. Investigations include a thorough family medical history, medical history, neurological examination, neuroimaging, often supplemented by specific examinations e.g of the of vision, retinal changes, as well as kidney and heart function. However molecular genetic analysis is the final gold standard of diagnosis. There are increasing numbers of reports on new monogenic syndromes causing cerebral small vessel disease. Genetic counseling is important. Enzyme replacement therapy is possible in Fabry disease, but treatment options remain overall very limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reaction Time is a Marker of Early Cognitive and Behavioral Alterations in Pure Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvent, Eric; Reyes, Sonia; De Guio, François; Chabriat, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of early and subtle cognitive and behavioral effects of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) requires specific and long-lasting evaluations performed by experienced neuropsychologists. Simpler tools would be helpful for daily clinical practice. To determine whether a simple reaction time task that lasts 5 minutes and can be performed without external supervision on any tablet or laptop can be used as a proxy of early cognitive and behavioral alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a monogenic form of pure SVD related to NOTCH3 mutations. Twenty-two genetically confirmed patients with CADASIL having preserved global cognitive abilities and without disability (MMSE >24 and modified Rankin's scale ≤1) were compared to 29 age-and-gender matched controls to determine group differences according to: 1) conventional neuropsychological and behavioral testing; 2) a computerized battery evaluating reaction time, processing speed, and executive functions. In a second step, correlations between reaction time and cognitive and behavioral alterations detected using both conventional and computerized testing were tested in patients. Reaction time was significantly higher in patients than in controls (mean in patients: 283 ms - in controls: 254 ms, p = 0.03). In patients, reaction time was significantly associated with conventional and chronometric tests of executive functions, working memory, and apathy. Reaction time obtained using a very simple task may serve as a proxy of early cognitive and behavioral alterations in SVD and could be easily used in daily clinical practice.

  11. Prognosis of STEMI Patients with Multi-Vessel Disease Undergoing Culprit-Only PCI without Significant Residual Ischemia on Non-Invasive Stress Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaya Weissler-Snir

    Full Text Available In about 50-80% of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients there is significant atherosclerotic disease in other coronary arteries in addition to the culprit vessel. There is substantial controversy as to the optimal revascularization approach in these patients. We sought to compare the outcomes of STEMI patients with multi-vessel disease (MVD treated with culprit-only primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI without significant ischemia on subsequent non-invasive testing, to those of STEMI patients with single-vessel disease (SVD.Between 2001-2010, 1,540 consecutive patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI were prospectively observed and entered into a comprehensive clinical database. The primary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, consisting of mortality, re-infarction and revascularization within 1 and 3 years following PPCI (excluding events occurring during the first 30 days. Patients with cardiogenic shock were excluded. The study included 720 patients with SVD and 185 patients with MVD who underwent culprit-only PPCI and had no residual ischemia on subsequent non-invasive stress testing. Patients with MVD were older, more likely to have hypertension or previous MI and less likely to be smokers and present with anterior MI than patients with SVD. One and 3-year MACE rates were similar between the groups. On cox proportional-hazards regression MVD without residual ischemia was not independently associated with MACE and its components.STEMI patients with MVD treated with culprit only-PCI without significant residual ischemia on non-invasive stress testing appear to have similar prognosis to STEMI patients with SVD.

  12. Prognosis of STEMI Patients with Multi-Vessel Disease Undergoing Culprit-Only PCI without Significant Residual Ischemia on Non-Invasive Stress Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissler-Snir, Adaya; Gurevitz, Chen; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Bental, Tamir; Lador, Adi; Yavin, Hagai; Perl, Leor; Kornowski, Ran; Lev, Eli

    2015-01-01

    In about 50-80% of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients there is significant atherosclerotic disease in other coronary arteries in addition to the culprit vessel. There is substantial controversy as to the optimal revascularization approach in these patients. We sought to compare the outcomes of STEMI patients with multi-vessel disease (MVD) treated with culprit-only primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) without significant ischemia on subsequent non-invasive testing, to those of STEMI patients with single-vessel disease (SVD). Between 2001-2010, 1,540 consecutive patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI were prospectively observed and entered into a comprehensive clinical database. The primary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), consisting of mortality, re-infarction and revascularization within 1 and 3 years following PPCI (excluding events occurring during the first 30 days). Patients with cardiogenic shock were excluded. The study included 720 patients with SVD and 185 patients with MVD who underwent culprit-only PPCI and had no residual ischemia on subsequent non-invasive stress testing. Patients with MVD were older, more likely to have hypertension or previous MI and less likely to be smokers and present with anterior MI than patients with SVD. One and 3-year MACE rates were similar between the groups. On cox proportional-hazards regression MVD without residual ischemia was not independently associated with MACE and its components. STEMI patients with MVD treated with culprit only-PCI without significant residual ischemia on non-invasive stress testing appear to have similar prognosis to STEMI patients with SVD.

  13. Impact of Strategically Located White Matter Hyperintensities on Cognition in Memory Clinic Patients with Small Vessel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; Weaver, Nick A; Hilal, Saima; Kuijf, Hugo J; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Xu, Xin; Tan, Boon Yeow; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Postma, Albert; Biessels, Geert Jan; Chen, Christopher P L H

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics. Assumption-free region of interest-based analyses based on major white matter tracts and voxel-wise analyses were used to determine the association between WMH location and executive functioning, visuomotor speed and memory. Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMHs located particularly within the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor were inversely associated with both executive functioning and visuomotor speed, independent of total WMH volume. Memory was significantly associated with WMH volume in the forceps minor, independent of total WMH volume. An independent assumption-free voxel-wise analysis identified strategic voxels in these same tracts. Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMH volume within the anterior thalamic radiation explained 6.8% of variance in executive functioning, compared to 3.9% for total WMH volume; WMH volume within the forceps minor explained 4.6% of variance in visuomotor speed and 4.2% of variance in memory, compared to 1.8% and 1.3% respectively for total WMH volume. Our findings identify the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor as strategic white matter tracts in which WMHs are most strongly associated with cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients with SVD. WMH volumes in individual tracts explained more variance in cognition than total WMH burden, emphasizing the importance of lesion location when addressing the functional consequences of WMHs.

  14. Unitary embedding for data hiding with the SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Clifford; Davidson, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Steganography is the study of data hiding for the purpose of covert communication. A secret message is inserted into a cover file so that the very existence of the message is not apparent. Most current steganography algorithms insert data in the spatial or transform domains; common transforms include the discrete cosine transform, the discrete Fourier transform, and discrete wavelet transform. In this paper, we present a data-hiding algorithm that exploits a decomposition representation of the data instead of a frequency-based transformation of the data. The decomposition transform used is the singular value decomposition (SVD). The SVD of a matrix A is a decomposition A= USV' in which S is a nonnegative diagonal matrix and U and V are orthogonal matrices. We show how to use the orthogonal matrices in the SVD as a vessel in which to embed information. Several challenges were presented in order to accomplish this, and we give effective information-hiding using the SVD can be just as effective as using transform-based techniques. Furthermore, different problems arise when using the SVD than using a transform-based technique. We have applied the SVD to image data, but the technique can be formulated for other data types such as audio and video.

  15. Genetics of hereditary large vessel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of hereditary large vessel diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) have not only identified responsible genes but also provided better understanding of the pathophysiology and revealed possible new therapeutic targets. Genes identified for these diseases include FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2, TGFB3, SKI, EFEMP2, COL3A1, FLNA, ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK and SLC2A10, as well as others. Their dysfunction disrupts the function of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, as well as that of the extracellular matrix and smooth muscle contractile apparatus, resulting in progression of structural damage to large vessels, including aortic aneurysms and dissections. Notably, it has been shown that the TGF-β signaling pathway has a key role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, which may be important for development of strategies for medical and surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

  16. Rationale, design and methodology of the image analysis protocol for studies of patients with cerebral small vessel disease and mild stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Armitage, Paul A; Thrippleton, Michael J; Chappell, Francesca; Sandeman, Elaine; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Shuler, Kirsten; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is common in ageing and patients with dementia and stroke. Its manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, small subcortical infarcts, and brain atrophy. Many studies focus only on one of these manifestations. A protocol for the differential assessment of all these features is, therefore, needed. To identify ways of quantifying imaging markers in research of patients with SVD and operationalize the recommendations from the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging guidelines. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methodology of a brain image analysis protocol based on our experience from observational longitudinal studies of patients with nondisabling stroke. The MRI analysis protocol is designed to provide quantitative and qualitative measures of disease evolution including: acute and old stroke lesions, lacunes, tissue loss due to stroke, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, macrohemorrhages, iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantia nigra and brain stem, brain atrophy, and white matter hyperintensities, with the latter separated into intense and less intense. Quantitative measures of tissue integrity such as diffusion fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and the longitudinal relaxation time are assessed in regions of interest manually placed in anatomically and functionally relevant locations, and in others derived from feature extraction pipelines and tissue segmentation methods. Morphological changes that relate to cognitive deficits after stroke, analyzed through shape models of subcortical structures, complete the multiparametric image analysis protocol. Final outcomes include guidance for identifying ways to minimize bias and confounds in the assessment of SVD and stroke imaging biomarkers. It is intended that this information will inform the design of studies to examine the underlying pathophysiology of SVD

  17. LYMPHATIC VESSELS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T.; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature plays vital roles in tissue fluid balance, immune defense, metabolism and cancer metastasis. In adults, lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling occurs primarily during inflammation, development of the corpus luteum, wound healing, and tumor growth. Unlike the blood circulation, where unidirectional flow is sustained by the pumping actions of the heart, pumping actions intrinsic to the lymphatic vessels themselves are important drivers of lymphatic flow. This review summarizes critical components that control lymphatic physiology. PMID:23209022

  18. Pathogenesis and pathology of HIVrelated large-vessel disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first reported series of large-vessel aneurysms in patients with HIV infection emanated from Zimbabwe.1,2 A more comprehensive study of the pathology was reported by Nair et al. in 1999.3 More recently there has been some focus on occlusive large-vessel disease, with separate reports by Nair et al.4 and Mulaudzi et ...

  19. Cerebral small vessel disease and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Z

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhiyou Cai,1 Chuanling Wang,1 Wenbo He,1 Hanjun Tu,2 Zhengang Tang,3 Ming Xiao,4 Liang-Jun Yan51Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, 2Department of Basic Research Center, Hubei University of Medicine, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, 4Department of Anatomy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD is a group of pathological processes with multifarious etiology and pathogenesis that are involved into the small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. CSVD mainly contains lacunar infarct or lacunar stroke, leukoaraiosis, Binswanger’s disease, and cerebral microbleeds. CSVD is an important cerebral microvascular pathogenesis as it is the cause of 20% of strokes worldwide and the most common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. It has been well identified that CSVD contributes to the occurrence of AD. It seems that the treatment and prevention for cerebrovascular diseases with statins have such a role in the same function for AD. So far, there is no strong evidence-based medicine to support the idea, although increasing basic studies supported the fact that the treatment and prevention for cerebrovascular diseases will benefit AD. Furthermore, there is still lack of evidence in clinical application involved in specific drugs to benefit both AD and CSVD.Keywords: dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, lacunar infarct, leukoaraiosis, cerebral microbleeds

  20. Lymphatic vessels: new targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Seidel, Catharina D; Detmar, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in the physiological control of the tissue fluid balance and in the initiation of immune responses. Recent studies have shown that lymphangiogenesis, the growth of new lymphatic vessels and/or the expansion of existing lymphatic vessels, is a characteristic feature of acute inflammatory reactions and of chronic inflammatory diseases. In these conditions, lymphatic vessel expansion occurs at the tissue level but also within the draining lymph nodes. Surprisingly, activation of lymphatic vessel function by delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor-C exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several models of cutaneous and joint inflammation. These effects are likely mediated by enhanced drainage of extravasated fluid and inflammatory cells, but also by lymphatic vessel-mediated modulation of immune responses. Although some of the underlying mechanisms are just beginning to be identified, lymphatic vessels have emerged as important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory conditions. In this context, it is of great interest that some of the currently used anti-inflammatory drugs also potently activate lymphatic vessels.

  1. Data Unfolding with Wiener-SVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Li, X.; Qian, X.; Wei, H.; Zhang, C.

    2017-10-01

    Data unfolding is a common analysis technique used in HEP data analysis. Inspired by the deconvolution technique in the digital signal processing, a new unfolding technique based on the SVD technique and the well-known Wiener filter is introduced. The Wiener-SVD unfolding approach achieves the unfolding by maximizing the signal to noise ratios in the effective frequency domain given expectations of signal and noise and is free from regularization parameter. Through a couple examples, the pros and cons of the Wiener-SVD approach as well as the nature of the unfolded results are discussed.

  2. White Matter and Hippocampal Volume Predict the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The RUN DMC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, Ingeborg W M; van der Holst, Helena M; Tuladhar, Anil M; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Norris, David G; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and dementia has been studied without considering white matter (WM) volume, the microstructural integrity of the WM surrounding the SVD, and grey matter (GM). We prospectively investigated the relationship between these structures and the risk of dementia, and formed a prediction model to investigate which characteristics (macro- or microstructural) explained most of the variance. The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study among 503 non-demented participants with an age between 50 and 85 years at baseline, with baseline assessment in 2006 and follow-up assessment in 2012. Two were lost to follow-up (yielding a 99.6% response-rate). Cox regression analysis was used, to calculate hazard ratios for dementia, of baseline MRI characteristics. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis was used to assess the added value of microstructural integrity of the WM. Mean age at baseline was 65.6 years (SD 8.8) and 56.8% was male. 43 participants developed dementia (8.6%), resulting in a 5.5-year cumulative risk of 11.1% (95% CI 7.7-14.6). Low WM and hippocampal volume are significant predictors for dementia. WM, WM hyperintensities, and hippocampal volume explained most of the variance. TBSS analyses showed no additional value of diffusion parameters. WM and hippocampal volume were the main predictors for the development of incident dementia at 5-year follow-up in elderly with SVD. There was no additional diagnostic value of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters on top of the macrostructural characteristics.

  3. Status of the Belle SVD detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, R; Alimonti, G; Asano, Y; Bakich, A; Banas, E; Bozek, A; Browder, T E; Dragic, J; Everton, C W; Fukunaga, C; Gordon, A; Guler, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hastings, N; Hazumi, M; Heenan, E; Higuchi, T; Hojo, T; Ishino, H; Iwai, G; Jalocha, P; Kaneko, J; Kapusta, P; Kawasaki, T; Korotushenko, K; Lange, J; Li, Y; Marlow, D; Matsubara, T; Miyake, H; Moffitt, L; Moloney, G R; Mori, S; Nagashima, Y; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, T; Natkaniec, Z; Okuno, S; Olsen, S; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Peak, L; Rozanka, M; Ryuko, J; Sevior, M E; Shimada, K; Stanic, S; Sumisawa, K; Stock, R; Swain, S; Tajima, H; Takahashi, S; Tagomori, H; Takasaki, F; Tamura, N; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Tomura, T; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsujita, Y; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Watanabe, Y; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, H; Yokoyama, M; Zhao, H; Zontar, D

    2002-01-01

    The Belle spectrometer was designed for studies of B meson decays at an asymmetric e sup + e sup - collider operating at the UPSILON(4S) resonance. One of its crucial components, a silicon vertex detector (SVD), is placed just outside a cylindrical beryllium beam-pipe. After a year of Belle operation an upgraded version of SVD was installed during the regular summer shut-down. The new SVD follows the same design, with a few important improvements. Rad-soft readout electronics was replaced by rad-tolerant one, allowing for longer lifetime of the detector. A new radiation and temperature monitoring system was developed and implemented. A saw-shaped inner surface was introduced in the beam-pipe to prevent potential synchrotron radiation damage. The upgraded detector started operating successfully in October 2000.

  4. HIV protease inhibitor exposure predicts cerebral small vessel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soontornniyomkij, V; Umlauf, A; Chung, SA; Cochran, ML; Soontornniyomkij, B; Gouaux, B; Toperoff, W; Moore, DJ; Masliah, E; Ellis, RJ; Grant, I.; Achim, CL

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) remain prevalent in patients who receive HAART and may be associated with cumulative exposure to antiretroviral medications and other factors. We proposed that chronic toxic effects of antiretroviral drugs could contribute to cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), which might be one of the key underpinnings of HAND. Design: Clinicopathological cross-sectional study of HIV-...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description COL4A1 -related brain small-vessel disease is part of ...

  6. Characterising the grey matter correlates of leukoaraiosis in cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lambert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that SVD severity is associated with regional cortical thinning. Furthermore a quantitative measure of SVD severity (WMH volume can be predicted from grey matter measures, supporting an association between white and grey matter damage. The pattern of cortical thinning and volumetric decline is distinctive for SVD severity compared to ageing. These results, taken together, suggest that there is a phenotypic pattern of atrophy associated with SVD severity.

  7. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  8. Small Vessel Cerebrovascular Disease: The Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réza Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain infarction due to small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD—also known as small vessel infarct (SVI or “lacunar” stroke—accounts for 20% to 25% of all ischemic strokes. Historically, SVIs have been associated with a favorable short-term prognosis. However, studies over the years have demonstrated that SVCD/SVI is perhaps a more complex and less benign phenomenon than generally presumed. The currently employed diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are based upon historical and contemporary perceptions of SVCD/SVI. What is discovered in the future will unmask the true countenance of SVCD/SVI and help furnish more accurate prognostication schemes and effective treatments for this condition. This paper is an overview of SVCD/SVI with respect to the discoveries of the past, what is known now, and what will the ongoing investigations evince in the future.

  9. Increased Total Homocysteine Levels Predict the Risk of Incident Dementia Independent of Cerebral Small-Vessel Diseases and Vascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kaori; Tanaka, Makiko; Okazaki, Shuhei; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine has been identified as a potential risk factor for stroke, cerebral small-vessel diseases (SVD), and dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of homocysteine levels on incident dementia while simultaneously controlling for MRI findings and vascular risk factors. Within a Japanese cohort of participants with vascular risk factors in an observational study, we evaluated the association between baseline total homocysteine (tHcy) levels (per 1 μmol/L and the tertile of tHcy), the prevalence of MRI-findings at baseline, and incident all-cause dementia. Baseline brain MRI was used to determine SVD (lacunas, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds [CMBs]) and atrophy (medial-temporal lobe atrophy and bicaudate ratio). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the cross-sectional association between tHcy and each of MRI findings. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to estimate the longitudinal association between tHcy and dementia. In the 643 subjects (age: 67.2 ± 8.4 years, male: 59% ; education: 12.9 ± 2.6 years), multivariable analyses adjusted for several potential confounders, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and intima-media thickness, showed that highest tHcy tertile was associated with lacunas, CMBs, and strictly deep CMBs. During the mean 7.3-year follow-up (range: 2-13), 47 patients were diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease: 24; vascular dementia: 18; mixed-type: 3; other: 2). After adjusting for age, gender, APOE ɛ4, education, BMI, MMSE, hypertension, cerebrovascular events, eGFR, and MRI-findings, tHcy level (hazard ratios [HR]: 1.08, p = 0.043) and the highest tertile of tHcy (HR: 2.50, p = 0.047) for all-cause dementia remained significant. Our results provide additional evidence of tHcy that contributes to increased susceptibility to dementia risk.

  10. Large vessel occlusive disease associated with CREST syndrome and scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, P; Englert, H; Bertouch, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report the cases of three patients with CREST syndrome and one patient with diffuse scleroderma who had severe macrovascular disease and only minimal vascular risk factors. METHODS--The medical histories, physical examinations, and results of clinical investigations were reviewed in four patients. RESULTS--These four patients had severe morbidity from macrovascular disease of the arms and legs in the presence of minimal underlying vascular risk factors. These patients represent 11% of the women with scleroderma seen at our hospital since 1974. This is a greater than threefold increase above the expected proportion of symptomatic vascular disease seen in population studies. In the patients with CREST syndrome, large vessel disease was first seen more than 10 years after the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon, which was the first manifestation of the disease. A pathological specimen of the ulnar artery from one patient showed severe luminal narrowing by an acellular material with no evidence of atheroma. CONCLUSIONS--These cases suggest an association of both the CREST syndrome and scleroderma with macrovascular disease. PMID:8323401

  11. Poor sleep quality and silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease: a population-based study in community-dwelling older adults (The Atahualpa Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Castillo, Pablo R

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of a relationship between non-breathing-related sleep symptoms and silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate this association in older people living in rural Ecuador, where the burden of stroke is on the rise. A group of Atahualpa residents, aged ≥60 years, were interviewed with a validated Spanish version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for identification of silent markers of SVD. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular health status, it was evaluated whether sleep quality is associated with the severity of white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunar infarcts, and deep microbleeds. Out of 311 people aged ≥60 years, 237 (76%) were enrolled into the study. Mean age was 70 ± 8 years, 59% were women, 83% had primary school education only, and 73% had a poor cardiovascular health status. Seventy-eight (33%) had poor sleep quality. The MRI showed: WMH in 154 (65%) participants (moderate-to-severe in 52); silent lacunar infarcts in 28 (12%); and deep microbleeds in 17 (7%). Poor sleep quality was associated with WMH presence (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.71, p = 0.008) and severity (β coefficient 0.77, SE 0.37, p = 0.037), but not with silent lacunar infarcts or deep microbleeds. The present study showed an association between poor sleep quality and WMH severity. Further longitudinal studies would help to elucidate the cause and effect of this relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential gene expression in multiple neurological, inflammatory and connective tissue pathways in a spontaneous model of human small vessel stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emma L; McBride, Martin W; Beattie, Wendy; McClure, John D; Graham, Delyth; Dominiczak, Anna F; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Smith, Colin; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) causes a fifth of all strokes plus diffuse brain damage leading to cognitive decline, physical disabilities and dementia. The aetiology and pathogenesis of SVD are unknown, but largely attributed to hypertension or microatheroma. We used the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP), the closest spontaneous experimental model of human SVD, and age-matched control rats kept under identical, non-salt-loaded conditions, to perform a blinded analysis of mRNA microarray, qRT-PCR and pathway analysis in two brain regions (frontal and mid-coronal) commonly affected by SVD in the SHRSP at age five, 16 and 21 weeks. We found gene expression abnormalities, with fold changes ranging from 2.5 to 59 for the 10 most differentially expressed genes, related to endothelial tight junctions (reduced), nitric oxide bioavailability (reduced), myelination (impaired), glial and microglial activity (increased), matrix proteins (impaired), vascular reactivity (impaired) and albumin (reduced), consistent with protein expression defects in the same rats. All were present at age 5 weeks thus predating blood pressure elevation. 'Neurological' and 'inflammatory' pathways were more affected than 'vascular' functional pathways. This set of defects, although individually modest, when acting in combination could explain the SHRSP's susceptibility to microvascular and brain injury, compared with control rats. Similar combined, individually modest, but multiple neurovascular unit defects, could explain susceptibility to spontaneous human SVD. © 2014 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  13. Clinical study on the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD.  Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022.  Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment

  14. Cerebral small vessel diseases: manifestations in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Cerebral small vessel diseases are responsible for 20-30% of ischemic strokes as well as for a considerable proportion of cerebral hemorrhages and encephalopathies. Less known than the manifestations in old age are those in young women comprising posterior encephalopathy and Susac's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed us to identify posterior encephalopathy, characterized by headache, seizures, visual disturbances and hypertension, as a frequent complication of preeclampsia/eclampsia syndrome in the perinatal and postpartum period. Magnetic resonance findings are pathognomonic with bilateral cortical-subcortical lesions in the posterior hemispheres typically sparing the calcarine fissure. Conversely, white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging particularly involving the corpus callosum, and a (subclinical) sensorineural hearing loss are diagnostic of the retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy called Susac's syndrome. Posterior encephalopathy can also follow from a broad spectrum of endotheliotoxic conditions like chemotherapy, immunosuppression and sepsis. Early recognition of the disorder is decisive for a benign outcome since therapy consists of removal of precipitating factors, lowering of blood pressure and treatment with magnesium sulfate. The retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy appears to be underdiagnosed. An autoimmune-mediated arteriolopathy is presumed and the disease is nearly always monophasic. A variety of therapeutic approaches have been recommended, none of which, however, is based on anything other than anecdotal evidence.

  15. White matters - The influence of cerebral small-vessel disease on depression, cognition and functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grool, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in later life, and frequently co-occur. One of the possible mechanisms that may underlie both conditions is the presence of cerebral small-vessel disease. The presence of cerebral small-vessel disease is strongly associated with common

  16. Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeechan, Kevin; Liew, Gerald; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Vingerling, Johannes R.; deJong, Paulus T. V. M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Shaw, Jonathan; Zimmet, Paul; Wong, Tien Y.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal vessel caliber may be a novel marker of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the sex-specific effect, magnitude of association, and effect independent of traditional CHD disease risk factors remain unclear. To determine the association between retinal vessel caliber and risk for CHD.

  17. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  18. Coronary angioplasty of the unstable angina related vessel in patients with multivessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); W. Wijns (William); R. Geuskens; A. Soward; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the ischaemia-related vessel in patients with unstable angina. Forty-three patients had multivessel disease with dilatation of the ischaemia-related vessel only (group I; partial

  19. A High Performance QDWH-SVD Solver using Hardware Accelerators

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.

    2015-04-08

    This paper describes a new high performance implementation of the QR-based Dynamically Weighted Halley Singular Value Decomposition (QDWH-SVD) solver on multicore architecture enhanced with multiple GPUs. The standard QDWH-SVD algorithm was introduced by Nakatsukasa and Higham (SIAM SISC, 2013) and combines three successive computational stages: (1) the polar decomposition calculation of the original matrix using the QDWH algorithm, (2) the symmetric eigendecomposition of the resulting polar factor to obtain the singular values and the right singular vectors and (3) the matrix-matrix multiplication to get the associated left singular vectors. A comprehensive test suite highlights the numerical robustness of the QDWH-SVD solver. Although it performs up to two times more flops when computing all singular vectors compared to the standard SVD solver algorithm, our new high performance implementation on single GPU results in up to 3.8x improvements for asymptotic matrix sizes, compared to the equivalent routines from existing state-of-the-art open-source and commercial libraries. However, when only singular values are needed, QDWH-SVD is penalized by performing up to 14 times more flops. The singular value only implementation of QDWH-SVD on single GPU can still run up to 18% faster than the best existing equivalent routines. Integrating mixed precision techniques in the solver can additionally provide up to 40% improvement at the price of losing few digits of accuracy, compared to the full double precision floating point arithmetic. We further leverage the single GPU QDWH-SVD implementation by introducing the first multi-GPU SVD solver to study the scalability of the QDWH-SVD framework.

  20. SVD vs PCA: Comparison of Performance in an Imaging Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Oblefias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of basis spectra from a spectral library is an important prerequisite of any compact imaging spectrometer. In this paper, we compare the basis spectra computed by singular-value decomposition (SVD and principal component analysis (PCA in terms of estimation performance with respect to resolution, presence of noise, intensity variation, and quantization error. Results show that SVD is robust in intensity variation while PCA is not. However, PCA performs better with signals of low signal-to-noise ratio. No significant difference is seen between SVD and PCA in terms of resolution and quantization error.

  1. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  2. Analytic robust stability analysis of SVD orbit feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Orbit feedback controllers are indispensable for the operation of modern particle accelerators. Many such controllers are based on the decoupling of the inputs and outputs of the system to be controlled with the help of the singular value decomposition (SVD controller). It is crucial to verify the stability of SVD controllers, also in the presence of mismatches between the used accelerator model and the real machine (robust stability problem). In this paper, analytical criteria for guaranteed stability margins of SVD orbit feedback systems for three different types of model mismatches are presented: scaling errors of actuators and BPMs (beam position monitors) and additive errors of the orbit response matrix. For the derivation of these criteria, techniques from robust control theory have been used, e.g the small gain theorem. The obtained criteria can be easily applied directly to other SVD orbit feedback systems. As an example, the criteria were applied to the orbit feedback system of the Compact Linear ...

  3. UTM TCL 2.0 Software Version Description (SVD) Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguirk, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This is the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level(TCL) 2.0 Software Version Description (SVD) document. This UTM TCL 2.0 SVD describes the following four topics: 1. Software Release Contents: A listing of the files comprising this release 2. Installation Instructions: How to install the release and get it running 3. Changes Since Previous Release: General updates since the previous UTM release 4. Known Issues: Known issues and limitations in this release

  4. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, R., E-mail: Richard.Thalmeier@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technolog y Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  5. Random projection and SVD methods in hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiani

    Hyperspectral imaging provides researchers with abundant information with which to study the characteristics of objects in a scene. Processing the massive hyperspectral imagery datasets in a way that efficiently provides useful information becomes an important issue. In this thesis, we consider methods which reduce the dimension of hyperspectral data while retaining as much useful information as possible. Traditional deterministic methods for low-rank approximation are not always adaptable to process huge datasets in an effective way, and therefore probabilistic methods are useful in dimension reduction of hyperspectral images. In this thesis, we begin by generally introducing the background and motivations of this work. Next, we summarize the preliminary knowledge and the applications of SVD and PCA. After these descriptions, we present a probabilistic method, randomized Singular Value Decomposition (rSVD), for the purposes of dimension reduction, compression, reconstruction, and classification of hyperspectral data. We discuss some variations of this method. These variations offer the opportunity to obtain a more accurate reconstruction of the matrix whose singular values decay gradually, to process matrices without target rank, and to obtain the rSVD with only one single pass over the original data. Moreover, we compare the method with Compressive-Projection Principle Component Analysis (CPPCA). From the numerical results, we can see that rSVD has better performance in compression and reconstruction than truncated SVD and CPPCA. We also apply rSVD to classification methods for the hyperspectral data provided by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA).

  6. Prognostic value of an abnormal response to acetylcholine in patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary artery disease: Long-term follow-up of the Heart Quest cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Adler, Eric; Gujer, Samuel; Jamshidi, Peiman; Kobza, Richard; Stuck, Andreas E; Resink, Therese J; Erne, Paul

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to determine whether small vessel disease (SVD) or vasospastic disease (VSD) has an impact on prognosis. The prospective cohort embraced 718 patients with angina equivalent symptoms and no coronary stenosis ≥50% recruited between 1997 and 2008. At baseline, patients were classified as having SVD, VSD, other cardiac disease or non-cardiac problem based on intracoronary acetylcholine application and fast atrial pacing during coronary angiography. Patients underwent follow-up between 2007 and 2015. Prognostic significance of the diagnosis on cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and sex. The mean follow-up duration was 11.3±2.7years. Only 11 patients (1.5%) were lost to follow-up, resulting in an analyzed population of 707 patients. Patients with SVD (HR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.1-22.4, P=0.040) and VSD (HR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.0-23.4, P=0.050) had an increased risk of suffering cardiovascular events compared to patients with non-cardiac problems. Among SVD patients, those with the presence of endothelial dysfunction had a particularly high risk (HR: 7.3, 95% CI: 1.5-35.5, P=0.015). Among patients with SVD or VSD, those having persisting or worsening angina during follow-up had a higher risk than patients in whom angina improved (HR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.9-12.3, P=0.001). Our study shows that patients with SVD or VSD have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This particularly applies to SVD patients with endothelial dysfunction. Symptoms should be taken seriously in SVD and VSD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01318629. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical significance of brain microbleeds in patients with Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbleeds (MBs are observed frequently in Alzheimer′s disease (AD and suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology, but their clinical significance remains unclear. Materials and Methods: The study recruited 100 patients with AD who were diagnosed at the memory clinic in Seoul Medical Center in 2014. For each patient, baseline characteristics, neuropsychological tests, cerebrovascular risk factors, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA, and severity of small vessel disease (SVD according to the existence of MBs were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MBs in patients with AD was 33%. The percentage of male gender, the severity of SVD and MTLA were significantly increased in MB(+ group. The MB(+ group showed more severe MTLA and SVD than MB(− group. Conclusions: These results suggested that MBs might reflect the burden of amyloid and ischemic vascular pathology.

  8. Novel COL4A1 mutations cause cerebral small vessel disease by haploinsufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, R.; Maugeri, A.; Niessen, H.W.M.; Goris, A.; Tousseyn, T.; Demaerel, P.; Corveleyn, A.; Robberecht, W.; van der Knaap, M.S.; Thijs, V.N.; Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 have been identified in families with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain presumably due to a dominant-negative mechanism. Here, we report on two novel mutations in COL4A1 in two families with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage and severe white matter disease caused

  9. The everolimus-eluting Xience stent in small vessel disease: bench, clinical, and pathology view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez OD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar D Sanchez, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Tobias Koppara, Renu Virmani, Michael Joner CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CAD relates to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries, which are most frequently treated today by percutaneous coronary intervention. Small vessel disease treatment represents one-third of all percutaneous coronary interventions with higher rates of restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. Initially, drug-eluting stents (DES were developed to reduce in-stent restenosis, improving clinical outcomes and reducing the need for target vessel revascularization. However, late and very late stent thrombosis emerged as a new problem compromising DES's long-term results. The cobalt–chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES represents the results of an evolutionary process in DES technology aimed at improving the shortcomings of first-generation DES. Small vessel CAD has historically been an obstacle to long-term patency following implantation of DES. Antirestenotic efficacy has been shown to be of high relevance in small vessels. Therefore, stent selection may play an important role in determining outcomes in this subgroup of patients. This article will review the performance of CoCr-EES in the treatment of small vessel CAD from preclinical, clinical, and pathology perspectives, and it will highlight the most important findings in this regard. Keywords: small vessel, cobalt–chromiun everolimus-eluting stent, Xience V, pathology

  10. Techniques for transcatheter recanalization of completely occluded vessels and pathways in patients with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latson Larry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusions of major vessels in patients with congenital heart disease may occur due to a variety of factors. These occlusions are often felt to be best addressed surgically; however, we and others have been successful in recanalizing most of these vessels in the catheterization laboratory. Most of these patients will require multiple procedures in the catheterization laboratory to ensure vessel patency and to facilitate vessel growth. Physicians performing the procedure should have a thorough understanding of the anatomic considerations for the intended procedure and have access to a variety of devices and equipment to optimize the result of the procedure. In this article, we review some of the technical aspects that are vital for the success of the procedure.

  11. Collateral vessels in moyamoya disease : comparison of MR and MRA with conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Joo Eun; Yoon, Dae Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Choonchun (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in assessing collateral vessels of moyamoya disease. Twenty-four patients with moyamoya disease who underwent MR, 3D TOF MRA, and conventional angiography participated in this study. Two radiologists working independently and with no knowledge of the angiographic findings, interpreted the MR and MRA images. To determine the presence of parenchymal and leptomeningeal collaterals (48 hemispheres) and transdural collaterals (38 hemispheres in 19 patients were depicted by angiography of the external carotid), the findings were compared with those of angiography. Parenchymal, leptomeningeal, and transdural collaterals were depicted by conventional angiography in 34 (71%), 32 (67%), and 11 (29%) hemispheres respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA for collateral vessels were 79.1/88.1 % for parenchymal collaterals, 72.1/88.1 % for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 0.1/18.1 % for transdural collaterals, respectively. Respective sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA were 88.94/94.1% for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 18.93/55.1 % for transdural collaterals, when the prominent posterior cerebral and external carotid artery were regarded as secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. In moyamoya disease, MR and MRA are useful imaging modalities for the assessment of collateral vessels. The prominent posterior cerebral artery and external carotid artery can be useful secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Assessment of disease activity in large-vessel vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Sibel Z.; Direskeneli, Haner; Merkel, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To arrive at consensus for candidate outcomes for disease activity assessment in largevessel vasculitis (LVV) in clinical trials. Methods.A Delphi survey including 99 items was circulated among international experts for 3 rounds. Results. Fifty-seven items were accepted for both giant ...

  13. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Dementia and Depression: a prospective population-based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Prins (Niels)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebral white matter lesions and asymptomatic brain infarcts are common in elderly people. These brain lesions are thought to result from cerebral small vessel disease, and their presence and severity increase with age and the presence of arterial hypertension.

  14. Cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Yulu; Thrippleton, Michael J; Makin, Stephen D; Marshall, Ian; Geerlings, Mirjam I; de Craen, Anton Jm; van Buchem, Mark A; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities are frequent on neuroimaging of older people and are a key feature of cerebral small vessel disease. They are commonly attributed to chronic hypoperfusion, although whether low cerebral blood flow is cause or effect is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies that

  15. Mutation of FOXC1 and PITX2 induces cerebral small-vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Curtis R.; Seshadri, Sudha; Destefano, Anita L.; Fornage, Myriam; Arnold, Corey R.; Gage, Philip J.; Skarie, Jonathan M.; Dobyns, William B.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Liu, Ting; Dietz, William; Kume, Tsutomu; Hofker, Marten; Emery, Dere; Childs, Sarah J.; Waskiewicz, Andrew J.; Lehmann, Orden J.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) exhibit perturbed end-artery function and have an increased risk for stroke and age-related cognitive decline. Here, we used targeted genome-wide association (GWA) analysis and defined a CSVD locus adjacent to the forkhead transcription factor

  16. Clinical and magnetic resonance observations in cerebral small-vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, V.I.H.

    1999-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis tried to address the following questions: 1. Is it possible to detect genetic factors and vascular risk factors that are specifically associated with the development of small- or large-vessel disease? 2. Are the different clinical and MRI manifestations, that are

  17. Cerebrovascular Biomarker Profile Is Related to White Matter Disease and Ventricular Dilation in a LADIS Substudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bjerke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small vessel disease (SVD represents a common often progressive condition in elderly people contributing to cognitive disability. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers and imaging correlates of SVD was investigated, and the findings were hypothesized to be associated with a neuropsychological profile of SVD. Methods: CSF SVD-related biomarkers [neurofilament light (NF-L, myelin basic protein (MBP, soluble amyloid precursor protein-β (sAPPβ, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP] were analysed in 46 non-demented elderly with imaging findings of SVD. We assessed the relationship between the CSF biomarkers and white matter hyperintensity (WMH volume, diffusion-weighted imaging and atrophy as well as their association with neuropsychological profiles. Results: The WMH volume correlated with ventricular dilation, which was associated with executive function and speed and attention. Increased WMH and ventricular dilation were related to increased CSF levels of TIMP-1, NF-L and MBP and to decreased sAPPβ. A positive correlation was found between the CSF biomarker MMP-9 and WMH progression. Conclusions: The link between progressive WMH and MMP-9 suggests an involvement of the enzyme in white matter degeneration. CSF TIMP-1, NF-L, MBP and sAPPβ may function as biological markers of white matter damage.

  18. SVD-based digital image watermarking using complex wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new robust method of non-blind image watermarking is proposed in this paper. The suggested method is performed by modification on singular value decomposition (SVD) of images in Complex Wavelet Transform (CWT) domain while CWT provides higher capacity than the real wavelet domain. Modification of the ...

  19. SVD-based digital image watermarking using complex wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University,. Tehran, 19839, Iran e-mail: ... distributed throughout computer networks. Considering the applications of such ..... graph (identified as figure 13c), the SVD correlation quality assessment was used (Papas &. Safranek 2000). This measure is ...

  20. New Collaborative Filtering Algorithms Based on SVD++ and Differential Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzheng Xian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative filtering technology has been widely used in the recommender system, and its implementation is supported by the large amount of real and reliable user data from the big-data era. However, with the increase of the users’ information-security awareness, these data are reduced or the quality of the data becomes worse. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is one of the common matrix factorization methods used in collaborative filtering, which introduces the bias information of users and items and is realized by using algebraic feature extraction. The derivative model SVD++ of SVD achieves better predictive accuracy due to the addition of implicit feedback information. Differential privacy is defined very strictly and can be proved, which has become an effective measure to solve the problem of attackers indirectly deducing the personal privacy information by using background knowledge. In this paper, differential privacy is applied to the SVD++ model through three approaches: gradient perturbation, objective-function perturbation, and output perturbation. Through theoretical derivation and experimental verification, the new algorithms proposed can better protect the privacy of the original data on the basis of ensuring the predictive accuracy. In addition, an effective scheme is given that can measure the privacy protection strength and predictive accuracy, and a reasonable range for selection of the differential privacy parameter is provided.

  1. Novel COL4A1 mutations cause cerebral small vessel disease by haploinsufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Robin; Maugeri, Alessandra; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Goris, An; Tousseyn, Thomas; Demaerel, Philippe; Corveleyn, Anniek; Robberecht, Wim; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Thijs, Vincent N.; Zwijnenburg, Petra J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 have been identified in families with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain presumably due to a dominant-negative mechanism. Here, we report on two novel mutations in COL4A1 in two families with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage and severe white matter disease caused by haploinsufficiency. Two families with various clinical presentations of cerebral microangiopathy and autosomal dominant inheritance were examined. Clinical, neuroradiological and genetic investi...

  2. Molecular evaluation of the great vessels of patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Mauro Paes; David, Tirone E.; Butany, Jagdish; Banerjee, Diponkar; Bastos,Eduardo S.; Provenzano,Sylvio C.; Leôncio A. Feitosa; Murad,Henrique; Magnanini,Monica M. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with increased prevalence of annulo-aortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. This study was undertaken to compare the amount of fibrillin-1 and elastin in the media of great vessels of patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve disease. METHOD: Tissue samples of ascending aorta and pulmonary artery were obtained from 22 patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) and 17 patients with tricuspid aortic valve diseas...

  3. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey); Topalkara, Kamil [Bayindir Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Erkoc, Mustafa F. [Bozok University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm{sup 2} which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  4. Vascular dementia: different forms of vessel disorders contribute to the development of dementia in the elderly brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Attems, Johannes

    2012-11-01

    The diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) describes a group of various vessel disorders with different types of vascular lesions that finally contribute to the development of dementia. Most common forms of VaD in the elderly brain are subcortical vascular encephalopathy, strategic infarct dementia, and the multi infarct encephalopathy. Hereditary forms of VaD are rare. Most common is the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Sporadic forms of VaD are caused by degenerative vessel disorders such as atherosclerosis, small vessel disease (SVD) including small vessel arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and lipohyalinosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Less frequently inflammatory vessel disorders and tumor-associated vessel lesions (e.g. angiocentric T-cell or angiotropic large cell lymphoma) can cause symptoms of dementia. Here, we review and discuss the impact of vessel disorders to distinct vascular brain tissue lesions and to the development of dementia in elderly individuals. The impact of coexisting neurodegenerative pathology in the elderly brain to VaD as well as the correlation between SVD and CAA expansion in the brain parenchyma with that of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology is highlighted. We conclude that "pure" VaD is rare and most frequently caused by infarctions. However, there is a significant contribution of vascular lesions and vessel pathology to the development of dementia that may go beyond tissue damage due to vascular lesions. Insufficient blood blow and alterations of the perivascular drainage mechanisms of the brain may also lead to a reduced protein clearance from extracellular space and subsequent increase of proteins in the brain parenchyma, such as the amyloid β-protein, and foster, thereby, the development of AD-related neurodegeneration. As such, it seems to be important for clinical practice to consider treatment of potentially coexisting AD pathology in

  5. Mechanical Recanalization of Subacute Vessel Occlusion in Peripheral Arterial Disease with a Directional Atherectomy Catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Alexander, E-mail: Alexander.Massmann@uks.eu; Katoh, Marcus [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak [Saarland University Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Buecker, Arno [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively examine the technical feasibility and safety of directional atherectomy for treatment of subacute infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions. Methods: Five patients (one woman, four men, age range 51-81 years) with peripheral arterial disease who experienced sudden worsening of their peripheral arterial disease-related symptoms during the last 2-6 weeks underwent digital subtraction angiography, which revealed vessel occlusion in native popliteal artery (n = 4) and in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (n = 1). Subsequently, all patients were treated by atherectomy with the SilverHawk (ev3 Endovascular, USA) device. Results: The mean diameter of treated vessels was 5.1 {+-} 1.0 mm. The length of the occlusion ranged 2-14 cm. The primary technical success rate was 100%. One patient experienced a reocclusion during hospitalization due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. There were no further periprocedural complications, in particular no peripheral embolizations, until hospital discharge or during the follow-up period of 1 year. Conclusion: The recanalization of infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions by atherectomy with the SilverHawk device is technically feasible and safe. In our limited retrospective study, it was associated with a high technical success rate and a low procedure-related complication rate.

  6. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dragneva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies.

  8. Partial sternotomy coronary surgery with triple-vessel disease in dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pi Xiong; Gu, Song; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Dextrocardia associated with situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital condition. A small number of cases with these conditions have been reported who underwent myocardial revascularization via the on-pump or off-pump techniques. Among them, only 1 patient with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis was reported to have the procedure performed with minimally invasive coronary surgery via a right anterior small thoracotomy. However, the case was a single-vessel disease and only one graft was achieved. We describe the case of a 65-year old female patient with triple-vessel obstructive coronary diseases who was successfully revascularized with three grafts using a minimally invasive technique. This was achieved via partial sternotomy and employing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  9. A SURVEY OF RETINA BASED DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING BLOOD VESSEL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kuppusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colour retinal photography is one of the most essential features to identify the confirmation of various eye diseases. The iris is primary attribute to authenticate the human. This research work presents the survey and comparison of various blood vessel related feature identification, segmentation, extraction and enhancement methods. Additionally, this study is observed the various databases performance for storing the images and testing in minimal time. This paper is also provides the better performance techniques based on the survey.

  10. Robust image watermarking using DWT and SVD for copyright protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjito, Bambang; Suryani, Esti

    2017-02-01

    The Objective of this paper is proposed a robust combined Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The RGB image is called a cover medium, and watermark image is converted into gray scale. Then, they are transformed using DWT so that they can be split into several subbands, namely sub-band LL2, LH2, HL2. The watermark image embeds into the cover medium on sub-band LL2. This scheme aims to obtain the higher robustness level than the previous method which performs of SVD matrix factorization image for copyright protection. The experiment results show that the proposed method has robustness against several image processing attacks such as Gaussian, Poisson and Salt and Pepper Noise. In these attacks, noise has average Normalized Correlation (NC) values of 0.574863 0.889784, 0.889782 respectively. The watermark image can be detected and extracted.

  11. Zotarolimus-eluting stent utilization in small-vessel coronary artery disease (ZEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Man-Hong; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Fung, Raymond Chi-Yan; Ho, Hee-Hwa; Ng, Andrew Kei-Yan; Siu, Chung-Wah; Chow, Wing-Hing

    2014-01-01

    The role of the second-generation zotarolimus-eluting stent RESOLUTE in small-vessel coronary artery disease is unclear. The aim of this study was examine the angiographic results of RESOLUTE in de novo coronary lesions of ≥50 % diameter stenosis in target vessels ≤2.5 mm. From August 2008 to April 2010, 142 symptomatic patients with 159 lesions who fitted the inclusion criteria were treated with RESOLUTE. The mean age of patients was 66 ± 10 years, with male predominance (66 %). Diabetes mellitus was found in 62 (43.7 %) patients, whereas multivessel disease was observed in 105 (73.9 %). The mean stent size and length used were 2.33 ± 0.13 and 22 ± 8 mm, respectively. Follow-up angiography was performed on 143 (89.9 %) lesions in 127 (89.4 %) patients at a mean of 10.3 ± 3.6 months. Angiographic restenosis was found in 9 (6.3 %) lesions; the late loss was 0.26 ± 0.34 mm. At 1-year follow-up there were four cardiovascular deaths, two nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and six repeated revascularizations. The resultant major adverse cardiac event rate was 8.5 %. The use of RESOLUTE to treat small-vessel disease is associated with good clinical and angiographic outcomes at 1 year.

  12. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography and vessel wall imaging in children with Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Gerald F.; Hofbeck, Michael; Sieverding, Ludger [University of Tuebingen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Seeger, Achim; Miller, Stephan; Claussen, Claus D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Munich (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) serial evaluation of the distribution and size of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) is necessary for risk stratification and therapeutic management. To apply whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) and black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging in children with KD. Six children (mean age 4.6 years, range 2.5-7.8 years) with KD underwent CMRA using a free-breathing, T2-prepared, three-dimensional steady-state free-precession (3D-SSFP), whole-heart approach with navigator gating and tracking. Vessel walls were imaged with an ECG-triggered and navigator-gated double inversion recovery (DIR) black-blood segmented turbo spin-echo sequence. There was complete agreement between CMRA and conventional angiography (n=6) in the detection of CAA (n=15). Excellent agreement was found between the two techniques in determining the maximal diameter (mean difference 0.2{+-}0.7 mm), length (mean difference 0.1{+-}0.8 mm) and distance from the ostium (mean difference -0.8{+-}2.1 mm) of the CAAs. In all subjects with a CAA, abnormally thickened vessel walls were found (2.5{+-}0.5 mm). CMRA accurately defines CAA in free-breathing sedated children with KD using the whole-heart approach and detects abnormally thickened vessel walls. This technique may reduce the need for serial X-ray coronary angiography, and improve risk stratification and monitoring of therapy. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of two SVD-based color image compression schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wei, Musheng; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhao, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Color image compression is a commonly used process to represent image data as few bits as possible, which removes redundancy in the data while maintaining an appropriate level of quality for the user. Color image compression algorithms based on quaternion are very common in recent years. In this paper, we propose a color image compression scheme, based on the real SVD, named real compression scheme. First, we form a new real rectangular matrix C according to the red, green and blue components of the original color image and perform the real SVD for C. Then we select several largest singular values and the corresponding vectors in the left and right unitary matrices to compress the color image. We compare the real compression scheme with quaternion compression scheme by performing quaternion SVD using the real structure-preserving algorithm. We compare the two schemes in terms of operation amount, assignment number, operation speed, PSNR and CR. The experimental results show that with the same numbers of selected singular values, the real compression scheme offers higher CR, much less operation time, but a little bit smaller PSNR than the quaternion compression scheme. When these two schemes have the same CR, the real compression scheme shows more prominent advantages both on the operation time and PSNR.

  14. Using SVD on Clusters to Improve Precision of Interdocument Similarity Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Fan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Siguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) based on SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) is proposed to overcome the problems of polysemy and homonym in traditional lexical matching. However, it is usually criticized as with low discriminative power for representing documents although it has been validated as with good representative quality. In this paper, SVD on clusters is proposed to improve the discriminative power of LSI. The contribution of this paper is three manifolds. Firstly, we make a survey of existing linear algebra methods for LSI, including both SVD based methods and non-SVD based methods. Secondly, we propose SVD on clusters for LSI and theoretically explain that dimension expansion of document vectors and dimension projection using SVD are the two manipulations involved in SVD on clusters. Moreover, we develop updating processes to fold in new documents and terms in a decomposed matrix by SVD on clusters. Thirdly, two corpora, a Chinese corpus and an English corpus, are used to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. Experiments demonstrate that, to some extent, SVD on clusters can improve the precision of interdocument similarity measure in comparison with other SVD based LSI methods.

  15. Using SVD on Clusters to Improve Precision of Interdocument Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing based on SVD (Singular Value Decomposition is proposed to overcome the problems of polysemy and homonym in traditional lexical matching. However, it is usually criticized as with low discriminative power for representing documents although it has been validated as with good representative quality. In this paper, SVD on clusters is proposed to improve the discriminative power of LSI. The contribution of this paper is three manifolds. Firstly, we make a survey of existing linear algebra methods for LSI, including both SVD based methods and non-SVD based methods. Secondly, we propose SVD on clusters for LSI and theoretically explain that dimension expansion of document vectors and dimension projection using SVD are the two manipulations involved in SVD on clusters. Moreover, we develop updating processes to fold in new documents and terms in a decomposed matrix by SVD on clusters. Thirdly, two corpora, a Chinese corpus and an English corpus, are used to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. Experiments demonstrate that, to some extent, SVD on clusters can improve the precision of interdocument similarity measure in comparison with other SVD based LSI methods.

  16. Distinctive Resting State Network Disruptions Among Alzheimer's Disease, Subcortical Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Shin, Ji Soo; Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in resting-state functional MRI have revealed altered functional networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially those of the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN). However, few studies have evaluated whether small vessel disease (SVD) or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SVD or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity within DMN and CEN in 37 Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB)(+) AD, 37 PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), 13 mixed dementia patients, and 65 normal controls. When the resting-state DMN of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(+) AD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the inferior parietal lobule while the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the medial frontal and superior frontal gyri. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the DMN in the posterior cingulate gyrus. When the resting-state CEN connectivity of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the anterior insular region. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the CEN in the inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that in PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD, there is divergent disruptions in resting-state DMN and CEN. Furthermore, patients with combined amyloid and SVD burdens exhibited more disrupted resting-state DMN and CEN than patients with only amyloid or SVD burden.

  17. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: Cognition, Mood, Daily Functioning, and Imaging Findings from a Small Pilot Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of cognitive decline, is considered a relatively homogeneous disease process, and it can co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging and neuropsychology testing for a small pilot sample of 14 patients are presented to illustrate disease characteristics through findings from structural and functional imaging and cognitive assessment. Participants showed some decreases in executive functioning, attention, processing speed, and memory retrieval, consistent with previous literature. An older subgroup showed lower age-corrected scores at a single time point compared to younger participants. Performance on a computer-administered cognitive measure showed a slight overall decline over a period of 8–28 months. For a case study with mild neuropsychology findings, the MRI report was normal while the SPECT report identified perfusion abnormalities. Future research can test whether advances in imaging analysis allow for identification of cerebral small vessel disease before changes are detected in cognition.

  18. LANN-SVD: A Non-Iterative SVD-Based Learning Algorithm for One-Layer Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Perez-Sanchez, Beatriz; Guijarro-Berdinas, Bertha

    2017-09-01

    In the scope of data analytics, the volume of a data set can be defined as a product of instance size and dimensionality of the data. In many real problems, data sets are mainly large only on one of these aspects. Machine learning methods proposed in the literature are able to efficiently learn in only one of these two situations, when the number of variables is much greater than instances or vice versa. However, there is no proposal allowing to efficiently handle either circumstances in a large-scale scenario. In this brief, we present an approach to integrally address both situations, large dimensionality or large instance size, by using a singular value decomposition (SVD) within a learning algorithm for one-layer feedforward neural network. As a result, a noniterative solution is obtained, where the weights can be calculated in a closed-form manner, thereby avoiding low convergence rate and also hyperparameter tuning. The proposed learning method, LANN-SVD in short, presents a good computational efficiency for large-scale data analytic. Comprehensive comparisons were conducted to assess LANN-SVD against other state-of-the-art algorithms. The results of this brief exhibited the superior efficiency of the proposed method in any circumstance.

  19. [A case of atypical moyamoya disease with a ruptured aneursym on moyamoya vessel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, J; Mukai, K; Kashihara, M; Ueda, D; Matumoto, K

    1982-08-01

    A 45-year-old female had sudden onset of severe headache, nausea and vomiting without any inducing moments and was transferred to our hospital by an ambulance car. On admission the patient was alert and showed only signs of meningeal irritation. There were no other neurological deficits at all. Immediate CT examination revealed a small high density spot in the area of the right basal ganglia, and a large high density in the frontal horns of both lateral ventricles. Right carotid angiogram showed completely patent carotid siphon with Moyamoya vessels. A small round aneurysmal shadow of 3 mm in diameter was seen in the area of these Moyamoya vessels of the right basal ganglia, and it was thought to be corresponding to the high density spot in the CT examination. Left carotid angiogram showed stenosis of C portion with typical Moyamoya vessels. Therefore, diagnosis of atypical Moyamoya disease with a ruptured aneurysm and ventricular penetration of hematoma was made. The patient was placed on conservative treatment. On 25th day from onset, repeated angiogram showed enlargement of the aneurysmal shadow from 3 mm to 5 mm in diameter. So, on 33rd day, right STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalomyosynangiosis were carried out. Angiogram on 12th day after surgery revealed no aneurysmal shadow. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit at all. Previous paper, which reported cases of Moyamoya disease with aneurysm, were reviewed. According to the location of the aneurysm, these cases were classified into 3 types angiographically; type I: aneurysm in the area of Moyamoya vessels, type II: aneurysm of cerebral-peripheral artery, and type III: aneurysm of the circle of Willis. It has been generally believed that the Moyamoya disease may be associated with either a true or a pseudoaneurysm in the case of type I. However, pseudoaneurysm in the area of Moyamoya vessels has not been found in postmortem examination but true aneurysms so far. Therefore it may not be

  20. Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with small diseased peripheral vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruparelia, Neil [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Buzzatti, Nicola; Romano, Vittorio; Longoni, Matteo; Figini, Fillipo; Montorfano, Matteo; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Spagnolo, Pietro; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Latib, Azeem, E-mail: info@emocolumbus.it [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and short-term outcomes of transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TF-TAVI) in patients with small diseased peripheral vessels. Background: The transfemoral (TF) route for transcatheter aortic valve (TAVI) is the default option due to associated advantages. However, this is limited due to the high prevalence of significant peripheral arterial disease and increased risk of vascular complications. Methods: Of 539 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI in a single Italian center, 23 patients underwent TF-TAVI in the presence of small peripheral vessels as defined by a minimal luminal diameter (MLD) of ≤ 5.5 mm [by computed tomography (CT)] and/or the inability to advance a large-bore sheath. Calcification was defined as being concentric if calcium extended more than 270° around the circumference of the artery. All patients underwent 30-day clinical follow-up. Results: 17 (73.9%) patients underwent peripheral vessel pre-dilatation with a semi-compliant balloon and 6 (26.1%) patients with a Solopath sheath. 6 (26.1%) patients suffered a peri-procedural complication, with 1 patient requiring surgical embolectomy for thrombotic occlusion and the remaining patients successfully managed percutaneously in the catheter laboratory. No patient suffered a vessel perforation or required implantation of a covered stent. At 30-day follow-up, all patients were free of symptoms and signs or symptoms of peripheral vascular disease, with well-functioning TAVI prostheses as evaluated by echocardiography. Conclusions: Performing TF-TAVI is feasible in patients with no other viable vascular access option in the presence of small MLD and calcification of the peripheral vasculature, with any anticipated acute vascular complication managed in the catheter laboratory with established percutaneous techniques. - Highlights: • Small peripheral vessels is regarded as contraindication to transfemoral TAVI.

  1. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering: an advanced strategy for blood vessels regeneration and vascular disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Pei; Bian, Guang-Liang; Huang, Hao-Yue; Shen, Han; Yang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Zi-Ying; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2017-09-15

    Over the past years, vascular diseases have continued to threaten human health and increase financial burdens worldwide. Transplantation of allogeneic and autologous blood vessels is the most convenient treatment. However, it could not be applied generally due to the scarcity of donors and the patient's condition. Developments in tissue engineering are contributing greatly with regard to this urgent need for blood vessels. Tissue engineering-derived blood vessels are promising alternatives for patients with aortic dissection/aneurysm. The aim of this review is to show the importance of advances in biomaterials development for the treatment of vascular disease. We also provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of tissue reconstruction from stem cells and transplantable cellular scaffold constructs, focusing on the combination of stem cells and tissue engineering for blood vessel regeneration and vascular disease treatment.

  2. Left ventricular function in patients with and without myocardial infarction and one, two or three vessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraski, R E; Russell, R O; Smith, M K; Rackley, C E

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-six patients with chest pain were studied to determine the relation between left ventricular function and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography was performed obtaining cineangiograms (60 frames/sec) and large roll film angiograms (2 to 6 frames/sec) for precise definition of the coronary anatomy. The criteria for diagnosis of myocardial infarction were a typical history, a rise and fall in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels and evolutionary S-T segment changes associated with Q waves of at least 0.03 second. Left ventricular function was assessed by measurement of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction, mass and compliance. Fifteen patients had normal findings; 81 were classified according to number of diseased vessels and presence or absence of myocardial infarction. There were no group differences in age or heart rate. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was abnormally increased in patients with three vessel disease and myocardial infarction. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume was increased and the ejection fraction was reduced in patients in each vessel disease group with myocardial infarction. Although ejection fraction was reduced in patients with three vessel disease without myocardial infarction, it was further reduced when infarction occurred. Left ventricular mass increased in patients with three vessel disease with or without myocardial infarction. Values for ventricular compliance were reduced in all patients with myocardial infarction and were lower in those with two and three vessel disease and infarction than in those with two and three vessel disease without infarction. These findings suggest that a previous history of myocardial infarction needs to be considered together with anatomic abnormalities of the coronary arteries in assessing cardiac performance in patients with ischemic heart

  3. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea, and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  4. [Treatment of coronary three-vessel disease in patients above 75 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, F; Aschenbrenner, T; Felgendreher, R; Bramlage, K; Brockmeier, J; Cuneo, A; Härtel, D; Bramlage, P; Tebbe, U

    2016-03-01

    Chronic ischemic heart disease take the first place in cause of death in Germany. The proportion of patients aged 75 years or older amounts more than 80 %. Due to their growing part of population the medical care of older patients becomes increasingly important. In this investigation patients aged ≥ 75 years with coronary three-vessel disease were characterized and various treatment strategies were compared. This analysis was retrospective. The data of patients aged 75 years or older with three-vessel disease diagnosed by coronary angiography at the Klinikum Lippe Detmold between 2005 and 2007 were collected. Depending on the received therapy they were parted in three groups: optimal drug therapy (OMT), interventional - (PCI) and surgical revascularization (CABG). Patient characteristics as well as survival- and MACCE-rates during follow up were ascertained. Subgroup analyzes were performed for acute coronary syndrom (ACS) and stable coronary artery disease( CAD). The data of 434 patients with an average age of 79 years were documented. 139 (32.0 %) were assigned to the OMT- 189 (43.6 %) to the PCI- and 106 (24.4 %) to the CABG-group. Overall there was no significant difference between the three groups regarding mortality. In the subgroup of patients wit ACS (n = 180) mortality significantly increased in the OMT-group compared to the two invasive therapies (PCI (p = 0.029), CABG (p = 0.045)). The subgroup of patients with stable CAD showed no significant differences in mortality between the three types of therapy. Older patients benefit from an interventional or surgical revascularization in the context of ACS. In contrast, in elderly with stable CAD optimal medical therapy provides a reasonable alternative to invasive therapy without increase in mortality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. COL4A2 mutation associated with familial porencephaly and small-vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Elly; Meuwissen, Marije EC; Verheijen, Frans W; Govaert, Paul P; Licht, Daniel J; Kuo, Debbie S; Poulton, Cathryn J; Schot, Rachel; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen; Halley, Dicky J; de Coo, René IF; den Hollander, Jan C; Oegema, Renske; Gould, Douglas B; Mancini, Grazia MS

    2012-01-01

    Familial porencephaly, leukoencephalopathy and small-vessel disease belong to the spectrum of disorders ascribed to dominant mutations in the gene encoding for type IV collagen alpha-1 (COL4A1). Mice harbouring mutations in either Col4a1 or Col4a2 suffer from porencephaly, hydrocephalus, cerebral and ocular bleeding and developmental defects. We observed porencephaly and white matter lesions in members from two families that lack COL4A1 mutations. We hypothesized that COL4A2 mutations confer genetic predisposition to porencephaly, therefore we sequenced COL4A2 in the family members and characterized clinical, neuroradiological and biochemical phenotypes. Genomic sequencing of COL4A2 identified the heterozygous missense G1389R in exon 44 in one family and the c.3206delC change in exon 34 leading to frame shift and premature stop, in the second family. Fragmentation and duplication of epidermal basement membranes were observed by electron microscopy in a c.3206delC patient skin biopsy, consistent with abnormal collagen IV network. Collagen chain accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been proposed as cellular mechanism in COL4A1 mutations. In COL4A2 3206delC fibroblasts we detected increased rates of apoptosis and no signs of ER stress. Mutation phenotypes varied, including porencephaly, white matter lesions, cerebellar and optic nerve hypoplasia and unruptured carotid aneurysm. In the second family however, we found evidence for additional factors contributing to the phenotype. We conclude that dominant COL4A2 mutations are a novel major risk factor for familial cerebrovascular disease, including porencephaly and small-vessel disease with reduced penetrance and variable phenotype, which might also be modified by other contributing factors. PMID:22333902

  6. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao McONeil Plancher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Joao McONeil; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Vagal, Achala; Peariso, Katrina; Saal, Howard M.; Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val) and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26120313

  8. Increase in podoplanin-expressing intestinal lymphatic vessels in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleff, Silvana; Schoppmann, Sebastian F; Oberhuber, Georg

    2003-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are two presentations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Whereas the inflammation in UC is confined to the mucosa/submucosa, CD is considered a transmural disease with characteristic lymphoid aggregates with or without epithelioid granulomas in the subserosa. Here we examined and quantified the distribution of lymphatic capillaries in small- and large-bowel resection specimens (non-IBD n=8; CD n=20 and UC n=13) using immunohistochemical staining with anti-human podoplanin antibody, an established marker for lymphatic endothelium. In normal small intestine, the lymphatic network originated in the capillaries beneath the surface epithelial cells, whereas it started in the lower third of the mucosa of the large intestine. Lymphatic microvessel counts revealed a statistically highly significant increase ( Pintestine. Numerical differences between CD and UC samples were not significant. Prominence of lymphatic capillaries could also be observed in areas where fibrosis replaced chronic inflammation. These findings suggested that lymph-vessel proliferation in IBDs may be triggered by chronic inflammation irrespective of its organization and is maintained in fibrotic end-stage disease.

  9. Prior blunt chest trauma may be a cause of single vessel coronary disease; hypothesis and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Nielsen, PE; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a case where a patient (with no risk factors, and single vessel disease) developed angina pectoris after previous blunt chest trauma, we searched Medline for blunt chest trauma and myocardial ischaemia. We found 77 cases describing AMI after blunt chest trauma, but only one reporting...... angina pectoris. We focused on the age and sex distribution, type of trauma, the angiography findings and the time interval between the trauma and the angiography. The age distribution was atypical, compared to AMI in general; 82% of the patients with AMI after blunt chest trauma were less than 45 years......, which strongly suggested a causal relation between the trauma and subsequent occlusion. AMI should therefore be considered in patients suffering from chest pain after blunt chest trauma. Because traumatic AMI might often be the result of an intimal tear or dissection, thrombolytic therapy might worsen...

  10. Novel COL4A1 mutations cause cerebral small vessel disease by haploinsufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Robin; Maugeri, Alessandra; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Goris, An; Tousseyn, Thomas; Demaerel, Philippe; Corveleyn, Anniek; Robberecht, Wim; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Thijs, Vincent N.; Zwijnenburg, Petra J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 have been identified in families with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain presumably due to a dominant-negative mechanism. Here, we report on two novel mutations in COL4A1 in two families with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage and severe white matter disease caused by haploinsufficiency. Two families with various clinical presentations of cerebral microangiopathy and autosomal dominant inheritance were examined. Clinical, neuroradiological and genetic investigations were performed. Electron microscopy of the skin was also performed. In one of the families, sequence analysis revealed a one base deletion, c.2085del, leading to a frameshift and a premature stopcodon, p.(Gly696fs). In the other family, a splice site mutation was identified, c.2194-1G>A, which most likely leads to skipping of an exon with a frameshift and premature termination as a result. In fibroblasts of affected individuals from both the families, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the mutant COL4A1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and a clear reduction of COL4A1 protein expression were demonstrated, indicating haploinsufficiency of COL4A1. Moreover, thickening of the capillary basement membrane in the skin was documented, similar to reports in patients with COL4A1 missense mutations. These findings suggest haploinsufficiency, a different mechanism from the commonly assumed dominant-negative effect, for COL4A1 mutations as a cause of (antenatal) intracerebral hemorrhage and white matter disease. PMID:23065703

  11. Periventricular anastomosis in moyamoya disease: detecting fragile collateral vessels with MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Jun C; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Takagi, Yasushi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mineharu, Yohei; Okada, Tomohisa; Morimoto, Takaaki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The authors' aim in this paper was to determine whether periventricular anastomosis, a novel term for the abnormal collateral vessels typical of moyamoya disease, is reliably measured with MR angiography and is associated with intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS This cross-sectional study sampled consecutive patients with moyamoya disease or moyamoya syndrome at a single institution. Periventricular anastomoses were detected using MR angiography images reformatted as sliding-thin-slab maximum-intensity-projection coronal images and were scored according to 3 subtypes: lenticulostriate, thalamic, and choroidal types. The association between periventricular anastomosis and hemorrhagic presentation at onset was evaluated using multivariate analyses. RESULTS Of 136 eligible patients, 122 were analyzed. Eighteen (14.8%) patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage with neurological symptoms at onset. Intra- and interrater agreement for rating of the periventricular anastomosis score was good (κw = 0.65 and 0.70, respectively). The prevalence of hemorrhagic presentation increased with the periventricular anastomosis score: 2.8% for Score 0, 8.8% for Score 1, 18.9% for Score 2, and 46.7% for Score 3 (p moyamoya disease. The clinical utility of periventricular anastomosis as a predictor for hemorrhage should be validated in further prospective studies.

  12. Dolichoectasia and Small Vessel Disease in Young Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Fazekas, Franz; McCabe, Dominick J H; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt; Enzinger, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated whether basilar dolichoectasia is associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease in younger transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients. We used data from the SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients), a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young (stroke patients in whom detailed clinical data and brain MRI were obtained, and stroke subtyping with TOAST classification (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) was performed. Dolichoectasia was found in 508 of 3850 (13.2%) of patients. Dolichoectasia was associated with older age (odds ratio per decade, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.42), and hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.70). Dolichoectasia was more common in patients with small infarctions (33.9% versus 29.8% for acute lesions, P =0.065; 29.1% versus 16.5% for old lesions, P stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters as predictors for small-vessel disease revealed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Tanaka, Eiji; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shigenobu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    We correlated coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters with small-vessel disease revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. One hundred and eleven patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic cerebral infarction were randomly selected for the study; 57 males and 54 females with an average age of 66.6{+-}9.6, age range 40 to 85, years old. Among them, 76 patients had a history of symptomatic cerebral infarction; 38 patients hypertension; and 24 patients diabetes mellitus. Patients with large cortical infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, demyelinating disease or mass lesions were excluded from the present study. The MRI scans were reviewed for areas with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The small infarction was defined as a lesion less than 10 mm in diameter. The activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) correlated significantly with the grade of caps at the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle, and the number of small infarctions in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia, suggesting vWF could be a predictor for these small-vessel disease. The grade of caps at posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the number of small infarctions in the subcortical white matter were associated significantly with the concentration of plasma fibrinogen and reversely with the activity of antithrombin III, an inhibitory factor in coagulation system. These results indicate that hypercoagulable state may causatively relate with small-vessel disease in the territory of medullary artery branching from cortical artery. On the contrary, these coagulation parameters did not correlate significantly with small ischemic lesions in the territory of perforating artery. No correlation was observed between the level of marker proteins for platelet activation and the degree of small-vessel disease, indicating the activation of platelet could not associate with the etiology of small-vessel disease. (author)

  14. Revascularization strategy in patients with multivessel disease and a major vessel chronically occluded; data from the CABRI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Eugenio; Clementi, Fabrizio; Gallagher, Mark M; D'Eliseo, Alessia; Chiricolo, Gaetano; Nigri, Antonio; Marino, Benedetto; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and total occlusion of major epicardial vessel, completeness of revascularization has not been investigated in specific trials comparing the surgical and the percutaneous revascularization strategy. Analyzing the database of the CABRI study, which randomized a substantial number of these patients, we investigated the long-term effects of a successful or unsuccessful revascularization of the occluded vessel and completeness of the revascularization. The CABRI study randomized 1054 patients with multivessel coronary disease to coronary bypass or to coronary angioplasty. From the database of this trial, we selected patients with a major vessel chronically occluded (103 in the bypass group and 120 in the angioplasty group). At a median follow-up of 30 months, the incidence of death or Q-wave myocardial infarction (combined end point) was significantly lower in the bypass group than in the angioplasty group (6.8% vs 17.5%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.42 [95% CI 0.17-0.98]; p=0.047). On univariate analysis, age, proximal occlusion, complete revascularization, revascularization of the occluded vessel and revascularization procedure were identified as significant predictors of combined end points. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of combined end points resulted in completeness of revascularization (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.09-0.76; p=0.01) and age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02-1.12; p<0.01). In patients with multivessel coronary disease and chronic occlusion of a major epicardial vessel, achieving of a complete revascularization by reopening or bypassing the occluded vessel is associated with a significantly better long-term prognosis.

  15. Remote Ischemic Conditioning May Improve Outcomes of Patients With Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Meng, Ran; Song, Haiqing; Liu, Gang; Hua, Yang; Cui, Dehua; Zheng, Lemin; Feng, Wuwei; Liebeskind, David S; Fisher, Marc; Ji, Xunming

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease. Thirty patients with cerebral small-vessel disease-related mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled study for 1 year. Besides routine medical treatment, participants were randomized into the experimental group (n=14) undergoing 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on both upper limbs twice daily for 1 year or the control group (n=16) who were treated with sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles. The primary outcome was the change of brain lesions, and secondary outcomes were changes of cognitive function, plasma biomarkers, and cerebral hemodynamic parameters both at baseline and at the end of 1-year follow-up. Compared with pretreatment, the post-treatment white matter hyperintensities volume in the RIC group was significantly reduced (9.10±7.42 versus 6.46±6.05 cm3; P=0.020), whereas no significant difference was observed in the sham-RIC group (8.99±6.81 versus 8.07±6.56 cm3; P=0.085). The reduction of white matter hyperintensities volume in the RIC group was more substantial than that in sham group (-2.632 versus -0.935 cm3; P=0.049). No significant difference was found in the change of the number of lacunes between 2 groups (0 versus 0; P=0.694). A significant treatment difference at 1 year on visuospatial and executive ability was found between the 2 groups (0.639 versus 0.191; P=0.048). RIC showed greater effects compared with sham-RIC on plasma triglyceride (-0.433 versus 0.236 mmol/L; P=0.005), total cholesterol (-0.975 versus 0.134 mmol/L; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01658306. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    .... This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors—namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD...

  17. Nanosatellite Attitude Estimation from Vector Measurements Using SVD-Aided UKF Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilden Demet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF method can recursively estimate the attitude and attitude rates of a nanosatellite. At first, Wahba’s loss function is minimized using the SVD and the optimal attitude angles are determined on the basis of the magnetometer and Sun sensor measurements. Then, the UKF makes use of the SVD’s attitude estimates as measurement results and provides more accurate attitude information as well as the attitude rate estimates. The elements of “Rotation angle error covariance matrix” calculated for the SVD estimations are used in the UKF as the measurement noise covariance values. The algorithm is compared with the SVD and UKF only methods for estimating the attitude from vector measurements. Possible algorithm switching ideas are discussed especially for the eclipse period, when the Sun sensor measurements are not available.

  18. SVD application in image and data compression - Some case studies in oceanography (Developed in MATLAB)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    An integrated friendly-user interactive multiple Ocean Application Pacakage has been developed utilizing the well known statistical technique called Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to achieve image and data compression in MATLAB environment...

  19. Cerebral small vessel disease predisposes to temporal lobe epilepsy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Emilio; Leo, Antonio; Scicchitano, Francesca; Donato, Annalidia; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Cianci, Vittoria; Mignogna, Chiara; Donato, Giuseppe; Citraro, Rita; Aguglia, Umberto; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-04-01

    The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats. While young SHRs (without CSVD) do not differ from their age-matched controls in both models, old SHRs (with CSVD) develop stage 5 seizures in the amygdala kindling model (TLE) faster than age-matched control rats without CSVD. At odds, no differences between old SHRs and age-matched controls was observed in the development of PTZ kindling. Enalapril pre-treatment prevented the development of CSVD and normalized kindling development to control levels in SHRs. No difference was observed in the response to pharmacological treatment with carbamazepine or losartan. Overall, our study suggests that uncontrolled hypertension leading to CSVD might represent a risk factor for TLE. Further experimental studies are needed to unravel other risk factors that, along with CSVD, may predispose to TLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease using 3-T MRI and MRA: value of cisternal moyamoya vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Seiko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Yukio [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Fukui University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to propose new magnetic resonance (MR) criteria of diagnosing moyamoya disease (MMD) from cisternal moyamoya vessels (MMVs) on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the existing MR criteria and the proposed MR criteria. Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients with MMD (4 males, 16 females) diagnosed clinically using conventional angiography and 20 controls (13 male and 7 female arteriosclerosis patients). In these participants, 3-T MRI/MRA was evaluated by the existing MR criteria, which use MMVs in the basal ganglia, and the proposed MR criteria, which use cisternal MMVs, and then these two criteria were statistically compared by McNemar's test. Diagnostic accuracy was 62.5% with the existing MR criteria and 97.5% with the proposed MR criteria. The proposed MR criteria was more sensitive (1.00) than the existing MR criteria (0.45), but less specific (0.95) than the existing MR criteria (1.00). The proposed MR criteria using cisternal MMVs showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than the existing MR criteria. We believe that our proposed MR criteria will be beneficial for diagnosing MMD. (orig.)

  1. The correlation between cognitive impairment and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X-F; Cui, L-M; Sun, D-K; Wang, H-T; Liu, W-G

    2017-07-01

    The present study was aimed to analyze the correlation between cognitive impairment and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). 108 patients with CSVD received in our hospital were selected. Assessment of cognitive impairment was by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 39 cases were established as the impairment group and 69 cases were established as the normal group. 24 h ambulatory blood pressure was monitored, and changes in ambulatory blood pressure parameters between the two groups were compared. Also, the correlation between blood pressure parameters and MoCA score were analyzed. Comparisons of ambulatory systolic blood pressure, ambulatory pulse pressure and the ratios of night blood pressure reduction of patients in both groups showed statistical differences (p 0.05). The comparison of the blood pressure curves in both groups showed statistical differences (p ambulatory systolic blood pressure, ambulatory pulse pressure and the ratio of night blood pressure reduction of patients with CSVD showed prominently negative correlations with MoCA score (p ambulatory blood pressure of patients with CSVD are intimately correlated. The rise of ambulatory systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and the decline of blood pressure may represent risk factors for cognitive impairment in patients with CSVD. Improving blood pressure management will reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment caused by CSVD.

  2. Reproducibility of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance in multi-vessel symptomatic coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feneley Michael P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose First-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is increasingly being utilized in both clinical practice and research. However, the reproducibility of this technique remains incompletely evaluated, particularly in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-study reproducibility of adenosine stress CMR in patients with symptomatic multi-vessel CAD and those at low risk for CAD. Methods Twenty patients (10 with CAD, 10 low risk CAD underwent two CMR scans 8 ± 2 days apart. Basal, mid and apical left ventricular short axis slices were acquired using gadolinium 0.05 mmol/kg at peak stress (adenosine, 140 μ/kg/min, 4 min and rest. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated qualitatively by assessing the number of ischemic segments, and semi-quantitatively by determining the myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi using a normalized upslope method. Inter-study and observer reproducibility were assessed--the latter being defined by the coefficient of variation (CoV, which was calculated from the standard deviation of the differences of the measurements, divided by the mean. Additionally, the percentage of myocardial segments with perfect agreement and inter- and intra-observer MPRi correlation between studies, were also determined. Results The CoV for the number of ischemic segments was 31% with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.88 segments and 91% perfect agreement between studies. MPRi was lower in patients with CAD (1.13 ± 0.21 compared to those with low risk CAD (1.59 ± 0.58, p = 0.02. The reproducibility of MPRi was 19% with no significant difference between patients with CAD and those with low risk CAD (p = 0.850. Observer reproducibility for MPRi was high: inter-observer CoV 9%, r = 0.93 and intra-observer CoV 5%, r = 0.94. For trials using perfusion CMR as an endpoint, an estimated sample size of 12 subjects would be required to detect a two-segment change in

  3. CSF biomarkers and neuropsychological profiles in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hermann

    Full Text Available Despite existing criteria, differential diagnosis of Vascular Dementia (VD and Alzheimer's disease (AD remains difficult. The aim of this study is to figure out cognitive and biomarker profiles that may help to distinguish between VD, AD and AD + Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (CSVD. We examined a cohort of patients with CSVD (n = 92. After stratification of cognitive impaired patients (n = 59 using the standard CSF beta-amyloid 42/40 ratio cut-off point of 0.975, we obtained two groups which differed with respect to several features: 32 patients with normal beta-amyloid 42/40 ratio (>0.975 showed markedly impaired blood-brain-barrier function as indicated by an elevated albumin ratio (median 8.35. They also differed in cognitive profiles when compared to 27 patients with AD typical beta-amyloid ratio and normal albumin ratio. We also enrolled an additional group of patients with AD (no significant CSVD on MRI, n = 27 which showed no impairment of the blood-brain-barrier. We showed a negative correlation between the albumin ratio and executive cognitive function (p = 0.016 and a negative correlation between memory function and typical AD markers like Tau (p = 0.004 and p181-Tau (p = 0.023 in our cohort. We suppose that the group of patients with normal beta-amyloid ratio represents VD while patients in the other groups represent AD+CSVD and pure AD. Our results support the idea that a dysfunction of the blood-brain-barrier might be contributing factor in the development of cognitive decline in CSVD as it seems to be of more importance than the severity of white matter lesions.

  4. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging: A new marker of triple-vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Ikeda, K.; Komatani, A.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S. (Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    To investigate the significance and mechanism of dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging, we performed both dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging and dipyridamole radionuclide angiography on 83 patients with known angiograms. The dipyridamole/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension from the thallium-201 image was defined as the left ventricular dilatation ratio (LVDR). An LVDR greater than the mean + two standard deviations in patients without coronary artery disease was defined as abnormal. Twenty-two of 83 patients showed an abnormal LVDR, and 18 of the 22 patients (82%) had triple-vessel disease. By defect and washout analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying the patients as having triple-vessel disease was 72% and 76%, respectively, whereas LVDR had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 93%. When LVDR was used in combination with the defect and washout criteria, sensitivity increased to 84% without a loss of specificity. In those 22 patients with abnormal LVDRs, end-diastolic volume measured by radionuclide angiography did not change after dipyridamole infusion. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging reflected relative subendocardial hypoperfusion induced by dipyridamole rather than actual chamber enlargement. The LVDR was moderately sensitive and highly specific for triple-vessel disease and provided complementary information to dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.

  5. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  6. Common variation in COL4A1/COL4A2 is associated with sporadic cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannikmäe, Kristiina; Davies, Gail; Thomson, Pippa A.; Bevan, Steve; Devan, William J.; Falcone, Guido J.; Traylor, Matthew; Anderson, Christopher D.; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Radmanesh, Farid; Deka, Ranjan; Woo, Jessica G.; Martin, Lisa J.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Montaner, Joan; Langefeld, Carl D.; Slowik, Agnieszka; Hansen, Björn M.; Lindgren, Arne G.; Meschia, James F.; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C.; Debette, Stéphanie; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Longstreth, Will T.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Zhang, Cathy R.; Yang, Qiong; Sharma, Pankaj; Kittner, Steven J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Levi, Christopher R.; Attia, John; Rothwell, Peter M.; Poole, Deborah L.; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Malik, Rainer; Rost, Natalia; Worrall, Bradford B.; Dichgans, Martin; Van Agtmael, Tom; Woo, Daniel; Markus, Hugh S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Rosand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that common variants in the collagen genes COL4A1/COL4A2 are associated with sporadic forms of cerebral small vessel disease. Methods: We conducted meta-analyses of existing genotype data among individuals of European ancestry to determine associations of 1,070 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COL4A1/COL4A2 genomic region with the following: intracerebral hemorrhage and its subtypes (deep, lobar) (1,545 cases, 1,485 controls); ischemic stroke and its subtypes (cardioembolic, large vessel disease, lacunar) (12,389 cases, 62,004 controls); and white matter hyperintensities (2,733 individuals with ischemic stroke and 9,361 from population-based cohorts with brain MRI data). We calculated a statistical significance threshold that accounted for multiple testing and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs (p 0.9 between SNPs). Although SNPs associated with deep intracerebral hemorrhage did not reach our significance threshold for association with lacunar ischemic stroke (lead SNP OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03–1.18, p = 0.0073), and with white matter hyperintensity volume in symptomatic ischemic stroke patients (lead SNP OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.13, p = 0.016), the direction of association was the same. There was no convincing evidence of association with white matter hyperintensities in population-based studies or with non–small vessel disease cerebrovascular phenotypes. Conclusions: Our results indicate an association between common variation in the COL4A2 gene and symptomatic small vessel disease, particularly deep intracerebral hemorrhage. These findings merit replication studies, including in ethnic groups of non-European ancestry. PMID:25653287

  7. Repetitive 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with large-vessel giant-cell arteritis and controlled disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, Hubert; Aide, Nicolas; Liozon, Eric; Lambert, Marc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Monteil, Jacques; Huglo, Damien; Bienvenu, Boris; Manrique, Alain; Aouba, Achille

    2017-12-01

    18F-FDG PET/CT can detect large-vessel involvement in giant-cell arteritis (GCA) with a good sensitivity. In patients with clinically and biologically controlled disease, we aimed to assess how vascular uptakes evolve on repetitive FDG-PET/CT. All included patients had to satisfy the 4 following criteria: 1) diagnosis of GCA was retained according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology or based on the satisfaction of 2 criteria associated with the demonstration of large-vessel involvement on FDG-PET/CT; 2) all patients had a positive PET/CT that was performed at diagnosis before treatment or within the first 10days of treatment; 3) another FDG-PET/CT was performed after at least 3months of controlled disease without any relapse; 4) patients were followed-up at least for 12months. Twenty-five patients (17 [68%] women, median age: 69 [65-78]) with large-vessel inflammation on a baseline FDG-PET/CT and with repetitive imaging during the period with controlled disease were included and followed-up for 62 [25-95] months. Four repeated procedures revealed total extinction of vascular uptakes at 11.5 [8-12] months after the first FDG-PET/CT. Eight PET/CT revealed decreased numbers of vascular uptakes, and 10 procedures revealed no changes. The 3 remaining procedures indicated worsening of the numbers of vascular uptakes in the absence of relapse. Our study revealed long-term persistent vascular uptake on repeated FDG-PET/CT in >80% of our GCA patients with large-vessel inflammation and clinical-biological controlled disease. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Among Patients With Stroke Due to Large or Small Vessel Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Demeestere, Jelle; Fieuws, Steffen; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Lemmens, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background-Recent trials have demonstrated that extended cardiac monitoring increases the yield of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in patients with cryptogenic stroke. The utility of extended cardiac monitoring is uncertain among patients with stroke caused by small and large vessel disease. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the yield of AF detection in this population. Methods and Results-We searched PubMed, Cochrane, and SCOPUS databases for studies on AF detection in s...

  9. Alzheimer's disease and CADASIL are heritable, adult-onset dementias that both involve damaged small blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2014-03-01

    This essay explores an alternative pathway to Alzheimer's dementia that focuses on damage to small blood vessels rather than late-stage toxic amyloid deposits as the primary pathogenic mechanism that leads to irreversible dementia. While the end-stage pathology of AD is well known, the pathogenic processes that lead to disease are often assumed to be due to toxic amyloid peptides that act on neurons, leading to neuronal dysfunction and eventually neuronal cell death. Speculations as to what initiates the pathogenic cascade have included toxic abeta peptide aggregates, oxidative damage, and inflammation, but none explain why neurons die. Recent high-resolution NMR studies of living patients show that lesions in white matter regions of the brain precede the appearance of amyloid deposits and are correlated with damaged small blood vessels. To appreciate the pathogenic potential of damaged small blood vessels in the brain, it is useful to consider the clinical course and the pathogenesis of CADASIL, a heritable arteriopathy that leads to damaged small blood vessels and irreversible dementia. CADASIL is strikingly similar to early onset AD in that it is caused by germ line mutations in NOTCH 3 that generate toxic protein aggregates similar to those attributed to mutant forms of the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes. Since NOTCH 3 mutants clearly damage small blood vessels of white matter regions of the brain that lead to dementia, we speculate that both forms of dementia may have a similar pathogenesis, which is to cause ischemic damage by blocking blood flow or by impeding the removal of toxic protein aggregates by retrograde vascular clearance mechanisms.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of plus disease via measurement of vessel thickness in retinal fundus images of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloumi, Faraz; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M; Casti, Paola; Ells, Anna L

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the characteristics of retinal vessels such as width and tortuosity can be signs of the presence of several diseases such retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and diabetic retinopathy. Plus disease is an indicator of ROP which requires treatment and is signified by an increase in posterior venular width. In this work, we present image processing techniques for the detection, segmentation, tracking, and measurement of the width of the major temporal arcade (MTA), which is the thickest venular branch in the retina. Several image processing techniques have been employed, including the use of Gabor filters to detect the MTA, morphological image processing to obtain its skeleton, Canny's method to detect and select MTA vessel-edge candidates, least-squares fitting to interpolate the MTA edges, and geometrical procedures to measure the width of the MTA. The results, obtained using 110 retinal fundus images of preterm infants, indicate a statistically highly significant difference in MTA width of normal cases as compared to cases with plus disease (pcomputer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of plus disease with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. The proposed methods may be used in CAD of plus disease and timely treatment of ROP in a clinical or teleophthalmological setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological changes in small pulmonary vessels are associated with severe acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiro Yoshimura,1,2 Yuzo Suzuki,1,2 Tomohiro Uto,2 Jun Sato,2 Shiro Imokawa,2 Takafumi Suda1 1Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iwata City Hospital, Iwata, Japan Background: Pulmonary vascular remodeling is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The total cross-sectional area (CSA of small pulmonary vessels has been reported to correlate with the pulmonary artery pressure, and this technique has enabled the assessment of pulmonary vascular involvements. We investigated the contribution of morphological alterations in the pulmonary vessels to severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD.Methods: This study enrolled 81 patients with COPD and 28 non-COPD subjects as control and assessed the percentage of CSA (%CSA less than 5 mm2 (%CSA<5 and %CSA in the range of 5–10 mm2 (%CSA5–10 on high-resolution computed tomography images.Results: Compared with the non-COPD subjects, the COPD patients had lower %CSA<5. %CSA<5 was positively correlated with airflow limitation and negatively correlated with the extent of emphysema. COPD patients with lower %CSA<5 showed significantly increased incidences of severe AE-COPD (Gray’s test; P=0.011. Furthermore, lower %CSA<5 was significantly associated with severe AE-COPD (hazard ratio, 2.668; 95% confidence interval, 1.225–5.636; P=0.010.Conclusion: %CSA<5 was associated with an increased risk of severe AE-COPD. The distal pruning of the small pulmonary vessels is a part of the risk associated with AE-COPD, and %CSA<5 might be a surrogate marker for predicting AE-COPD. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, acute exacerbation, pulmonary vessels, cross-sectional area (CSA, computed tomography

  12. A Comparison of SVD, SVR, ADE and IRR for Latent Semantic Indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Tang, Xijin; Yoshida, Taketoshi

    Recently, singular value decomposition (SVD) and its variants, which are singular value rescaling (SVR), approximation dimension equalization (ADE) and iterative residual rescaling (IRR), were proposed to conduct the job of latent semantic indexing (LSI). Although they are all based on linear algebraic method for tem-document matrix computation, which is SVD, the basic motivations behind them concerning LSI are different from each other. In this paper, a series of experiments are conducted to examine their effectiveness of LSI for the practical application of text mining, including information retrieval, text categorization and similarity measure. The experimental results demonstrate that SVD and SVR have better performances than other proposed LSI methods in the above mentioned applications. Meanwhile, ADE and IRR, because of the too much difference between their approximation matrix and original term-document matrix in Frobenius norm, can not derive good performances for text mining applications using LSI.

  13. Sparse SVD Method for High-Resolution Extraction of the Dispersion Curves of Ultrasonic Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    The 2-D Fourier transform analysis of multichannel signals is a straightforward method to extract the dispersion curves of guided modes. Basically, the time signals recorded at several positions along the waveguide are converted to the wavenumber-frequency space, so that the dispersion curves (i.e., the frequency-dependent wavenumbers) of the guided modes can be extracted by detecting peaks of energy trajectories. In order to improve the dispersion curve extraction of low-amplitude modes propagating in a cortical bone, a multiemitter and multireceiver transducer array has been developed together with an effective singular vector decomposition (SVD)-based signal processing method. However, in practice, the limited number of positions where these signals are recorded results in a much lower resolution in the wavenumber axis than in the frequency axis. This prevents a clear identification of overlapping dispersion curves. In this paper, a sparse SVD (S-SVD) method, which combines the signal-to-noise ratio improvement of the SVD-based approach with the high wavenumber resolution advantage of the sparse optimization, is presented to overcome the above-mentioned limitation. Different penalty constraints, i.e., l1 -norm, Frobenius norm, and revised Cauchy norm, are compared with the sparse characteristics. The regularization parameters are investigated with respect to the convergence property and wavenumber resolution. The proposed S-SVD method is investigated using synthetic wideband signals and experimental data obtained from a bone-mimicking phantom and from an ex-vivo human radius. The analysis of the results suggests that the S-SVD method has the potential to significantly enhance the wavenumber resolution and to improve the extraction of the dispersion curves.

  14. A QDWH-Based SVD Software Framework on Distributed-Memory Manycore Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a high performance software framework for computing a dense SVD on distributed- memory manycore systems. Originally introduced by Nakatsukasa et al. (Nakatsukasa et al. 2010; Nakatsukasa and Higham 2013), the SVD solver relies on the polar decomposition using the QR Dynamically-Weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH). Although the QDWH-based SVD algorithm performs a significant amount of extra floating-point operations compared to the traditional SVD with the one-stage bidiagonal reduction, the inherent high level of concurrency associated with Level 3 BLAS compute-bound kernels ultimately compensates for the arithmetic complexity overhead. Using the ScaLAPACK two-dimensional block cyclic data distribution with a rectangular processor topology, the resulting QDWH-SVD further reduces excessive communications during the panel factorization, while increasing the degree of parallelism during the update of the trailing submatrix, as opposed to relying to the default square processor grid. After detailing the algorithmic complexity and the memory footprint of the algorithm, we conduct a thorough performance analysis and study the impact of the grid topology on the performance by looking at the communication and computation profiling trade-offs. We report performance results against state-of-the-art existing QDWH software implementations (e.g., Elemental) and their SVD extensions on large-scale distributed-memory manycore systems based on commodity Intel x86 Haswell processors and Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. The QDWH-SVD framework achieves up to 3/8-fold on the Haswell/KNL-based platforms, respectively, against ScaLAPACK PDGESVD and turns out to be a competitive alternative for well and ill-conditioned matrices. We finally come up herein with a performance model based on these empirical results. Our QDWH-based polar decomposition and its SVD extension are freely available at https://github.com/ecrc/qdwh.git and https

  15. Laparoscopic treatment for retroperitoneal hyaline-vascular type localized Castleman's disease (LCD) in the iliac vessel region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aiwen; Shan, Lili; Wang, Zhonghai; Dai, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Tianhui; Zhuo, Rong; Yuan, Rui

    2015-01-01

    To improve the understanding, diagnostic levels, and therapeutic levels of retroperitoneal hyaline vascular type LCD in the iliac vessel region. Diagnostic and therapeutic processes of 4 patients with retroperitoneal LCD in the iliac vessel region were retrospectively analyzed. The median ages of the research patients was 31.3 years old, Pelvic vascular dual-source computed tomography (CT) indicated an abnormal pelvic irregular cloddy intensity shadow with heterogeneous densities and punctate calcified lesions. The enhanced scanning showed significantly enhanced lesions and multiple tortuous vascular images inside and around the lesions. Patients' preoperative diagnoses were all "pelvic mass with unknown characteristics", and retroperitoneal masses were successfully stripped off after the laparoscopic surgery. Intra operative findings indicated 1 mass located at the left obturator nerve, 1 at the left internal iliac artery, and 2 at the right external iliac artery. The postoperative pathological reports suggest a diagnosis of Castleman's disease. Retroperitoneal LCD in the iliac vessel region is generally asymptomatic. Preoperative imaging data may help with the diagnosis, but a confirmed diagnosis depends on the results of the pathological examination. Iliac artery embolization is performed prior to laparoscopic mass stripping if the masses have abundant blood supply, while lymphadenectomy is also applied to those with enlarged lymph nodes.

  16. Pathological effects of obstructive apneas during the sleep cycle in an animal model of cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eric E; Durgan, David J; Martini, Sharyl R; Bryan, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that apneas during the sleep cycle exacerbate hypertension and accelerate changes that occur with cerebral small vessel disease. Obstructive sleep apnea was modeled by intermittent inflations of a chronically implanted tracheal balloon to occlude the airway during the sleep cycle (termed OSA) in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats, a model of cerebral small vessel disease. SHRSP rats and their parent strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, were exposed to OSA for 2 weeks (from 9 to 11 or from 18 to 20 weeks). At 9 weeks, hypertension was developing in the SHRSP rats and was firmly established by 18 weeks. OSA exposure increased systolic blood pressure in SHRSP rats by ≈30 mm Hg in both age groups compared with shams that were surgically prepared but not exposed to OSA (P<0.05). OSA exposure also increased systolic blood pressure in WKY rats by 20 and 37 mm Hg at 11 and 20 weeks, respectively (P<0.05). OSA exposure in SHRSP rats compromised blood-brain barrier integrity in white matter at both 11 and 20 weeks of age when compared with SHRSP sham rats (P<0.05). Microglia were activated in SHRSP rats exposed to OSA but not in sham rats at 11 weeks (P<0.05). At 20 weeks, microglia were activated in sham SHRSP rats (P<0.05) compared with WKY sham rats and were not further activated by OSA. Neither was blood-brain barrier integrity altered nor microglia activated in any of the WKY groups. We conclude that OSA accelerates the onset of the cerebral pathologies associated with cerebral small vessel disease in SHRSP, but not WKY, rats. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Acute hypertensive encephalopathy with widespread small-vessel disease at MRI in a diabetic patient: pathogenetic hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Department of Radiology, Pierre Benite (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Laennec (France); Kamoun, S.; Rety-Jacob, F.; Tran-Minh, V.A. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Department of Radiology, Pierre Benite (France); Nighoghossian, N. [Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Department of Neurology, Bron (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France); Hermier, M. [Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Bron (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France)

    2005-08-01

    We report unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a diabetic patient with neglected hypertension and hyperglycemia, presenting with seizures and coma. Outcome was fatal despite intensive care. The MRI findings included bilateral insular and temporo-occipital grey and white matter involvement, and numerous, scattered, lacunar-like lesions involving the peripheral and deep white matter, basal ganglia grey matter, and brainstem. Lesions had a low apparent diffusion coefficient, and some enhanced following contrast injection. Hypertensive encephalopathy with widespread and severe acute small-vessel disease was considered. Pathophysiology is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating based on SVD method for ground penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Song, Chao; Lu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a method using singular value decomposition (SVD) which aims at eliminating the random noise and direct wave from ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. To demonstrate the validity and high efficiency of the SVD method in eliminating random noise, we compare the SVD de-noising method with wavelet threshold de-noising method and bandpass filtering method on both noisy synthetic data and field data. After that, we compare the SVD method with the mean trace deleting in eliminating direct wave on synthetic data and field data. We set general and quantitative criteria on choosing singular values to carry out the random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating process. We find that by choosing appropriate singular values, SVD method can eliminate the random noise and direct wave in the GPR data validly and efficiently to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the GPR profiles and make effective reflection signals clearer.

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of regional cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Nawada, Ryuzo; Obayashi, Kazuhiko; Tamekiyo, Hiromichi; Mochizuki, Mamoru [Shizuoka General Hospital (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    In coronary artery disease, the cardiac sympathetic nervous system is closely associated with myocardial ischemia. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging allows us to assess the cardiac sympathetic nervous system regionally. One-hundred and eleven patients with single-vessel disease underwent regional quantitative analysis of MIBG imaging before successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and repeat angiography 6 months after PTCA. Based on the results of the follow-up left ventriculogram, patients were divided into 3 groups: 39 angina pectoris (AP), 48 prior myocardial infarction without asynergy (MI without asynergy) and 24 prior myocardial infarction with asynergy (Ml with asynergy). AP and MI without asynergy had significant correlations between uptake parameters and regional washout in the territory of diseased vessels, among which the severity score in AP was the most closely correlated with regional washout (r=0.79, p<0.0001). These correlations disappeared in MI with asynergy. To compare regional MIBG parameters in the territory of the diseased vessel as well as in the territories of the other major coronary arteries among the 3 groups, we examined MIBG parameters in 57 patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) disease selected from among the study patients. Regional washout in the territory of the LAD was significantly higher in the MI without asynergy group than in the other two groups. The left circumflex artery (LCX) region showed significantly reduced MlBG uptake and an increased extent score in the MI with asynergy group compared with the AP group, although only a difference in the extent score existed between the MI with asynergy group and the AP group in the right coronary artery (RCA) region. In addition, the global ejection fraction before PTCA showed a significant negative correlation with each regional washout rate. In this way, regional quantitative analysis of MIBG imaging can detect the regional

  20. Change Detection in SAR Images Based on Deep Semi-NMF and SVD Networks

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    Feng Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Earth observation programs, more and more multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR data are available from remote sensing platforms. Therefore, it is demanding to develop unsupervised methods for SAR image change detection. Recently, deep learning-based methods have displayed promising performance for remote sensing image analysis. However, these methods can only provide excellent performance when the number of training samples is sufficiently large. In this paper, a novel simple method for SAR image change detection is proposed. The proposed method uses two singular value decomposition (SVD analyses to learn the non-linear relations between multi-temporal images. By this means, the proposed method can generate more representative feature expressions with fewer samples. Therefore, it provides a simple yet effective way to be designed and trained easily. Firstly, deep semi-nonnegative matrix factorization (Deep Semi-NMF is utilized to select pixels that have a high probability of being changed or unchanged as samples. Next, image patches centered at these sample pixels are generated from the input multi-temporal SAR images. Then, we build SVD networks, which are comprised of two SVD convolutional layers and one histogram feature generation layer. Finally, pixels in both multi-temporal SAR images are classified by the SVD networks, and then the final change map can be obtained. The experimental results of three SAR datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  1. Discussion of Discriminating Multiple Sources of SEF Overlapping in Time using SVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    This paper describes a new method with singular value decomposition (SVD) for discriminating multiple sources in the brain overlapping in time. We carried out a 3-D vector measurement of somatosensory evoked field (SEF) with the electric stimulus to the right thumb, using a 3-D second-order gradiometer connected to 39-channel SQUIDs, which can detect the magnetic components perpendicular to the scalp (Br) and tangential to the scalp (Bθ, Bφ) simultaneously. The SVD method was applied to each spatio-temporal data, having two frequency ranges (1-40Hz, 15-40Hz), with the time window of 25ms and it was shifted every 2.5ms in analysis. Two dominant singular values were obtained for each of three components, respectively. It was found that magnetic field distribution with 15-40Hz was different to that of 1-40Hz at around 92ms latency corresponding to the SII activity overlapped in the SI activity. It was also confirmed a good agreement between isofield contour maps of measured magnetic field and theoretical maps calculated by signal subspaces with SVD analysis. We conclude this proposed method using dynamic SVD method with different frequency ranges is useful for discriminating multiple sources overlapping in time.

  2. The Vulnerability of Vessels Involved in the Role of Embolism and Hypoperfusion in the Mechanisms of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases

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    Yong Peng Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate definition and better understanding of the mechanisms of stroke are crucial as this will guide the effective care and therapy. In this paper, we review the previous basic and clinical researches on the causes or mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD and interpret the correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion based on vascular stenosis and arterial intimal lesions. It was suggested that if there is no embolus (dynamic or in situ emboli, there might be no cerebral infarction. Three kinds of different clinical outcomes of TIA were theoretically interpreted based on its mechanisms. We suppose that there is a correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion, and which mechanisms (hypoperfusion or hypoperfusion induced microemboli playing the dominant role in each type of ICVD depends on the unique background of arterial intimal lesions (the vulnerability of vessels. That is to say, the vulnerability of vessels is involved in the role of embolism and hypoperfusion in the mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. This inference might enrich and provide better understandings for the underlying etiologies of ischemic cerebrovascular events.

  3. A Fast SVD-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine for Large-Scale Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Bai, Zuo; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zheng, Qing-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Big dimensional data is a growing trend that is emerging in many real world contexts, extending from web mining, gene expression analysis, protein-protein interaction to high-frequency financial data. Nowadays, there is a growing consensus that the increasing dimensionality poses impeding effects on the performances of classifiers, which is termed as the "peaking phenomenon" in the field of machine intelligence. To address the issue, dimensionality reduction is commonly employed as a preprocessing step on the Big dimensional data before building the classifiers. In this paper, we propose an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) approach for large-scale data analytic. In contrast to existing approaches, we embed hidden nodes that are designed using singular value decomposition (SVD) into the classical ELM. These SVD nodes in the hidden layer are shown to capture the underlying characteristics of the Big dimensional data well, exhibiting excellent generalization performances. The drawback of using SVD on the entire dataset, however, is the high computational complexity involved. To address this, a fast divide and conquer approximation scheme is introduced to maintain computational tractability on high volume data. The resultant algorithm proposed is labeled here as Fast Singular Value Decomposition-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine or FSVD-H-ELM in short. In FSVD-H-ELM, instead of identifying the SVD hidden nodes directly from the entire dataset, SVD hidden nodes are derived from multiple random subsets of data sampled from the original dataset. Comprehensive experiments and comparisons are conducted to assess the FSVD-H-ELM against other state-of-the-art algorithms. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the FSVD-H-ELM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of Arterial Vessel Contributions in Susceptibility-Weighted Images for Quantification of Normalized Visible Venous Volume in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

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    Adam M. Winchell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a new postprocessing framework that eliminates arterial vessel signal contributions in the quantification of normalized visible venous volume (NVVV, a ratio between venous and brain volume in susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI exams in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective study and qualitatively reviewed for hypointense arterial vessel contamination in SWI exams from 21 children with SCD. We developed a postprocessing framework using magnetic resonance angiography in combination with SWI to provide a more accurate quantification of NVVV. NVVV was calculated before and after removing arterial vessel contributions to determine the error from hypointense arterial vessels in quantifying NVVV. Results. Hypointense arterial vessel contamination was observed in 86% SWI exams and was successfully corrected by the proposed method. The contributions of hypointense arterial vessels in the original SWI were significant and accounted for approximately 33% of the NVVV [uncorrected NVVV = 0.012 ± 0.005 versus corrected NVVV = 0.008 ± 0.003 (mean ± SD, P<0.01]. Conclusion. Hypointense arterial vessel contamination occurred in the majority of SWI exams and led to a sizeable overestimation of the visible venous volume. A prospective longitudinal study is needed to evaluate if quantitation of NVVV was improved and to assess the role of NVVV as a biomarker of SCD severity or stroke risk.

  5. Food and vessels: the importance of a healthy diet to prevent cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, P.; Hoekstra, J.; Hoogenveen, R.; Buchner, F.L.; Rossum, C. van; Verschuren, M.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: We attempted to quantify the burden of cardiovascular disease that can be prevented by broader adherence to recommendations on dietary intake of key nutrients. METHODS: A computer model capturing the epidemiology of chronic disease and risk factors in the Dutch population was used to simulate

  6. Structural Remodeling of Sympathetic Innervation in Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels: Role of Atherosclerotic Disease Progression and Chronic Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Crystal M; Mendez, Armando J; Szeto, Angela; Boulina, Marcia; Llabre, Maria M; Zaias, Julia; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) can undergo dramatic structural plasticity in response to behavioral factors and/or the presence of disease, leading to SNS hyperinnervation of peripheral tissues. The SNS has been proposed as an important mediator between stressful behavior and the progression of atherosclerosis in the vasculature. The present study examined whether structural remodeling of the SNS occurs in the vasculature in a genetically hyperlipidemic animal model of atherosclerosis, the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL; relative to normolipidemic New Zealand white rabbits [NZW]), and whether SNS plasticity is driven by the progression of disease and/or by stressful social behavior. WHHL and NZW rabbits were assigned to an unstable or stable social environment for 4 months. Aortic atherosclerosis was assessed and SNS aortic innervation quantified using immunofluorescent microscopy. Numerous SNS varicosities were observed throughout the aorta in WHHLs and NZWs, extending into the vascular media and intima, an innervation pattern not previously reported. WHHLs exhibited significantly greater innervation than NZWs (F(1,41) = 55.3, p Social environment did not influence innervation in NZWs (aortic arch: p = .078, thoracic aorta: p = .34) or WHHLs (arch: p = .97, thoracic: p = .61). The findings suggest that hyperinnervation is driven largely by the progression of disease rather than social environment. SNS innervation patterns observed in atherosclerotic human and mouse aortas were consistent with the rabbit, suggesting that SNS hyperinnervation of the diseased vessel wall is a general feature across mammalian species.

  7. Progression of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to Cancer: Is the Patient Better Off without Lymphatic Vessels or Nodes (or Angiopoietin 2)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    various theories of progression have remained elusive. We proposed that a reduced number of functioning lymphatic vessels and impaired lymph drainage ...having a reduced number of functioning lymphatic vessels and impaired lymph drainage ( lymphatic vascular insufficiency) in the colon actually protects... Lymphatic Vessels or Nodes (or Angiopoietin 2)? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marlys H. Witte, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arizona, Tucson

  8. Lifestyle-related disease in Crohn's disease: relapse prevention by a semi-vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Abe, Toru; Tsuda, Hidehiko; Sugawara, Takeshi; Tsuda, Satoko; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Imai, Hideo

    2010-05-28

    To investigate whether semi-vegetarian diet (SVD) has a preventive effect against relapse of Crohn's disease (CD) in patients who have achieved remission, who are a high-risk group for relapse. A prospective, single center, 2-year clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-two adult CD patients who achieved clinical remission either medically (n = 17) or surgically (n = 5) and consumed an SVD during hospitalization were advised to continue with an SVD and avoid known high-risk foods for inflammatory bowel disease. The primary endpoint was clinical relapse defined as the appearance of active symptoms of CD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the cumulative proportion of patients who had a relapse. A 2-year analysis of relapse rates of patients who followed an SVD and those who did not (an omnivorous diet group) was undertaken. SVD was continued by 16 patients (compliance 73%). Remission was maintained in 15 of 16 patients (94%) in the SVD group vs two of six (33%) in the omnivorous group. Remission rate with SVD was 100% at 1 year and 92% at 2 years. SVD showed significant prevention in the time to relapse compared to that in the omnivorous group (P = 0.0003, log rank test). The concentration of C-reactive protein was normal at the final visit in more than half of the patients in remission who were taking an SVD, who maintained remission during the study (9/15; 60%), who terminated follow-up (8/12; 67%), and who completed 2 years follow-up (7/10; 70%). There was no untoward effect of SVD. SVD was highly effective in preventing relapse in CD.

  9. Low QRS Voltage on Presenting Electrocardiogram Predicts Multi-vessel Disease in Anterior ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akihiro; Misumida, Naoki; Aoi, Shunsuke; Kanei, Yumiko

    Low QRS voltage was reported to predict adverse outcomes in acute myocardial infarction in the pre-thrombolytic era. However, the association between low voltage and angiographic findings has not been fully addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Low QRS voltage was defined as either peak to peak QRS complex voltage voltage. Patients with low voltage had a higher rate of multi-vessel disease (MVD) (76% vs. 52%, p=0.01). Patients with low voltage were more likely to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during admission (11% vs. 2%, p=0.028). Low voltage was an independent predictor for MVD (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.12 to 6.03; p=0.032). Low QRS voltage was associated with MVD and in-hospital CABG in anterior STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving ambient noise correlation functions with an SVD-based Wiener filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, L.; Stehly, L.; Boué, P.; Lu, Y.; Larose, E.; Campillo, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces a technique for improving seismic noise correlation functions (NCF) via a singular value decomposition (SVD) of a list of NCF and the Wiener filter. SVD is commonly used for denoising signals by keeping singular values associated with signal while rejecting others. However, singular vectors associated with signal may contain non-coherent information, so the reconstructed matrix generally still contains random perturbations. The Wiener filter is a different approach where signals statistics are used to remove incoherent signal parts. We suggest to combine both these approaches by applying the Wiener filter to the singular vectors, in order to maximize coherency directly in the signal subspace prior to reconstructing the NCF matrix. This denoising method significantly enhances signal-to-noise ratio in NCF. Benefits are demonstrated to be both in the convergence towards the Green's function for tomography purposes, and in the time-resolution improvement for monitoring applications.

  11. Patterns of cortical degeneration in an elderly cohort with cerebral small vessel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Laat, K.F. de; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Zwiers, M.P.; Evans, A.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Kotter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging noninvasive neuroimaging techniques allow for the morphometric analysis of patterns of gray and white matter degeneration in vivo, which may help explain and predict the occurrence of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. A single center prospective follow-up study (Radboud

  12. Excluding Noise from Short Krylov Subspace Approximations to the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Krylov subspace. dimension reduction, Krylov subspaces, truncated SVD, iterative methods , matrix regularization 32 Alex Breuer 410-278...tasks in domains ranging from dimension reduction using principal component analysis (PCA),1 to eigenfaces2 in machine learning , to latent semantic...indexing (LSI)3 in in- formation retrieval, matrix regularization,4,5 and sundry methods in signal process- ing.6,7 It is the core operation of data

  13. A New Double Color Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on the SVD and Arnold Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new image watermarking scheme based on the real SVD and Arnold scrambling to embed a color watermarking image into a color host image. Before embedding watermark, the color watermark image W with size of M×M is scrambled by Arnold transformation to obtain a meaningless image W~. Then, the color host image A with size of N×N is divided into nonoverlapping N/M×N/M pixel blocks. In each (i,j pixel block Ai,j, we form a real matrix Ci,j with the red, green, and blue components of Ai,j and perform the SVD of Ci,j. We then replace the three smallest singular values of Ci,j by the red, green, and blue values of W~ij with scaling factor, to form a new watermarked host image A~ij. With the reserve procedure, we can extract the watermark from the watermarked host image. In the process of the algorithm, we only need to perform real number algebra operations, which have very low computational complexity and are more effective than the one using the quaternion SVD of color image.

  14. The role of biopsies and autopsies in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment, with emphasis on small vessel diseases: A critical appraisal enriched by personal experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chimelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Acquired and hereditary microangiopathies cause cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD that impair cognition. The most frequent is primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS, whose diagnosis remains challenging, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Secondary vasculitis, CADASIL, miscellaneous microangiopathies and lymphomas, also cause cognitive impairment. Despite the fact that the need for biopsy has decreased in the era of new neuroimaging methods, biopsies that include small leptomeningeal and parenchymal arterial vessels still remain the gold standard to diagnose PACNS and other CSVD, and to exclude mimics such as infections and malignancies. New approaches for pathological consequences relevant to vascular cognitive impairment such as silent brain lesions, microinfarcts, microbleeds and subtle loss of microstructural integrity, may be detected in autopsies. This article addresses the role of biopsies and autopsies for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment related to small vessel diseases or other inflammatory/ischemic processes, and presents a critical appraisal based on personal experience.

  15. Sleep Duration, Kidney Function, and Their Effects on Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Elderly Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Michiaki; Hoshide, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mami; Shimpo, Masahisa; Kario, Kazuomi

    2015-07-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with cardio/cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. In addition to high ambulatory blood pressure (BP), chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk for WMH. In this study, we investigated the relationships among sleep duration, CKD, and WMH in elderly hypertensives. Ambulatory BP monitoring and brain magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 514 Japanese elderly hypertensives (mean age 72.3 years, males 37%). WMH cases were further divided into deep subcortical white matter lesion or periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). CKD (n = 193) was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). According to sleep duration (elderly hypertensives. Sleep duration might serve as a strong determinant for white matter lesions especially in those without CKD. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Radiological Phenotypes, Histopathological Correlates, and Described Genotypes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vascular cognitive impairment is a common yet preventable cause for dementia. It needs high degree of suspicion and appropriate designing of investigatory tools to confirm diagnosis, identify comorbidities, and ascertain the areas of impairment. Commonly DSM-IV criterion is applied for diagnosis and detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination for identifying the specific phenotype is used. Early diagnosis using the mandatory criteria will help in early initiation of disease modifying treatment strategies which can result in partial reversal of vascular changes and arrest of progression. Patients with young onset disease might require genetic characterization for designing more aggressive treatment. Discussion and Conclusion. Dementias as such carry poor course and prognosis resulting in severe Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs for patients and caregivers. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify treatable and preventable causes so that man power loss can be reduced.

  17. The right sided great vessels by cardiac multidetector computed tomography: normative reference values among healthy adults free of cardiopulmonary disease, hypertension, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fay Y; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Meng, Joyce; Jow, Veronica M; Simprini, Lauren; Jacobs, Avrum; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q; Min, James K

    2009-08-01

    We sought to derive normative reference values for the thoracic great vessels using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a healthy normotensive non-obese population free of cardiovascular disease. Non-gated axial computed tomography (CT) of the chest has traditionally been used to evaluate normal great vessel anatomy for prognosis and management. However, non-gated axial chest CT cannot account for the obliquity, systolic expansion, and non-axial motion of the great vessels during the cardiac cycle and may misclassify patients as normal or abnormal for prognostic and management purposes. To date, normative reference values for double-oblique, short-axis great vessel diameters have not been established using current generation electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 64-detector row MDCT. A total of 103 (43% women, age 51 +/- 14 years) consecutive normotensive, non-obese adults free of cardiopulmonary or great vessel structural disease, arrhythmias, or significant coronary artery disease were studied by MDCT. Individuals underwent examination for determination of end-diastolic (ED) pulmonary artery (PA) and superior vena cava (SVC) dimensions in double-oblique short axes for comparison with the ascending aorta and the right-sided cardiac chambers. For right sided great vessels, the 5th to 95th interval was 1.89-3.03 cm for ED PA diameter and 1.08-4.42 cm(2) for SVC cross-sectional area. The pulmonary artery to ascending aortic (PA-to-Ao) ratio was 0.66-1.13. In multivariate analysis, the PA was significantly associated with weight, whereas the PA-to-Ao ratio was inversely associated with age. Axial PA measurements were significantly higher and PA-to-Ao measurements significantly lower than corresponding short axis measurements (P = .04 and P right-sided great vessel dimensions derived from a healthy population of individuals free of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity. The traditional axial PA-to-Ao discriminant value of 1 for pulmonary hypertension is a

  18. Binding of11C-Pittsburgh compound-B correlated with white matter injury in hypertensive small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Yokota, Chiaki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Temma, Takashi; Yamazaki, Makoto; Iguchi, Satoshi; Shimomura, Ryo; Uehara, Toshiyuki; Funatsu, Naoko; Hino, Tenyu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Iida, Hidehiro; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2017-04-01

    11 C-Pittsburgh compound-B ( 11 C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense 11 C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of 11 C-PIB (BP ND ) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease. We further examined the relationship between the extent of WMLs and BP ND in WML and in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Twenty-one hypertensive vasculopathy patients, without AD and major cerebral arterial stenosis and/or occlusion, were enrolled (9 women, 68 ± 7 years). Regions of WML and NAWM were extracted using magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery of magnetic resonance images. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were set in the cortex-subcortex, basal ganglia, and centrum semiovale (CS). BP ND in the cortex-subcortex, basal ganglia, CS, WML, and NAWM were estimated on 11 C-PIB PET using Logan graphical analysis with cerebellar regions as references. The relationships between WML volume and BP ND in each region were examined by linear regression analysis. BP ND was higher in the CS and basal ganglia than in the cortex-subcortex regions. WML volume had a significant inverse correlation with BP ND in the CS (Slope = -0.0042, R 2  = 0.44, P < 0.01). For intra WM comparison, BP ND in NAWM was significantly higher than that in WML. In addition, although there were no correlations between WML volume and BP ND in WML, WML volume was significantly correlated inversely with BP ND in NAWM (Slope = -0.0017, R 2  = 0.26, P = 0.02). 11 C-PIB could be a marker of not only cortical amyloid-β deposition but also

  19. Experimental study of anisotropic stress/strain relationships of the piglet great vessels and relevance to pediatric congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yueqian; Argueta-Morales, I Ricardo; Liu, Miao; Bai, Yuanli; Divo, Eduardo; Kassab, Alain J; DeCampli, William M

    2015-04-01

    Determining material mechanical properties of neonatal aorta and pulmonary artery will aid understanding tissue behavior when subjected to abnormal hemodynamics of congenital heart disease. Aorta and pulmonary arteries were harvested from 6 neonatal piglets (mean weight 3.5 kg). Tissue samples from ventral and dorsal aspects of ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA), innominate artery (IA), left subclavian artery (LScA), main pulmonary artery (MPA), and left pulmonary artery (LPA) and right pulmonary artery (RPA) were obtained in three orientations: circumferential, diagonal, and longitudinal. Samples were subjected to uniaxial tensile testing. True strain-Cauchy stress curves were individually fitted for each orientation to calibrate the Fung model, and to measure tissue stiffness (10% strain). All samples, for all orientations, demonstrated nonlinear hyperelastic strain-stress response to uniaxial tensile testing (Holzapfel-Gasser and fitted-Fung models R(2) > 0.95). For each vessel segment, stiffness was not significantly different among orientations. Stiffness values in all orientations, including ventral/dorsal samples, were compared between AA > MPA (p = 0.08), DA > MPA (p AA (p = 0.35). Comparison of circumferential orientation samples showed AA and DA are significantly stiffer than MPA (p congenital heard disease. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elaine H; Blanton, Curtis J; Otto, Charles

    2008-03-01

    In the course of a successful collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the cruise ship industry on reducing common-source outbreaks, CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) has expanded its training, education, and cruise ship inspection programs. The study reported here evaluated 15 years of ship sanitation inspection data from the National Center for Environmental Health and assessed performance in specific sanitation categories from 1996 to 2005. During the period 1990-2005, scores from cruise ship environmental sanitation inspections steadily improved. The percentage of inspections with violations decreased among five of nine categories. Those five categories were Washing Facilities, Contact Surfaces, Facility Maintenance, Food Handling, and Communicable Disease Practices. Inspection violations increased proportionally in the categories of Swimming Pools and Water System Protection/Chart Recording. Overall continued good performance in most sanitation categories is likely attributable to on-site training during inspections, improvements in ship construction, and a switch from hot-holding temperatures to time limits as a public health control for foods on display.

  1. Vascular diseases await translation of blood vessels engineered from stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Rekha; Duda, Dan G; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-10-14

    The discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) might pave the way toward a long-sought solution for obtaining sufficient numbers of autologous cells for tissue engineering. Several methods exist for generating endothelial cells or perivascular cells from hiPSCs in vitro for use in the building of vascular tissue. We discuss current developments in the generation of vascular progenitor cells from hiPSCs and the assessment of their functional capacity in vivo, opportunities and challenges for the clinical translation of engineered vascular tissue, and modeling of vascular diseases using hiPSC-derived vascular progenitor cells. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Electrocardiography as a predictor of left main or three-vessel disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hussien

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: ST-segment elevation in lead aVR ⩾0.5 mm and QRS duration ⩾90 ms are good electrocardiographic predictors of left main or three vessel disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

  3. Genetic variants of the NOTCH3 gene in the elderly and magnetic resonance imaging correlates of age-related cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M. Zeginigg (Marion); M. Wiltgen (Marco); P. Freudenberger (Paul); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Cavalieri (Margherita); P. Gider (Pierre); C. Enzinger (Christian); M. Fornage (Myriam); S. Debette (Stéphanie); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); L.J. Launer (Lenore)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebral small vessel disease-related brain lesions such as white matter lesions and lacunes are common findings of magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. These lesions are thought to be major contributors to disability in old age, and risk factors that include age and hypertension

  4. Hospital patterns of medical management strategy use for patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and 3-vessel or left main coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Wiviott, Stephen D.; Amsterdam, Ezra A.; Li, Shuang; Thomas, Laine; de Winter, Robbert J.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and three-vessel or left main coronary disease (3VD/LMD) have a high risk of long-term mortality when treated with a medical management strategy (MMS) compared with revascularization. We evaluated patterns of use and patient features

  5. Planning of vessel grafts for reconstructive surgery in congenital heart diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdorf, U.; Riesenkampff, E.; Schwarz, T.; Kuehne, T.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

    2010-02-01

    The Fontan operation is a surgical treatment for patients with severe congenital heart diseases, where a biventricular correction of the heart can't be achieved. In these cases, a uni-ventricular system is established. During the last step of surgery a tunnel segment is placed to connect the inferior caval vein directly with the pulmonary artery, bypassing the right atrium and ventricle. Thus, the existing ventricle works for the body circulation, while the venous blood is passively directed to the pulmonary arteries. Fontan tunnels can be placed intra- and extracardially. The location, length and shape of the tunnel must be planned accurately. Furthermore, if the tunnel is placed extracardially, it must be positioned between other anatomical structures without constraining them. We developed a software system to support planning of the tunnel location, shape, and size, making pre-operative preparation of the tunnel material possible. The system allows for interactive placement and adjustment of the tunnel, affords a three-dimensional visualization of the virtual Fontan tunnel inside the thorax, and provides a quantification of the length, circumferences and diameters of the tunnel segments. The visualization and quantification can be used to plan and prepare the tunnel material for surgery in order to reduce the intra-operative time and to improve the fit of the tunnel patch.

  6. [Therapeutic effect of Cheatham-Platinum stent implantation for vessel stenosis associated with congenital heart disease in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fen; Zhou, Ai-Qing; Gao, Wei; Yu, Zhi-Qing; Sun, Kun; Huang, Mei-Rong; Li, Yun; Yang, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wu

    2009-04-01

    Although NuMED Cheatham-Platinum (CP) stent was specifically designed to treat vascular obstructions associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), its application in pediatric patients is relatively uncommon, especially in the pulmonary artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate-, early- and intermediate-term results of CP stent implantation in the treatment of vessel stenosis associated with CHD in children and adolescents. From August 2005 to May 2007, 5 consecutive patients (3 boys and 2 girls) diagnosed as vascular stenosis associated with CHD underwent CP stent implantation in our institution. One patient had native coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and four patients had pulmonary artery stenosis. The median age and weight of patients were 12 years (range 4 - 15 years) and 24 kg (range 20 - 51 kg), respectively. The CP stent and NuMED Balloon-in-Balloon catheter were selected according to digital subtracted angiography measurements. After checking for correct position by angiography, the inner balloon and outer balloon inflated successively to expand the stent to desired diameter. Totally 6 stent placement procedures were performed and 8 CP stents (8-zig, 22 - 39 mm in length) were implanted in these 5 patients. All stents but one in a case of right pulmonary artery stenosis were immediately successfully placed in the target lesions without displacement during the procedures. For this case, a repeat procedure was performed and a second CP stent was reimplanted successfully 11 months later. After the procedure, the systolic pressure gradient across the stenosis decreased from (43.43 +/- 25.61) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) to (3.29 +/- 3.09) mm Hg (t = 4.320, P stenosis, respectively. The ratio of right ventricular to aortic systolic pressure decreased from 62.3% and 72.2% to 27.0% and 33.3% in 2 cases of bilateral branch pulmonary artery stenosis, respectively. Upper limb blood pressure of one case of native CoA dropped greatly from 206

  7. Altered low frequency oscillations of cortical vessels in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease – a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte ePhillip

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of cerebral autoregulation by measuring spontaneous oscillations in the low frequency spectrum of cerebral cortical vessels might be a useful tool for assessing risk and investigating different treatment strategies in carotid artery disease (CAD and stroke. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical method to investigate regional changes in oxygenated (oxyHb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb in the outermost layers of the cerebral cortex. In the present study we examined oxyHb low frequency oscillations (LFOs, believed to reflect cortical cerebral autoregulation, in 16 patients with both symptomatic carotid occlusive disease and cerebral hypoperfusion in comparison to healthy controls. Each hemisphere was examined with 2 NIRS channels using a 3 cm source detector distance. Arterial blood pressure (ABP was measured via a finger plethysmograph. Using transfer function analysis ABP-oxyHb phase shift and gain as well as inter-hemispheric phase shift and amplitude ratio were assessed. We found that inter-hemispheric amplitude ratio was significantly altered in hypoperfusion patients compared to healthy controls (P= 0.010, because of relatively lower amplitude on the hypoperfusion side. The inter-hemispheric phase shift showed a trend (P = 0.061 towards increased phase shift in hypoperfusion patients compared to controls. We found no statistical difference between hemispheres in hypoperfusion patients for phase shift or gain values. There were no differences between the hypoperfusion side and controls for phase shift or gain values. These preliminary results suggest an impairment of autoregulation in hypoperfusion patients at the cortical level using NIRS.

  8. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  9. On matrices with low-rank-plus-shift structure: Partial SVD and latent semantic indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, H.; Zhang, Z.

    1998-08-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of matrices satisfying the so-called low-rank-plus-shift property in connection with the computation of their partial singular value decomposition. The application they have in mind is Latent Semantic Indexing for information retrieval where the term-document matrices generated from a text corpus approximately satisfy this property. The analysis is motivated by developing more efficient methods for computing and updating partial SVD of large term-document matrices and gaining deeper understanding of the behavior of the methods in the presence of noise.

  10. Batched QR and SVD Algorithms on GPUs with Applications in Hierarchical Matrix Compression

    KAUST Repository

    Halim Boukaram, Wajih

    2017-09-14

    We present high performance implementations of the QR and the singular value decomposition of a batch of small matrices hosted on the GPU with applications in the compression of hierarchical matrices. The one-sided Jacobi algorithm is used for its simplicity and inherent parallelism as a building block for the SVD of low rank blocks using randomized methods. We implement multiple kernels based on the level of the GPU memory hierarchy in which the matrices can reside and show substantial speedups against streamed cuSOLVER SVDs. The resulting batched routine is a key component of hierarchical matrix compression, opening up opportunities to perform H-matrix arithmetic efficiently on GPUs.

  11. Distinctive characteristics of bronchial reticular basement membrane and vessel remodelling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in asthma: they are not the same disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Amir; Muller, Hans Konrad; Sohal, Sukhwinder S; Reid, David W; Weston, Steve; Wood-Baker, Richard; Walters, Eugene Haydn

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study compared reticular basement membrane (Rbm) and vascular remodelling within the bronchial mucosa of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with those from patients with asthma, to test the ‘Dutch hypothesis’ of whether these are essentially the same or different pathological conditions. Methods and results Bronchoscopic biopsies were stained with anti-collagen IV antibody; 18 current smoking COPD, 10 symptomatic asthmatics and 13 healthy non-smoking controls were studied. The Rbm in COPD was fragmented, non-homogeneous, variable in thickness and hypervascular, whereas in asthma the Rbm was compact and homogeneous with no evidence of increased vascularity compared to controls. Length of Rbm splitting presented as percentage of Rbm length was used to measure fragmentation; it was greater in COPD than in controls and asthmatics [median (range) 20.7% (0.4–68.5) versus 5.3% (0.0–21.7) versus 1.5% (0.0–15.1), P < 0.001]. The number of Rbm vessels/mm Rbm [median (range) 10.1 (1.6–23.0) versus 4.5 (0.0–26.4) versus 4.4 (0.4–8.1), P < 0.01] and area of Rbm vessels, μm2/mm Rbm [median (range) 953 (115–2456) versus 462 (0–3263) versus 426 (32–2216), P < 0.05] was also increased in COPD compared to normal subjects and asthmatics. Conclusions The characteristics of Rbm remodelling are quite different in asthma and COPD. PMID:22320998

  12. Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Burden of Small Vessel Disease in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: An Imaging-Pathologic Study of Concept Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charidimou, Andreas; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Reijmer, Yael D; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Lauer, Arne; Roongpiboonsopit, Duangnapa; Frosch, Matthew; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Ayres, Alison; Rosand, Jonathan; Gurol, Mahmut Edip; Greenberg, Steven M; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characteristically associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of small vessel brain injury, including strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, centrum semiovale perivascular spaces, and white matter hyperintensities. Although these neuroimaging markers reflect distinct pathophysiologic aspects in CAA, no studies to date have combined these structural imaging features to gauge total brain small vessel disease burden in CAA. To investigate whether a composite score can be developed to capture the total brain MRI burden of small vessel disease in CAA and to explore whether this score contributes independent and complementary information about CAA severity, defined as intracerebral hemorrhage during life or bleeding-related neuropathologic changes. This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined a single-center neuropathologic CAA cohort of eligible patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2012. Data analysis was performed from January 2, 2015, to January 9, 2016. Patients with pathologic evidence of CAA (ie, any presence of CAA from routinely collected brain biopsy specimen, biopsy specimen at hematoma evacuation, or autopsy) and available brain MRI sequences of adequate quality, including T2-weighted, T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo, and/or susceptibility-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences, were considered for the study. Brain MRIs were rated for lobar cerebral microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, centrum semiovale perivascular spaces, and white matter hyperintensities. All 4 MRI lesions were incorporated into a prespecified ordinal total small vessel disease score, ranging from 0 to 6 points. Associations with severity of CAA-associated vasculopathic changes (fibrinoid necrosis and concentric splitting of the wall), clinical presentation, number of intracerebral hemorrhages, and other

  13. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform and sparse K-SVD dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiajun; Cheng, Qimin; Peng, Mingjun; Song, Yang

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an image fusion method, which is named NSCT_SK_SVD, is proposed for infrared and visible images, where Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and sparse K-SVD dictionary learning are utilized to obtain the prominent features of source images. By using the NSCT, the detailed information of source images can be revealed in different scales. Then, using the sparse K-SVD dictionary learning to low-frequency coefficients which are not sparse, salient features of infrared and visible images can be more effectively extracted than other sparse representation methods. Besides, the fourth-order correlation coefficients match strategy is performed to select the suitable high-frequency coefficients to preserve the detailed characteristics of infrared and visible images. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other classical methods.

  14. Passive forensics for copy-move image forgery using a method based on DCT and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Guo, Jichang

    2013-12-10

    As powerful image editing tools are widely used, the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased. Copy-move forgery is one of the tampering techniques which are frequently used. Most existing techniques to expose this forgery need to improve the robustness for common post-processing operations and fail to precisely locate the tampering region especially when there are large similar or flat regions in the image. In this paper, a robust method based on DCT and SVD is proposed to detect this specific artifact. Firstly, the suspicious image is divided into fixed-size overlapping blocks and 2D-DCT is applied to each block, then the DCT coefficients are quantized by a quantization matrix to obtain a more robust representation of each block. Secondly, each quantized block is divided non-overlapping sub-blocks and SVD is applied to each sub-block, then features are extracted to reduce the dimension of each block using its largest singular value. Finally, the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted, and duplicated image blocks will be matched by predefined shift frequency threshold. Experiment results demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgery and precisely locate the duplicated regions, even when an image was distorted by Gaussian blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression and their mixed operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  16. Precision PEP-II optics measurement with an SVD-enhanced Least-Square fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y

    2004-09-15

    A Singular value decomposition (SVD)-enhanced Least-square fitting technique is discussed. By automatic identifying, ordering, and selecting dominant SVD modes of the derivative matrix that responds to the variations of the variables, the converging process of the Least Square fitting is significantly enhanced. Thus the fitting speed can be fast enough for a fairly large system. This technique has been successfully applied to precision PEP-II optics measurement in which we determine all quadrupole strengths (both normal and skew components) and sextupole feed-downs as well as all BPM gains and BPM cross-plane couplings through Least-Square fitting of the phase advances and the Local Green's functions as well as the coupling ellipses among BPMs. The local Green's functions are specified by 4 local transfer matrix components R12, R34, R32, R14. These measurable quantities (the Green's functions, the phase advances and the coupling ellipse tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a high-resolution model-independent analysis (MIA). Once all of the quadrupoles and sextupole feed-downs are determined, we obtain a computer virtual accelerator which matches the real accelerator in linear optics. Thus, beta functions, linear coupling parameters, and interaction point (IP) optics characteristics can be measured and displayed.

  17. Transcatheter closure of abnormal vessels and arteriovenous fistulas with the Amplatzer vascular plug 4 in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Gesa; Sieverding, Ludger; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Hofbeck, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Although vascular plugs allow the interventional closure of medium-sized to large abnormal vessels, their application is limited by the need for long sheaths or large guiding catheters. The authors report their experience with the new Amplatzer vascular plug 4 (AVP 4), a self-expanding spindle-shaped occluder made of Nitinol wire mash, which can be placed through 4-Fr catheters with an internal diameter of 0.038 in. or larger. From October 2009 until June 2012, 14 AVP 4 devices were deployed in 12 patients (ages, 0.3-48.8 years). Nine patients had venovenous or arteriovenous collaterals in functional univentricular hearts. One patient had pulmonary atresia with a ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, and one patient had a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. One child had a large coronary artery fistula to the right atrium. The authors used AVP 4 devices with diameters of 4-8 mm. In all the patients, the AVP 4 was implanted successfully. No occluder dislocations and no complications related to the procedure occurred. Complete vessel occlusion was achieved in seven cases. In seven additional cases, a residual shunt was present at the end of the procedure while the patients were still fully heparinized. In 2 of 14 vessels, the decision was made to place additional devices to abolish residual shunting. According to the authors' experience, the AVP 4 allows safe and effective occlusion of medium-size and large abnormal vessels. It is also well suited for tortuous high-flow vessels such as coronary or pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. In case of a suboptimal position, it is possible to reposition the occluder with ease. Further studies are needed to determine whether initial residual shunting in heparinized patients disappears during follow-up care. The AVP 4 represents a valuable new device for the interventional treatment of complex congenital vessel malformations.

  18. The effect of hybrid treatment on the rehabilitation and clinical condition of patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foik, Joanna; Brzęk, Anna; Gierlotka, Marek J; Zembala, Michał O; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2018-01-02

    INTRODUCTION    Rehabilitation after coronary revascularization procedures is an intrinsic element of treatment during the in-hospital period. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to compare the course and effects of rehabilitation in patients receiving hybrid or classical treatment during the in-hospital period. PATIENTS AND METHODS    Two hundred patients participating in a prospective, random-ized clinical trial (POLMIDES), that assessed the effect of hybrid treatment on in-hospital outcomes and remote results in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease were ana-lysed. Two groups were considered in the trial: a hybrid group (MIDCAB/PCI) and a classical group (CABG/OPCAB). RESULTS    An assessment using the EuroSCORE revealed a higher perioperative risk in clas-sical group. The mean (SD) the EuroSCORE was 2.89 (1.97) vs 3.54 (2.12). During all the monitored rehabilitation cycles, lower arterial blood saturation was reported in the hybrid group (P = 0.002). Lower systolic blood pressure (P <0.001), lower diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.029) and more frequent cases of blood pressure drops during rehabilitation (P = 0.02) were present in the classical group. Patients from the classical group were able to sit (P<0.001), become vertical  (P <0.001) and walk (P = 0.01) earlier than the hybrid group. In the hybrid group (P = 0.001), earlier completion of rehabilitation and discharge from the hos-pital were noted. CONCLUSIONS    In patients from the hybrid treatment group, hypotonia events occurred more rarely, whereas arterial blood saturation values were lower. Mobilization of patients in the two-stage hybrid treatment regimen was slower during the initial days and cycles of reha-bilitation, but patients from this group achieved full self-reliance earlier, which enabled a re-duced hospitalization period.

  19. Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with small-vessel lesions and stroke type in moyamoya disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Huh, Pil Woo; Lee, Kwan-Sung

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The present study was conducted to investigate whether microbleeds or microinfarcts are associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), and if so, whetherAPOE gene polymorphisms are also associated with stroke type in patients with MMD. METHODS This cross-sectional, multicenter study included 86 consecutive patients with MMD who underwent T2*-weighted gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted MR imaging and 83 healthy control volunteers. Baseline clinical and radiological characteristics were recorded at diagnosis, and inter- and intragroup differences in the APOE genotypes were assessed. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to determine the association factors for small-vessel lesions (SVLs) and hemorrhagic presentation in patients with MMD. RESULTS There was no difference in APOE gene polymorphism and the incidence of SVLs between patients with MMD and healthy controls (p > 0.05). In the MMD group, 7 (8.1%) patients had microbleeds and 32 (37.2%) patients had microinfarcts. Microbleeds were more frequently identified in patients with hemorrhagic-type than in nonhemorrhagictype MMD (p = 0.003). APOE genotypes differed according to the presence of microbleeds (p = 0.024). APOE ε2 or ε4 carriers also experienced microbleeds more frequently than APOE ε3/ε3 carriers (p = 0.013). In the multivariate regression analysis in patients with MMD, microbleeds were significantly related to APOE ε2 or ε4 carrier status (OR 7.86; 95% CI1.20-51.62; p = 0.032) and cerebral aneurysm (OR 17.31; 95% CI 2.09-143.57; p = 0.008). Microinfarcts were independently associated with hypertension (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; p = 0.007). Hemorrhagic presentation was markedly associated with microbleeds (OR 10.63; 95% CI 1.11-102.0; p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results did not show a difference in APOE gene polymorphisms between patients with MMD and healthy persons. However, they imply that APOE

  20. A genetic study of Factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation in young ischemic strokes with large vessel disease in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadure, Ravi; Christopher, Rita; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Narayanan, Coimbatore

    2017-10-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been, by far, the most investigated gene mutation, with 26 studies to date, on its role in arterial strokes. Overall, a meta-analysis of all these studies taken together showed that carriers of the Factor V Leiden allele were 1.33times more likely to develop arterial strokes when compared to controls. We subjected a highly select subset of young strokes, with large vessel infarcts, to genetic analysis for FVL mutation and compared them with matched healthy controls to look for a statistically significant association. In this prospective study, 6/120 cases (5%) and 2/120 controls (1.6%) were positive for heterozygous FVL (G1691A) mutation. The higher prevalence of FVL mutation in cases (5%) compared to controls (1.6%) did not show statistical significance with a Pearson's Chi square P value of 0.15. The Odds Ratio (OR) for risk of large vessel disease in FVL positive cases was 3.10 (95% CI of 0.61-15.7). FVL mutation (G1691A) in young Indian subjects with ischemic strokes does not seem to be significantly associated with large vessel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  2. Using computer algebra to perform image compression with wavelet transform and SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Computer Algebra Software, especially Maple and its Image Tools package, is used to develop image compression using the Weibull distribution, Wavelet transform application and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). For prototyping of the image compression process, Maple packages, Linear Algebra, Array Tools and Discrete Transform are used simultaneously with Image Tools image processing package. The image compression process implies the realization of matrix computing with high dimension matrices, and Maple software develops those operations easily and efficiently. Some image compression experiments are done, and the matrix dimension for minimum information needed to store an image is shown clearly, also the matrix dimension of redundant information. Implementation of algorithms for image compression in other computer algebra systems such as Mathematica and Maxima is proposed as future investigation path. Also it is proposed the use of curvelet transform as a tool for image compression,

  3. SVD-based filter design for the trajectory feedback of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D; Snuverink, J

    2011-01-01

    The trajectory feedback of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an essential mitigation method for ground motion effects at CLIC. In this paper signicant improvements of the design of this feedback are presented. The new controller is based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the orbit response matrix to decouple the in- and outputs of the accelerator. For each decoupled channel one independent controller is designed by utilising ground motion and noise models. This new design allows a relaxation of the required resolution of the beam position monitor from 10 to 50 nm. At the same time the suppression of ground motion effects is improved. As a consequence, the tight tolerances for the allowable luminosity loss due to ground motion effects in CLIC can be met. The presented methods can be easily adapted to other accelerators in order to loosen sensor tolerances and to efciently suppress ground motion effects.

  4. A SVD-based method to assess the uniqueness and accuracy of SPECT geometrical calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyu; Yao, Rutao; Shao, Yiping; Zhou, Rong

    2009-12-01

    Geometrical calibration is critical to obtaining high resolution and artifact-free reconstructed image for SPECT and CT systems. Most published calibration methods use analytical approach to determine the uniqueness condition for a specific calibration problem, and the calibration accuracy is often evaluated through empirical studies. In this work, we present a general method to assess the characteristics of both the uniqueness and the quantitative accuracy of the calibration. The method uses a singular value decomposition (SVD) based approach to analyze the Jacobian matrix from a least-square cost function for the calibration. With this method, the uniqueness of the calibration can be identified by assessing the nonsingularity of the Jacobian matrix, and the estimation accuracy of the calibration parameters can be quantified by analyzing the SVD components. A direct application of this method is that the efficacy of a calibration configuration can be quantitatively evaluated by choosing a figure-of-merit, e.g., the minimum required number of projection samplings to achieve desired calibration accuracy. The proposed method was validated with a slit-slat SPECT system through numerical simulation studies and experimental measurements with point sources and an ultra-micro hot-rod phantom. The predicted calibration accuracy from the numerical studies was confirmed by the experimental point source calibrations at approximately 0.1 mm for both the center of rotation (COR) estimation of a rotation stage and the slit aperture position (SAP) estimation of a slit-slat collimator by an optimized system calibration protocol. The reconstructed images of a hot rod phantom showed satisfactory spatial resolution with a proper calibration and showed visible resolution degradation with artificially introduced 0.3 mm COR estimation error. The proposed method can be applied to other SPECT and CT imaging systems to analyze calibration method assessment and calibration protocol

  5. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  6. Detection of early infection of swine vesicular disease virus in porcine cells and skin sections. A comparison of immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.M.; Poelwijk, van F.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Reus, B.; Kok, G.L.; Pol, J.M.A.; Dekker, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive methods are required to study the early pathogenesis of swine vesicular diseases (SVD). Therefore, two new methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in-situ hybridization (ISH), were developed and tested for their specificity and sensitivity. With these methods the SVD virus (SVDV) infection

  7. Alzheimer's dementia begins as a disease of small blood vessels, damaged by oxidative-induced inflammation and dysregulated amyloid metabolism: implications for early detection and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2011-01-01

    There is a widely shared view among Alzheimer's disease (AD) investigators that the amyloid hypothesis best describes the pathogenic cascade that leads, ultimately, to neuronal degeneration and irreversible dementia. The most persuasive evidence comes from studies of damaged brains of patients in the late stages of AD and from animal studies that attempt to mimic the hereditary forms of early-onset dementia. Despite this impressive body of knowledge, we still lack the means to either arrest or prevent this horrible contagion. This essay attempts to describe what we know, and do not know, about the earliest stages of the disease, focusing on the possibility that the initial pathological changes involve oxidative-induced inflammatory damage to small blood vessels. The resulting ischemia activates amyloid-processing enzymes and other proinflammatory factors that eventually compromise neuronal functions, leading, over time, to the complex lesions that characterize advanced disease. The idea that blood vessel damage is primary has a long history and many prior advocates. The novel addition offered here is the speculation that low-abundance, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the amyloid precursor protein may be part of the triggering mechanism.

  8. Open repair management of a patient with aortic arch saccular aneurysm, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, one vessel coronary artery disease and an isolated dissection of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolo, Harvey; Wartono, Dicky A; Suyuti, Sugisman; Herlambang, Bagus; Caesario, Michael; Sunu, Ismoyo

    2017-01-01

    Isolated saccular compared to fusiform aneurysm is considered to be a rare entity with challenges of its own. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a case of saccular aneurysm and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aortic arch. Additionally, she also had one vessel coronary artery disease and type B abdominal aortic dissection. She was then managed with open aortic arch repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. If required, elective endovascular repair will be done for the abdominal aorta on a later date.

  9. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD.

  10. Long-term consequences of developmental vascular defects on retinal vessel homeostasis and function in a mouse model of Norrie disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne C Beck

    Full Text Available Loss of Norrin signalling due to mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene causes severe vascular defects in the retina, leading to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. While the emphasis of experimental work so far was on the developmental period, we focus here on disease mechanisms that induce progression into severe adult disease. The goal of this study was the comprehensive analysis of the long-term effects of the absence of Norrin on vascular homeostasis and retinal function. In a mouse model of Norrie disease retinal vascular morphology and integrity were studied by means of in vivo angiography; the vascular constituents were assessed in detailed histological analyses using quantitative retinal morphometry. Finally, electroretinographic analyses were performed to assess the retinal function in adult Norrin deficient animals. We could show that the primary developmental defects not only persisted but developed into further vascular abnormalities and microangiopathies. In particular, the overall vessel homeostasis, the vascular integrity, and also the cellular constituents of the vascular wall were affected in the adult Norrin deficient retina. Moreover, functional analyses indicated to persistent hypoxia in the neural retina which was suggested as one of the major driving forces of disease progression. In summary, our data provide evidence that the key to adult Norrie disease are ongoing vascular modifications, driven by the persistent hypoxic conditions, which are ineffective to compensate for the primary Norrin-dependent defects.

  11. Perbandingan Quantum Clustering Dan Support Vector Clustering Untuk Data Microarray Expression Yeast Cell Dalam Ruang Singular Value Decomposition (Svd)

    OpenAIRE

    Riwinoto

    2012-01-01

    Sekarang ini, metode clustering telah diimplementasikan dalam riset DNA. Data dari DNA didapat melalui teknik microarray. Dengan menggunakan metode teknik SVD, dimensi data dikurangi sehingga mempermudah proses komputasi. Dalam paper ini, ditampilkan hasil clustering tanpa pengarahan terhadap gen-gen dari data bakteri ragi dengan menggunakan metode quantum clustering. Sebagai pembanding, dilakukan juga clustering menggunakan metoda Support Vector Clustering. Selain itu juga ditampilkan data h...

  12. Clinical outcomes in real-world patients with small vessel disease treated with XIENCE V® everolimus-eluting stents: one year results from the XIENCE V® USA condition of approval post-market study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiller, James B; Rutledge, David R; Mao, Vivian W; Zhao, Weiying; Wang, Jin; Gruberg, Luis; Lombardi, William; Sharma, Samin K; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 1-year clinical outcomes of more complex XIENCE V USA real-world patients with small versus nonsmall vessel lesions. Patients with small vessel lesions undergoing coronary stent placement are at higher risk of major adverse cardiac events. Improved safety and efficacy of XIENCE V everolimus eluting stents (EES) have been previously demonstrated in selected low-risk small vessel populations in randomized clinical trials. The XIENCE V USA study was a condition of approval, single-arm study in unselected real-world patients. Baseline and 1-year clinical outcomes were compared between XIENCE V USA patients who received a single 2.5 mm stent (small vessel group, N = 838) and patients implanted with a single >2.5 mm stent (non-small vessel group, N = 2,015). Mean reference vessel diameter was 2.55 ± 0.36 and 3.25 ± 0.46 mm in the small and non-small vessel groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Small vessel group had more females, presented with a higher rate of diabetes, and had more complex lesion characteristics. The definite or probable ST rates analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method were low and not significantly different between the groups at 0.37 and 0.40% for the small and nonsmall vessel group (P = 0.88), respectively. The composite rate of cardiac death or MI was comparable at 4.5% for the small and 5.1% for the non-small vessel 1 groups (P = 0.57). The 1-year target lesion revascularization rate was also comparable in the small vessel group (3.8% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.35). Despite gender difference, higher prevalence of diabetes and more complex lesions in the small vessel groups, the 1-year clinical outcomes were similar in both small and nonsmall vessel groups. These results demonstrate the therapeutic benefit of XIENCE V EES in a real-world all inclusive patient population with small vessel disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Penumbra Stroke System as an ''add-on'' for the treatment of large vessel occlusive disease following thrombolysis: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, Tobias; Engelhorn, Tobias; Richter, Gregor; Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Koehrmann, Martin; Nowe, Tim; Schellinger, Peter D.; Schwab, Stefan [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The Penumbra Stroke System (PSS) was cleared for use in patients with ischemic stroke by the FDA in January 2008. We describe our experience of using this new system in acute large vessel occlusive disease following thrombolysis. Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 60 years) suffering from acute ischemic stroke were treated with the PSS after intravenous or intra-arterial standard treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (n = 14) or ReoPro (n = 1). All patients presented with TIMI 3 before use of the PSS. Carotid stenting (n = 3) and intracranial balloon angioplasty or stenting (n = 2) were performed if indicated. Neurological evaluation was performed using the NIHSS score and the mRS score. Initial median NIHSS score in 12 patients with occlusions in the anterior circulation was 15; three patients with basilar artery occlusion presented with coma. Median symptom to procedure start time was 151 min. In the anterior circulation, 9 of the 12 target vessels were recanalised successfully (TIMI 2 and 3). The rate of patients with independent clinical outcome (mRS {<=} 2) was 42%. One patient died 5 days after unsuccessful treatment, one after 28 days and one after 85 days owing to heart attack. Basilar artery occlusions could be recanalised in all cases to TIMI 3. The clinical result after 90 days was mRS 4 in two cases and mRS 5 in one case. Symptomatic haemorrhage did not occur. The PSS can safely be used for recanalisation in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion, who have already received thrombolysis treatment. The recanalisation rate was 80%. Symptomatic haemorrhage did not occur. Randomized trials may demonstrate that endovascular mechanical thrombectomy improves patient outcome. (orig.)

  14. Analisis dan Simulasi Video Watermarking Menggunakan Metode Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT dan Singular Value Decomposition (SVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Fadhilah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Video piracy is the act of obtaining, copying, and selling or distributing videos that already had the copyright without the consent of the copyright owner. Watermarking is a process which embeds an additional information in the host video signal so that the embedded watermark cannot be seen and difficult to be erased or altered. Video watermarking in this journal used a mp4 format video and two different watermark images. Host video frames are divided into two equal lots, some of the frames are embedded by watermark image 1, and the others are embedded by watermark images 2. The methods used are Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. The two watermarks are embedded and extracted in each subband at a depth level 1 to level 4 DTCWT - SVD with the aim of seeking the best subband and the best level for embedding and extracting. In the extraction testing, watermarked video is given several attacks before extraction process. Based on the MOS and PSNR value the DTCWT-SVD level for embedding process is level 4, and based on the MOS and MSE value, the best extraction images are produced from the level 3. The best subband for embedding watermark are the subbands with three parts such as {1,5}{1,1}{1,2} and {1,5}{1,2}{1,2}.

  15. SVD-based optimal filtering for noise reduction in dual microphone hearing aids: a real time implementation and perceptual evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Jean-Baptiste; Royackers, Liesbeth; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the first real-time implementation and perceptual evaluation of a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based optimal filtering technique for noise reduction in a dual microphone behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid is presented. This evaluation was carried out for a speech weighted noise and multitalker babble, for single and multiple jammer sound source scenarios. Two basic microphone configurations in the hearing aid were used. The SVD-based optimal filtering technique was compared against an adaptive beamformer, which is known to give significant improvements in speech intelligibility in noisy environment. The optimal filtering technique works without assumptions about a speaker position, unlike the two-stage adaptive beamformer. However this strategy needs a robust voice activity detector (VAD). A method to improve the performance of the VAD was presented and evaluated physically. By connecting the VAD to the output of the noise reduction algorithms, a good discrimination between the speech-and-noise periods and the noise-only periods of the signals was obtained. The perceptual experiments demonstrated that the SVD-based optimal filtering technique could perform as well as the adaptive beamformer in a single noise source scenario, i.e., the ideal scenario for the latter technique, and could outperform the adaptive beamformer in multiple noise source scenarios.

  16. A novel strategy for signal denoising using reweighted SVD and its applications to weak fault feature enhancement of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD), as an effective signal denoising tool, has been attracting considerable attention in recent years. The basic idea behind SVD denoising is to preserve the singular components (SCs) with significant singular values. However, it is shown that the singular values mainly reflect the energy of decomposed SCs, therefore traditional SVD denoising approaches are essentially energy-based, which tend to highlight the high-energy regular components in the measured signal, while ignoring the weak feature caused by early fault. To overcome this issue, a reweighted singular value decomposition (RSVD) strategy is proposed for signal denoising and weak feature enhancement. In this work, a novel information index called periodic modulation intensity is introduced to quantify the diagnostic information in a mechanical signal. With this index, the decomposed SCs can be evaluated and sorted according to their information levels, rather than energy. Based on that, a truncated linear weighting function is proposed to control the contribution of each SC in the reconstruction of the denoised signal. In this way, some weak but informative SCs could be highlighted effectively. The advantages of RSVD over traditional approaches are demonstrated by both simulated signals and real vibration/acoustic data from a two-stage gearbox as well as train bearings. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully extract the weak fault feature even in the presence of heavy noise and ambient interferences.

  17. Comparison of DCT, SVD and BFOA based multimodal biometric watermarking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is a major domain for hiding the biometric information, in which the watermark data are made to be concealed inside a host image imposing imperceptible change in the picture. Due to the advance in digital image watermarking, the majority of research aims to make a reliable improvement in robustness to prevent the attack. The reversible invisible watermarking scheme is used for fingerprint and iris multimodal biometric system. A novel approach is used for fusing different biometric modalities. Individual unique modalities of fingerprint and iris biometric are extracted and fused using different fusion techniques. The performance of different fusion techniques is evaluated and the Discrete Wavelet Transform fusion method is identified as the best. Then the best fused biometric template is watermarked into a cover image. The various watermarking techniques such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA are implemented to the fused biometric feature image. Performance of watermarking systems is compared using different metrics. It is found that the watermarked images are found robust over different attacks and they are able to reverse the biometric template for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA watermarking technique.

  18. A Reliable Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Redistributed Image Normalization and SVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrrat Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is the process of concealing secret information in a digital image for protecting its rightful ownership. Most of the existing block based singular value decomposition (SVD digital watermarking schemes are not robust to geometric distortions, such as rotation in an integer multiple of ninety degree and image flipping, which change the locations of the pixels but don’t make any changes to the pixel’s intensity of the image. Also, the schemes have used a constant scaling factor to give the same weightage to the coefficients of different magnitudes that results in visible distortion in some regions of the watermarked image. Therefore, to overcome the problems mentioned here, this paper proposes a novel image watermarking scheme by incorporating the concepts of redistributed image normalization and variable scaling factor depending on the coefficient’s magnitude to be embedded. Furthermore, to enhance the security and robustness the watermark is shuffled by using the piecewise linear chaotic map before the embedding. To investigate the robustness of the scheme several attacks are applied to seriously distort the watermarked image. Empirical analysis of the results has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  19. SVD-BASED TRANSMIT BEAMFORMING FOR VARIOUS MODULATIONS WITH CONVOLUTION ENCODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a new beamforming technique using singular value decomposition (SVD for closed loop Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems with various modulation techniques such as BPSK, 16-QAM, 16-PSK, DPSK and PAM along with convolution encoder. The channel matrix is decomposed into a number of independent orthogonal modes of excitation, which refer to as eigenmodes of the channel. Transmit precoding is performed by multiplying the input symbols with unitary matrix to produce the transmit beamforming, and the precoded symbols are transmitted over Rayleigh fading channel. At the receiver, combining process is performed by using maximum ratio combiner (MRC, and the receiver shaping is performed to retrieve the original input symbols by multiplying the received signal with conjugate transpose of the unitary matrix. Furthermore, the expressions for average bit error rate (BER for M-PSK and average BER for M-QAM are derived. The superiority of the proposed work is proved by simulation results and the proposed work is compared to the other beamforming methods.

  20. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  1. Risk stratification in 3-vessel coronary artery disease: Applying the SYNTAX Score II in the Heart Team Discussion of the SYNTAX II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Stanetic, Bojan M; Farooq, Vasim; Walsh, Simon; Ishibashi, Yuki; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Escaned, Javier; Banning, Adrian; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-11-15

    Heart Team (HT) and the SYNTAX Score II (SSII) have been integrated to the contemporary guidelines with the aim to provide a multidisciplinary decision-making process between coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To prospectively assess the agreement between the HT decision and the SSII recommendation regarding the revascularization strategy in patients with 3-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) of the SYNTAX II trial. The SSII predicts the 4-year mortality of an individual patient both after PCI and after CABG. Patients were treated by PCI when the SSII predicted a mortality risk favoring PCI or when risk predictions were equipoise between PCI and CABG. However, the HT could overrule the SSII and recommend either CABG or PCI. A total of 202 patients have been screened and 24 did not fulfill inclusion criteria. The median age was 67.0 (IQR 59.0-73.3), and 167 (82.7%) were male. The HT endorsed SSII treatment recommendation, for CABG or PCI, in 152 patients (85.4%). Three patients had preference for PCI, irrespective of the HT decision. The main reason for the HT to overrule the SSII and recommend CABG was the prospect of a more complete revascularization (21 of 25 patients). Patients recommended for CABG by the HT had significantly higher anatomical SYNTAX score (P = 0.03) and higher predicted mortality risk for PCI (P = 0.04) when compared with patients that were enrolled in the trial. The SYNTAX score II showed to be a suitable tool for guiding treatment decisions of patients with 3-vessel coronary artery disease being endorsed by the HT in the vast majority of the patients that have been enrolled in the SYNTAX II trial. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characteristics of Coronary Lesions in Small Vessel Disease Treated with Elective Stenting in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordunean Alina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM has suffered a dramatic increase and is a serious worldwide issue. Diabetes causes microvascular and macrovascular complications including coronary artery disease (CAD that ultimately contributes to a high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Crural Index and extensive atherosclerosis of crural vessels are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Jan-Erik; Jalkanen, Juho M; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H

    2017-09-01

    Limited data exist on the association of the anatomical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions and the extent of atherosclerosis at defined arterial segments with life expectancy. We recently presented a new classification of the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels and showed that Crural Index (CIx) was associated with mid-term survival of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. This study evaluates the significance of the extent of crural atherosclerosis on long-term cardiovascular mortality. 887 consecutive patients with PAD, admitted for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at Turku University Hospital Department of Vascular Surgery (Turku, Finland) between January 1st, 2009 and July 30th, 2011, were retrospectively analysed. Each crural angiographic image was graded according to CIx criteria. Aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal arterial segments were similarly graded according to modified TASC II criteria. CIx was used as the categorical variable for the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels for survival analysis. Survival was also evaluated with respect to which arterial segment was most severely affected. Causes of death were provided by the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland, updated on January 23rd, 2017. Altogether, 408 (46%) patients died during follow-up. The majority of deaths were due to cardiovascular causes (n = 246, 60%). Cardiovascular mortality was strongly associated with a high CIx (CIx III (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.16, Confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.23-3.80, p = 0.007)) and CIx IV (HR 3.513, 95% CI 1.93-4.565, p cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased (HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.45-3.73, p mortality (HR 2.177, 95% CI 1.53-3.10, p atherosclerosis are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality, and both may serve as useful indicators of survival among patients with symptomatic PAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Significance of Haemodynamic and Haemostatic Factors in the Course of Different Manifestations of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The SHEF-CSVD Study—Study Rationale and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Staszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. This paper describes the rationale and design of the SHEF-CSVD Study, which aims to determine the long-term clinical and radiological course of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD and to evaluate haemostatic and haemodynamic prognostic factors of the condition. Design. This single-centre, prospective, non-interventional cohort study will follow 150 consecutive patients with different clinical manifestations of CSVD (lacunar ischaemic stroke, vascular dementia, vascular parkinsonism or spontaneous deep, intracerebral haemorrhage and 50 age- and sex-matched controls over a period of 24 months. The clinical and radiological course will be evaluated basing on a detailed neurological, neuropsychological and MRI examinations. Haemodynamic (cerebral vasoreactivity, 24 h blood pressure control and haemostatic factors (markers of endothelial and platelet dysfunction, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation test will be determined. Discussion. The scheduled study will specifically address the issue of haemodynamic and haemostatic prognostic factors and their course over time in various clinical manifestations of CSVD. The findings may aid the development of prophylactic strategies and individualised treatment plans, which are critical during the early stages of the disease.

  5. Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiac function and cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderen, Saskia G.C. van; Brandts, A.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Grond, J. van der; Buchem, M.A. van; Kroft, L.J.M.; Roos, A. de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Tamsma, J.T.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is associated with cardiac left ventricular (LV) function and mass as well as with cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 86 consecutive type 1 DM patients (49 male, mean age 46.9 {+-} 11.7 years) in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included aortic/heart disease and general MRI contra-indications. MRI of the aorta, heart and brain was performed for assessment of aortic PWV, as a marker of aortic stiffness, systolic LV function and mass, as well as for the presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), microbleeds and lacunar infarcts. Multivariate linear or logistic regression was performed to analyse the association between aortic PWV and outcome parameters, with covariates defined as age, gender, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, BMI, smoking, DM duration and hypertension. Mean aortic PWV was 7.1 {+-} 2.5 m/s. Aortic PWV was independently associated with LV ejection fraction (ss= -0.406, P = 0.006), LV stroke volume (ss=-0.407, P = 0.001), LV cardiac output (ss= -0.458, P = 0.001), and with cerebral WMHs (P < 0.05). There were no independent associations between aortic stiffness and LV mass, cerebral microbleeds or lacunar infarcts. Aortic stiffness is independently associated with systolic LV function and cerebral WMHs in patients with type 1 DM. (orig.)

  6. Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Incident Small Vessel Disease on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, A Richey; Mosley, Thomas H; Bezerra, Daniel C; Knopman, David S; Selvin, Elizabeth; Jack, Clifford R; Coker, Laura H; Alonso, Alvaro; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Windham, Beverly G; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2015-11-01

    The term metabolic syndrome describes the clustering of risk factors found in many individuals with obesity. Because of their pathophysiology, we hypothesized that 2 features of metabolic syndrome, central obesity and insulin resistance (IR), would be associated with cerebrovascular changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and specifically with incident lacunar disease and not white matter hyperintensity (WMH) progression. Risk factors were defined at study baseline in 934 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, who completed 2 brain magnetic resonance imagings≈10 years apart. WMH progression and incident lacunes between the 2 magnetic resonance imagings were determined. An IR score for each participant was created using principal component analysis of 11 risk factors, including (among others): insulin, homeostatic model assessment-IR, body mass index, and waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome (presence/absence), using standard clinical definitions, and IR score at the first magnetic resonance imaging, were independent variables, evaluated in multivariate logistic regression to determine odds of WMH progression (Q5 versus Q1-Q4) and incident lacunes. Metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.05) and IR score (adjusted odds ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.68) were associated with incident lacunes but not with WMH progression. Insulin, homeostatic model assessment-IR, and body mass index were not associated with incident lacunes or WMH progression in separate models. The IR score and central obesity are associated with incident lacunar disease but not WMH progression in individuals. Central obesity and IR may be important risk factors to target to prevent lacunar disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Altered low frequency oscillations of cortical vessels in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease – a NIRS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Iversen, Helle K; Schytz, Henrik W

    2013-01-01

    patients with both symptomatic carotid occlusive disease and cerebral hypoperfusion in comparison to healthy controls. Each hemisphere was examined with two NIRS channels using a 3 cm source detector distance. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) was measured via a finger plethysmograph. Using transfer function......) is a non-invasive optical method to investigate regional changes in oxygenated (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) in the outermost layers of the cerebral cortex. In the present study we examined oxyHb low frequency oscillations, believed to reflect cortical cerebral autoregulation, in 16...

  8. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  9. On a Hopping-Points SVD and Hough Transform-Based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  10. Angiographic correlations of patients with small vessel disease diagnosed by adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheck Roland

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR with adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion is gaining importance for the detection and quantification of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, there is little knowledge about patients with CMR-detected ischemia, but having no relevant stenosis as seen on coronary angiography (CA. The aims of our study were to characterize these patients by CMR and CA and evaluate correlations and potential reasons for the ischemic findings. 73 patients with an indication for CA were first scanned on a 1.5T whole-body CMR-scanner including adenosine-stress first-pass perfusion. The images were analyzed by two independent investigators for myocardial perfusion which was classified as subendocardial ischemia (n = 22, no perfusion deficit (n = 27, control 1, or more than subendocardial ischemia (n = 24, control 2. All patients underwent CA, and a highly significant correlation between the classification of CMR perfusion deficit and the degree of coronary luminal narrowing was found. For quantification of coronary blood flow, corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI frame count (TFC was evaluated for the left anterior descending (LAD, circumflex (LCX and right coronary artery (RCA. The main result was that corrected TFC in all coronaries was significantly increased in study patients compared to both control 1 and to control 2 patients. Study patients had hypertension or diabetes more often than control 1 patients. In conclusion, patients with CMR detected subendocardial ischemia have prolonged coronary blood flow. In connection with normal resting flow values in CAD, this supports the hypothesis of underlying coronary microvascular impairment. CMR stress perfusion differentiates non-invasively between this entity and relevant CAD.

  11. Ultrasound Small Vessel Imaging With Block-Wise Adaptive Local Clutter Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei; Manduca, Armando; Trzasko, Joshua D; Chen, Shigao

    2017-01-01

    Robust clutter filtering is essential for ultrasound small vessel imaging. Eigen-based clutter filtering techniques have recently shown great improvement in clutter rejection over conventional clutter filters in small animals. However, for in vivo human imaging, eigen-based clutter filtering can be challenging due to the complex spatially-varying tissue and noise characteristics. To address this challenge, we present a novel block-wise adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) based clutter filtering technique. The proposed method divides the global plane wave data into overlapped local spatial segments, within which tissue signals are assumed to be locally coherent and noise locally stationary. This, in turn, enables effective separation of tissue, blood and noise via SVD. For each block, the proposed method adaptively determines the singular value cutoff thresholds based on local data statistics. Processing results from each block are redundantly combined to improve both the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of the small vessel perfusion image. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved more than two-fold increase in SNR and more than three-fold increase in CNR in dB scale over the conventional global SVD filtering technique for an in vivo human native kidney study. The proposed method also showed substantial improvement in suppression of the depth-dependent background noise and better rejection of near field tissue clutter. The effects of different processing block size and block overlap percentage were systematically investigated as well as the tradeoff between imaging quality and computational cost.

  12. Comparison of the resource utilization between simultaneous strategy and staged strategy to treat two-vessel coronary artery disease by percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ako, Junya; Wada, Hiroshi; Kubo, Norifumi; Momomura, Shin-ichi

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare medical resource use, such as total device cost, total contrast volume, and total fluoroscopy time between the staged and simultaneous strategies for treating two-vessel disease (2VD) by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). 2VD can be treated by the staged strategy or the simultaneous strategy. Compared to the staged strategy, the simultaneous strategy may reduce medical resource use. We identified a staged group (138 patients) and simultaneous group (62 patients) from our PCI database between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Total PCI device cost, total contrast volume, and total fluoroscopy time were compared between the two groups. Total costs for the staged group and the simultaneous group given in United States dollars were $21,289 ± 5633 and $16,571 ± 5530, respectively (Pstrategy was significantly associated with low cost, small contrast volume, and short fluoroscopy time even after controlling for age, sex, acute coronary syndrome, and lesion complexity. Compared to the staged strategy to treat 2VD by PCI, the simultaneous strategy reduced medical resource use, i.e., total device cost, total contrast volume, and total fluoroscopy time.

  13. Combination of minimally invasive coronary bypass and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of double-vessel coronary disease: Two-year follow-up of a new hybrid procedure compared with "on-pump" double bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cannière, D; Jansens, J L; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P; Barvais, L; Decroly, P; Stoupel, E

    2001-10-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or surgery can be chosen as first-line therapies in multiple-vessel coronary disease. A mammary-to-left anterior descending (LAD) graft is the most important statistical determinant of a favorable outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and can be performed with lower morbidity off pump through a minithoracotomy. PTCA and stenting of the "non-LAD" vessels compete with CABG in terms of patency rates. Our purpose was to compare a combination of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) and PTCA with double CABG as a treatment for double-vessel coronary artery disease involving the proximal LAD. Two matched groups of 20 patients with double-vessel coronary disease undergoing either sequential MIDCAB and PTCA (group 1) or double CABG on cardiopulmonary bypass (group 2) were compared. Angiographic control, complications, hospital costs, quality of life, and 2-year follow-up of ischemia are reported. All bypasses were patent at early control. Three adverse events were noted in group 1 and 17 in group 2. The hybrid-procedure group exhibited a shorter intensive care unit stay, fewer blood products transfused, less pain, better early quality of life, faster return to work, and similar cost. Three patients required a second PTCA in group 1, one of which for restenosis. At 2 years all the patients are asymptomatic with no residual ischemia. We conclude from this pilot study that the hybrid procedure is feasible and appears to be a safe therapy for double-vessel coronary artery disease and that it appears to generate less perioperative morbidity than classic double CABG does. Therefore we believe that there is room to undertake prospective randomized studies on a larger-scale basis.

  14. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  15. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  18. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  19. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Association With Higher Incidence of Depressive Symptoms in a General Elderly Population: The AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; van Buchem, Mark A; Phillips, Caroline L; Jonsson, Palmi V; Ding, Jie; Schram, Miranda T; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-06-01

    The vascular depression hypothesis postulates that cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) leads to depressive symptoms by disruption of brain structures involved in mood regulation. However, longitudinal data on the association between CSVD and depressive symptoms are scarce. The authors investigated the association between CSVD and incident depressive symptoms. Longitudinal data were taken from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study of 1,949 participants free of dementia and without baseline depressive symptoms (mean age: 74.6 years [SD=4.6]; women, 56.6%). MRI markers of CSVD, detected at baseline (2002-2006) and follow-up (2007-2011), included white matter hyperintensity volume, subcortical infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, Virchow-Robin spaces, and total brain parenchyma volume. Incident depressive symptoms were defined by a score ≥6 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medication. Depressive symptoms occurred in 10.1% of the participants. The association for a greater onset of depressive symptoms was significant for participants with 1 standard deviation increase in white matter hyperintensity volume over time, new subcortical infarcts, new Virchow-Robin spaces, 1 standard deviation lower total brain volume at baseline, and 1 standard deviation decreased total brain volume over time, after adjustments for cognitive function and sociodemographic and cardiovascular factors. Results were qualitatively similar when change in the Geriatric Depression Scale score over time was used as the outcome instead of incident depressive symptoms. Most markers of progression of CSVD over time and some markers of baseline CSVD are associated with concurrently developing new depressive symptoms. These findings support the vascular depression hypothesis.

  20. Clinical Outcomes After Drug-Eluting Stents Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in High Surgical Risk Patients With Left Main or Three-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonga Nfor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG in patients with unprotected left main or three-vessel coronary artery disease (LM-3VD have excluded patients at high surgical risk. We compared clinical outcomes after PCI with drug-eluting stents to CABG in high surgical risk patients with LM-3VD. Methods: Patients with symptomatic LM-3VD who had Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS-predicted operative mortality > 5% and were undergoing either PCI with drug-eluting stents or CABG at a tertiary care center from January 2009 to December 2010 were enrolled in this nonrandomized prospective study. Results: Mean STS score was 14.5 ± 5.8% for PCI (n=83 vs. 13.6 ± 7.1% for CABG (n=187 (P=0.31. After mean follow-up of 37 months, incidence of the composite primary endpoint (death, myocardial infarction or stroke was 42.2% for PCI and 39.6% for CABG (P=0.69, hazard ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 0.5-2.8. There were no differences in the individual components of the primary endpoint between PCI and CABG. Repeat revascularization was 30.1% for PCI vs. 9.6% for CABG (P=0.001. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rates were similar between PCI and CABG, 50.6% vs. 42.2%, respectively (P=0.23. Patients in the PCI group were less likely than those in the CABG group to be discharged to a nursing home (12.1% vs. 47.1%, P 5%.

  1. Antegrade versus antegrade with retrograde delivery of cardioplegic solution in myocardial revascularisation. A clinical study in patients with triple vessel coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay O

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of antegrade and antegrade with retrograde delivery of cardioplegic solution were evaluated in 60 patients who underwent myocardial revascularisation. All patients had triple vessel coronary artery disease and underwent revascularisation using arterial and vein grafts. Myocardial protection consisted of administration of the St.Thomas′ Hospital cardioplegic solution, topical slushed ice and systemic hypothermia (28 degrees C-30 degrees C. The patients were categorised into: group A (n=30, who received antegrade cardioplegia alone, and group B (n=30, who received antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia. With the exception of the total dose of cardioplegic solution (′p′=0.02, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Cardiac function was assessed before and after the patient was weaned from the cardio-pulmonary bypass. There was a significant increase in the right atrial pressure and a significant decrease in the mean arterial pressure from the baseline (′p′<0.05, 10 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass in group A. All patients in-group B had a spontaneous return to sinus rhythm after release of the aortic cross clamp, whereas 3 patients in group A required defibrillation to restore sinus rhythm. Intra aortic balloon pump support was necessary in 4 patients in group A, as against 1 patient in group B to terminate the cardiopulmonary bypass. The clinical outcome was similar in both groups. We conclude that the use of a combination of retrograde and antegrade cardioplegia facilitates early recovery of left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass grafting.

  2. Assessment of ischaemic burden in angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease with high-resolution myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Manish; Maredia, Neil; Fairbairn, Timothy A.; Kozerke, Sebastian; Greenwood, John P.; Plein, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study compared the myocardial ischaemic burden (MIB) in patients with angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease (3VD) using high-resolution and standard-resolution myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (perfusion CMR) imaging. Methods and results One hundred and five patients undergoing coronary angiography had two separate stress/rest perfusion CMR studies, one with standard-resolution (2.5 mm in-plane) and another with high-resolution (1.6 mm in-plane). Quantitative coronary angiography was used to define patients with angiographic 3VD. Perfusion CMR images were anonymized, randomly ordered and visually reported by two observers acting in consensus and blinded to all clinical and angiographic data. Perfusion was graded in each segment on a four-point scale and summed to produce a perfusion score and estimate of MIB for each patient. In patients with angiographic 3VD (n = 35), high-resolution acquisition identified more abnormal segments (7.2 ± 3.8 vs. 5.3 ± 4.0; P = 0.004) and territories (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 1.1; P = 0.002) and a higher overall perfusion score (20.1 ± 7.7 vs. 11.9 ± 9.4; P subendocardial ischaemia was greater with high-resolution acquisition (195 vs. 101; P subendocardial ischaemia. High-resolution perfusion CMR may therefore be preferred for risk stratification and management of this high-risk patient group. PMID:24493156

  3. SVD identifies transcript length distribution functions from DNA microarray data and reveals evolutionary forces globally affecting GBM metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available To search for evolutionary forces that might act upon transcript length, we use the singular value decomposition (SVD to identify the length distribution functions of sets and subsets of human and yeast transcripts from profiles of mRNA abundance levels across gel electrophoresis migration distances that were previously measured by DNA microarrays. We show that the SVD identifies the transcript length distribution functions as "asymmetric generalized coherent states" from the DNA microarray data and with no a-priori assumptions. Comparing subsets of human and yeast transcripts of the same gene ontology annotations, we find that in both disparate eukaryotes, transcripts involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism are significantly shorter than typical, and in particular, significantly shorter than those involved in glucose metabolism. Comparing the subsets of human transcripts that are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or normal brain tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we find that GBM maintains normal brain overexpression of significantly short transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism, but suppresses normal overexpression of significantly longer transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in glucose metabolism and brain activity. These global relations among transcript length, cellular metabolism and tumor development suggest a previously unrecognized physical mode for tumor and normal cells to differentially regulate metabolism in a transcript length-dependent manner. The identified distribution functions support a previous hypothesis from mathematical modeling of evolutionary forces that act upon transcript length in the manner of the restoring force of the harmonic oscillator.

  4. Early microvascular dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease is not detectable on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: a longitudinal study in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Mencl, Stine; Garz, Cornelia; Niklass, Solveig; Braun, Holger; Göb, Eva; Homola, György; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Reymann, Klaus G; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Background Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has distinct histopathologic and imaging findings in its advanced stages. In spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a well-established animal model of CSVD, we recently demonstrated that cerebral microangiopathy is initiated by early microvascular dysfunction leading to the breakdown of the blood–brain barrier and an activated coagulatory state resulting in capillary and arteriolar erythrocyte accumulations (stases). In ...

  5. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  6. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography coronary angiography to detect and exclude left main and/or three-vessel coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dharampal, Anoeshka S; Papadopoulou, Stella L; Rossi, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in detecting and excluding left main (LM) and/or three-vessel CAD ("high-risk" CAD) in symptomatic patients and to compare its discriminatory value with the Duke risk score and calcium score.......To determine the diagnostic performance of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in detecting and excluding left main (LM) and/or three-vessel CAD ("high-risk" CAD) in symptomatic patients and to compare its discriminatory value with the Duke risk score and calcium score....

  7. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-11-10

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  8. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  9. High Amount of Dietary Fiber Not Harmful But Favorable for Crohn Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD. PMID:25663207

  10. Age Features of Structural and Hemodynamic Parameters of Great Vessels of the Neck in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Bulda

    2015-06-01

    Violation of the structure and hemodynamics of the main vessels of the neck, detected during the complex duplex examination, is the result of direct impact of NAFLD (steatosis and increased body weight and leads to the development of cardiovascular risk, mainly in groups of middle-aged and elderly patients.

  11. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  12. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  13. Identification of Combined Power Quality Disturbances Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Total Least Squares-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishuo Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.

  14. Living with Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  15. Roi Detection and Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaz, F.; Atila, U.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes disrupts work by affecting the structure of the eye and afterwards leads to loss of vision. Depending on the stage of disease that called diabetic retinopathy, there are sudden loss of vision and blurred vision problems. Automated detection of vessels in retinal images is a useful study to diagnose eye diseases, disease classification and other clinical trials. The shape and structure of the vessels give information about the severity of the disease and the stage of the disease. Automatic and fast detection of vessels allows for a quick diagnosis of the disease and the treatment process to start shortly. ROI detection and vessel extraction methods for retinal image are mentioned in this study. It is shown that the Frangi filter used in image processing can be successfully used in detection and extraction of vessels.

  16. Early microvascular dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease is not detectable on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: a longitudinal study in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencl, Stine; Garz, Cornelia; Niklass, Solveig; Braun, Holger; Göb, Eva; Homola, György; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Reymann, Klaus G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has distinct histopathologic and imaging findings in its advanced stages. In spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a well-established animal model of CSVD, we recently demonstrated that cerebral microangiopathy is initiated by early microvascular dysfunction leading to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an activated coagulatory state resulting in capillary and arteriolar erythrocyte accumulations (stases). In the present study, we investigated whether initial microvascular dysfunction and other stages of the pathologic CSVD cascade can be detected by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen SHRSP and three control (Wistar) rats (aged 26-44 weeks) were investigated biweekly by 3.0 Tesla (3 T) MRI. After perfusion, brains were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histology was correlated with MRI data. Three SHRSP developed terminal CSVD stages including cortical, hippocampal, and striatal infarcts and macrohemorrhages, which could be detected consistently by MRI. Corresponding histology showed small vessel thromboses and increased numbers of small perivascular bleeds in the infarcted areas. However, 3 T MRI failed to visualize intravascular erythrocyte accumulations, even in those brain regions with the highest densities of affected vessels and the largest vessels affected by stases, as well as failing to detect small perivascular bleeds. Serial MRI at a field strength of 3 T failed to detect the initial microvascular dysfunction and subsequent small perivascular bleeds in SHRSP; only terminal stages of cerebral microangiopathy were reliably detected. Further investigations at higher magnetic field strengths (7 T) using blood- and flow-sensitive sequences are currently underway.

  17. Level of Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A Correlates With Coronary Thin-cap Fibroatheroma Burden in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Novel Findings From 3-Vessel Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Fan; Yang, Min; Qu, Ai-Juan; Mintz, Gary S; Yang, Ya; Shang, Yun-Peng; Gao, Hai; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Ge, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Lu-Ya; Wang, Lin; Pu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) level is an independent predictor of acute cardiovascular event occurrence. To test the hypothesis that increased PAPP-A levels would be associated with a higher burden of coronary thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) thereby underlying the heightened risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease; 154 patients (462 vessels and 975 plaques) with stable angina or non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) referred for percutaneous coronary intervention were assessed using 3-vessel virtual histology (VH)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Thin-cap fibroatheroma virtual histology was defined as focal, necrotic core (NC)-rich (≥10% of cross-sectional area) plaques in contact with the lumen, and plaque burden ≥40%. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients were divided into 3 groups based on PAPP-A level tertiles. Although the highest PAPP-A level tertile was not associated with 3-vessel plaque number, it was associated with 3-vessel VH-TCFA number and necrotic core volume. Patients with ≥3 VH-TCFAs had a higher PAPP-A level than patients with 1 to 3 VH-TCFAs or without any VH-TCFA (13.3 ± 11.8 versus 7.8 ± 4.7 versus 7.4 ± 4.7 mIU/L, P PAPP-A level was an independent predictor of higher total number of VH-TCFAs (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.07-1.29, P = 0.001). This VH-IVUS study demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that higher PAPP-A levels are associated with higher 3-vessel TCFA burden in patients with coronary artery disease. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, therefore, might be a useful serum biomarker to predict increased coronary TCFA burden and plaque instability.

  18. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of heart disease you have. Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease) Cardiovascular disease ... can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations. Heart disease symptoms caused by abnormal heartbeats (heart arrhythmias) A ...

  19. Recent Advancements in Retinal Vessel Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Srinidhi, Chetan; Aparna, P; Rajan, Jeny

    2017-04-01

    Retinal vessel segmentation is a key step towards the accurate visualization, diagnosis, early treatment and surgery planning of ocular diseases. For the last two decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated in developing automated methods for segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images. Despite the fact, segmentation of retinal vessels still remains a challenging task due to the presence of abnormalities, varying size and shape of the vessels, non-uniform illumination and anatomical variability between subjects. In this paper, we carry out a systematic review of the most recent advancements in retinal vessel segmentation methods published in last five years. The objectives of this study are as follows: first, we discuss the most crucial preprocessing steps that are involved in accurate segmentation of vessels. Second, we review most recent state-of-the-art retinal vessel segmentation techniques which are classified into different categories based on their main principle. Third, we quantitatively analyse these methods in terms of its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area under the curve and discuss newly introduced performance metrics in current literature. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the existing segmentation techniques. Finally, we provide an insight into active problems and possible future directions towards building successful computer-aided diagnostic system.

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation but underlying native mitral and aortic valve disease participating in the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithardt, Günter; Baumgartner, Helmut; Berkowitz, Scott D; Hellkamp, Anne S; Piccini, Jonathan P; Stevens, Susanna R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Halperin, Jonathan L; Singer, Daniel E; Hankey, Graeme J; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M

    2014-12-14

    We investigated clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with significant valvular disease (SVD) in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial. ROCKET AF excluded patients with mitral stenosis or artificial valve prostheses. We used Cox regression to adjust comparisons for potential confounders. Among 14 171 patients, 2003 (14.1%) had SVD; they were older and had more comorbidities than patients without SVD. The rate of stroke or systemic embolism with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin was consistent among patients with SVD [2.01 vs. 2.43%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.27] and without SVD (1.96 vs. 2.22%; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.07; interaction P = 0.76). However, rates of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin were higher in patients with SVD (19.8% rivaroxaban vs. 16.8% warfarin; HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49) vs. those without (14.2% rivaroxaban vs. 14.1% warfarin; HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94-1.10; interaction P = 0.034), even when controlling for risk factors and potential confounders. In intracranial haemorrhage, there was no interaction between patients with and without SVD where the overall rate was lower among those randomized to rivaroxaban. Many patients with 'non-valvular atrial fibrillation' have significant valve lesions. Their risk of stroke is similar to that of patients without SVD after controlling for stroke risk factors. Efficacy of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin was similar in patients with and without SVD; however, the observed risk of bleeding was higher with rivaroxaban in patients with SVD but was the same among those without SVD. Atrial fibrillation patients with and without SVD experience the same stroke-preventive benefit of oral anticoagulants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  1. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  8. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  9. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  10. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  14. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  15. SVD/MCMC Data Analysis Pipeline for Global Redshifted 21-cm Spectrum Observations of the Cosmic Dawn and Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Tauscher, Keith; Rapetti, David; Mirocha, Jordan; Switzer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We have designed a complete data analysis pipeline for constraining Cosmic Dawn physics using sky-averaged spectra in the VHF range (40-200 MHz) obtained either from the ground (e.g., the Experiment to Detect Global Epoch of Reionization Signal, EDGES; and the Cosmic Twilight Polarimeter, CTP) or from orbit above the lunar farside (e.g., the Dark Ages Radio Explorer, DARE). In the case of DARE, we avoid Earth-based RFI, ionospheric effects, and radio solar emissions (when observing at night). To extract the 21-cm spectrum, we parametrize the cosmological signal and systematics with two separate sets of modes defined through Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of training set curves. The training set for the 21-cm spin-flip brightness temperatures is composed of theoretical models of the first stars, galaxies and black holes created by varying physical parameters within the ares code. The systematics training set is created using sky and beam data to model the beam-weighted foregrounds (which are about four orders of magnitude larger than the signal) as well as expected lab data to model receiver systematics. To constrain physical parameters determining the 21-cm spectrum, we apply to the extracted signal a series of consecutive fitting techniques including two usages of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Importantly, our pipeline efficiently utilizes the significant differences between the foreground and the 21-cm signal in spatial and spectral variations. In addition, it incorporates for the first time polarization data, dramatically improving the constraining power. We are currently validating this end-to-end pipeline using detailed simulations of the signal, foregrounds and instruments. This work was directly supported by the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute cooperative agreement number 80ARC017M0006 and funding from the NASA Ames Research Center cooperative agreement NNX16AF59G.

  16. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  17. Staged percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive mitral valve surgery versus combined coronary artery bypass graft and mitral valve surgery for two-vessel coronary artery disease and moderate to severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, Christos G; Xydas, Steve; Williams, Roy F; Pineda, Andrés M; Yucel, Evin; Davila, Hector; Beohar, Nirat; Santana, Orlando

    2017-06-01

    The optimal treatment for concomitant two-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate to severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) remains unclear. We compared the results of a staged percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (PCI+MIVS) versus combined coronary artery bypass graft and mitral valve surgery (CABG+MVS) in this population. All consecutive patients with two-vessel CAD and moderate to severe IMR, who underwent PCI+MIVS or CABG+MVS at our institution between February 2009 and April 2014, were retrospectively evaluated. There were nine patients identified who underwent PCI+MIVS, and 15 who underwent CABG+MVS, with a mean age of 71±7, and 70±7 years, respectively (P=0.86). The remaining baseline characteristics were similar between both groups, with the exception of a higher prevalence of pre-operative clopidogrel administration (78% versus 27%, P=0.03) and left anterior descending plus left circumflex CAD (78% versus 27%, P=0.03), in those who underwent PCI+MIVS. The PCI+MIVS approach was associated with decreased mean cardiopulmonary bypass (111±41 versus 167±49 min, P=0.01) and aortic cross-clamp (79±32 versus 129±35 min, P=0.003) times, and less median number of intraoperative packed red blood transfusions {2 [interquartile range (IQR), 0-2] versus 3 units (IQR, 1-4), P=0.05}, when compared with CABG+MVS. The rate of mitral valve repair, postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, and 1-year survival did not differ between the surgical approaches. PCI+MIVS for two-vessel CAD and moderate to severe IMR is feasible, and associated with satisfactory outcomes, as compared with CABG+MVS.

  18. Lymphatic vessels in osteoarthritic human knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Verghese, P; Cook, G J; McWilliams, D F; Mapp, P I; Ashraf, S; Wilson, D

    2012-05-01

    The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely. This study aimed to investigate whether lymphatic density is associated with clinical, histological or radiographic parameters in osteoarthritis (OA). Sections of synovium from 60 knees from patients with OA were compared with 60 post mortem control knees (from 37 individuals). Lymphatic vessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for podoplanin, and quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fractional area. Effusion status was determined by clinical examination, radiographs were scored for OA changes, and inflammation grading used haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of synovium. Lymphatic vessels were present in synovia from both disease groups, but were not identified in subchondral bone. Synovial lymphatic densities were independent of radiological severity and age. Synovia from patients with OA displayed lower LVD (z=-3.4, P=0.001) and lower LEC fractional areas (z=-4.5, Plymphatics and OA/effusion appeared to be independent of other measured confounders. Lymphatic vessels are present in lower densities in OA synovia. Abnormalities of synovial fluid drainage may confound the value of effusion as a clinical sign of synovitis in OA. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee Grace Nemeno-Guanzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient’s conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  20. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  1. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  3. Prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, retinopathy and large vessel disease in European type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Skøtt, P

    1991-01-01

    , microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of proliferative retinopathy rose with increasing albuminuria, being 2%, 5% and 12% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of coronary heart disease, based on Minnesota coded......, proliferative retinopathy, coronary heart disease and foot ulcers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  4. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  5. How Is Kawasaki Disease Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of the hippocampus and verbal memory performance: The RUN DMC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Norden, Anouk G.W.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; Fick, Ilma; van Uden, Inge W.M.; van Oudheusden, Lucas J.B.; Gons, Rob A.R.; Norris, David Gordon; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Kessels, Roy P.C.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hippocampal atrophy are related to verbal memory failures and may ultimately result in Alzheimer's disease. However, verbal memory failures are often present before structural changes on conventional MRI appear. Changes in microstructural integrity

  7. Intracranial vessel wall imaging at 7.0 tesla MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke. Current conventional imaging techniques assessing intracranial arterial disease in vivo only visualize the vessel wall lumen instead of the pathological vessel wall itself. Therefore, not much is known about the imaging

  8. Blood vessel segmentation in magnetic resonance angiography imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaitis, S. P.; Chandramohan, R.

    2011-06-01

    Small blood vessels may be difficult to detect in magnetic resonance angiography due to the lack of blood flow caused by disease or injury. Our method, which uses a block-matching denoising approach to segment blood vessels, works well in the presence of noise. We examined extended regions of an image to determine whether they contained blood vessels by fitting a Gaussian mixture model to a region's histogram. Then, dissimilar regions were denoised separately. This approach was beneficial in low-contrast settings. It can be used to detect higher-order blood vessels that may be difficult to detect under normal conditions.

  9. Gender-Specific Differences in All-Cause Mortality Between Incomplete and Complete Revascularization in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; Hermans, Maaike P J; van Rosendael, Alexander R; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Hoeven, Bas L; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2017-12-11

    The best revascularization strategy (complete vs incomplete revascularization) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is still debated. The interaction between gender and revascularization strategy in patients with STEMI on all-cause mortality is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gender-specific difference in all-cause mortality between incomplete and complete revascularization in patients with STEMI and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. The study population consisted of 375 men and 115 women with a first STEMI and multi-vessel coronary artery disease without cardiogenic shock at admission or left main stenosis. The 30-day and 5-year all-cause mortality was examined in patients categorized according to gender and revascularization strategy (incomplete and complete revascularization). Within the first 30 days, men and women with incomplete revascularization were associated with higher mortality rates compared with men with complete revascularization. However, the gender-strategy interaction variable was not independently associated with 30-day mortality after STEMI when corrected for baseline characteristics and angiographic features. Within the survivors of the first 30 days, men with incomplete revascularization (compared with men with complete revascularization) were independently associated with all-cause mortality during 5 years of follow-up (hazard ratios 3.07, 95% confidence interval 1.24;7.61, p = 0.016). In contrast, women with incomplete revascularization were not independently associated with 5-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratios 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.14;2.51, p = 0.48). In conclusion, no gender-strategy differences occurred in all-cause mortality within 30 days after STEMI. However, in the survivors of the first 30 days, incomplete revascularization in men was independently associated with all-cause mortality during 5-year follow-up, but this was not the case in women. Copyright © 2017

  10. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  11. [Addiction among patients hospitalized due to peripheral vessels disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Alicja; Sodolski, Wojciech; Jaworska, Elzbieta; Borzecki, Andrzej; Brzeski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    The study covered 160 patients - 80 females and 80 males, hospitalised due to arterial and venous vessels disorders. The objective of the study was an attempt to evaluate selected behaviours, such as tobacco smoking, consumption of alcohol and coffee among people with diseases of peripheral vessels. The research tool was a questionnaire form. Participation in the study was voluntary and patients were selected at random. The study showed that 60% of respondents suffered from peripheral vessels disorders, 67.5% of females had venous vessels disorders, and 87.5% of males - arterial vessels disorders. In the total population examined 69.38% of respondents consumed alcohol, 47.5% were current smokers, and 56.88% consumed coffee. The style of life of the people examined may result in the development of peripheral vessel disorders.

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  1. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  3. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  4. Vessel discoloration detection in malarial retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Harding, S.; Lewallen, S.; Joshi, V.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome associated with malarial infection. It affects approximately 200 million people, mostly sub-Saharan African children under five years of age. Malarial retinopathy (MR) is a condition in which lesions such as whitening and vessel discoloration that are highly specific to CM appear in the retina. Other unrelated diseases can present with symptoms similar to CM, therefore the exact nature of the clinical symptoms must be ascertained in order to avoid misdiagnosis, which can lead to inappropriate treatment and, potentially, death. In this paper we outline the first system to detect the presence of discolored vessels associated with MR as a means to improve the CM diagnosis. We modified and improved our previous vessel segmentation algorithm by incorporating the `a' channel of the CIELab color space and noise reduction. We then divided the segmented vasculature into vessel segments and extracted features at the wall and in the centerline of the segment. Finally, we used a regression classifier to sort the segments into discolored and not-discolored vessel classes. By counting the abnormal vessel segments in each image, we were able to divide the analyzed images into two groups: normal and presence of vessel discoloration due to MR. We achieved an accuracy of 85% with sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 67%. In clinical practice, this algorithm would be combined with other MR retinal pathology detection algorithms. Therefore, a high specificity can be achieved. By choosing a different operating point in the ROC curve, our system achieved sensitivity of 67% with specificity of 100%.

  5. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  6. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  7. Nonlinear retinal image enhancement for vessel detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Xudong

    2017-07-01

    Retinal vessel detection is an essential part of the computer-aided diagnosis of eye diseases. Due to non-perfect imaging environment, retinal images often appear with intensity variations and artificial noises. This work proposes a two-step nonlinear retinal image enhancement to compensate for those imperfections of retinal images. The first step reduces intensity fluctuations of the image and the second step attenuates impulsive noise while preserving retinal vessels. Classification on the feature vector extracted from the enhanced retinal images is performed by using a linear SVM classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method of two-step nonlinear image enhancement visibly improves the vessel detection performance, achieving better accuracy than that without enhancement process on the both DRIVE and STARE databases.

  8. [Large vessels vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera Segura, Beatriz; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván

    2015-12-07

    Vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis is a severe, in many cases irreversible, manifestation that can lead to amputation. While the classical clinical manifestations of the disease have to do with the involvement of microcirculation, proximal vessels of upper and lower limbs can also be affected. This involvement of large vessels may be related to systemic sclerosis, vasculitis or atherosclerotic, and the differential diagnosis is not easy. To conduct a proper and early diagnosis, it is essential to start prompt appropriate treatment. In this review, we examine the involvement of large vessels in scleroderma, an understudied manifestation with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel model for Time-Series Data Clustering Based on piecewise SVD and BIRCH for Stock Data Analysis on Hadoop Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibgtc Bowala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of financial markets, analyzers are paying more attention on predictions. Stock data are time series data, with huge amounts. Feasible solution for handling the increasing amount of data is to use a cluster for parallel processing, and Hadoop parallel computing platform is a typical representative. There are various statistical models for forecasting time series data, but accurate clusters are a pre-requirement. Clustering analysis for time series data is one of the main methods for mining time series data for many other analysis processes. However, general clustering algorithms cannot perform clustering for time series data because series data has a special structure and a high dimensionality has highly co-related values due to high noise level. A novel model for time series clustering is presented using BIRCH, based on piecewise SVD, leading to a novel dimension reduction approach. Highly co-related features are handled using SVD with a novel approach for dimensionality reduction in order to keep co-related behavior optimal and then use BIRCH for clustering. The algorithm is a novel model that can handle massive time series data. Finally, this new model is successfully applied to real stock time series data of Yahoo finance with satisfactory results.

  10. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  11. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  12. A panel of clinical and neuropathological features of cerebrovascular disease through the novel neuroimaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto Sousa; de Carvalho, Luiza de Amorim; Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Briand, Lucas; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The last decade has witnessed substantial progress in acquiring diagnostic biomarkers for the diagnostic workup of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Advanced neuroimaging methods not only provide a strategic contribution for the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but also help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms ultimately leading to small vessel disease (SVD) throughout its course. Objective: In this review, the novel imaging methods, both structural and metabolic, were summarized and their impact on the diagnostic workup of age-related CVD was analysed. Methods: An electronic search between January 2010 and 2017 was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and EMBASE. Results: The use of full functional multimodality in simultaneous Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Positron emission tomography (PET) may potentially improve the clinical characterization of VCI-VaD; for structural imaging, MRI at 3.0 T enables higher-resolution scanning with greater imaging matrices, thinner slices and more detail on the anatomical structure of vascular lesions. Conclusion: Although the importance of most of these techniques in the clinical setting has yet to be recognized, there is great expectancy in achieving earlier and more refined therapeutic interventions for the effective management of VCI-VaD. PMID:29354214

  13. The effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide in patients with vascular cognitive impairment without dementia caused by subcortical ischemic small vessel disease: A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianping; Wei, Cuibai; Liang, Junhua; Zhou, Aihong; Zuo, Xiumei; Song, Haiqing; Wu, Liyong; Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Shengdi; Zhang, Junjian; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Kai; Chu, Lan; Peng, Dantao; Lv, Peiyuan; Guo, Hongzhi; Niu, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Yingzhu; Dong, Wanli; Han, Xiujie; Fang, Boyan; Peng, Mao; Li, Dan; Jia, Qian; Huang, Liyuan

    2016-02-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia is very common among the aged and tends to progress to dementia, but there have been no proper large-scale intervention trials dedicated to it. Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia caused by subcortical ischemic small vessel disease (hereinafter, subcortical Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia) represents a relatively homogeneous disease process and is a suitable target for therapeutic trials investigating Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia. Preclinical trials showed that dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is effective for cognitive impairment of vascular origin. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled patients aged 50-70 years who had a diagnosis of subcortical Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia at 15 academic medical centers in China. Inclusion criteria included a clinical dementia rating ≥0.5 on at least one domain and global score ≤0.5; a mini-mental state examination score ≥20 (primary school) or ≥24 (junior school or above); and brain magnetic resonance imaging consistent with subcortical ischemic small vessel disease. Patients were randomly assigned to NBP 200 mg three times daily or matched placebo (1:1) for 24 weeks according to a computer-generated randomization protocol. All patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Primary outcome measures were the changes in Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and clinician's interview-based impression of change plus caregiver input (CIBIC-plus) after 24 weeks. All patients were monitored for adverse events (AEs). Outcome measures were analyzed for both the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and the per protocol population. This study enrolled 281 patients. NBP showed greater effects than placebo on ADAS-cog (NBP change -2.46 vs. placebo -1.39; P = .03; ITT) and CIBIC-plus (80 [57.1%] vs. 59 [42.1%] patients improved; P = .01; ITT

  14. Microvascular brain pathology on high resolution MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veluw, S.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding in the aging human brain and is associated with stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. On autopsy, SVD encompasses pathological processes affecting small arteries and arterioles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects the consequences of

  15. Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood disease. It makes the walls of the blood vessels in the ... veins, and capillaries. No one knows what causes Kawasaki disease. Symptoms include High fever that lasts longer ...

  16. The amount of C1q-adiponectin complex is higher in the serum and the complex localizes to perivascular areas of fat tissues and the intimal-medial layer of blood vessels of coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun Shil; Lim, Cheong; Choi, Hye Yeon; Ku, Eu Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2015-05-09

    The complement component C1q triggers activation of the classical immune pathway and can bind to adiponectin (APN). Recently, some studies have been reported that serum C1q-APN/total APN ratio correlates with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). We assessed the relationships between C1q related variables and the severity of CAD, and investigated the localization of the C1q-APN complex. The sample included 153 subjects comprising healthy controls and patients with subclinical or overt CAD. We measured the serum concentrations of C1q, total APN, and high-molecular weight (HMW)-APN, and the amount of C1q-APN complex. We identified the sites of C1q-APN complex deposition in various adipose tissues and blood vessels. Serum concentrations of C1q and HMW-APN and the C1q/HMW-APN ratio were independently associated with the severity of coronary stenosis. The amount of C1q-APN complex was significantly higher in patients with CAD compared with controls. C1q and APN co-localized in perivascular areas of subcutaneous, visceral, and pericardial fat tissues, and the internal mammary artery of patients with severe CAD. Serum C1q concentration and the C1q/HMW-APN ratio were independent markers of coronary artery stenosis. The amount of C1q-APN complex was significantly greater in serum from CAD patients. C1q and APN co-localized to perivascular areas in adipose tissue and blood vessels. The association between the increased amount of the C1q-APN complex and CAD should be investigated further.

  17. The dynamics of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters, subclinical damage and endothelial function of vessels in patients with arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with S-amlodipine, Nebivolol and Enala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Seredyuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research was to investigate additional prescription of S-amlodipine or Nebivolol to Enalapril treatment on the 24-h blood pressure monitoring (BPM parameters, subclinical damage and endothelial function of vessels, and to make of proposing of treatment of the arterial hypertension (AH and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Material and Methods. 95 patients (64 males and 31 females with AH II stage and COPD III stage in remission were observed. The average age was (54.7 ± 9.5 years. The 24-h BPM by devices “АВРМ-04” (“Meditech”, Hungary and “EBPM” (“Innomed”, Hungary was provided to all patients. Stiffness index of aorta (ASI was evaluated by Yu.M. Sirenko and G.D. Radchenko method (2009. Reactive hyperemia test was performed by D.S. Celermajer, K.E. Sorensen et al. method (1992. Computer spirography was made by “SpiroCom” (HAI-Medica, Ukraine. The serum level of endothelin -1 (ET 1 was detected by ELISA (“Peninsula Laboratories”, USA. Results. It was established, that additional prescription of S-amlodipine or Nebivolol to Enalapril and standard therapy of COPD during 6 month had strong antihypertensive effect, normalized 24-hours blood pressure profile, decreased blood pressure loading and subclinical damage indices, such as: pulse blood pressure, heart rate and ASI. Conclusion. Treatment of patients with AH and COPD should be differentiated. In case of prevalence of the clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs of broncho-obsctructive syndrome, presence of subclinical damages and elastic qualities of vessels and endothelial dysfunction in patients with AH and COPD S-amlodipine should be prescribed additionally to Enalapril and basic therapy of CODP. In case of AH and COPD with hypersympatheticotonia, sings of blood pressure loading, increase of pulse BP and tachycardia beta-blocker Nebivolol should be added to the treatment.

  18. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  19. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  20. Detecting Triple-Vessel Disease with Cadmium Zinc Telluride-Based Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Using the Intensity Signal-to-Noise Ratio between Rest and Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Dean Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if a novel parameter, the stress-to-rest ratio of the signal-to-noise ratio (RSNR obtained with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT SPECT scanner, could be used to distinguish triple-vessel disease (TVD patients. Methods. One hundred and two patients with suspected coronary artery disease were retrospectively involved. Each subject underwent a Tl-201 SPECT scan and subsequent coronary angiography. Subjects were separated into TVD (n=41 and control (n=61 groups based on coronary angiography results using 50% as the stenosis cutoff. The RSNR was calculated by dividing the stress signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by the rest SNR. Summed scores were calculated using quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS for all subjects. Results. The RSNR in the TVD group was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group (0.83 ± 0.15 and 1.06 ± 0.17, resp.; P<0.01. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed that RSNR can detect TVD more accurately than the summed difference score with higher sensitivity (85% versus 68%, higher specificity (90% versus 72%, and higher accuracy (88% versus 71%. Conclusion. The RSNR may serve as a useful index to assist the diagnosis of TVD when a fully automatic quantification method is used in CZT-based SPECT studies.

  1. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  2. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  3. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  4. Vessel wall characterization using quantitative MRI: what's in a number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Bram F; Calcagno, Claudia; van Ooij, Pim; Fayad, Zahi A; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nederveen, Aart J

    2018-02-01

    The past decade has witnessed the rapid development of new MRI technology for vessel wall imaging. Today, with advances in MRI hardware and pulse sequences, quantitative MRI of the vessel wall represents a real alternative to conventional qualitative imaging, which is hindered by significant intra- and inter-observer variability. Quantitative MRI can measure several important morphological and functional characteristics of the vessel wall. This review provides a detailed introduction to novel quantitative MRI methods for measuring vessel wall dimensions, plaque composition and permeability, endothelial shear stress and wall stiffness. Together, these methods show the versatility of non-invasive quantitative MRI for probing vascular disease at several stages. These quantitative MRI biomarkers can play an important role in the context of both treatment response monitoring and risk prediction. Given the rapid developments in scan acceleration techniques and novel image reconstruction, we foresee the possibility of integrating the acquisition of multiple quantitative vessel wall parameters within a single scan session.

  5. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  6. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  7. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  8. Raynaud's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  9. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  10. Cognitive profiles in degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology and small vessel vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Antonella; Cipollini, Virginia; Donato, Nicole; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Orzi, Francesco; Giubilei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have examined possible differences in cognitive performance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the data in the literature are conflicting. The aims of this study were to analyze the neuropsychological pattern of subjects affected by degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology (DD) and small vessel VaD subjects in the early stages and to investigate differences in the progression of cognitive impairment. Seventy-five patients with probable VaD and 75 patients with probable DD were included. All the subjects underwent a standard neuropsychological evaluation, including the following test: Visual Search, Attentional matrices, Story Recall, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency, Token, and Copying Drawings. The severity of cognitive impairment was stratified according to the MMSE score. Fifteen subjects with probable DD and 10 subjects with probable VaD underwent a 12-month cognitive re-evaluation. No significant difference was found between DD and VaD subjects in any of the neuropsychological tests except Story Recall in the mild cognitive impairment (P dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology from small vessel VaD in the early stages of these diseases.

  11. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (possification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in "microvascular dead space" in regard to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis

    2010-01-01

    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.

  13. Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Öhrfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel biomarkers are important for identifying as well as differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD at an early stage in the disease process. Methods: In two independent cohorts, a multiplex immunoassay was utilized to analyze 90 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from dementia patients and patients at risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment. Results: The levels of several CSF proteins were increased in SVD and its incipient state, and in moderate-to-severe AD compared with the control group. In contrast, some CSF proteins were altered in AD, but not in SVD. The levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP were consistently increased in all groups with dementia but only in some of their incipient states. Conclusions: In summary, these results support the notion that SVD and AD are driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms reflected in the CSF protein profile and that H-FABP in CSF is a general marker of neurodegeneration.

  14. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  15. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  16. B-type natriuretic peptide as predictor of heart failure in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction, single-vessel disease, and complete revascularization: follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manola, Sime

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To assess the concentration of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a predictor of heart failure in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with successful and complete revascularization. METHODS: Out of a total of 220 patients with acute STEMI admitted to the Sisters of Mercy University Hospital in the period January 1 to December 31, 2007, only patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI who had single vessel disease and were successfully revascularized were included in the study. Selected patients had no history of myocardial infarction or heart failure and a normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (> or =50%) assessed by left ventriculography at admission. Only 58 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Out of those, 6 patients refused to participate in the study, and another 5 could not be followed up, so a total of 47 patients were evaluated. Blood samples were taken for measurement of BNP levels at admission, 24 hours later, and 7 days later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcome was reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to <50% after 1 year. RESULTS: Patients who developed echocardiographic signs of reduced systolic function defined as LVEF<50% had significantly higher values of BNP (> or =80 pg\\/mL) at 24 hours (P=0.001) and 7 days (P=0.020) after STEMI and successful reperfusion. Patients who had BNP levels > or =80 pg\\/mL after 7 days were 21 times more likely to develop LVEF<50 (odds ratio, 20.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-195.2; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: BNP can be used as a predictor of reduced systolic function in patients with STEMI who underwent successful reperfusion and had normal ejection fraction at admission.

  17. Three-year outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with triple-vessel coronary artery disease: observations from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Junichi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Imai, Masao; Yamaji, Kyohei; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Michiya; Shimamoto, Mitsuomi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Kimura, Takeshi

    2013-08-22

    We sought to investigate medium-term outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with triple-vessel coronary artery disease (TVD). We identified 2,981 patients with TVD (PCI: N=1,825, CABG: N=1,156) among 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularisation enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2. Excess adjusted three-year risk of the PCI group relative to the CABG group for death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke was significant (HR 1.47 [95% CI: 1.13-1.92, p=0.004]). Adjusted risk for all-cause death was also significantly higher with PCI as compared with CABG (HR 1.62 [95% CI: 1.16-2.27, p=0.005]), while risk for cardiac death was neutral between the two groups (HR 1.3 [95% CI: 0.81-2.07, p=0.28]). PCI was also associated with a markedly higher risk for any coronary revascularisation. Regarding the analysis stratified by the SYNTAX score, the adjusted HR of PCI relative to CABG for death/MI/stroke was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.04-2.65, p=0.03) in the low-score (<23: N=874, and N=257), 1.24 (95% CI: 0.83-1.85, p=0.29) in the intermediate-score (23-32: N=638, and N=388), and 1.59 (95% CI: 0.998-2.54, p=0.051) in the high-score (≥ 33: N=280, and N=375) tertiles, respectively. PCI as compared with CABG was associated with significantly higher risk for serious adverse events in TVD patients.

  18. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  19. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  20. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. Transposition of the great vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  5. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  7. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  9. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  10. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A; Dierkes, Tobias; Sprang, Jürgen; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2013-03-12

    Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application.

  11. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  12. Radiographic damage in hands and wrists of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis after 29 years of disease duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaag, Anne M; Kirkhus, Eva; Törnqvist, Lena; Lilleby, Vibke; Aulie, Hanne A; Flatø, Berit

    2017-04-11

    There are few studies on radiographic outcome after long-term disease duration in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We wanted to evaluate 29-year radiographic outcome in hands/wrists and predictors of damage in patients with long-term active JIA. Patients diagnosed from 1980 to 1985, who had active disease at 15-, 23- or 29-year follow-up and arthritis in the wrists during the disease course, were reexamined with radiographs of hands/wrists. We used the adapted version of the Sharp van der Heijde (aSvdH) score and Carpal Height Ratio (CHR) to evaluate radiographic outcome. Sixty patients, mean age 38 years, were reexamined at median 29-year follow-up. 33 patients (55%) had an aSvdH score >0, median score was 4.0 (range 0-313), and 25% of the scores were high (≥53). Most patients with radiographic damage (88%) had both erosions and JSN. 52% of the patients had damage in the wrists, 43% in the MCP joints and 40% in the PIP joints. The CHR correlated strongly with the aSvdH. Both scores had high correlations with the Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index and the number of joints with limited range of motion (LROM) (rs = -0.688 to 0.743, p ≤ 0.001). The aSvdH correlated weakly with measures of disease activity. The number of joints with LROM, ESR and the HAQ disability score at 15 years and HLAB27 positivity predicted the aSvdH score and the CHR at 29-year follow-up. The majority of patients with long-term active JIA had modest radiographic damage, but more frequently in wrists than in fingers. The radiographic scores correlated well with measures of disease damage. Restricted mobility in joints at 15 years was the most important predictor of radiographic damage at 29 years.

  13. [Morphogenesis, structure and properties of lymphatic vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, Anna; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Flaht, Aleksandra; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota

    2012-11-19

    In this paper, we present literature results related to structure and various manners of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological events, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and other diseases. The functions of the lymphatic system include the collection of fluids that enter tissues from the circulation, absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestine and their subsequent transport, participation in antigen, dendritic cell, and lymphocyte migration. The lymphatic system is also a route for tumor cell and inflammatory cell transport. Native lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries by having an irregular lumen, a discontinuous basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and a strong anchorage of their endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix via microfibrils built of emilin and fibrillin. Lymphatic endothelial cells express surface antigens such as Lyve-1, podoplanin, VEGFR3 (Flk4) and transcription factor Prox-1, as well as molecules which are common for blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (CD31, CD34, Flk-1, Tie-1, Tie-2, neuropilin 2). Lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development starts with the occurrence of lymphatic sacs sprouting from systemic jugular veins and/or by co-option of lymphangioblasts or hematopoietic-derived cells. It can also proceed by dedifferentiation of venous endothelial cells after their detachment from the venous system, migration to the target places within the body and assembly in the lymphatic lumen. Mechanisms of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and metastasis, is regulated by a plethora of growth factors and molecules, among which the most important are VEGF-C, VEGF-D, HGF, FGF, retinoic acid, IL-3, and IL-7. Macrophages and cells bearing CD45 phenotype seem to take part in the formation of lymphatics. Macrophages might act as a source of growth

  14. Crystal Identification in Dual-Layer-Offset DOI-PET Detectors Using Stratified Peak Tracking Based on SVD and Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingyang; Dai, Tiantian; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Gu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    An Anger-logic based pixelated PET detector block requires a crystal position map (CPM) to assign the position of each detected event to a most probable crystal index. Accurate assignments are crucial to PET imaging performance. In this paper, we present a novel automatic approach to generate the CPMs for dual-layer offset (DLO) PET detectors using a stratified peak tracking method. In which, the top and bottom layers are distinguished by their intensity difference and the peaks of the top and bottom layers are tracked based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) and mean-shift algorithm in succession. The CPM is created by classifying each pixel to its nearest peak and assigning the pixel with the crystal index of that peak. A Matlab-based graphical user interface program was developed including the automatic algorithm and a manual interaction procedure. The algorithm was tested for three DLO PET detector blocks. Results show that the proposed method exhibits good performance as well as robustness for all the three blocks. Compared to the existing methods, our approach can directly distinguish the layer and crystal indices using the information of intensity and offset grid pattern.

  15. Molecular evaluation of the great vessels of patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease Análise molecular dos grandes vasos da base em portadores de valva aórtica bicúspide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Paes Leme

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is associated with increased prevalence of annulo-aortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. This study was undertaken to compare the amount of fibrillin-1 and elastin in the media of great vessels of patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve disease. METHOD: Tissue samples of ascending aorta and pulmonary artery were obtained from 22 patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV and 17 patients with tricuspid aortic valve disease (TAV, including 6 normal valves from the transplant program. Indirect immunofluorescence and computerized image analyses were used to quantify fibrillin-1 and elastin of the media of the arteries. The results were expressed as the mean integrated optical density (IOD. RESULTS: In the ascending aorta, the IOD for fibrillin-1 was 15 ± 8 in the BAV group and 24 ± 7 in the TAV group (p = 0.001. In the pulmonary artery, the IOD for fibrillin-1 was 18 ± 10 in the BAV group and 25 ± 9 in the TAV group (p = 0.07. In respect to the elastin measurements of the aorta, the specific IOD was 34 ± 13 in the BAV group and 29 ± 14 in the TAV group. In the pulmonary artery the IOD for elastin was 30 ± 12 in the BAV group and 29 ± 14 in the TAV group (p = 0.34. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BAV were found to have less fibrillin-1 in the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery than patients with TAV. These findings may explain aortic root dilation and ascending aortic dissection in patients with BAV disease.OBJETIVO: A valva aórtica bicúspide (VAB está associada a maior prevalência de ectasia anulo-aórtica, aneurisma e dissecção da aorta ascendente. Este estudo investigou a quantidade de fibrilina-1 e elastina nos grandes vasos de portadores de VAB. MÉTODO:Amostras de tecidos foram colhidas da aorta ascendente e tronco da artéria pulmonar de 22 portadores de VAB e 16 portadores de valva aórtica tricúspide (VAT submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca, incluindo seis

  16. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  17. [Simple analysis on professor ZHANG Dao-Zong's academic thought of dredging the Governor Vessel and regulating mentality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Pei-Fang; Chen, Xing-Sheng

    2006-10-01

    Introduce Professor Zhang Dao-zong's studies on the Governor Vessel and its academic thought of dredging the Governor Vessel and regulating mentality, and clinical experiences of dredging the Governor Vessel and regulating mentality therapy for apoplexy, epilepsy, vertigo, ankynosing spondylitis, traumatic paraplegia, child Tourette's disease, etc....

  18. Strict vegetarian diet improves the risk factors associated with metabolic diseases by modulating gut microbiota and reducing intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Hwang, Seong-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Low-grade inflammation of the intestine results in metabolic dysfunction, in which dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is intimately involved. Dietary fibre induces prebiotic effects that may restore imbalances in the gut microbiota; however, no clinical trials have been reported in patients with metabolic diseases. Here, six obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension were assigned to a strict vegetarian diet (SVD) for 1 month, and blood biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolisms, faecal microbiota using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, faecal lipocalin-2 and short-chain fatty acids were monitored. An SVD reduced body weight and the concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and haemoglobin A1c, and improved fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels. An SVD reduced the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota, but did not alter enterotypes. An SVD led to a decrease in the pathobionts such as the Enterobacteriaceae and an increase in commensal microbes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium species belonging to clusters XIVa and IV, resulting in reduced intestinal lipocalin-2 and short-chain fatty acids levels. This study underscores the benefits of dietary fibre for improving the risk factors of metabolic diseases and shows that increased fibre intake reduces gut inflammation by changing the gut microbiota. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  20. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  1. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  2. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  4. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  5. Determinants of Vessel Targeting in Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Hoffman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of autoimmune diseases have not yet elucidated why certain organs or vessels become the objects of injury while others are spared. This paper will explore the hypothesis that important differences exist in regions of the aorta that determine vulnerability to diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortitis, giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's disease. The reader is invited to reassess; (1 whether the aorta is indeed a single homogeneous structure, and (2 whether the initial stage of aortitis (and indeed other diseases considered “autoimmune” may be primarily due to acquired alterations of substrate, that influence unique immune profiles, which by themselves may not be pathogenic. Disease susceptibility and patterns are influenced by many factors that are inborn and acquired. Examples include genetic background, gender, ethnicity, aging, prior and concomitant illnesses, habits, diet, toxin and environmental exposures. Studies of vascular diseases must assess how such variables may affect regional differences in endothelial cells, subendothelial matrix, vascular smooth muscle and the response of each to a variety of stimuli.

  6. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  8. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  9. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  10. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of vessel wall morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröner, Eleanore Sophie Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis evaluates morphological and functional vessel wall properties measured by magnetic resonance imaging techniques in healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases (i.e. Marfan syndrome patients (MFS), patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and patients with a previous myocardial

  12. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  13. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  14. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  15. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  16. Lymphangiogenic growth factor responsiveness is modulated by postnatal lymphatic vessel maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpanen, Terhi; Wirzenius, Maria; Mäkinen, Taija; Veikkola, Tanja; Haisma, Hidde J; Achen, Marc G; Stacker, Steven A; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Alitalo, Kari

    Lymphatic vessel plasticity and stability are of considerable importance when attempting to treat diseases associated with the lymphatic vasculature. Development of lymphatic vessels during embryogenesis is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C but not VEGF-D. Using a recombinant

  17. New vessel formation and aberrant VEGF/VEGFR signaling in acute leukemia : Does it matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bont, ESJM; Neefjes, VME; Rosati, S; Vellenga, E; Kamps, WA

    2002-01-01

    Although many patients with acute leukemia achieve a hematological complete remission with aggressive intensive therapy protocols, a large proportion shows reoccurrence of disease. Novel strategies are warranted. In acute leukemia new vessel formation is observed. New vessel formation is the result

  18. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters...

  19. Doppler sonography of extracranial and intracranial vessels in patients with thrombotic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The results of intracranial and extracranial vessel color Doppler sonography, which is now an inseparable part of patient evaluation, vary in different studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of vascular involvement in thrombotic stroke and its relationship with risk factors of stroke. METHODS: One-hundred patients (45 males and 55 females with thrombotic stroke underwent transcranial sonography and color Doppler sonography of extracranial vessels. The pattern of vascular involvement was analyzed. The risk factors of stroke were also evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the studied individuals had some variations in their color Doppler sonography of extracranial vessels, 27% had changes in the intracranial vessels and 26% showed changes in both. The most frequently involved vessels among the intracranial and extracranial vessels were the middle cerebral artery and the internal carotid artery, respectively. The pattern of vascular involvement was unrelated to hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or history of ischemic heart disease. Extracranial involvement in patients with positive history of MI was more prevalent than in those without such history. CONCLUSIONS: Extracranial vessel involvement in thrombotic stroke was found to be more prevalent than intracranial vessel involvement in the city of Rafsanjan; however, intracranial vessel involvement was more prevalent than in western countries. KEY WORDS: Thrombotic stroke, color Doppler sonography, intracranial vessels, extracranial, cerebrovascular risk factors

  20. Cerebral vessels segmentation for light-sheet microscopy image using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaoen; Hui, Hui; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Di; Liu, Xia; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral vessel segmentation is an important step in image analysis for brain function and brain disease studies. To extract all the cerebrovascular patterns, including arteries and capillaries, some filter-based methods are used to segment vessels. However, the design of accurate and robust vessel segmentation algorithms is still challenging, due to the variety and complexity of images, especially in cerebral blood vessel segmentation. In this work, we addressed a problem of automatic and robust segmentation of cerebral micro-vessels structures in cerebrovascular images acquired by light-sheet microscope for mouse. To segment micro-vessels in large-scale image data, we proposed a convolutional neural networks (CNNs) architecture trained by 1.58 million pixels with manual label. Three convolutional layers and one fully connected layer were used in the CNNs model. We extracted a patch of size 32x32 pixels in each acquired brain vessel image as training data set to feed into CNNs for classification. This network was trained to output the probability that the center pixel of input patch belongs to vessel structures. To build the CNNs architecture, a series of mouse brain vascular images acquired from a commercial light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) system were used for training the model. The experimental results demonstrated that our approach is a promising method for effectively segmenting micro-vessels structures in cerebrovascular images with vessel-dense, nonuniform gray-level and long-scale contrast regions.

  1. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-11-01

    plasma ADMA levels are related with poor coronary collateral development. ADMA may be responsible for the difference in coronary collateral vessel development among different patients with coronary artery disease. NO inhibitors that have a determinative relation with endothelial cell functions may be integral prerequisite in all steps of collateral development.

  2. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  3. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  4. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  5. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  7. Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165836.html Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation Drug will treat adults with a condition called ... to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). In a media ...

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. PCs and networking for oceanographic research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    This paper, first describes briefly the evolution of data acquisition techniques and different system implementation, on board research vessels. A data acquisition system being developed for a coastal research vessel is then described which is based...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  11. Pattern Recognition Of Blood Vessel Networks In Ocular Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, K.; Kuga, H.

    1982-11-01

    We propose a computer method of recognizing blood vessel networks in color ocular fundus images which are used in the mass diagnosis of adult diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. A line detection algorithm is applied to extract the blood vessels, and the skeleton patterns of them are made to analyze and describe their structures. The recognition of line segments of arteries and/or veins in the vessel networks consists of three stages. First, a few segments which satisfy a certain constraint are picked up and discriminated as arteries or veins. This is the initial labeling. Then the remaining unknown ones are labeled by utilizing the physical level knowledge. We propose two schemes for this stage : a deterministic labeling and a probabilistic relaxation labeling. Finally the label of each line segment is checked so as to minimize the total number of labeling contradictions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  12. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  13. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C D; Huntington, M K; Wanji, S; Lovato, R V; Eversole, R R; Geary, T G

    2010-02-01

    Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within nodules. Blood vessels were commonly seen associated with organized lymphoid cellular aggregates in the both the outer and inner areas of the nodules. In contrast, the majority of the lymphatic vessel positivity was seen in the central zone in close apposition to the adult parasites, and the remainder usually associated with microfilariae in the outer areas of the nodule. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between adult O. volvulus and lymphatic vessels, including the likely proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (lymphangectasia) akin to that seen with other filariae. These findings indicate that adult O. volvulus may migrate via the lymphatic system, and that clinical manifestations of this disease that involve tissue edema may be the result of the location of these worms in the lymphatic system.

  14. High-low reflectivity enhancement based retinal vessel projection for SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie; Yuan, Songtao; Fan, Wen; Liu, Qinghuai

    2016-10-01

    The retinal vessel visualization from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for ocular disease diagnosis and multimodal retinal image processing. The purpose is to display the retinal vessel in a single projection image from 3D SD-OCT images by using the light absorption and shadow characteristics of the retinal vessel. The authors present a novel retinal vessel projection method for SD-OCT images, which utilizes the light absorption and shadow characteristics of the retinal vessel, called high-low reflectivity enhancement (HLRE) method. The reflectivity of the retinal vessel increases between the internal limiting membrane and inner nuclear layer-outer plexiform layer (INL-OPL) layers because of the light absorption, and the reflectivity below the retinal vessel decreases because of the influence of the retinal vessel shadow. A retinal vessel mask image generated based on the reflectivity characteristics of the retinal vessel is used to enhance the subvolume projection image restricted between the INL-OPL and Bruch's membrane layers. Experimental results with 22 SD-OCT cubes from 12 patients and 10 normal persons demonstrate that the authors' method is more effective in displaying the retinal vessel than the summed-voxel projection and other five region restriction based projection methods. The average of the mean difference between the retinal vessel and background regions based on their HLRE method is 0.1921. The proposed HLRE method was more effective for the visualization of the retinal vessels than the state-of-art methods because it provides higher contrast and distinction.

  15. 50 CFR 660.305 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.305 Section 660.305 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.305 Vessel identification. (a) Display. The operator of a vessel that is over 25 ft (7.6 m...

  16. 50 CFR 660.704 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.704 Section 660.704 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.704 Vessel identification. (a) General. This section only applies to commercial fishing vessels...

  17. 50 CFR 660.504 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.504 Section 660.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.504 Vessel identification. (a) Official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this subpart must...

  18. 50 CFR 665.16 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 665.16 Section 665... identification. (a) Applicability. Each fishing vessel subject to this part, except those identified in paragraph (e) of this section, must be marked for identification purposes, as follows: (1) A vessel that is...

  19. Lymphatic vessels: an emerging actor in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkut, Issa; Meens, Merlijn J; McKee, Thomas A; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Kwak, Brenda R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large- to medium-sized arteries and is the main underlying cause of death worldwide. The lymphatic vasculature is critical for processes that are intimately linked to atherogenesis such as the immune response and cholesterol metabolism. However, whether lymphatic vessels truly contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is less clear despite increasing research efforts in this field. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. In addition, key review articles were screened for relevant original publications. Current knowledge about lymphatic vessels in the arterial wall came from studies that examined the presence and location of such vessels in human atherosclerotic plaque specimens, as well as in a variety of arteries in animal models for atherosclerosis (e.g. rabbits, dogs, rats and mice). Generally, three experimental approaches have been used to investigate the functional role of plaque-associated lymphatic vessels; experimental lymphostasis was used to investigate lymphatic drainage of the arterial wall, and more recently, studies with genetic interventions and/or surgical transplantation have been performed. Lymphatic vessels seem to be mostly present in the adventitial layer of the arterial walls of animals and humans. They are involved in reverse cholesterol transport from atherosclerotic lesions, and arteries with a dense lymphatic network seem naturally protected against atherosclerosis. Lymphangiogenesis is a process that is an important part of the inflammatory loop in atherosclerosis. However, how augmenting or impeding the distribution of lymphatic vessels impacts disease progression remains to be investigated in future studies. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  1. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  2. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  3. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  4. Use of helical CT in assessment of crossing vessels in pelviureteric junction obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, N.A.; Massouh, H

    2000-03-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to confirm the accuracy of non-invasive helical computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting in the diagnosis of crossing vessels in patients with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with confirmed PUJ obstruction underwent CT of the renal area with intravenous contrast medium. Patients shown to have crossing vessels had to undergo a pyeloplasty by open surgery or laparoscopy. Patients with no vessels could have their PUJ obstruction safely treated with less invasive techniques such as balloon dilatation. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were shown to have crossing vessels. Of these, 10 had their relationship to the PUJ confirmed at a subsequent laparotomy. Of the remaining four patients, one was lost to follow-up and two were unwell due to unrelated disease. The other patient had already had a vessel moved at a previous laparotomy. Of the five patients without obstructing vessels, two were confirmed not to have a related vessel at laparotomy, one has undergone balloon dilatation and the other two were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Helical CT is an accurate and non-invasive method of demonstrating crossing vessels in PUJ obstruction. Diagnosis of these vessels has a major role in the choice of therapeutic treatment. Lacey, N.A., Massouh, H. (2000)

  5. Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2011-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

  6. An in situ optical imaging system for measuring lipid uptake, vessel contraction, and lymph flow in small animal lymphatic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Weiler, Michael J.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    All dietary lipids are transported to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Understanding how the lymphatics functionally respond to changes in lipid load is important in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid and lymphatic related diseases such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lymphedema. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. A custom-built optical set-up provides us with the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. This is achieved by dividing the light path into two optical bands. Utilizing high-speed and back-illuminated CCD cameras and post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we have the potential quantify correlations between vessel contraction, lymph flow and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. Local flow velocity is measured through lymphocyte tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel walls and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for both scientists studying lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatic system with orally delivered drugs.

  7. Association of Ultrasonographic Parameters with Subclinical White-Matter Hyperintensities in Hypertensive Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Heliopoulos; Dimitrios Artemis; Konstantinos Vadikolias; Grigorios Tripsianis; Charitomeni Piperidou; Georgios Tsivgoulis

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regarded as typical MRI expressions of small-vessel disease (SVD) and are common in hypertensive patients. Hypertension induces pathologic changes in macrocirculation and in microcirculation. Changes in microcirculation may lead to SVD of brain and consequently to hypertensive end-organ damage. This damage is regarded the result of interactions between the macrovascular and microvascular levels. We sought to investigate...

  8. Multi-level deep supervised networks for retinal vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the appearance of retinal blood vessels are an important indicator for various ophthalmologic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and choroidal neovascularization. Vessel segmentation from retinal images is very challenging because of low blood vessel contrast, intricate vessel topology, and the presence of pathologies such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages. To overcome these challenges, we propose a neural network-based method for vessel segmentation. A deep supervised fully convolutional network is developed by leveraging multi-level hierarchical features of the deep networks. To improve the discriminative capability of features in lower layers of the deep network and guide the gradient back propagation to overcome gradient vanishing, deep supervision with auxiliary classifiers is incorporated in some intermediate layers of the network. Moreover, the transferred knowledge learned from other domains is used to alleviate the issue of insufficient medical training data. The proposed approach does not rely on hand-crafted features and needs no problem-specific preprocessing or postprocessing, which reduces the impact of subjective factors. We evaluate the proposed method on three publicly available databases, the DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE_DB1 databases. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach achieves better or comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods with a much faster processing speed, making it suitable for real-world clinical applications. The results of cross-training experiments demonstrate its robustness with respect to the training set. The proposed approach segments retinal vessels accurately with a much faster processing speed and can be easily applied to other biomedical segmentation tasks.

  9. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  10. Characteristic pattern of cerebral perfusion in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT has been commonly used to evaluate several different types of dementia. The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVD (mean age; 68.0{+-}7.0 years, educational period; 6.3{+-}5.6 years, CDR; 0.80{+-}0.26). 46 AD (mean age; 69.9{+-}7.4 years, educational period; 5.4{+-}4.7 years, CDR; 0.86{+-}0.23) and 12 normal control subjects (mean age; 67.1{+-}7.7 years, educational period; 6.2{+-}4.2 years) participated in this study. We included the patients with SVD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable or possible VD. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia scale scores. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and right thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyral regions in patients with SVD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in patients with AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus, right cingulated gyrus, left insula, and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hyperperfusion in right superior frontal gyrus, left pre- and postcentral gyri, left paracentral lobule, left precuneus and both medial frontal gyri compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  12. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  13. Analysis of Blood Flow in a Partially Blocked Bifurcated Blood Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Elkassabgi, Yousri; Punati, Pavan K.; Nasser, Naseer

    2009-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death in the United States. It is the narrowing of the lumens of the coronary blood vessel by a gradual build-up of fatty material, atheroma, which leads to the heart muscle not receiving enough blood. This my ocardial ischemia can cause angina, a heart attack, heart failure as well as sudden cardiac death [9]. In this project a solid model of bifurcated blood vessel with an asymmetric stenosis is developed using GAMBIT and imported into FLUENT for analysis. In FLUENT, pressure and velocity distributions in the blood vessel are studied under different conditions, where the size and position of the blockage in the blood vessel are varied. The location and size of the blockage in the blood vessel are correlated with the pressures and velocities distributions. Results show that such correlation may be used to predict the size and location of the blockage.

  14. Progressive loss of lymphatic vessels in skin of patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, Mirko; Milia, Anna Franca; Guiducci, Serena; Romano, Eloisa; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia

    2011-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by microvascular and fibrotic changes in the skin and internal organs. The role of blood vessel dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SSc has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the involvement of the lymphatic vascular system. Our aim was to evaluate dermal lymphatic vessels in patients with SSc according to different phases of skin involvement. Skin biopsies were obtained from the forearm of 25 SSc patients (10 early/15 late-stage disease) and 13 healthy controls. Skin sections were immunostained for podoplanin (D2-40), which is selectively expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells, and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lymphatic vessels were counted in the papillary and reticular dermis. Data were analyzed using Student's t test. The number of lymphatic vessels was significantly reduced in the papillary and reticular dermis of SSc patients compared with controls. In early SSc, lymphatic vessel counts were not different from controls in the papillary dermis, and showed a trend toward a reduction in the reticular dermis. In late SSc, a significant reduction in lymphatic vessels compared with controls was found in both the papillary and reticular dermis. The number of lymphatic vessels in the papillary dermis of late SSc was significantly lower than in early SSc. In SSc, lymphatic microangiopathy is linked to the progression of skin involvement. The progressive disappearance of lymphatic vessels may have a critical pathogenetic role in the progression of SSc from an early edematous phase to overt fibrosis.

  15. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Xu

    Full Text Available The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  16. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiayu; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hu, Qiao; Bakall, Benjamin; Tlucek, Paul S; Bertelsen, Geir; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  17. Vessel classification method based on vessel behavior in the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Daamen, W.; Vellinga, T.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) data have proven to be a valuable source to investigate vessel behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several

  18. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  19. 76 FR 59660 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel Monitoring System Requirements for the Commercial Bottomfish... compliance with federal identification requirements and carry and maintain a satellite- based vessel monitoring system (VMS). This collection of information is needed for permit issuance, to identify actual or...

  20. Automatic Detection and Distinction of Retinal Vessel Bifurcations and Crossings in Colour Fundus Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pratt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of retinal blood vessels present in fundus images, and the addressing of problems such as blood clot location, is important to undertake accurate and appropriate treatment of the vessels. Such tasks are hampered by the challenge of accurately tracing back problems along vessels to their source. This is due to the unresolved issue of distinguishing automatically between vessel bifurcations and vessel crossings in colour fundus photographs. In this paper, we present a new technique for addressing this problem using a convolutional neural network approach to firstly locate vessel bifurcations and crossings and then to classifying them as either bifurcations or crossings. Our method achieves high accuracies for junction detection and classification on the DRIVE dataset and we show further validation on an unseen dataset from which no data has been used for training. Combined with work in automated segmentation, this method has the potential to facilitate: reconstruction of vessel topography, classification of veins and arteries and automated localisation of blood clots and other disease symptoms leading to improved management of eye disease.

  1. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is party to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is not party to SOLAS 74 but is party to the International Convention...

  2. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  3. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  4. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  5. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth below...

  6. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  7. Reactor pressure vessel. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, B.J.; Hackett, E.M.; Lee, A.D. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the issues raised as a result of the staffs review of Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, Revision 1, responses and plant-specific reactor pressure vessel (RPV) assessments and the actions taken or work in progress to address these issues. In addition, the report describes actions taken by the staff and the nuclear industry to develop a thermal annealing process for use at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. This process is intended to be used as a means of mitigating the effects of neutron radiation on the fracture toughness of RPV materials. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements and licensee commitments regarding RPV integrity. GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, was issued as a result of generic issues that were raised in the NRC staff`s reviews of licensee responses to GL 92-01, Revision 1, and plant-specific RPV evaluations. In particular, an integrated review of all data submitted in response to GL 92-01, Revision 1, indicated that licensees may not have considered all relevant data in their RPV assessments. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1996. An update of this report will be issued at a later date.

  8. 46 CFR 535.312 - Vessel charter party-exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel charter party-exemption. 535.312 Section 535.312... Vessel charter party-exemption. (a) For purposes of this section, vessel charter party shall mean a... operational limitations, if any) under which the vessel will be employed. (b) Vessel charter parties, as...

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF HOOF ARTERIAL BLOOD VESSELS IN BOSNIAN MOUNTAIN HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velida Ćutahija

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Casting method was conducted by injecting the Vinilyth mass into the digital blood vessels of 36 fore and hind limbs of the Bosnian Mountain Horse of both genders, aged from 5 to 7 years. Corrosive casts provided a precise estimation of position and branching characteristics of the arterial blood vessels in the hoof of the Bosnian Mountain Horse. By comparison of our results with the previous literature findings we found certain differences in branching of the digital arteries. So, we found differences in branching of the rami dorsales phalangis I, a. tori digitalis and a. dorsalis phalangis II. Last observed difference, according to our research, was that we did not demonstrate the existence of the a. dorsalis phalangis III. These findings may provide better understanding of the diseases, prognoses and treatment of the horse hoof disorders. Undoubtedly, these findings may have a practical importance in equine orthopedics.Key words: artery, hoof, horse

  10. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  11. Fractal analysis reveals reduced complexity of retinal vessels in CADASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cavallari

    Full Text Available The Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL affects mainly small cerebral arteries and leads to disability and dementia. The relationship between clinical expression of the disease and progression of the microvessel pathology is, however, uncertain as we lack tools for imaging brain vessels in vivo. Ophthalmoscopy is regarded as a window into the cerebral microcirculation. In this study we carried out an ophthalmoscopic examination in subjects with CADASIL. Specifically, we performed fractal analysis of digital retinal photographs. Data are expressed as mean fractal dimension (mean-D, a parameter that reflects complexity of the retinal vessel branching. Ten subjects with genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL and 10 sex and age-matched control subjects were enrolled. Fractal analysis of retinal digital images was performed by means of a computer-based program, and the data expressed as mean-D. Brain MRI lesion volume in FLAIR and T1-weighted images was assessed using MIPAV software. Paired t-test was used to disclose differences in mean-D between CADASIL and control groups. Spearman rank analysis was performed to evaluate potential associations between mean-D values and both disease duration and disease severity, the latter expressed as brain MRI lesion volumes, in the subjects with CADASIL. The results showed that mean-D value of patients (1.42±0.05; mean±SD was lower than control (1.50±0.04; p = 0.002. Mean-D did not correlate with disease duration nor with MRI lesion volumes of the subjects with CADASIL. The findings suggest that fractal analysis is a sensitive tool to assess changes of retinal vessel branching, likely reflecting early brain microvessel alterations, in CADASIL patients.

  12. Interactive 3D Analysis of Blood Vessel Trees and Collateral Vessel Volumes in Magnetic Resonance Angiograms in the Mouse Ischemic Hindlimb Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Peter C; Preda, Marilena; Henderson, Terry; Liaw, Lucy; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Pinz, Ilka M

    2013-10-31

    The quantitative analysis of blood vessel volumes from magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) or μCT images is difficult and time-consuming. This fact, when combined with a study that involves multiple scans of multiple subjects, can represent a significant portion of research time. In order to enhance analysis options and to provide an automated and fast analysis method, we developed a software plugin for the ImageJ and Fiji image processing frameworks that enables the quick and reproducible volume quantification of blood vessel segments. The novel plugin named Volume Calculator (VolCal), accepts any binary (thresholded) image and produces a three-dimensional schematic representation of the vasculature that can be directly manipulated by the investigator. Using MRAs of the mouse hindlimb ischemia model, we demonstrate quick and reproducible blood vessel volume calculations with 95 - 98% accuracy. In clinical settings this software may enhance image interpretation and the speed of data analysis and thus enhance intervention decisions for example in peripheral vascular disease or aneurysms. In summary, we provide a novel, fast and interactive quantification of blood vessel volumes for single blood vessels or sets of vessel segments with particular focus on collateral formation after an ischemic insult.

  13. Estimation of retinal vessel caliber using model fitting and random forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Teresa; Mendonça, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurélio

    2017-03-01

    Retinal vessel caliber changes are associated with several major diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. These caliber changes can be evaluated using eye fundus images. However, the clinical assessment is tiresome and prone to errors, motivating the development of automatic methods. An automatic method based on vessel crosssection intensity profile model fitting for the estimation of vessel caliber in retinal images is herein proposed. First, vessels are segmented from the image, vessel centerlines are detected and individual segments are extracted and smoothed. Intensity profiles are extracted perpendicularly to the vessel, and the profile lengths are determined. Then, model fitting is applied to the smoothed profiles. A novel parametric model (DoG-L7) is used, consisting on a Difference-of-Gaussians multiplied by a line which is able to describe profile asymmetry. Finally, the parameters of the best-fit model are used for determining the vessel width through regression using ensembles of bagged regression trees with random sampling of the predictors (random forests). The method is evaluated on the REVIEW public dataset. A precision close to the observers is achieved, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods. The method is robust and reliable for width estimation in images with pathologies and artifacts, with performance independent of the range of diameters.

  14. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gastaldi, Dario, E-mail: dario.gastaldi@polimi.it [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Yang Ke; Tan Lili [Division of Specialized Materials and Devices, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  15. Trabeculectomy Improves Vessel Response Measured by Dynamic Vessel Analysis (DVA) in Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Michael Selbach; Schallenberg, Maurice; Kramer, Sebastian; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Vilser, Walthard; Kremmer, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of surgical IOP reduction (trabeculectomy) on retinal blood flow parameters in glaucoma patients using Dynamic Vessel Analysis (DVA). 26 eyes of 26 patients with progressive primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) despite maximal topical therapy were examined before and after trabeculectomy. The responses of the retinal vessels to flickering light provocation were measured with DVA the day before surgery and 4 to 6 weeks after trabeculectomy. Between 3 and 4 weeks before surgery all local therapies were stopped and a systemic therapy with acetazolamide and conservative free topic steroidal eye drops was started. In 19 patients (73%), an inadequate response to the flicker stimulation was measured preoperatively. In these patients, the maximum dilation of arteries and veins was reduced significantly as compared to healthy eyes. In this group, the maximum dilation of the arteries following the flicker provocation improved from 1.4% before to 3.8% following trabeculectomy (p<0.01). In retinal veins, this parameter increased from 3.1% to 4.6% (p<0.05). In the 7 patients whose arterial and venous reactions to flickering light provocation preoperatively did not differ from healthy eyes, there was no significant change after surgery. The initial baseline values of arteries and veins (MU) did not deviate significantly in both groups. POAG patients with progressive disease and impaired vascular regulation profit from IOP lowering trabeculectomy concerning vascular reactivity and dilative reserve, indicating a possible improvement of retinal perfusion following effective IOP control. Future studies with long-term follow-up must determine the clinical importance of these findings for the treatment of glaucoma patients.

  16. Caribbean ST Croix Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Croix. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  17. Caribbean ST Thomas trap Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Thomas. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  18. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  19. 2013 Tug and Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. High Toughness Light Weight Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a pressure vessel with 25% better Fracture Strength over equal strength designed Fiberglass to help reduce 10 to 25% weight for aerospace use. Phase I is...

  1. Large Pelagic Logbook Set Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  2. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  3. 2011 Pleasure Craft Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  5. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  6. 2011 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Pleasure Craft and Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H

    1979-01-01

    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  12. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  13. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on how inflammatory cytokines affect lymphangiogenesis and the roles of lymphatic vessels in modulating immune responses.

  14. Coagulation and the vessel wall in thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Ten Cate, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is a key survival mechanism that has developed to protect man against lethal bleeding. A second function of blood coagulation is its close interaction with immunity. The immune-mediated coagulation responses may broadly be regarded as an element of response to injury. Pathological coagulation responses, including thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), could therefore be regarded as excessive immune responses to a vessel wall injury. Virchow's triad, which comprises changes in the components of the blood, the state of the vessel wall, and the blood flow, was originally proposed for venous thrombosis. However, lately it appears that the same principles can be applied to arterial thrombosis and even DIC. It has even been postulated that all forms of thrombosis may be part of a continuous spectrum of the same disease. Over the past few years, an accumulation of evidence has shown that the etiopathogenetic mechanisms behind venous and arterial thrombosis are quite similar. The traditional elements of Virchow's triad are found to apply to both arterial and venous thrombosis. Yet, nowadays more emphasis is placed on the vessel wall and vascular bed specificity and the interaction with inflammation and hypercoagulability. This narrative review will discuss recent advances in research on the possible interactions between coagulation, the vascular endothelium, and atherosclerosis as well as the consequences of such interactions for venous and arterial thrombosis.

  15. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.

  16. Osteoid osteoma - the CT vessel sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal; Shabshin, Noga; Sharon, Michal; Garniack, Alex [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Liberman, Boaz [Sheba Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rimon, Uri [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Eshed, Iris [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv University Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate whether the presence of a feeding vessel in proximity to osteoid osteomas of long bones on multidetector CT (MDCT) can be an adjuvant clue for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Forty-nine CT scans of patients with radiological and clinical diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of long bones and a control group of 20 CT scans of patients with cortical-based lesions other then osteoid osteoma were analyzed. Two radiologists evaluated the CT images in consensus for the presence of a blood vessel in the same axial slices in which the nidus of osteoid osteoma was seen and to determine the incidence. In 39 cases (79.6%) of osteoid osteoma, a blood vessel either entered the nidus (23 patients) or was seen in proximity to it (16 patients). This was significantly different (P<0.05) from the cortical-based lesions, in which only two CT scans (10%) showed a blood vessel in the lesion's proximity. In the majority of osteoid osteoma lesions in long bones, a blood vessel can be seen on MDCT either entering the nidus itself or in its proximity. The role of this vessel in the lesion pathogenesis and whether it improves diagnostic accuracy need further evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Disease: H00877 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00877 Brain small vessel disease with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly Mutations in the COL...ith overlapping features. Brain small vessel disease with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly is a condition associated ...COL4A1 mutation in Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with leukoencephalopathy and stroke. Ann Neurol 62:177-84 (2007) ...

  18. Sustainable Oceanographic Vessels - Setting an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In response to climate change, global warming and post “peak oil” fuel scarcity, the oceanographic community should consider reducing its carbon foot print. Why should scientists operate inefficient vessels while lecturing the general public on the need to reduce CO2 emissions? We have already seen curtailment of ship schedules and ship lay-ups, due in part to rising fuel costs, following $140/barrel crude oil. When the global recession ends, upward pressure on oil prices will again commence. Who can forecast how high fuel prices may ultimately rise during the typical 25-30 year lifetime of a research vessel? Are we to curtail future work at sea when oceanic climate research is becoming ever more important? A catamaran research vessel has been designed which can be electrically propelled from by a combination of high efficiency generators, photovoltaic panels and/or sails. Sail produced power is transformed with propellers and motor/generators into electric power which is stored in battery banks. This vessel could operate as the first true hybrid oceanographic research vessel. It could even continue operations without fuel in cases of a severe fuel shortage or fueling denial. Since the power produced by any water turbine increases with the cube of the velocity flowing over its propeller, the low fluid friction and high stability of a catamaran, with reasonably slender hulls, provide an important boost to efficient hybrid operation. The author has chartered a 42’ hybrid catamaran sailboat and found it efficient and extremely easy to operate and control. A 79’ motor sailing catamaran research vessel by Lock Crowther Designs will be presented as one example of a sustainable research vessel with excellent speed and sea-keeping. A center well makes operation as a small drilling/coring ship for coastal climate investigation possible. The center well also supports a host of remote sensing and robotic gear handling capabilities.

  19. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Guide Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Print Email Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, ... Asian Americans. What does diabetes do to the kidneys? With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the ...

  20. 50 CFR 654.6 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 654.6 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... enforcement vessel or aircraft. (ii) In block arabic numerals permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel... enforcement vessel or aircraft. (ii) In the form of a circle permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel...

  1. 46 CFR 153.9 - Foreign flag vessel endorsement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. 153.9... Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. (a) Application for a vessel whose flag administration is... endorsement from the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection and have aboard the vessel copies of IMO...

  2. 46 CFR 356.17 - Annual requirements for vessel owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual requirements for vessel owners. 356.17 Section... DOCUMENTATION Requirements for Vessel Owners § 356.17 Annual requirements for vessel owners. (a) An owner of a... section. The vessel owner does not have to submit duplicate copies of documents that have already been...

  3. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction and Arrangement Plans § 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any vessel which is a sister ship to a vessel, provided that— (a) The approved plans for the original vessels are... new construction; (c) The regulations have not changed since the original plan approval; and (d) There...

  4. 46 CFR 184.115 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 184.115 Section 184... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.115 Applicability to existing vessels. (a) An existing vessel need not comply with §§ 184.402(c), 184.404, 184.410...

  5. 46 CFR 15.405 - Familiarity with vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Familiarity with vessel characteristics. 15.405 Section... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; All Vessels § 15.405 Familiarity with vessel characteristics. Each credentialed individual must become familiar with the relevant characteristics of the vessel on...

  6. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  7. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  8. Deaths Related to Vessel Injuries in Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Türkmen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lethal or non-lethal extremity injuries are often seen in medico-legal practice. In this study, we planned to investigate medico-legal properties of deaths related to vessel injuries in extremities. In forensic autopsies performed in Bursa, we examined total 4242 autopsy reports between 1996-2003 in included 40 (0,94% cases of deaths caused by vessel injuries in extremities. 90% of cases were male with median age 35.87 (17-66. Stabbing device account for 60% of injuries. Most frequent injuries were in femoral artery and branches. In 82.5% of cases, homicide was the origin of death. In 30% of cases, mean 159.33 mg/dl alcohol blood concentration was detected. In the scene investigation reports, 47.5% of documented incidents were outdoor and 47.5% of the cases died in the scene. As a conclusion, it is observed that alcoholic males of middle age are the risk group for vascular injuries in extremities. In the deaths related to isolated vessel injuries in extremities, the detection of injured vessel, localisation and number of total and lethal wounds would offer a solution for the evil intent; and as in the other violent death cases autopsy is required in the deaths due to vessel injuries in extremities. Key words: Vascular injuries, Extremity, Forensic autopsy.

  9. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was sensitive to transfer coefficient, climatic conditions within the growth chamber, evaporation and condensation of water vapor on the walls of the vessel. The variations in water vapor pressure deficits (VPD) (low during the nyctiperiod and high during ...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.650 - Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Convention for the Protection of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The vessel owner must maintain compliance.... (b) SOLAS exemption. We may approve a permanent exemption from the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068.101(a... 40 CFR 1042.650 AND IS FOR USE SOLELY IN SOLAS VESSELS. INSTALLATION OR USE OF THIS ENGINE IN ANY...

  11. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija; Jakobsson, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. PMID:28851707

  13. Measuring Cerebral Blood Flow in Moyamoya Angiopathy by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Angiography Noninvasive Optimal Vessel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadia; Lober, Robert M; Ostergren, Lauren; Petralia, Jacob; Bell-Stephens, Teresa; Navarro, Ramon; Feroze, Abdullah; Steinberg, Gary K

    2017-12-01

    Moyamoya disease causes progressive occlusion of the supraclinoidal internal carotid artery, and middle, anterior, and less frequently the posterior cerebral arteries, carrying the risk of stroke. Blood flow is often partially reconstituted by compensatory moyamoya collaterals and sometimes the posterior circulation. Cerebral revascularization can further augment blood flow. These changes to blood flow within the cerebral vessels, however, are not well characterized. To evaluate blood flow changes resulting from the disease process and revascularization surgery using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography with noninvasive optimal vessel analysis (NOVA). We retrospectively analyzed 190 preoperative and postoperative imaging scans in 66 moyamoya patients after revascularization surgery. Images were analyzed for blood flow using NOVA and compared with preoperative angiographic staging and postoperative blood flow. Blood flow rates within superficial temporal artery grafts were compared based on angiographic evidence of patency. Diseased vessels had lower blood flow, correlating with angiographic staging. Flow in posterior cererbal and basilar arteries increased with disease severity, particularly when both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were occluded. Basilar artery flow and ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow decreased after surgery. Flow rates were different between angiographically robust and poor direct bypass grafts, as well as between robust and patent grafts. Preoperative changes in cerebral vessel flow as measured by NOVA correlated with angiographic disease progression. NOVA demonstrated that preoperative augmentation of the posterior circulation decreased after surgery. This report is the first to quantify the shift in collateral supply from the posterior circulation to the bypass graft.

  14. cKit Lineage Hemogenic Endothelium-Derived Cells Contribute to Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Stanczuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lymphatic diseases mostly affect vessels in specific tissues, yet little is known about organ-specific regulation of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3/p110α PI3-kinase signaling pathway is selectively required for the formation of mesenteric lymphatic vasculature. Using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that part of the mesenteric lymphatic vasculature develops from cKit lineage cells of hemogenic endothelial origin through a process we define as lymphvasculogenesis. This is contrary to the current dogma that all mammalian lymphatic vessels form by sprouting from veins. Our results reveal vascular-bed-specific differences in the origin and mechanisms of vessel formation, which may critically underlie organ-specific manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction in disease. The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma.

  15. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  16. Prognosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment includes vascular dementia onset and death by cardiovascular disease: reanalysis from the Osaki-Tajiri project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Mitsue; Kasai, Mari; Ishii, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    The relationship of predementia stage with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has not been fully clarified. Following our Prevalence Study 1998 in Tajiri, Japan, Incidence Study 2003 disclosed that 17.9% of subjects developed vascular dementia (VaD). Some cases developed after stroke (type I), whereas others already met the criteria for subcortical VaD (SVD) despite very mild stage (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0.5) and progressed to mild stage (CDR 1) (type II). We hypothesized that prognosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) included type II VaD or death due to causes associated with vascular risk factors. Prevalence Study 1998 included 497 randomly selected participants, including 346 with a CDR of 0, 119 with a CDR of 0.5, and 32 with a CDR of 1+. The first 2 groups were targeted for Incidence Study 2003. Based on the database, we reanalyzed the ratio of SVD in the subjects with CDR 0.5 and VaD, prognosis with or without CVD, and 2 types of VaD onset. The criteria for SVD were achieved by 67% of those with VaD and by 7% of those with vascular MCI (ie, CDR 0.5). In the CDR 0 group, CVD had no affect on prognosis; however, in the CDR 0.5 group, CVD had an affect on death by cardiovascular disease. The majority of subjects in the CDR 0 and CDR 0.5-CVD (-) groups were classified as type I, whereas all subjects in the CDR 0.5-CVD (+) group were type II. Although vascular MCI is treatable, it may progress to death as well as apparent dementia. Individuals with this "buried under the community" phenomenon of SVD should be targeted for secondary prevention interventions. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of methods for extracting vessel network on breast MRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaizer, Bence T.; Vassiou, Katerina G.; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L.; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V.; Glotsos, Dimitris T.

    2017-11-01

    Digital processing of MRI images aims to provide an automatized diagnostic evaluation of regular health screenings. Cancerous lesions are proven to cause an alteration in the vessel structure of the diseased organ. Currently there are several methods used for extraction of the vessel network in order to quantify its properties. In this work MRI images (Signa HDx 3.0T, GE Healthcare, courtesy of University Hospital of Larissa) of 30 female breasts were subjected to three different vessel extraction algorithms to determine the location of their vascular network. The first method is an experiment to build a graph over known points of the vessel network; the second algorithm aims to determine the direction and diameter of vessels at these points; the third approach is a seed growing algorithm, spreading selection to neighbors of the known vessel pixels. The possibilities shown by the different methods were analyzed, and quantitative measurements were performed. The data provided by these measurements showed no clear correlation with the presence or malignancy of tumors, based on the radiological diagnosis of skilled physicians.

  18. A monocentric centerline extraction method for ring-like blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjun; Sun, Feifei; Hou, Yuqing; Chen, Yanrong; Chen, Dongmei; Cao, Xin; Yi, Huangjian; Wang, Bin; He, Xiaowei; Liang, Jimin

    2017-09-02

    Centerline is generally used to measure topological and morphological parameters of blood vessels, which is pivotal for the quantitative analysis of vascular diseases. However, previous centerline extraction methods have two drawbacks on complex blood vessels, represented as the failure on ring-like structures and the existing of multi-voxel width. In this paper, we propose a monocentric centerline extraction method for ring-like blood vessels, which consists of three components. First, multiple centerlines are generated from the seed points that are chosen by randomly sprinkling points on blood vessel data. Second, multi-centerline fusion is used to repair the notches of centerlines on ring-like vessels, and the local maximum of distance from oundary is employed to remedy the missing centerline points. Finally, monocentric processing is devised to keep the vascular centerline with single voxel width. We compared the proposed method with Wan et al.'s method and topological thinning on five groups of data including synthesized vascular datasets and MR brain images. The result showed the proposed method performed better than the two contrast methods both by visual inspection and by quantitative assessment, which demonstrated the performance of the proposed method on ring-like blood vessels as well as the elimination of multi-voxel width points.

  19. Academic Research Vessels 1985-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    of them MVC ). Recommnendati ons. * Complete reliance of the academic community on non-academic vessels should be avoided, since such vessels are not...responsible for management of a major fishery on the Bering Sea shelf. This area is covered by ice much of the year. With the spring melting of the ice is...of the group. 5. Meetings of the group shall normally be held four times yearly in- *1 cluding spring and fall semi-annual UNOLS meetings, and at

  20. Triple-Vessel Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization In Situs Inversus Dextrocardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kakouros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dextrocardia with situs inversus occurs in approximately one in 10,000 individuals of whom 20% have primary ciliary dyskinesia inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These patients have a high incidence of congenital cardiac disease but their risk of coronary artery disease is similar to that of the general population. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of total triple-vessel coronary revascularization by percutaneous stent implantation in a 79-year-old woman with situs inversus dextrocardia. We describe the successful use of standard diagnostic and interventional guide catheters with counter rotation and transversely inversed image acquisition techniques. The case also highlights that the right precordial pain may represent cardiac ischemia in this population.

  1. disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To undertake an economic evaluation of the administration and monitoring costs of the two different forms of heparin in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (DCAD). Study design. Equivalent efficacy was found for low- molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and for unfraction- ated heparin (UFH) in the ...

  2. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  3. Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological Background and Clinical Implications. Yogesh Diwan, Rikki Singal1, Deepa Diwan, Subhash Goyal1, Samita Singal2, Mausam Kapil1. Department of Anatomy, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, 1Surgery and 2Radiology, Maharishi Markandeshwer Institute ...

  4. Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-23

    OPERATIONALY throughout the world • EUCOM – Norway to Africa • CENTCOM • PACOM • SOUTHCOM • CONUS • Leased vessels have undergone significant sea trials and... Austral ia to the Persian Gul f to support C E N T C O M t a s k i n g s JOINT VENTURE SWIFT 22 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Acquisition Constraints

  5. Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler Pressure Vessel Engineering Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1997-04-24

    The normal operating pressure of this dewar is expected to be less than 15 psig. This vessel is open to atmospheric pressure thru a non-isolatable vent line. The backpressure in the vent line was calculated to be less than 1.5 psig at maximum anticipated flow rates.

  6. Segmentation of vessels: the corkscrew algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Firle, Evelyn A.

    2004-05-01

    Medical imaging is nowadays much more than only providing data for diagnosis. It also links 'classical' diagnosis to modern forms of treatment such as image guided surgery. Those systems require the identification of organs, anatomical regions of the human body etc., i. e. the segmentation of structures from medical data sets. The algorithms used for these segmentation tasks strongly depend on the object to be segmented. One structure which plays an important role in surgery planning are vessels that are found everywhere in the human body. Several approaches for their extraction already exist. However, there is no general one which is suitable for all types of data or all sorts of vascular structures. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of vessels. It can be classified as a skeleton-based approach working on 3D data sets, and has been designed for a reliable segmentation of coronary arteries. The algorithm is a semi-automatic extraction technique requiring the definition of the start and end the point of the (centerline) path to be found. A first estimation of the vessel's centerline is calculated and then corrected iteratively by detecting the vessel's border perpendicular to the centerline. We used contrast enhanced CT data sets of the thorax for testing our approach. Coronary arteries have been extracted from the data sets using the 'corkscrew algorithm' presented in this work. The segmentation turned out to be robust even if moderate breathing artifacts were present in the data sets.

  7. 50 CFR 300.13 - Vessel permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel undermined the effectiveness of international conservation and management measures, and the new... special product or service. The fee is specified with the application form. The appropriate fee must... applicant of any deficiency in the application. (f) Validity. Permits issued under this subpart are valid...

  8. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... engaged in oil transfer operations? 12. Are there conflicts or areas of improvement with regard to... SECURITY Coast Guard Tank Vessel Oil Transfers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil...

  9. 78 FR 14053 - Vessel Documentation Renewal Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying... additional costs due to increased need in labor and capital costs, would cost each vessel owner $26 per...

  10. 76 FR 49975 - Inspection of Towing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... related materials. All comments received will be posted, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov and... comments and material received during the comment period and may change this proposed rule based on your... consideration its size, organizational structure, and vessel types and services. Towing Safety Management System...

  11. 78 FR 38102 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... vessels a limited use-limited application elevator (LULA) or platform lift, would be required to connect..., we estimate an elevator to cost $371,000; a LULA to cost $297,400; and a platform lift to cost $108.... See 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq. Title II of the ADA applies to state and local governments and Title III...

  12. Quantitative measurement of changes in retinal vessel diameter in ocular fundus images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2000-01-01

    The change in diameter of retinal vessels as a function of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN) is considered re...

  13. Quantitative Measurement of Changes in Retinal Vessel Diameter in Ocular Fundus Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    1999-01-01

    The Change in diameter of retinal vessels as a funcion of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, Focal Arteriolar Narrowing (FAN) is considered...

  14. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  15. An automated method for accurate vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Chaoyue; Le Minh, Hung; Wang, Zhiwei; Chien, Aichi; (Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting

    2017-05-01

    Vessel segmentation is a critical task for various medical applications, such as diagnosis assistance of diabetic retinopathy, quantification of cerebral aneurysm’s growth, and guiding surgery in neurosurgical procedures. Despite technology advances in image segmentation, existing methods still suffer from low accuracy for vessel segmentation in the two challenging while common scenarios in clinical usage: (1) regions with a low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and (2) at vessel boundaries disturbed by adjacent non-vessel pixels. In this paper, we present an automated system which can achieve highly accurate vessel segmentation for both 2D and 3D images even under these challenging scenarios. Three key contributions achieved by our system are: (1) a progressive contrast enhancement method to adaptively enhance contrast of challenging pixels that were otherwise indistinguishable, (2) a boundary refinement method to effectively improve segmentation accuracy at vessel borders based on Canny edge detection, and (3) a content-aware region-of-interests (ROI) adjustment method to automatically determine the locations and sizes of ROIs which contain ambiguous pixels and demand further verification. Extensive evaluation of our method is conducted on both 2D and 3D datasets. On a public 2D retinal dataset (named DRIVE (Staal 2004 IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23 501-9)) and our 2D clinical cerebral dataset, our approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods including a vesselness based method (Frangi 1998 Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention) and an optimally oriented flux (OOF) based method (Law and Chung 2008 European Conf. on Computer Vision). An evaluation on 11 clinical 3D CTA cerebral datasets shows that our method can achieve 94% average accuracy with respect to the manual segmentation reference, which is 23% to 33% better than the five baseline methods (Yushkevich 2006 Neuroimage 31 1116-28; Law and Chung 2008

  16. Gait in elderly with cerebral small vessel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Norden, A.G.W. van; Gons, R.A.R.; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Uden, I.W. van; Bloem, B.R.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait disorders are common in the elderly and are related to loss of functional independence and death. White matter lesions (WMLs) may be related, but only a minority of individuals with WMLs has gait disorders. Probably other factors are involved, including location and the

  17. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Nondiscrimination and Access to...

  18. Device for Investigation of Mechanical Tension of Isolated Smooth Muscle Vessels and Airway Segments of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinik, A.; Karpovich, N.; Turgunova, N.; Nosarev, A.

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of testing and the search for new drug compounds, designed to heal many human diseases, it is necessary to investigate the deformation of experimental tissue samples under influence of these drugs. For this task a precision force sensor for measuring the mechanical tension, produced by isolated ring segments of blood vessels and airways was created. The hardware and software systems for the study of changes in contractile responses of the airway smooth muscles and blood vessels of experimental animals was developed.

  19. Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hou Hui

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  20. Validation of the performance of a practical blood vessel imaging system to facilitate vessel punctures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland

    2009-02-01

    A practical system to visualize vessels underneath the skin has been developed, based on near-infrared (NIR) transillumination. A study in the clinical setting proved the system to be useful as a support in blood withdrawal in young children. During clinical application it was found that performance varied depending on vessel size, depth of vessels and surrounding lighting conditions. To gain more insight on the different variables that determine functioning of the system, we performed phantom studies. A combined liquid/solid phantom was fabricated with similar optical properties as the tissue layers of skin reported in literature at 850 nm. This phantom was used to estimate the depth of visibility in the relation to vessel size and darkness of the skin. Vessel contrast was determined analytically from images and evaluated by 3 independent observers. The knowledge gained from these experiments will be helpful to improve the imaging system and develop a solid phantom to be used as a gold standard to test the system under various clinical lighting conditions. The working range of the system was found to be appropriate to visualize the vessels used for the most procedures, such as blood withdrawal and placement of intravenous lines.

  1. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  2. Multiple Coronary Chamber Microfistulas or Persistent Thebesian Vessels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernica Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronary fistulas are rare, not gender-specific congenital conditions, consisting of communications between the coronary arteries and either another coronary vessel or a cardiac chamber. In contrast to large fistulas, small fistulas, named “minimae cordis veneae” or the Thebesius venous system, are draining into heart chambers and form a vascular network in the cardiac lumen. In this article, we present the case of a 72-year-old female with a significant history of cardiovascular disease, admitted to our clinic because of rest dyspnea, fatigue, and minimal chest pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed a trifascicular block (a second-degree atrioventricular block Mobitz II, associated with a right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicle block and negative T waves in DII, DIII, aVF, V4–V6 leads. An invasive coronary angiography was performed, which revealed no significant atherosclerotic lesions. However, a persistent capillary blush was present at the apex site of the left ventricular chamber, draining from the distal segments of both the anterior descending coronary artery and the posterior interventricular coronary artery. The intramural vascular network generating a left ventricle angiogram image of this kind was suggestive for persistent Thebesian vessels connecting the two coronaries with the left ventricular chamber.

  3. High prevalence of Legionella in non-passenger merchant vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, D; Mentasti, M; Shaw, A; Johnson, A; Crossley, L; Willis, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c.f.u./100 ml) of faecal indicator bacteria. Eight hundred and three samples from 360 NPMVs were cultured specifically for Legionella and 58% of vessels proved positive for these organisms with 27% of samples showing levels greater than the UK upper action limit of 1 × 103 c.f.u./l. Cabin showers (49%) and hospital shower (45%) were frequently positive. A subset of 106 samples was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Legionella and identified a further 11 Legionella-positive NPMVs, returning a negative predictive value of 100%. There was no correlation between NPMV age or size and any microbial parameters (P > 0·05). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 46% of NPMVs and sequence-based typing of 17 isolates revealed four sequence types (STs) previously associated with human disease. These data raise significant concerns regarding the management of microbial and Legionella risks on board NPMVs and suggest that better guidance and compliance are required to improve control.

  4. Neuropathology of cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Vidal, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding. Within ischemic brain damage, focal cerebral ischemia, hemorrhagic infarct, brain edema, penumbra, global cerebral ischemia, venous thrombosis, lacunas and lacunar state, status cribosus, granular atrophy of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal sclerosis, vascular leukoencephalopathy Binswanger type and multi-infarct encephalopathy are discussed in detail. Cognitive impairment of vascular origin deserves an individual section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The clinical impact of mean vessel size and solidity in breast carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tore Gyland Mikalsen

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis quantification, through vessel counting or area estimation in the most vascular part of the tumour, has been found to be of prognostic value across a range of carcinomas, breast cancer included. We have applied computer image analysis to quantify vascular properties pertaining to size, shape and spatial distributions in photographed fields of CD34 stained sections. Aided by a pilot (98 cases, seven parameters were selected and validated on a separate set from 293 breast cancer patients. Two new prognostic markers were identified through continuous cox regression with endpoints breast cancer specific survival and distant disease free survival: The average size of the vessels as measured by their perimeter (p = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively, and the average complexity of the vessel shapes measured by their solidity (p = 0.004 and 0.004. The Hazard ratios for the corresponding median-dichotomized markers were 2.28 (p = 0.005 and 1.89 (p = 0.016 for the mean perimeter and 1.80 (p = 0.041 and 1.55 (p = 0.095 for the shape complexity. The markers were associated with poor histologic type, high grade, necrosis, HR negativity, inflammation, and p53 expression (vessel size only. Both markers were found to strongly influence the prognostic properties of vascular invasion (VI and disseminated tumour cells in the bone marrow. The latter being prognostic only in cases with large vessels (p = 0.004 and 0.043 or low complexity (p = 0.018 and 0.024, but not in the small or complex vessel groups (p>0.47. VI was significant in all groups, but showed greater hazard ratios for small and low complexity vessels (6.54-11.2 versus large and high complexity vessels (2.64-3.06. We find that not only the overall amount of produced vasculature in angiogenic hot-spots is of prognostic significance, but also the morphological appearance of the generated vessels, i.e. the size and shape of vessels in the studied hot spots.

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  8. 49 CFR 176.5 - Application to vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (explosive) materials, Class 3 (flammable liquids), or Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials, in which case... extinguish fire as the Coast Guard may prescribe; (7) A cable vessel, dredge, elevator vessel, fireboat...

  9. Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study With tocilizumab's approval, there's an alternative ... treating the most common form of blood vessel inflammation known as giant cell arteritis, a new study ...

  10. Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations data release is taken from the Research Vessel Catch (RVCAT) database curated at the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC)....

  11. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  12. Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2016: OP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data have been collected on various vessel operations on the Great Lakes and select connecting waterways. This vessel operations data set is part of and...

  13. Liver vessel segmentation based on extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ye Zhan; Zhao, Yu Qian; Liao, Miao; Zou, Bei Ji; Wang, Xiao Fang; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Liver-vessel segmentation plays an important role in vessel structure analysis for liver surgical planning. This paper presents a liver-vessel segmentation method based on extreme learning machine (ELM). Firstly, an anisotropic filter is used to remove noise while preserving vessel boundaries from the original computer tomography (CT) images. Then, based on the knowledge of prior shapes and geometrical structures, three classical vessel filters including Sato, Frangi and offset medialness filters together with the strain energy filter are used to extract vessel structure features. Finally, the ELM is applied to segment liver vessels from background voxels. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively segment liver vessels from abdominal CT images, and achieves good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug-eluting stents vs bare metal stents for the treatment of large coronary vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quizhpe, Arturo R; Feres, Fausto; de Ribamar Costa, José; Abizaid, Alexandre; Maldonado, Galo; Costa, Ricardo; Abizaid, Andrea; Cano, Manuel; Moreira, Adriana C; Staico, Rodolfo; Mattos, Luiz Alberto; Tanajura, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Aurea; Centemero, Marinella; Sousa, Amanda M R; Sousa, J Eduardo M R

    2007-08-01

    Lately drug-eluting stents (DES) have dramatically reduced restenosis rates and need for repeat revascularization in a wide subset of lesion and patients. However, their benefit for the treatment of large vessels (> 3.0 mm) has yet to be established. We investigated whether DES are superior to bare metal stents (BMS) in terms of clinical outcomes for the treatment of large coronary vessels. This study assessed the long-term outcomes (cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and need for repeat intervention in the treated vessel) of patients treated with either a DES (Cypher and Taxus) or a BMS of > or = 3.5 mm in diameter. A total of 250 consecutive patients who underwent DES implantation were clinically followed for 1 year and compared to 250 patients who were treated with BMS. Interventions in the setting of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction and treatment of bypass grafts were excluded. Cypher was the DES deployed in 70.8% of cases. Most of the enrolled patients were men (78%) with single vessel disease (65.6%). The left anterior descending artery was the culprit vessel in 34.2% of cases. Bare metal stent and DES cohorts had equivalent interpolated reference vessel diameter (3.19 +/- 0.3 mm for BMS vs 3.18 +/- 0.2 for DES; P = .1). Lesion was significantly longer in the group treated with DES (13.4 +/- 5.1 mm for BMS group vs 14.3 +/- 3.5 for DES; P = .0018). After 1 year of clinical follow-up, 95.2% of patients treated with DES and 91.2% of the patients who received BMS were free of major events (P = .2). A trend toward higher target-lesion revascularization was noticed in the group treated with BMS (4.8% vs 1.6%; P = .07). Percutaneous treatment of large coronary vessels carries a low risk of clinical events irrespective of the type of stent used.

  15. Structural network efficiency predicts conversion to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, A.; van Uden, I.W.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; van der Holst, H.; van Norden, A.; de Laat, K.; Dijk, E.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Markus, H.S.; Norris, David Gordon; de Leeuw, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether structural network connectivity at baseline predicts incident all-cause dementia in a prospective hospital-based cohort of elderly participants with MRI evidence of small vessel disease (SVD). Methods: A total of 436 participants from the Radboud University Nijmegen

  16. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  17. Investigation of impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Cornwell, R.; Hanner, D.; Leichter, H.; Mohr, P.

    1963-10-15

    Explosion containment vessels for containing from 2,000 to 3,000 five ton nuclear explosions are considered. Analysis methods appear adequate and lowest weights using the most advanced materials available in the next five years are projected.None of these materials can be fabricated today and all require extensive development. Present material technology limits the choice of materials and defines the weight. The addition of safety factors and fixtures (nozzles, etc.) will add to this weight considerably, and may well radically alter the vessel response. Improvements in the strength weight ratios of metals and glasses over those considered in this report do not appear reasonable at this time. Winding schemes to utilize the high strength of steel wires and somehow maintain a reasonable thickness appear to offer the most promise. A `ductile` beryllium would of course offer vast improvement, but no indications that this is being developed have appeared and all presently known beryllium is much too brittle.

  18. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage......This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...

  19. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

  20. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.