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Sample records for vessel diameters location

  1. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, Psampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  2. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  3. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  4. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per

    2017-01-01

    .01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p vein...... laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. RESULTS: The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p

  5. Novel Computerized Method for Measurement of Retinal Vessel Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Guedri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical studies reveal the relationship between alterations in the topologies of the human retinal blood vessel, the outcrop and the disease evolution, such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Indeed, the detection of these vascular changes always has gaps. In addition, the manual steps are slow, which may be subjected to a bias of the perceiver. However, we can overcome these troubles using computer algorithms that are quicker and more accurate. This paper presents and investigates a novel method for measuring the blood vessel diameter in the retinal image. The proposed method is based on a thresholding segmentation and thinning step, followed by the characteristic point determination step by the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. Thereafter, it uses the active contours to detect vessel contour. Finally, Heron’s Formula is applied to assure the calculation of vessel diameter. The obtained results for six sample images showed that the proposed method generated less errors compared to other techniques, which confirms the high performance of the proposed method.

  6. Vessel diameter measurements in gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRA of peripheral arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, J.J.M.; Geest, van der R.J.; Wasser, M.N.J.M.; Linden, van der E.L.; Walsum, van T.; Assen, van H.C.; Roos, de A.; Vanderschoot, J.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the possibilities for quantification of vessel diameters of peripheral arteries in gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd CE MRA) were evaluated. Absolute vessel diameter measurements were assessed objectively and semi-automatically in maximum intensity

  7. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  8. The design of lifting attachments for the erection of large diameter and heavy wall pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalffy, Leslie P.; Miller, George A.; Kirkpatrick, Kenneth D.; Rajguru, Anil; Zhu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lifting attachments for the erection of large diameter and heavy wall pressure vessels require special consideration to ensure that their attachment to their vessel shells or heads do not overstress the vessel during the erection process when lifting these from grade onto their respective foundations. Today, in refinery and petrochemical services, large diameter vessels with diameters ranging up to 15 m and reactors with lifting weights in the range of 700–1400 tons are not uncommon. In today's fabrication market, these vessels may be purchased and fabricated in shops dispersed globally and will require unique equipment for their safe handling, transportation and subsequent erection. The challenge is to design the lifting attachments in such a manner that the attachments provide a safe, cost effective and effective solution based upon the limitations of the job site lift equipment available for erection. Such equipment for the transportation and subsequent lifting of large diameter and heavy wall pressure equipment is usually scarce and quite expensive. Planning ahead, well in advance of the lift date is almost a mandatory requirement. Usually, the specific parameters of the vessel to be lifted and the lifting equipment available at the site will dictate the type of lifting attachments to be designed for the vessel. Once the type of vessel attachment has been chosen, careful consideration must be given to the design of attachments to the pressure vessel in consideration to ensure that the vessel and lifting components are not overstressed during the lifting process. The paper also discusses different types of lifting attachments that may be attached to each end of the vessel either by bolting or welding and discusses the pros and cons of each. The paper also provides an example of a finite element analysis (FEA) of a top nozzle, a FEA of a pair of lifting trunnions and a FEA of welded on lifting lugs for buried pipe. The purpose of the paper is to outline the

  9. Apparatus for locating inspection device in a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method for accurately locating an inspection device with a PWR or BWR pressure vessel uses a plurity of guide members and an internal location element, the exact position of which is known. Used for defining the size, orientation and position of a flow. (U.K.)

  10. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...

  11. Quantitative measurement of changes in retinal vessel diameter in ocular fundus images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2000-01-01

    The change in diameter of retinal vessels as a function of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN) is considered re...

  12. Automatic evaluation of vessel diameter variation from 2D X-ray angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'hiri, Faten; Duong, Luc; Desrosiers, Christian; Dahdah, Nagib; Miró, Joaquim; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Early detection of blood vessel pathologies can be made through the evaluation of functional and structural abnormalities in the arteries, including the arterial distensibility measure. We propose a feasibility study on computing arterial distensibility automatically from monoplane 2D X-ray sequences for both small arteries (such as coronary arteries) and larger arteries (such as the aorta). To compute the distensibility measure, three steps were developed: First, the segment of an artery is extracted using our graph-based segmentation method. Then, the same segment is tracked in the moving sequence using our spatio-temporal segmentation method: the Temporal Vessel Walker. Finally, the diameter of the artery is measured automatically at each frame of the sequence based on the segmentation results. The method was evaluated using one simulated sequence and 4 patients' angiograms depicting the coronary arteries and three depicting the ascending aorta. Results of the simulated sequence achieved a Dice index of 98%, with a mean squared error in diameter measurement of [Formula: see text] mm. Results obtained from patients' X-ray sequences are consistent with manual assessment of the diameter by experts. The proposed method measures changes in diameter of a specific segment of a blood vessel during the cardiac sequence, automatically based on monoplane 2D X-ray sequence. Such information might become a key to help physicians in the detection of variations of arterial stiffness associated with early stages of various vasculopathies.

  13. Relationship between retinal vessel diameters and retinopathy in the Inter99 Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Munch, Inger Christine; Glümer, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between retinal vessel diameters and retinopathy in participants with and without type 2 diabetes in a Danish population-based cohort. METHODS: The study included 878 persons aged 30 to 60 years from the Inter99 Eye Study. Retinopathy was defined as a presence...... was 6.3 µm (CI 95%: 1.0 to 11.6, p = 0.020) wider and CRVE was 7.9 µm (CI 95%: 0.7 to 15.2, p = 0.030) wider in those with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy, after adjusting for age, gender, HbA1c, blood pressure, smoking, serum total and HDL cholesterol. In all participants, CRAE.......001), and decreased with higher HDL cholesterol (p gender was associated with wider CRVE (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Wider retinal vessel diameters were associated with the presence of retinopathy in participants with diabetes, but not in participants without diabetes...

  14. Estimation of center line and diameter of brain blood vessel using three-dimensional blood vessel matching method with head three-dimensional CTA image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Masashi; Shinohara, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Masato; Nakasako, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    To support and automate the brain blood vessel disease diagnosis, a novel method to obtain the center line and the diameter of a blood vessel is proposed with a three-dimensional head computed tomographic angiography (CTA) image. Although the line thinning processing with distance transform or gray information is generally used to obtain the blood vessel center line, this method is not essentially one to obtain the center line and tends to yield extra lines depending on CTA images. In this study, the center line of the blood vessel is obtained by tracing the vessel. The blood vessel is traced by sequentially estimating the center point and direction of the blood vessel. The center point and direction of the blood vessel are estimated by taking the correlation between the blood vessel and a solid model of the blood vessel that is designed by considering noise influence. In addition, the vessel diameter is also estimated by correlating the blood vessel and the blood vessel model of which the diameter is variable. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimentally applied the proposed method to an actual three-dimensional head CTA image. (author)

  15. Pulmonary artery pulsatility and effect on vessel diameter assessment in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariat, Masoud; Schantz, Daryl; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Seed, Mike; Alnafisi, Bahiyah; Chu, Leysia; MacGowan, Christopher K.; Amerom, Joshua van; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information about thoracic vascular sizes can crucially affect clinical decision-making in cardiovascular disease. A variety of imaging techniques such as catheter angiography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are routinely used to measure vascular diameters. Traditionally, CMR black blood sequences were the main anatomical tool for visualization of vascular anatomy and still are in many centers. More recently, the vessel diameters are measured on multiplanar reconstructions derived from static magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This study was performed to investigate the variation of vessel diameter measurements on different CMR techniques with respect to their data acquisition scheme. Methods: We recruited two groups of patients for this prospective study. One group included patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), with at least moderate pulmonary insufficiency and another group of patients who underwent CMR as part of a diagnostic work-up for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Additional images of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) were acquired in the double inversion recovery (DIR) black blood, cine steady state free precession (SSFP) and MRA. All images were reviewed by two CMR trained readers using the electronic caliper provided within the picture archiving and communication system package. The maximum diameter of each artery was recorded in millimeters with up to one decimal point. Paired t-tests and Bland–Altman plots were used for comparison of measurements between different sequences. Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited for this study, 26 patients in the TOF group (15 males, age 12.55 ± 2.9) and 26 patients in the ARVC group (15 males, age 15.6 ± 2.3). In both groups, the RPA sizes were not significantly different between the DIR images and diastolic cine SSFP (p > 0.05). Measurements on DIR were significantly smaller than those made on

  16. Pulmonary artery pulsatility and effect on vessel diameter assessment in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariat, Masoud, E-mail: masoudshariat@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Schantz, Daryl, E-mail: daryl.schantz@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoo, Shi-Joon, E-mail: shi-joon.yoo@sickkids.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wintersperger, Bernd J., E-mail: bernd.wintersperger@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Seed, Mike, E-mail: mike.seed@sickkids.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alnafisi, Bahiyah, E-mail: bahiyah.alnafisi@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chu, Leysia, E-mail: leysia_99@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); MacGowan, Christopher K., E-mail: christopher.macgowan@sickkids.ca [Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amerom, Joshua van, E-mail: Joshu.vanamerom@sickkids.ca [Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars, E-mail: lars.grosse-wortmann@sickkids.ca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Background: Information about thoracic vascular sizes can crucially affect clinical decision-making in cardiovascular disease. A variety of imaging techniques such as catheter angiography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are routinely used to measure vascular diameters. Traditionally, CMR black blood sequences were the main anatomical tool for visualization of vascular anatomy and still are in many centers. More recently, the vessel diameters are measured on multiplanar reconstructions derived from static magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This study was performed to investigate the variation of vessel diameter measurements on different CMR techniques with respect to their data acquisition scheme. Methods: We recruited two groups of patients for this prospective study. One group included patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), with at least moderate pulmonary insufficiency and another group of patients who underwent CMR as part of a diagnostic work-up for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Additional images of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) were acquired in the double inversion recovery (DIR) black blood, cine steady state free precession (SSFP) and MRA. All images were reviewed by two CMR trained readers using the electronic caliper provided within the picture archiving and communication system package. The maximum diameter of each artery was recorded in millimeters with up to one decimal point. Paired t-tests and Bland–Altman plots were used for comparison of measurements between different sequences. Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited for this study, 26 patients in the TOF group (15 males, age 12.55 ± 2.9) and 26 patients in the ARVC group (15 males, age 15.6 ± 2.3). In both groups, the RPA sizes were not significantly different between the DIR images and diastolic cine SSFP (p > 0.05). Measurements on DIR were significantly smaller than those made on

  17. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... is a valid method for assessing macular perfusion. Results were consistent with previous observations of hyperoxic blood flow reduction using blue field entoptic and laser Doppler velocimetry. Retinal perfusion seemed to be regulated around individual set points according to blood glucose levels. Multimodal...

  18. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having...... traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P ... diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant...

  19. The dimensional changes of a 24 inch diameter vessel during a campaign of successive glass making runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout the life of a 24 inch diameter Glass Making Vessel used on the inactive Harvest Vitrification Plant dimensional measurements have been recorded. When glass is present the diameter increases due to thermal stresses. Some permanent longitudinal extension (about 1%) occurred over the 20 runs comprising the glass-making campaign. (author)

  20. Retinal Oximetry and Vessel Diameter Measurements With a Commercially Available Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin; Felder, Anthony E; Joslin, Charlotte E; Kresovich, Jacob K; Lim, Jennifer I; Chau, Felix Y; Leiderman, Yannek; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that retinal vascular diameter and hemoglobin oxygen saturation alterations, according to stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), are discernible with a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). One hundred eighty-one subjects with no diabetes (No DM), diabetes with no DR (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR, all had photocoagulation) underwent imaging with an SLO with dual lasers (532 nm and 633 nm). Customized image analysis software determined the diameters of retinal arteries and veins (DA and DV) and central retinal artery and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Oxygen saturations of hemoglobin in arteries and veins (SO2A and SO2V) were estimated from optical densities of vessels on images at the two wavelengths. Statistical models were generated by adjusting for effects of sex, race, age, eye, and fundus pigmentation. DA, CRAE, and CRVE were reduced in PDR compared to No DM (P ≤ 0.03). DV and CRVE were similar between No DM and No DR, but they were higher in NPDR than No DR (P ≤ 0.01). Effect of stage of disease on SO2A differed by race, being increased relative to No DM in NPDR and PDR in Hispanic participants only (P ≤ 0.02). Relative to No DM, SO2V was increased in NPDR and PDR (P ≤ 0.05). Alterations in retinal vascular diameters and SO2 by diabetic retinopathy stage can be detected with a widely available SLO, and covariates such as race can influence the results.

  1. A study of magnification effect to precision of computerized diameter measurement of a 3-mm vessel phantom in cineangiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Yoshio; Sugahara, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Naozou; Fukunishi, Yasunobu.

    1994-01-01

    To estimate influence of magnification on digitizing to Precision of computerized measurement of coronary vessel diameter, the two measurement methods, i.e., a combined filter and Entropy filter, were applied to magnified images (x1-x6) of cineangiograms radiographed for a 3-mm vessel phantom. In conclusion, the desirable precision in clinical use, we thought, was obtainable at the magnification of x3 to x4. (author)

  2. Does Physical Fitness Buffer the Relationship between Psychosocial Stress, Retinal Vessel Diameters, and Blood Pressure among Primary Schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, Katharina; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Strong evidence exists showing that psychosocial stress plays an important part in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Because physical inactivity is associated with less favourable retinal vessel diameter and blood pressure profiles, this study explores whether physical fitness is able to buffer the negative effects of psychosocial stress on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in young children. Methods. 325 primary schoolchildren (51% girls, Mage = 7.28 years) took part in this cross-sectional research project. Retinal arteriolar diameters, retinal venular diameters, arteriolar to venular ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were assessed in all children. Interactions terms between physical fitness (performance in the 20 m shuttle run test) and four indicators of psychosocial stress (parental reports of critical life events, family, peer and school stress) were tested in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results. Critical life events and family, peer, and school-related stress were only weakly associated with retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure. No support was found for a stress-buffering effect of physical fitness. Conclusion. More research is needed with different age groups to find out if and from what age physical fitness can protect against arteriolar vessel narrowing and the occurrence of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27795958

  3. Break location influence in pressure vessel SBLOCA scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, Andrea; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: anquevi@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    The inspections performed in Davis Besse and in the South Texas Project Unit-I reactors pointed out safety issues regarding the structural integrity of the Pressure Vessel (PV). In these inspections, two anomalies were found: a wall thinning and degradation in the PV upper head of the Davis Besse reactor and a small amount of residue around of two instrument-tube penetration nozzles located in the PV lower plenum of the South Texas Project Unit-I reactor. The evolution of these defects could have resulted in Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accidents (SBLOCA) if they had not been detected in time. In this frame, the OECD/NEA considered the necessity to simulate these accidental sequences in the OECD/NEA ROSA Project using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). This work is focused in simulating different hypothetical accidental scenarios in the PV using the thermalhydraulic code TRACE5. These simulations allow studying the break localization influence in the transient and the effectiveness of the accident management (AM) actions considered mitigating the consequences of these hypothetical accidental scenarios. (author)

  4. Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    Various hypotheses could explain the relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposition may reduce capillary density, affect endothelial cells of blood vessels, result in diffusion from blood vessels, or interfere with the perivascular clearance mechanism. Hence, the spatial pattern of the classic ('cored') type of Abeta deposit was studied in the upper laminae (I,II/III) of the superior frontal gyrus in nine cases of sporadic AD (SAD). Sections were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta and with collagen IV to study the relationships between the spatial distribution of the classic deposits and the blood vessel profiles. Both the classic deposits and blood vessel profiles were distributed in clusters. In all cases, there was a positive spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the larger diameter (>10 microm) blood vessel profiles and especially the vertically penetrating arterioles. In only 1 case, was there a significant spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the smaller diameter (upper laminae of the frontal cortex. This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain.

  5. Prediction of Composite Pressure Vessel Failure Location using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Steven T.; Taylor, F. Tad; Ortyl, Nicholas E.; Grant, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Ten composite pressure vessels were instrumented with fiber Bragg grating sensors in order to assess the strain levels of the vessel under various loading conditions. This paper and presentation will discuss the testing methodology, the test results, compare the testing results to the analytical model, and present a possible methodology for predicting the failure location and strain level of composite pressure vessels.

  6. Method and system for installing a layered vessel on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechacek, R.E.; Clay, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for installing a layered vessel wherein the method includes the steps of constructing the bottom vessel head section in an inverted position mounting the bottom head section on the vessel foundation, erecting a generally cylindrical construction frame having a plurality of annular work stations; substantially simultaneously with the erection of the cylindrical construction frame, constructing onto the bottom head a cylindrical inside shell liner and a hemispherical upper head inside liner and adding layers to the inside shell from the bottom upwardly with the addition of such layers occurring substantially simultaneously at various of the annular work stations. A system for accomplishing these steps is provided, including particular method for constructing the bottom head, and further, an annularly movable crane assembly is provided for the work stations. (author)

  7. Turbulent flow in a vessel agitated by side entering inclined blade turbine with different diameter using CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathonah, N. N.; Nurtono, T.; Kusdianto; Winardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Single phase turbulent flow in a vessel agitated by side entering inclined blade turbine has simulated using CFD. The aim of this work is to identify the hydrodynamic characteristics of a model vessel, which geometrical configuration is adopted at industrial scale. The laboratory scale model vessel is a flat bottomed cylindrical tank agitated by side entering 4-blade inclined blade turbine with impeller rotational speed N=100-400 rpm. The effect of the impeller diameter on fluid flow pattern has been investigated. The fluid flow patterns in a vessel is essentially characterized by the phenomena of macro-instabilities, i.e. the flow patterns change with large scale in space and low frequency. The intensity of fluid flow in the tank increase with the increase of impeller rotational speed from 100, 200, 300, and 400 rpm. It was accompanied by shifting the position of the core of circulation flow away from impeller discharge stream and approached the front of the tank wall. The intensity of fluid flow in the vessel increase with the increase of the impeller diameter from d=3 cm to d=4 cm.

  8. Retinal vessel diameter and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in arterial hypertension: the Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive retinal microvascular abnormalities include an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio. Because central retinal vein pressure depends on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), we examined whether the retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio and other retinal hypertensive signs are associated with CSFP. Participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (n = 1,574 subjects) underwent measurement of the temporal inferior and superior retinal artery and vein diameter. CSFP was calculated as 0.44 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Larger retinal vein diameters and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratios were significantly associated with higher estimated CSFP (P = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. In contrast, temporal inferior retinal arterial diameter was marginally associated (P = 0.03) with estimated CSFP, and temporal superior artery diameter was not significantly associated (P = 0.10) with estimated CSFP; other microvascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous crossing signs, were also not significantly associated with estimated CSFP. In a reverse manner, higher estimated CSFP as a dependent variable in the multivariable analysis was associated with wider retinal veins and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio. In the same model, estimated CSFP was not significantly correlated with retinal artery diameters or other retinal microvascular abnormalities. Correspondingly, arterial hypertension was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous crossing signs (P = 0.003), thinner temporal retinal arteries (P arterial hypertension, an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio depends on elevated CSFP, which is correlated with blood pressure. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The relationship of flow velocities to vessel diameters differs between extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2014-01-01

    Chronic changes in flow rate through arteries produce adjustment of arterial diameters. We compared the relationship between flow velocity and diameter in the carotid and in the vertebral arteries of stroke patients. Using triplex ultrasonography, the internal diameter and flow velocities of the common carotid, internal carotid, and vertebral arteries of 176 consecutive stroke patients were measured. Correlations were examined with Pearson's statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. Mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 12 years, and 66% had cerebral infarcts. Diameter and blood flow velocities showed significant negative correlations (-0.115 ≥ r ≥ -0.382) in the carotid arteries on both sides, but positive correlations (0.211 ≤ r ≤ 0.320) in the vertebral arteries, even after controlling for age, gender, and blood pressure. Our study demonstrated different diameter/flow relationships in the carotid and the vertebral arteries of stroke patients, which may suggest pathologic changes in the adaptive processes governing vessel diameter and growth, especially in the carotid arteries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  11. New leak detection and location techniques for pipework and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jax, P.; Leuker, W.

    1992-01-01

    The new monitoring systems are based on the moisture measurement with permeable sensor tubing or on acoustic measurement of leakage noise. An important characteristic is the capability to detect and locate leakages sensitively. Various physical dimensions are measured and accordingly there are differences in response time, sensitivity, accuracy of location and the ability to make statements about leakage rate. This paper considers in detail the basic principles, the technical system, areas of application and experience available. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Medical Applications of Polycaprolactone Small Diameter Artificial Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnazsadat Mirbagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the cardiovascular diseases and decreasing the possibility of autograft surgery are important factors that cause the choice of artificial vascular graft as an alternative treatment method. In this regard, producing artificial grafts similar to natural vessels is an important purpose that has long been followed as a gold standard by many researchers worldwide. In addition, mechanical properties including strength, long patency, bio-compatibility and hydrophobicity are necessary properties to achieve ideal vascular grafts. Hence there are various factors such as polymer type and preparation methods, which contribute to suitable mechanical properties. The electrospinning as an optimized method on one side and biocompatible, degradable and semicrystalline polycaprolactone (PCL on the other side are used for their acceptable mechanical properties to manufacture synthetic vessels. In this study, PCL vascular grafts have been reviewed and a wide range of parameters affecting the improvement of mechanical properties and their performance have been described along with clinical applications. Therefore, by investigating and comparing single and composite PCL vascular grafts, we achieved acceptable results in the field of cell growth and adhesion as well as implanting grafts in animals such as rat and rabbit. By reviewing other studies, it was revealed that synthetic composite vessels made of PCL and natural polymers such as collagen and chitosan and synthetic polymers such as polyurethane (PU for long patency and acceptable cell adhesion have shown good clinical results.

  13. About a mechanism of the influence of shear stress for viscosity of the blood in vessels of small diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лев Николаевич Катюхин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed a physiological and experimentally confirmed explanation of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist-effect in capillaries using the profile analyses of osmotic deformability of red blood cells. It was shown the dose-dependent change of the erythrocytes deformability in the stage of isotropic spheres after forming artificial water pores (nystatin and occlusion (PbCl2 of available pores. The Sigma-effect reducing of hematocrit and viscosity in a shear flow of blood through the vessels of a small diameter was conditioned by the interchange of liquid phase between the erythrocyte and the plasma.

  14. Retinal vessel diameters decrease with macular ganglion cell layer thickness in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Grønskov, Karen; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    diameters (central retinal artery equivalent, CRAE, and central retinal vein equivalent, CRVE). Statistical analysis was corrected for age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, axial length and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: Retinal arteries and veins were...... ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0057, respectively). CONCLUSION: Narrow retinal arteries and veins were associated not only with the severity of ADOA but with ganglion cell volume in patients with ADOA and in healthy subjects. This suggests that narrow vessels...

  15. Fast retinal vessel detection and measurement using wavelets and edge location refinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bankhead

    Full Text Available The relationship between changes in retinal vessel morphology and the onset and progression of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been the subject of several large scale clinical studies. However, the difficulty of quantifying changes in retinal vessels in a sufficiently fast, accurate and repeatable manner has restricted the application of the insights gleaned from these studies to clinical practice. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the efficient detection and measurement of retinal vessels, which is general enough that it can be applied to both low and high resolution fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms upon the adjustment of only a few intuitive parameters. Firstly, we describe the simple vessel segmentation strategy, formulated in the language of wavelets, that is used for fast vessel detection. When validated using a publicly available database of retinal images, this segmentation achieves a true positive rate of 70.27%, false positive rate of 2.83%, and accuracy score of 0.9371. Vessel edges are then more precisely localised using image profiles computed perpendicularly across a spline fit of each detected vessel centreline, so that both local and global changes in vessel diameter can be readily quantified. Using a second image database, we show that the diameters output by our algorithm display good agreement with the manual measurements made by three independent observers. We conclude that the improved speed and generality offered by our algorithm are achieved without sacrificing accuracy. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB along with a graphical user interface, and we have made the source code freely available.

  16. Bursting tests on pressure vessels with cracks differing in configuration and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlberg, R.

    1978-01-01

    For assessing the safety of nuclear pressure vessels exhibiting cracks, bursting test were carried out on a series of medium-size pressure vessels with and without welded nozzles and exhibiting cracks differing in configuration and location. The linear-elastic approach proved to be sufficiently accurate for straight strain conditions up to the onset of general yielding. Other analytical methods were successfully used to cover the plastic region. (orig.) [de

  17. The effect of vessel speed on the survivorship of biofouling organisms at different hull locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Piola, Richard F; Taylor, Michael D; Hewitt, Chad L; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2010-07-01

    This study used a specially designed MAGPLATE system to quantify the en route survivorship and post-voyage recovery of biofouling assemblages subjected to short voyages (biofouling organisms amongst hull locations, biofouling cover and richness were markedly reduced on faster vessels relative to slower craft. Therefore, the potential inoculum size of non-indigenous marine species and richness is likely to be reduced for vessels that travel at faster speeds (> 14 knots), which is likely to also reduce the chances of successful introductions. Despite this, the magnitude of introductions from biofouling on fast vessels can be considered minor, especially for species richness where 90% of source-port species were recorded at destinations.

  18. Positioning means for circumferentially locating inspection apparatus in a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positioning means for locating inspection apparatus used to volumetrically examine a nuclear reactor vessel is disclosed. The positioning means is provided with a support ring having an annular key positioned longitudinally about its periphery. Three support legs are attached to the support ring by brackets adapted to fit the annular key. The support ring also carries three guide stud bushings which are movably mounted by clamps adapted to engage the support ring key. Prior to lowering the inspection apparatus into the vessel, the guide stud bushings are each moved to a point of alignment with one of three guide studs extending upwardly from the vessel. After alignment has been verified, the guide stud bushings are clamped in position. The inspection apparatus is lowered towards its fully seated position within the vessel and is coarsely circumferentially positioned with by the engagement of the guide studs within the guide stud bushings. A fine degree of circumferential positioning is achieved by providing a specially configured shoe for one of the support legs. With the core barrel internals in, the special shoe is adapted to key onto a core barrel pin the exact location of which is known. With the core barrel internals removed, the special shoe is adapted to place a locating key into a notch in a vessel flange, the location of which is known. As the inspection apparatus is lowered into its fully seated position, exact circumferential positioning with respect to the vessel is achieved. The other support legs rest on an inner circumferential flange so that no portion of the inspection apparatus touches or threatens the vessel's top flange. 19 claims

  19. Positioning means for circumferentially locating inspection apparatus in a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    There is provided for a reactor vessel inspection device a support ring sized to accommodate the circular path defined by three or more guide studs extending upwardly from the vessel. The support ring has at least three movably mounted guide stud bushings which can be positionally adjusted to align each bushing with one of the studs. When engaged, the guide studs and bushings yield a coarse positioning of the inspection device relative to the reactor vessel. Also provided are three support legs which are clamped to the support ring and dimensioned to an appropriate length. Two of the support legs have shoes clamped thereto, configured to rest on an internal circumferential flange within the reactor vessel. The third support leg is provided with a specially adapted shoe configured to engage a locating element, the exact position of which is known, within the vessel to achieve fine positioning of the inspection device relative to the reactor vessel. The support ring is additionally provided with an annular key which runs longitudinally about its outer periphery. Clamping means utilized to secure the guide stud bushings and the support legs to the support ring are provided with keyways to insure automatic self-alignment when fully tightened. (auth)

  20. Optimal graft diameter and location reduce postoperative complications after total arch replacement with long elephant trunk for arch aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Haruhiko; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Toda, Koich; Kainuma, Satoshi; Kuki, Satoru; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk is a standard treatment for arch aneurysm, but serious complications, such as paraplegia and peripheral embolization caused by flapping of the elephant trunk, remain. Moreover, dilation of the descending aorta and retrograde flow into the peri-graft space at the distal elephant trunk are frequent problems. We hypothesized that optimal graft diameter and location would reduce complications after total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk by achieving complete thrombosis and minimal dilation of the descending aorta around the elephant trunk. We treated 65 patients with arch aneurysm by total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk anastomosed at the base of the innominate artery. The graft diameter was undersized (10%-20% of the distal aorta's diameter). Elephant trunk length was determined by preoperative computed tomography to locate the distal end at Th6 to Th8. Thrombosis around the elephant trunk, diameter of the descending aorta, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft near the distal end of the elephant trunk were evaluated using computed tomography. The distal end of the elephant trunk was located at Th 8 ± 1. There were no operative deaths, 3 patients (5%) died in the hospital, and 3 patients (5%) experienced spinal cord injury, including 1 in whom permanent paraplegia developed. Computed tomography revealed complete thrombosis around the elephant trunk in 58 patients (89%). The descending aorta did not dilate further, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft progressively decreased. Optimal graft diameter and location minimized postoperative complications, with complete thrombosis and no dilation of the descending aorta around the long elephant trunk in most patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of in-core instrumentation mounting location on external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jungsoo; Ha, Huiun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations were conducted for the evaluation of an IVR-ERVC application. • The ULPU-V experiment was simulated for the validation of numerical method. • The effect of ICI mounting location on an IVR-ERVC application was investigated. • TM-ICI is founded to be superior to BM-ICI for successful application of IVR-ERVC. - Abstract: The effect of in-core instrumentation (ICI) mounting location on the application of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC), used to mitigate severe accidents in which the nuclear fuel inside the reactor vessel becomes molten, was investigated. Numerical simulations of the subcooled boiling flow within an advanced pressurized-water reactor (PWR) in IVR-ERVC applications were conducted for the cases of top-mounted ICI (TM-ICI) and bottom-mounted ICI (BM-ICI), using the commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX. Shear stress transport (SST) and the RPI model were used for turbulence closure and subcooled flow boiling, respectively. To validate the numerical method for IVR applications, numerical simulations of ULPU-V experiments were also conducted. The BM-ICI reactor vessel was modeled using a simplified design of an advanced PWR with BM-ICI; the TM-ICI counterpart was modeled by removing the ICI parts from the original geometry. It was found that TM-ICI was superior to BM-ICI for successful application of IVR-ERVC. For the BM-ICI case, the flow field was complicated because of the existence of ICIs and a significant temperature gradient was observed near the ICI nozzles on the lower part of the reactor vessel, where the ICIs were attached. These observations suggest that the existence of ICI below the reactor vessel hinders reactor vessel cooling.

  2. Evaluation of stresses in large diameter, thin walled piping at support locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B.J.; Flanders, H.E. Jr.; Rawls, G.B. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The highest stresses in many thin walled piping systems are the local stresses at the pipe supports. These secondary stresses are caused by saddles or other structural discontinuities that restrain pipe ovalization. A static analysis of a thin walled pipe supported on structural steel saddle under dead weight loading is presented. The finite element analysis is performed using a shell model with distributed gravity and hydrostatic pressure loading. Parametric studies on global and local stress are performed to determine the effect of the pipe diameter to thickness ratio. Two aspects of the saddle design are also investigated: the effect of saddle width, and the effect of saddle wrap angle. Additionally, the computed stresses are compared to closed form solutions

  3. Two Versus Three Narrow-Diameter Implants with Locator Attachments Supporting Mandibular Overdentures: A Two-Year Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare treatment outcome (survival rate, condition of hard and soft peri-implant tissues and prosthodontic maintenance requirements of two versus three narrow-diameter bone level implants with Locator attachments supporting mandibular overdentures. Materials and Methods. Twenty completely edentulous patients with atrophic mandibles were treated. Ten patients (Group A were treated with overdentures supported by two narrow (3.3-mm diameter implants (Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland and ten patients (Group B were treated with overdentures supported by three narrow implants. Locator (Zest Anchors, USA attachments were used for prosthetic anchorage. Standardized clinical and radiographic parameters (survival rate, plaque index, calculus index, gingival index, bleeding index, probing depth and marginal bone loss were evaluated at the time of the completion of the prosthetic treatment (baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months of functional loading. Prosthodontic maintenance requirements were also scored. Results. Only one implant was lost (Group B during the healing period. There were no significant differences with regards to any of the studied clinical and radiographic parameters between the two groups (>0.05. Few prosthetic complications were recorded. Conclusions. No need to insert more than two narrow-diameter bone level implants with Locator attachments in cases of atrophic mandible to support an overdenture, however, long-term prospective studies are required to support this notion.

  4. Variations of vessel diameter and δ13C in false rings of Arbutus unedo L. reflect different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; De Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Linke, Petra; Aronne, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Woody species in Mediterranean ecosystems form intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings in response to changes in environmental conditions, especially water availability. Dendrochronology, quantitative wood anatomy and high-resolution isotopic analysis (using a laser ablation technique) were used to characterize IADFs in Arbutus unedo shrubs grown on two sites with different water availability on the island of Elba (Italy). Our findings show that IADF characterization can provide information about the relationship between environmental factors and tree growth at the seasonal level. At the more xeric site, IADFs mainly located in the early and middle parts of the annual ring, showed a decrease in vessel size and an increase in δ(13) C as a result of drought deficit. Opposite trends were found at the more mesic site, with IADFs located at the end of the ring and associated with a lower δ(13) C. Moreover, at the first site, IADFs are induced by drought deficit, while at the second site IADFs are linked with the regrowth in the last part of the growing season triggered by favourable wet conditions. This combined approach is a promising way for dating problematic wood samples and interpreting the phenomena that trigger the formation of IADFs in the Mediterranean environment. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  5. Porous hybrid structures based on P(DLLA-co-TMC) and collagen for tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttafoco, L.; Boks, Niels P.; Engbers-Buijtenhuijs, P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Poot, Andreas A.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Vermes, I.; Feijen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Poly (D,L-lactide)-7co-(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) [P(DLLA-co-TMC)] (83 mol % DLLA) was used to produce matrices suitable for tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels. The copolymer was processed into tubular structures with a porosity of 98% by melt spinning and fiber winding, thus

  6. FFTF and CRBRP reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) reactor vessel each serve to enclose a fast spectrum reactor core, contain the sodium coolant, and provide support and positioning for the closure head and internal structure. Each vessel is located in its reactor cavity and is protected by a guard vessel which would ensure continued decay heat removal capability should a major system leak develop. Although the two plants have significantly different thermal power ratings, 400 megawatts for FFTF and 975 megawatts for CRBRP, the two reactor vessels are comparable in size, the CRBRP vessel being approximately 28% longer than the FFTF vessel. The FFTF vessel diameter was controlled by the space required for the three individual In-Vessel Handling Machines and Instrument Trees. Utilization of the triple rotating plug scheme for CRBRP refueling enables packaging of the larger CRBRP core in a vessel the same diameter as the FFTF vessel

  7. Automatic localization of bifurcations and vessel crossings in digital fundus photographs using location regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Dumitrescu, Alina V.; van Ginneken, Bram; Abrámoff, Michael D.

    2011-03-01

    Parameters extracted from the vasculature on the retina are correlated with various conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular diseases such as stroke. Segmentation of the vasculature on the retina has been a topic that has received much attention in the literature over the past decade. Analysis of the segmentation result, however, has only received limited attention with most works describing methods to accurately measure the width of the vessels. Analyzing the connectedness of the vascular network is an important step towards the characterization of the complete vascular tree. The retinal vascular tree, from an image interpretation point of view, originates at the optic disc and spreads out over the retina. The tree bifurcates and the vessels also cross each other. The points where this happens form the key to determining the connectedness of the complete tree. We present a supervised method to detect the bifurcations and crossing points of the vasculature of the retina. The method uses features extracted from the vasculature as well as the image in a location regression approach to find those locations of the segmented vascular tree where the bifurcation or crossing occurs (from here, POI, points of interest). We evaluate the method on the publicly available DRIVE database in which an ophthalmologist has marked the POI.

  8. Cerebro-afferent vessel and pupillary basal diameter variation induced by stomatognathic trigeminal proprioception: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco, Vincenzo

    2012-09-03

    A patient affected by asymmetric hemodynamics of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent duplex color scanner investigations in occlusal proprioceptive un- and rebalance conditions. Pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to spot connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere on sympathetic autonomic activity. The aim of this case report is to verify if involuntary jaw closing during swallowing, executed in unbalance and rebalance myoelectric activity, would be able to modify cerebral hemodynamics. A 56-year-old Caucasian Italian woman affected by asymmetric blood flow of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent an electromyographic investigation of her occlusal muscles in order to assess their occlusal functional balance. The extreme asymmetry of myoelectric activity in dental occlusion evidenced by electromyographic values suggested the rebalancing of the functions of occlusal muscles through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supra- and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allowed the detection of a symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch: called orthotic-syntropic bite for its peculiar use of electrostimulation. A few days later, the patient underwent a duplex color scanner investigation and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal unbalance and rebalance conditions. A comparative data analysis showed that an unbalanced dental occlusal function may represent an interferential pattern on cerebral hemodynamics velocity and pupillometric evaluations have proved useful both in the analysis of locus coeruleus functional modalities and as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of pathologies involving locus coeruleus and autonomic systems. The inclusion of myoelectric masseter examinations can be useful in patients with asymmetric hemodynamics of cerebro

  9. Effect of location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of Myrciaria dubia (HBK "camu camu" for vegetative propagation by air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Oliver Liao Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the location and diameter of the branch in three genotypes of camu camu using the technique of air layering on rooting and sprouting. The mother plants were bent and then rooted branches were transplanted following the design of randomized complete block with three replications. At 3 months after transplantation was the assessment of the variables, finding the best values for the number of roots to the middle third, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 28.67 and 28.33 roots, respectively, in the variable length of the upper third roots, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 showed the best results with 15.27 cm. Regarding the number of outbreaks upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 achieved the best results with 13.00 and 12.67 outbreaks, respectively, in the length of shoots, the best treatment was the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 30.73 cm, and finally in the variable number of leaves / shoot highlights the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-014 and the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 with 15.10 leaves per shoot and 14.83, respectively. The results allowed identifying the upper, thick diameter, Genotype MD-015 as the best in terms of rooting and sprouting capacity.

  10. Dependence of diameters and oxygen saturation of retinal vessels on visual field damage and age in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Lisa; Jentsch, Susanne; Peters, Sven; Sauer, Lydia; Augsten, Regine; Hammer, Martin

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the interrelationship between the oxygen supply of the retina and its regulation with the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Central retinal artery (CRAE) and vein (CRVE) diameters and oxygen saturation of peripapillary retinal vessels in 41 patients suffering from POAG (64.1 ± 12.9 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (63.6 ± 14.1 years) were measured using the retinal vessel analyzer. All measures were taken before and during flicker light stimulation. The mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was determined by OCT and the visual field mean defect (MD) was identified using perimetry. In glaucoma patients, CRAE (r = -0.48 p = 0.002) and CRVE (r = -0.394 p = 0.014) at baseline were inversely related to MD, while arterial and venous oxygen saturation showed no significant dependence on the severity of the damage. However, the flicker light-induced change in arterio-venous difference in oxygen saturation was correlated with the MD (r = 0.358 p = 0.027). The diameters of arteries and veins at baseline decreased with reduction of the mean RNFLT (arteries: r = 0.718 p field loss, may be explained by a reduction of the retinal metabolic demand with progressive loss of neuronal tissue in glaucoma. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of the Target Vessel on the Location and Area of Maximum Skin Dose during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Fuda, K.; Kagaya, Y.; Saito, H.; Takai, Y.; Kohzuki, M.; Takahash i, S.; Yamada, S.; Zuguchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A number of cases involving radiation-associated patient skin injury attributable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been reported. Knowledge of the location and area of the patient's maximum skin dose (MSD) in PCI is necessary to reduce the risk of skin injury. Purpose: To determine the location and area of the MSD in PCI, and separately analyze the effects of different target vessels. Material and Methods: 197 consecutive PCI procedures were studied, and the location and area of the MSD were calculated by a skin-dose mapping software program: Caregraph. The target vessels of the PCI procedures were divided into four groups based on the American Heart Association (AHA) classification. Results: The sites of the MSD for AHA no.1-3, AHA no.4, and AHA no.11-15 were located mainly on the right back skin, the lower right or center back skin, and the upper back skin areas, respectively, whereas the MSD sites for the AHA no. 5-10 PCI were widely spread. The MSD area for the AHA no. 4 PCI was larger than that for the AHA no. 11-15 PCI (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although the radiation associated with PCI can be widely spread and variable, we observed a tendency regarding the location and area of the MSD when we separately analyzed the data for different target vessels. We recommend the use of a smaller radiation field size and the elimination of overlapping fields during PCI

  12. Effect of diameter and axial location on upward gas–liquid two-phase flow patterns in intermediate-scale vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.; Azadi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A vertical two-phase flow system is manufactured to study flow behavior adiabatically. • Two test sections are studied with inner diameters of 40 mm and 70 mm at two locations. • Flow pattern maps are presented for both tubes. • Effects of tube diameter and heights on pattern transition boundaries are investigated. • Three sub-patterns bubbly flow and two types of slug pattern are recognized. - Abstract: In the present research, a two-phase flow system is designed, manufactured, assembled and adjusted to study two-phase flow behavior isothermally. Test sections are tubes standing in vertical position and are made of transparent acrylic with inner diameters of 40 mm and 70 mm. Two axial locations of 1.73 m and 3.22 m are chosen for data acquisition. Flow pattern maps are presented for both tubes. Effects of tube diameter and axial location on pattern transition boundaries are investigated. Air and water are chosen as working fluids. The range of air and water superficial velocities are 0.054–9.654 m/s and 0.015–0.877 m/s for the 40 mm diameter tube, but these values are 0.038–20.44 m/s and 0.036–1.530 m/s for 70 mm diameter tube. The results show that for both tubes, increasing axial location does not affect flow transition boundaries significantly. However, slug pattern region shrinks considerably by changing tube diameter from 40 mm to 70 mm. Using image processing techniques, recorded high speed movies were investigated accurately. As a result, bubbly flow in the 40 mm tube can be divided into three sub-patterns as dispersed, agitated and agglomerated bubbly. Also, two types of slug pattern are also recognized in the same tube diameter which are called small and large slugs. Semi-annular flow is observed as an independent pattern in the 70 mm tube that does not behave as known churn or annular patterns.

  13. Apparatus for spot welding sheathed thermocouples to the inside of small-diameter tubes at precise locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucum, W.E.; Dial, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment and procedures used to spot weld tantalum- or stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples to the inside diameter of Zircaloy tubing to meet the requirements of the Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) Program at ORNL are described. Spot welding and oxide cleaning tools were fabricated to remove the oxide coating on the Zircaloy tubing at local areas and spot weld four thermocouples separated circumferentially by 90 0 at any axial distribution desired. It was found necessary to apply a nickel coating to stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples to obtain acceptable welds. The material and shape of the inner electrode and resistance between inner and outer electrodes were found to be critical parameters in obtaining acceptable welds

  14. Comparing autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and vessel-based tracking performance for locating acoustically tagged fish

    OpenAIRE

    Eiler, John H.; Grothues, Thomas M.; Dobarro, Joseph A.; Masuda, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV’s) are increasingly used to collect physical, chemical, and biological information in the marine environment. Recent efforts include merging AUV technology with acoustic telemetry to provide information on the distribution and movements of marine fish. We compared surface vessel and AUV tracking capabilities under rigorous conditions in coastal waters near Juneau, Alaska. Tracking surveys were conducted with a REMUS 100 AUV equipped with an integrated acous...

  15. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10 -4 mbarx ell/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helical field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gum-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of >10 -5 mbar xL/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no further leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10 -4 mbar-ell/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helcial field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak-detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gun-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of > 10 -5 mbar-ell/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no furthered leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Drug-eluting stents appear superior to bare metal stents for vein-graft PCI in vessels up to a stent diameter of 4 mm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P. Guttmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundResearch trials have shown improved short-term outcome with drug-eluting stents (DES over bare metal stents (BMS in saphenous vein graft (SVG percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, primarily by reducing target vessel revascularization (TVR for in-stent restenosis. We compared the outcomes in patients undergoing SVG stent implantation treated with DES or BMS. In exploratory analyses we investigated the influence of stent generation and diameter.MethodsData were obtained from a prospective database of 657 patients who underwent PCI for SVG lesions between 2003 and 2011. A total of 344 patients had PCI with BMS and 313 with DES. Propensity scores were developed based on 15 observed baseline covariates in a logistic regression model with stent type as the dependent variable. The nearest-neighbour-matching algorithm with Greedy 5-1 Digit Matching was used to produce two patient cohorts of 313 patients each. We assessed major adverse cardiac events (MACE out to a median of 3.3 years (interquartile range: 2.1-4.1. MACE was defined as all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI, TVR and stroke.ResultsThere was a significant difference in MACE between the two groups in favour of DES (17.9% DES vs. 31.2% BMS group; p = 0.0017 over the 5-year follow-up period. MACE was driven by increased TVR in the BMS group. There was no difference in death, MI or stroke. Adjusted Cox analysis confirmed a decreased risk of MACE for DES compared with BMS 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.52-0.94, with no difference in the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.77-1.68. However, when looking at stent diameters greater than 4 mm, no difference was seen in MACE rates between BMS and DES.ConclusionsOverall in our cohort of patients who had PCI for SVG disease, DES use resulted in lower MACE rates compared with BMS over a 5-year follow-up period; however, for stent diameters over 4 mm no difference in MACE rates was seen.

  18. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB(®) graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Vishnu B; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Saisan, Payam A

    2014-01-01

    We present a database client software-Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0)-that uses MATLAB(®) based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication (Tian et al., 2010). These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization), and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches.

  19. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Locating Contraband Aboard Ocean Going Vessels: Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llopis, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were conducted over various stockpiled materials at the Alabama state Docks located in Mobile, AL, to determine whether GPR is a viable method for rapidly detecting contraband materials...

  20. Impact of Strategically Located White Matter Hyperintensities on Cognition in Memory Clinic Patients with Small Vessel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; Weaver, Nick A; Hilal, Saima; Kuijf, Hugo J; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Xu, Xin; Tan, Boon Yeow; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Postma, Albert; Biessels, Geert Jan; Chen, Christopher P L H

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics. Assumption-free region of interest-based analyses based on major white matter tracts and voxel-wise analyses were used to determine the association between WMH location and executive functioning, visuomotor speed and memory. Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMHs located particularly within the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor were inversely associated with both executive functioning and visuomotor speed, independent of total WMH volume. Memory was significantly associated with WMH volume in the forceps minor, independent of total WMH volume. An independent assumption-free voxel-wise analysis identified strategic voxels in these same tracts. Region of interest-based analyses showed that WMH volume within the anterior thalamic radiation explained 6.8% of variance in executive functioning, compared to 3.9% for total WMH volume; WMH volume within the forceps minor explained 4.6% of variance in visuomotor speed and 4.2% of variance in memory, compared to 1.8% and 1.3% respectively for total WMH volume. Our findings identify the anterior thalamic radiation and forceps minor as strategic white matter tracts in which WMHs are most strongly associated with cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients with SVD. WMH volumes in individual tracts explained more variance in cognition than total WMH burden, emphasizing the importance of lesion location when addressing the functional consequences of WMHs.

  1. Predicting target vessel location on robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft using CT to ultrasound registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Daniel S.; Linte, Cristian; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Barron, John; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG) has gained more acceptance worldwide, its success still depends on the surgeon's experience and expertise, and the conversion rate to full sternotomy is in the order of 15%-25%. One of the reasons for conversion is poor pre-operative planning, which is based solely on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) images. In this paper, the authors propose a technique to estimate the global peri-operative displacement of the heart and to predict the intra-operative target vessel location, validated via both an in vitro and a clinical study. Methods: As the peri-operative heart migration during RA-CABG has never been reported in the literatures, a simple in vitro validation study was conducted using a heart phantom. To mimic the clinical workflow, a pre-operative CT as well as peri-operative ultrasound images at three different stages in the procedure (Stage 0 --following intubation; Stage 1 --following lung deflation; and Stage 2 --following thoracic insufflation) were acquired during the experiment. Following image acquisition, a rigid-body registration using iterative closest point algorithm with the robust estimator was employed to map the pre-operative stage to each of the peri-operative ones, to estimate the heart migration and predict the peri-operative target vessel location. Moreover, a clinical validation of this technique was conducted using offline patient data, where a Monte Carlo simulation was used to overcome the limitations arising due to the invisibility of the target vessel in the peri-operative ultrasound images. Results: For the in vitro study, the computed target registration error (TRE) at Stage 0 , Stage 1 , and Stage 2 was 2.1, 3.3, and 2.6 mm, respectively. According to the offline clinical validation study, the maximum TRE at the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was 4.1 mm at Stage 0 , 5.1 mm at Stage 1 , and 3.4 mm at Stage 2 . Conclusions: The authors

  2. Hemodynamics in stenotic vessels of small diameter under steady state conditions: Effect of viscoelasticity and migration of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Kelesidis, George; Tsouka, Sophia; Georgiou, Georgios C; Tsamopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    In microcirculation, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the complexity of the microvessel network are responsible for the high flow resistance and the large reduction of the blood pressure. Red blood cell aggregation along with inward radial migration are two significant mechanisms determining the former. Yet, their impact on hemodynamics in non-straight vessels is not well understood. In this study, the steady state blood flow in stenotic rigid vessels is examined, employing a sophisticated non-homogeneous constitutive law. The effect of red blood cells migration on the hydrodynamics is quantified and the constitutive model's accuracy is evaluated. A numerical algorithm based on the two-dimensional mixed finite element method and the EVSS/SUPG technique for a stable discretization of the mass and momentum conservation equations in addition to the constitutive model is employed. The numerical simulations show that a cell-depleted layer develops along the vessel wall with an almost constant thickness for slow flow conditions. This causes the reduction of the drag force and the increase of the pressure gradient as the constriction ratio decreases. Viscoelastic effects in blood flow were found to be responsible for steeper decreases of tube and discharge hematocrits as decreasing function of constriction ratio.

  3. Normal ureteral diameter in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, M.; Hjaelmaas, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Oden, A.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Goeteborg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Ureteral diameters were estimated on films from intravenous urography in 194 children (100 boys and 94 girls) aged 0-16 years. Children with signs of urinary tract infection, calculi, obstruction, duplication or malformation were excluded. Films obtained without abdominal compression were used for measurements, including only ureters visualized over 50 per cent of their lengths. A good correlation was demonstrated between ureteral diameter and age and between ureteral diameter and the length of a segment of the lumbar spine. The widest part of the ureter was most often located just above the crossing of the iliac vessels. The right ureter was slightly wider than the left one. No difference between boys and girls was noted. The results are in good agreement with those of others obtained at autopsy. Bearing in mind the possible physiologic variations, it would seem that measuring the ureteral diameter can be of value for a more objective differentiation between dilated and non-dilated ureters. (orig.)

  4. In 6- to 8-year-old children, hair cortisol is associated with body mass index and somatic complaints, but not with stress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 318 children (53% girls, M age =7.26, SD=0.35). Hair strands were taken near the scalp from a posterior vertex position, and HCCs were tested for the first 3-cm hair segment. Parents provided information about their children's age, gender, parental education, children's stress (recent critical life events, daily hassles), health-related quality of life, and psychosomatic complaints. Body composition, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured with established methods. In multiple regression analyses, higher HCCs were weakly associated with increased BMI in girls (β=0.22, pstress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Although small significant relationships were found between HCCs, BMI and somatic complaints, the findings of this exploratory study challenge the view that HCCs can be used as a reliable biomarker of recent critical life events, daily hassles, health-related quality of life, and cardiovascular health indicators in non-clinical young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Process and device for changing a filter located in a vessel without breaking the confinement of the contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Georges.

    1982-01-01

    From the non contaminated area, the filter is enclosed in a leak tight bag which is affixed to the outside periphery of a supporting frame. The filter is placed in the bottom of the bag which is then welded in two places, a cut is then made between the two welds to achieve a sealed membrane separating the two halves of the vessel. An additional supporting frame is then placed on the frame. The new filter is secured in place and the sealed membrane is withdrawn from the contaminated part of the vessel [fr

  6. Manufacturing of ultra-large diameter 20 MnMoNi 5 5 steel forgings for reactor pressure vessels and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Tsukada, H.; Moritani, H.; Suzuki, K.; Sato, I.

    1985-01-01

    As the structural material for RPV typical of increased dimensions, as set of ultra-large diameter steel forgings for a PHWR RPV is presented as outlined below. (1) Material designation: 20 MnMoNi 5 5 (similar to SA508, Cl.3) (2) Size of the forgings: flanges, 8.440 mm OD, a weight of 238 tons for shell flange; shells and torus, 7,920 mm OD, with large height, cover dome, 6,800 mm OD in chord and 460 mm thick; blank before formed to dome is ca. 8,000 mm OD. (3) Chemical composition: particular effort was made for minimizing the tramp elements as P, S, As, Sn, Sb, Cu. (4) Manufacturing, key points: steel making - combined refining and degassing in ladle; ingot making - largest size ingots, including 570 ton and 500 ton ingots; forging - special ''outside-the-press'' forging and forming techniques; heat treatment - prevention of H 2 flaking in normalizing and tempering and handling of the extra-large forgings at water quenching. (5) Metallurgical properties: sufficiently uniform carbon distributions in the forgings; a lowest possible content of hydrogen, non-metallic inclusions and oxygen. Mechanical properties: uniformity in tensile and toughness properties; flaws - only limited number of spots of UT indications under 2 mm EFG (EFS). (orig.)

  7. Performance improvements of the BNC tubes from unique double-silicone-tube bioreactors by introducing chitosan and heparin for application as small-diameter artificial blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Jingyu; Bao, Luhan; Chen, Lin; Hong, Feng F

    2017-12-15

    In order to improve property of bacterial nano-cellulose (BNC) to achieve the requirements of clinical application as small caliber vascular grafts, chitosan (CH) was deposited into the fibril network of the BNC tubes fabricated in unique Double-Silicone-Tube bioreactors. Heparin (Hep) was then chemically grafted into the BNC-based tubes using EDC/NHS crosslinking to improve performance of anticoagulation and endothelialization. Physicochemical and mechanical property, blood compatibility, and cytocompatibility were compared before and after compositing. The results indicated that strength at break was increased but burst pressure decreased slightly after compositing. Performance of the BNC tubes was improved remarkably after introducing chitosan and heparin. The EDC/NHS crosslinking catalyzed both amide bonds and ester bonds formation in the BNC/CH-Hep composites. Three-dimensional surface structure and roughness were firstly obtained and discussed in relation to the hemocompatibility of BNC-based tubes. This work demonstrates the heparinized BNC-based tubes have great potential in application as small-diameter vascular prosthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining the plankton acoustic response with a vessel mounted ADCP across oceanic fronts located in the Drake Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blanc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 2001 and January 2006, during the LMG01-9 and LMG06-1 cruises to Antarctic Peninsula, at-sea oceanographic and acoustic measurements were conducted onboard the R/V L. M. Gould icebreaker along two transects located between (55.15 °S, 65 ºW and (64.65 °S, 65 ºW and between (55.15 ºS, 64.91 ºW and (62.7 ºS, 62.21 ºW, respectively. The scientific crew consisted of researchers from two US institutes, and a scientific observer from the Argentinean Naval Service of Research & Development under the frame of the US National Science Foundation Antarctic Program. The present work accomplishes an alternative application for a vesselmounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP with an operating frequency of 153.6 kHz. Volume Acoustic Backscattering Strengths, S V, were computed from the recorded ADCP's voltages. The obtained values fell in a range of -92 dB to -62 dB, for the layer of the water column comprised between 26 m - 300 m on 2001 and in the range of -93 dB to -58 dB for the water column between 22 m - 300 m on 2006. Depth-averaged, S V, for the upper water column (about the first 150 m on experiment transects were computed as well as S V values averaged in depth and latitude. Data processing revealed interesting features about the upper ocean acoustic behaviour. On December 2001, a significant non-uniform scattering response in the ensonified water column with quite high values of S V, associated with the diel vertical migration, was obtained. Additionally, a remarkable increment in the scattering response was observed at the estimated location of the Antarctic Divergence (AD. This feature was also observed on January 2006 in addition to remarkable high values of S V, in coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. Plotting and exhaustive analyses of S V (z profiles enabled the visualisation of three distinct types of qualitative patterns, namely, curves with: (I two observable maxima, (II only one maximum, (III a depth

  9. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities.

  10. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  11. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Gomez, Cipriano; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le) 100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  12. Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) steel-containment-vessel and floodwater-storage-tank structural-dynamics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendts, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Inertance (vibration) testing of two significant vessels at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) facility, located near Kahl, West Germany, was recently completed. Transfer functions were obtained for determination of the modal properties (frequencies, mode shapes and damping) of the vessels using two different test methods for comparative purposes. One of the vessels tested was the steel containment vessel (SCV). The SCV is approximately 180 feet high and 65 feet in diameter with a 1.2-inch wall thickness. The other vessel, called the floodwater storage tank (FWST), is a vertically standing vessel approximately 40 feet high and 10 feet in diameter with a 1/2-inch wall thickness. The FWST support skirt is square (in plan views) with its corners intersecting the ellipsoidal bottom head near the knuckle region

  13. Does the type of renal artery anatomic variant determine the diameter of the main vessel supplying a kidney? A study based on CT data with a particular focus on the presence of multiple renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majos, Marcin; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Szemraj-Rogucka, Zofia; Elgalal, Marcin; De Caro, Raffaele; Macchi, Veronica; Polguj, Michał

    2018-04-01

    An in-depth knowledge of renal vascular anatomy is essential when planning many surgical procedures; however, a few data exists regarding renal artery diameter. The aim of this study was to assess this morphological feature and to investigate whether a correlation exists between renal artery diameter and the type of arterial supply, with a particular emphasis on variant anatomy and the presence of multiple renal arteries. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) studies of 248 patients, i.e., a total of 496 kidneys, were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 66.4 ± 15.01 years. Renal artery diameter was measured based on the type of arterial blood supply. The frequency of occurrence of three anatomic variants of renal arterial supply was established: single renal artery (RA) 43.35%, single artery with prehilar branching (pRA) 37.30%, and multiple renal artery (mRA) 19.35%. The diameter of single renal arteries, with either prehilar or hilar branching, was significantly larger than when multiple arteries were present. A detailed analysis of just the mRA variant demonstrated that the diameter of the renal arteries in men was larger (p = 0.012) than those in women and that there was no difference in diameter with regard to the side of the body (p = 0.219). The classification described in our study containing a detailed description of renal artery diameter. It may be helpful in clinical practice, especially for transplantologists, surgeons, and vascular surgeons.

  14. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  15. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  16. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  17. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  18. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  19. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. 2011 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  6. Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, E.D. [Esparza (Edward D.), San Antonio, TX (United States); Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

  7. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  8. Automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters using model-based blood vessel segmentation for predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in low-dose CT lung screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by residual organized thrombi. A morphological abnormality inside mediastinum of CTEPH patient is enlargement of pulmonary artery. This paper presents an automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT lung screening. The distinctive feature of our method is to segment aorta and main pulmonary artery using both of prior probability and vascular direction which were estimated from mediastinal vascular region using principal curvatures of four-dimensional hyper surface. The method was applied to two datasets, 64 lowdose CT scans of lung cancer screening and 19 normal-dose CT scans of CTEPH patients through the training phase with 121 low-dose CT scans. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT screening.

  9. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Morris LS. Hysterectomy vs. resectoscopic endometrial ablation for the control of abnormal uterine bleeding . A cost-comparative study. J Reprod Med 1994;39...after the antibody treatment contain a pericyte coat, vessel architecture is normal, the diameter of the vessels is smaller (dilated, abnormal vessels...involvement of proteases from inflammatory mast cells and functionally abnormal (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000; Pasqualini (Coussens et al., 1999) and other bone

  10. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  11. Nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, E.G.; Lofy, R.A.; Williams, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for the in situ inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel to detect the location and character of flaws in the walls of the vessel, in the welds joining the various sections of the vessel, in the welds joining attachments such as nozzles, elbows and the like to the reactor vessel and in such attachments wherein an inspection head carrying one or more ultrasonic transducers follows predetermined paths in scanning the various reactor sections, welds and attachments

  12. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  13. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  14. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using 252 Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a 252 Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  15. Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, M.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal port wine stain treatment requires the selective absorption of light by the ectatic blood vessels. We investigated whether deeper blood vessels can be coagulated, without damaging other cutaneous structures, by varying the laser beam diameter. The penetration of the light was simulated with

  16. A computational fluid dynamics study on hemodynamics for different locations of the distal anastomosis of a bypass nearby a collateral vessel in the femoropopliteal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J; van der Graaf, G B; Escudero, J R; Bellmunt, S; van de Vosse, F

    2014-11-01

    Revascularization of the femoropopliteal sector is often performed by the placement of a bypass. In this paper, we have studied the effects of hemodynamics on patency of the bypass for different positions of the distal anastomosis close to a collateral artery. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used for this study. The cardiac cycle-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillation index (OSI) have been analyzed. Low WSS and high OSI may increase the risk of intimal hyperplasia (IH), which may reduce bypass patency. From the CFD simulations, spots of low WSS and high OSI are found within and near the entrance of the collateral artery, near the suture line, at the floor, toe, and heel. We regarded flow ratios of 20:80 and of 35:65. It is found that for the high flow ratio anastomosis located proximal to the collateral artery is clearly more advantageous. However for the low flow ratio anastomosis located distal to the collateral artery seems to be slightly more advantageous, the results are less conclusive. One of the studied flow geometries has been validated by in vitro experiments using a time resolved particle image velocimetry technique. Velocity fields from these experiments are in good agreement with the CFD results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, M; Hornegger, J; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Doerfler, A

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  18. Diameter-speed relation of sprite streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmae, T; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H C; McHarg, M G; Haaland, R K

    2012-01-01

    Propagation and splitting of sprite streamers has been observed at high temporal and spatial resolution using two intensified high-speed CMOS cameras recording at 10 000 and 16 000 frames per second. Concurrent video recordings from a remote site provided data for triangulation allowing us to determine accurate altitude scales for the sprites. Diameters and speeds of the sprite streamers were measured from the high-speed images, and the diameters were scaled to the reduced diameters based on the triangulated locations. The sprite streamers with larger reduced diameter move faster than those with smaller diameter; the relation between the reduced diameter and speed is roughly linear. The reduced diameters at ≈65-70 km altitude are larger than streamer diameters measured at ground pressure in laboratory discharges indicating a deviation from the similarity law possibly due to the effects of the photoionization and an expansion of the streamer head along its propagation over a long distance. The reduced diameter and speed of the sprite streamers agree well with the diameter-velocity relation proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401), and the peak electric field of the sprite streamers is estimated to be approximately 3-5 times the breakdown threshold field. (paper)

  19. Vessel-diameter quantification and embolus detection in CTA images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the sudden obstruction of an artery in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot. There are more than 50 cases of PE per 100,000 persons every year in the USA. Of these cases, 11% die in the first hour and in total, the untreated mortality rate of PE is estimated to be 30%.

  20. Prospective evaluation of subretinal vessel location in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and response of hemorrhagic and exudative PCV to high-dose antiangiogenic therapy (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokame, Gregg T

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) Is polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) a subretinal neovascular process, rather than a choroidal vascular anomaly? and (2) Is a higher dose of ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) more effective in treating PCV than the current dose (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) approved for treatment of age-related macular degeneration? Retrospective evaluation of PCV in 104 eyes of 86 patients was accomplished with use of indocyanine green angiography plus optical coherence tomography to localize the branching vascular network and the polyps. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with active leaking and exudation underwent a prospective open-label trial of monthly high-dose intravitreal ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL). The primary outcome was prevention of major vision loss (≤15 ETDRS letters). Secondary outcomes included adverse events, improved vision, and changes in subretinal hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, macular edema, and polypoidal complexes at 6 months. The PCV vessels were localized beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and above Bruch's membrane in 103 (99%) of 104 eyes. In the high-dose ranibizumab trial at 6 months, none of the patients lost ≥15 letters in visual acuity, and 5 (26%) of 19 gained ≥15 letters. Decreases were noted in subretinal fluid in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes, subretinal hemorrhage in 12 (100%) of 12, RPE detachment in 14 (88%) of 16, macular edema in 11 (92%) of 12, and polyps in 15 (79%) of 19 eyes. PCV vessels are a subtype of subretinal neovascularization located above Bruch's membrane and below RPE. High-dose ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) decreased exudation and hemorrhage and resulted in significant polyp regression, although branching vascular networks persisted.

  1. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  2. Phenomenological vessel burst investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippelein, K.W.; Julisch, P.; Muz, J.; Schiedermaier, J.

    1985-07-01

    Fourteen burst experiments have been carried out using vessels with circumferential and longitudinal flaws, for investigation of the fracture behaviour, i.e. the time-related fracture opening. The vessels had dimensions (outer diameter x wall thickness = 800 x 47 mm) which correspond to the dimensions of the main coolant piping of a 1300 MW e PWR. The test specimens had been made of the base-safe material 20 MnMoNi 55 and of a special, 22 NiMoCr 37 base alloy. The experimental conditions with regard to pressure and temperature have been chosen so as to correspond to normal operating conditions of a PWR (p∝17.5 MPa, T∝300 0 C), i.e. the flaws have been so dimensioned that failure was to be expected at a pressure of p∝17.5 MPa. As a rule, water has been used as the pressure medium, or in some cases air, in order to influence the time-dependent pressure decrease. Fluid and structural dynamics calculations have also been made. In order to determine the impact of a fast propagating crack on the leak-to-fracture curve, which normally is defined by quasistationary experiments, suitable tests have been made with large-volume, cylindrical vessels (outer diameter x wall thickness x length = 3000 x 21 x 14000 mm) made of the material WSt E 43. The leak-before-fracture criterion has been confirmed. (orig./HP) [de

  3. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  10. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  11. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orscheln, Emily S.; Trout, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  12. Neutron and Gamma Fluxes and dpa Rates for HFIR Vessel Beltline Region (Present and Upgrade Designs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2001-01-11

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is currently undergoing an upgrading program, a part of which is to increase the diameters of two of the four radiation beam tubes (HB-2 and HB-4). This change will cause increased neutron and gamma radiation dose rates at and near locations where the tubes penetrate the vessel wall. Consequently, the rate of radiation damage to the reactor vessel wall at those locations will also increase. This report summarizes calculations of the neutron and gamma flux (particles/cm{sup 2}/s) and the dpa rate (displacements/atom/s) in iron at critical locations in the vessel wall. The calculated dpa rate values have been recently incorporated into statistical damage evaluation codes used in the assessment of radiation induced embrittlement. Calculations were performed using models based on the discrete ordinates methodology and utilizing ORNL two-dimensional and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes. Models for present and proposed beam tube designs are shown and their results are compared. Results show that for HB-2, the dpa rate in the vessel wall where the tube penetrates the vessel will be increased by {approximately}10 by the proposed enlargement. For HB-4, a smaller increase of {approximately}2.6 is calculated.

  13. Accuracy of geometrical modelling of heat transfer from tissue to blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.M.J.; Kotte, A.N.T.J.; Bree, de J.; Koijk, van der J.F.; Crezee, J.; Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a thermal model in which blood vessels are described as geometrical objects, 3D curves with associated diameters. Here the behaviour of the model is examined for low resolutions compared with the vessel diameter and for strongly curved vessels. The tests include a single straight

  14. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  15. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  16. Analysis of three ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-01-01

    An ex-vessel LOCA may be caused by a rupture of a cooling pipe located outside the vacuum vessel. No plasma shutdown and no other counteractions have been assumed in order to study the worst case conditions of the accidents. The next three ex-vessel LOCAs in the primary cooling system of the first wall have been analysed: 1. a large break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the cold leg (inner diameter 0.314 m) of the main circuit; 2. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of a sector inlet feeder (inner diameter 0.158 m); 3. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the surge line (inner diameter 0.180 m) of the pressurizer. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the first two scenarios, melting in the first wall starts about 90 s after break initiation. In the third scenario, melting in the first wall start about 323 s after break initiation. Special emphasis has been paid to the characteristics of the break flows, the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system, and the temperature development in the first wall. (orig.)

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  19. Fission tracks diameters in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Ruiperez, L.; Veiguela, J.

    1974-01-01

    Standard glass microscope slides have been irradiated with fission fragments from the uranium. The etching track conditions have been the same for the series, having changed the etching time only for each specimen. For each glass, a minimum of 250 measurements of the tracks diameters have been made, the distributions of which are the bimodal type. Diameters-etching dependence with time is roughly lineal. Energy determinations have been made with the help of the diameters-energy relations. The calculated values agree very well with the know ones. (author) [es

  20. Comparative analysis of methods for extracting vessel network on breast MRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaizer, Bence T.; Vassiou, Katerina G.; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L.; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V.; Glotsos, Dimitris T.

    2017-11-01

    Digital processing of MRI images aims to provide an automatized diagnostic evaluation of regular health screenings. Cancerous lesions are proven to cause an alteration in the vessel structure of the diseased organ. Currently there are several methods used for extraction of the vessel network in order to quantify its properties. In this work MRI images (Signa HDx 3.0T, GE Healthcare, courtesy of University Hospital of Larissa) of 30 female breasts were subjected to three different vessel extraction algorithms to determine the location of their vascular network. The first method is an experiment to build a graph over known points of the vessel network; the second algorithm aims to determine the direction and diameter of vessels at these points; the third approach is a seed growing algorithm, spreading selection to neighbors of the known vessel pixels. The possibilities shown by the different methods were analyzed, and quantitative measurements were performed. The data provided by these measurements showed no clear correlation with the presence or malignancy of tumors, based on the radiological diagnosis of skilled physicians.

  1. Refueling system with small diameter rotatable plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a liquid-metal fastbreeder nuclear reactor comprising a reactor pressure vessel and closure head therefor, a reactor core barrel disposed within the reactor vessel and enclosing a reactor core having therein a large number of closely spaced fuel assemblies, and the reactor core barrel and the reactor core having an approximately concentric circular cross-sectional configuration with a geometric center in predetermined location within the reactor vessel. The improved refueling system described here comprises: a large controllably rotatable plug means comprising the substantial portion of the closure head, a reactor upper internals structure mounted from the large rotatable plug means. The large rotatable plug means has an approximately circular configuration which approximates the cross-sectional configuration of the reactor core barrel with a center of rotation positioned a first predetermined distance from the geometric center of the reactor core barrel so that the large rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the reactor core barrel; a small controllably rotatable plug means affixed to the large rotatable plug means and rotatable with respect thereto. The small rotatable plug means has a center of rotation which is offset a second predetermined distance from the rotational center of the large rotatable plug means so that the small rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the large rotatable plug means

  2. Analysis of nuclear reactor pressure vessel flanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Augusto, O.B.

    1985-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology for the structural analysis of high diameter nuclear reactor pressure vessel flanges. In the analysis the vessel is divided into shell-of-revolution elements, the flanges are represented by rigid rings, and the bolts are treated as beams. The flexibility method is used for solving the problem, and the results are compared with results obtained by the finite element method. (Author) [pt

  3. Diameter 2 properties and convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 https://www.impan.pl/pl/wydawnictwa/czasopisma-i-serie-wydawnicze/studia- mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity

  4. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: A comparison of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    As interventional procedures become more complicated, the need for accurate quantitative vascular information increases. In response to this need, many commercial vendors provide techniques for measurement of vessel sizes, usually based on derivative techniques. In this study, we investigate the accuracy of several techniques used in the measurement of vessel size. Simulated images of vessels having circular cross sections were generated and convolved with various focal spot distributions taking into account the magnification. These vessel images were then convolved with Gaussian image detector line spread functions (LSFs). Additionally, images of a phantom containing vessels with a range of diameters were acquired for the 4.5'', 6'', 9'', and 12'' modes of an image intensifier-TV (II-TV) system. Vessel sizes in the images were determined using a first-derivative technique, a second-derivative technique, a linear combination of these two measured sizes, a thresholding technique, a densitometric technique, and a model-based technique. For the same focal spot size, the shape of the focal spot distribution does not affect measured vessel sizes except at large magnifications. For vessels with diameters larger than the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the LSF, accurate vessel sizes (errors ∼0.1 mm) could be obtained by using an average of sizes determined by the first and second derivatives. For vessels with diameters smaller than the FWHM of the LSF, the densitometric and model-based techniques can provide accurate vessel sizes when these techniques are properly calibrated

  5. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  6. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  7. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2011 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2013 Pleasure Craft and Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2011 Pleasure Craft Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. Structural features and in-service inspection of the LTHR-200 pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Dunshi; He Shuyan; Liu Junjie; Yu Suyuan

    1993-01-01

    LTHR-200 is a low temperature district-heating reactor. It adopts double-shell design pressure vessel and metal containment. Because of the safety and structural features of the reactor, the in-service inspection of the pressure vessel can be simplified greatly. LTHR-200 is an integrated arrangement. Both its core components and the main heat exchangers are contained in the reactor pressure vessel. The coolant of the main loop is run by a full-power natural circulation and there need no main pumps and pipes. Thus, the reactor pressure vessel constitutes the pressure boundary of the reactor's main loop coolant. In regard to these features, a small-sized containment is designed for the reactor. The metal safety container with a small volume is placed closely around the reactor pressure vessel. Outside the metal containment, there is a large reinforced concrete construction for the reactor. Their main operation and design parameters are as follows: The pressure vessel: operation pressure = 2.4 MPa; design pressure = 3.0 MPa; design temperature = 250 deg C; 40 year fast neutron (E>1MeV) fluence in the belt-line region = < 10E16n/cm; internal diameter = 5000 mm; material SA516-70; shell thickness 65 mm; The metal containment: maximum operation pressure = 1.8 MPa; design pressure = 1.8 MPa; design temperature = 250 deg. C; upper internal diameter 7000 mm; lower internal diameter = 5600 mm; material = SA516-70; shell thickness, upper part = 80 mm; lower part = 50 mm. All penetrating pipes through the pressure vessel are located at the top penetration section of the shell. All the internal diameters of penetrating pipes are less than 50 mm. Inside and outside the metal containment wall respectively, isolating valves are connected to the reactor coolant pipe which passes through the containment. These two isolating valves use different driving methods. Every penetrating part of the reactor construction uses a proper form of structure according to safety requirements

  12. Heavy wall pressure vessels for energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    Modifications of steels currently accepted in the Code appear to provide improved mechanical properties. These steels may permit the fabrication of larger diameter vessels with thinner section sizes and improved reliability and integrity. Adapting current specifications should expedite Code approval. Finally the challenge of improving welding procedures and adapting processes for field applications will result in higher quality weldments

  13. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jr., John B.

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  14. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  15. MRA of fibromuscular dysplasia in cervical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Steffens, J.C.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Brossmann, J.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 386 selective angiograms of cervical vessels fibromuscular dysplasia was revealed in 4 female patients in the age of 30-54 years. FMD was located in the carotid artery (n=5) and in the vertebral artery (n=2) with a total of 8 lesions. 6/8 of the lesions of the seven cervical vessels were located typically in the mid cervical portion of the vessels and 2/6 lesions were located in the atlas loop of the vertebral artery. 4 lesions showed moderate stenosis and 4 vessels showed only mild stenosis. These patterns which demonstrated the typical morphology of fibromuscular dysplasia with alternating irregular zones of widening and narrowing were evaluated well with MR angiography, the others were missed. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  17. Conceptual design studies of in-vessel viewing equipment for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1996-03-01

    In-vessel viewing systems are essential to inspect all surface of in-vessel components so as to detect and locate damages, and to assist in-vessel maintenance operations. The in-vessel viewing operations are categorized into the three cases, which are 1) rapid inspection just after off-normal events such as disruption, 2) scheduled inspection, and 3) supplementary inspection during maintenance operations. In case of the rapid inspection, the viewing systems have to be operated in vacuum (ca. 10 -5 Pa) and high temperature (ca. 300degC) under a gamma ray dose rate of 10 7 R/h. On the other hand, the latter two cases are anticipated to be under atmospheric inert gas, 150degC and 3x10 6 R/h. Accordingly, the in-vessel viewing systems are required to have sufficient durability under those conditions of all cases as well as precision of the vision to all of in-vessel surface. Based on those requirements, scoping studies on various viewing concepts have been performed and the applicability to the ITER conditions have been assessed. As a result, two types of viewing systems have been chosen, which are a periscope type viewing system and a image fiber type viewing system with a multi-joint manipulator. Both systems are based on radiation hard optical elements which are being developed. In this report, the design features of both viewing systems are described, including technical issues for ITER application. Finally, a periscope type viewing system is recommended as a primary system and the following specifications/conditions are proposed for the further engineering design. (1) Unified type periscope with a movable mirror at the tip (2) Integrated lighting device into the periscope (3) Accessed from top vertical ports located at 7.3m from the machine center (4) Proposed configuration with a total length of around 27m and a diameter of 200mm. (author)

  18. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  19. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  20. Improvement to reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The vessel described includes a prestressed concrete vessel containing a chamber and a removable cover closing this chamber. The cover is in concrete and is kept in its closed position by main and auxiliary retainers, comprising fittings integral with the concrete of the vessel. The auxiliary retainers pass through the concrete of the cover. This improvement may be applied to BWR, PWR and LMFBR type reactor vessel [fr

  1. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  2. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  3. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    A database consisting of 2,640 equations compiled from the literature for predicting the biomass of trees and tree components from diameter measurements of species found in North America. Bibliographic information, geographic locations, diameter limits, diameter and biomass units, equation forms, statistical errors, and coefficients are provided for each equation,...

  4. Method to moor an offshore operating vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, J.F.

    1983-01-24

    A vessel such as a storage vessel is permanently moored, by means such as a yoke pivoted on the forecastle of the vessel, to a mooring leg, e.g. a riser or anchor chain, which is attached to a base located on the ocean floor. Mounted on the vessel is tension exsisting means, for example, counterweights, springs, winches, or the like, operably connected with the mooring leg for applying tension thereto such as by lifting the yoke. The top of the mooring leg is connected to the end of the yoke through a mooring swivel and a gimbaled mooring table or a universal joint. A fluid swivel may be located above the mooring table or about a load-carrying shaft connected to the mooring leg. 8 drawings.

  5. Probabilistic atlas based labeling of the cerebral vessel tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2015-03-01

    Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.

  6. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and having a base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall; (d) a central small diameter post anchored to the containment structure base mat and extending upwardly to the reactor vessel to axially fix the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and provide a center column support for the lower end of the reactor core; (e) annular support structure disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall and extending about the lower end of the core; (f) structural support means disposed between the containment structure base mat and bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and cooperating for supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event; (g) a bed of insulating material disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall; freely expand radially from the central post as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof; (h) a deck supported upon the wall of the containment vessel above the top open end of the reactor vessel; and (i) extendible and retractable coupling means extending between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnecting the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck

  7. Effect of variable heat transfer coefficient on tissue temperature next to a large vessel during radiofrequency tumor ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Cleber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.

  8. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  9. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  10. Problems in Pressure Vessel Design and Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, O [Uddeholms AB, Degerfors (Sweden); Nilson, Ragnar [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1963-05-15

    The general desire by the power reactor process makers to increase power rating and their efforts to involve more advanced thermal behaviour and fuel handling facilities within the reactor vessels are accompanied by an increase in both pressure vessel dimensions and various difficulties in giving practical solutions of design materials and fabrication problems. In any section of this report it is emphasized that difficulties and problems already met with will meet again in the future vessels but then in modified forms and in many cases more pertinent than before. As for the increase in geometrical size it can be postulated that with use of better materials and adjusted fabrication methods the size problems can be taken proper care of. It seems likely that vessels of sufficient large diameter and height for the largest power output, which is judged as interesting in the next ten year period, can be built without developing totally new site fabrication technique. It is, however, supposed that such a fabrication technique will be feasible though at higher specific costs for the same quality requirements as obtained in shop fabrication. By the postulated use of more efficient vessel material with principally the same good features of easy fabrication in different stages such as preparation, welding, heat treatment etc as ordinary or slightly modified carbon steels the increase in wall thickness might be kept low. There exists, however, a development work to be done for low-alloy steels to prove their justified use in large reactor pressure vessels.

  11. Problems in Pressure Vessel Design and Manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, O.; Nilson, Ragnar

    1963-05-01

    The general desire by the power reactor process makers to increase power rating and their efforts to involve more advanced thermal behaviour and fuel handling facilities within the reactor vessels are accompanied by an increase in both pressure vessel dimensions and various difficulties in giving practical solutions of design materials and fabrication problems. In any section of this report it is emphasized that difficulties and problems already met with will meet again in the future vessels but then in modified forms and in many cases more pertinent than before. As for the increase in geometrical size it can be postulated that with use of better materials and adjusted fabrication methods the size problems can be taken proper care of. It seems likely that vessels of sufficient large diameter and height for the largest power output, which is judged as interesting in the next ten year period, can be built without developing totally new site fabrication technique. It is, however, supposed that such a fabrication technique will be feasible though at higher specific costs for the same quality requirements as obtained in shop fabrication. By the postulated use of more efficient vessel material with principally the same good features of easy fabrication in different stages such as preparation, welding, heat treatment etc as ordinary or slightly modified carbon steels the increase in wall thickness might be kept low. There exists, however, a development work to be done for low-alloy steels to prove their justified use in large reactor pressure vessels

  12. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  13. Inspection apparatus for a vessel made of magnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Foster, A.C.; Smith, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Previous systems intended for in-situ inspection of the pressure vessels of nuclear reactors are of uneasy use on encumbered surfaces. Said invention relates to a remote-control device for inspecting vessel walls. It comprises a conveyor able to be propelled, possibly around obstacles, towards any place inside the vessel; said vehicle is provided with magnetic wheels driven by an electric motor and separately controlled. The conveyor is accurately located on the vessel by using an acoustic device involving a triangular method, and consisting in an acoustic signal emitter mounted on the conveyor and at least three receiving transducers mounted on the vessel wall [fr

  14. Aluminium vacuum vessel/first surface conceptual design for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR) vacuum vessel/first surface system which satisfies the engineering requirements for a commercial environment. An important distinction between the design constraints associated with 'pure' fusion and fusion-fission hybrid power reactors is that energy extraction from the first wall is not critical from the point of view of hybrid system economics. This allows the consideration of low temperature structural material for first wall application. The mechanical arrangement consists of a series of internally finned aluminium tube banks running poloidally around the torus. The coolant manifolds are at the top and bottom of the torus. The vessel is divided into sectors, the length of which depends on the spacing between TF coils. The tubes in each sector are welded to tube sheets which are in turn welded to semi-cylindrical manifolds which distribute the coolant uniformly to the tubes. The tubes, which are approx. equal to 2.5 cm in diameter at the manifold location, traverse the torus poloidal periphery and change from a circular cross section to a 2:1 elliptical cross section at the horizontal midplane. The arched tube is designed to be self-supporting between the manifold locations. The vacuum vessel's first surface will be plasma flamed sprayed aluminum applied to the tubular wall. (orig./GG)

  15. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  16. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  17. High-performance fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T. T.; Hamstad, M. A.; Jessop, E. S.; Toland, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Activities described include: (1) determining the applicability of an ultrahigh-strength graphite fiber to composite pressure vessels; (2) defining the fatigue performance of thin-titanium-lined, high-strength graphite/epoxy pressure vessel; (3) selecting epoxy resin systems suitable for filament winding; (4) studying the fatigue life potential of Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels; and (5) developing polymer liners for composite pressure vessels. Kevlar 49/epoxy and graphite fiber/epoxy pressure vessels, 10.2 cm in diameter, some with aluminum liners and some with alternation layers of rubber and polymer were fabricated. To determine liner performance, vessels were subjected to gas permeation tests, fatigue cycling, and burst tests, measuring composite performance, fatigue life, and leak rates. Both the metal and the rubber/polymer liner performed well. Proportionately larger pressure vessels (20.3 and 38 cm in diameter) were made and subjected to the same tests. In these larger vessels, line leakage problems with both liners developed the causes of the leaks were identified and some solutions to such liner problems are recommended.

  18. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Theerthan, A.; Giri, A.; Karbojian, A.; Willschuetz, H.G.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Vandroux, S.; Bonnet, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Ikkonen, K.; Sairanen, R.; Bhandari, S.; Buerger, M.; Buck, M.; Widmann, W.; Dienstbier, J.; Techy, Z.; Kostka, P.; Taubner, R.; Theofanous, T.; Dinh, T.N

    2003-04-01

    The cost-shared project ARVI (assessment of reactor vessel integrity) involves a total of nine organisations from Europe and USA. The objective of the ARVI Project is to resolve the safety issues that remain unresolved for the melt vessel interaction phase of the in-vessel progression of a severe accident. The work consists of experiments and analysis development. Four tests were performed in the EC-FOREVER Programme, in which failure was achieved in-vessels employing the French pressure vessel steel. The tests were analysed with the commercial code ANSYS-Multiphysics, and the codes SYSTUS+ and PASULA, and quite good agreement was achieved for the failure location. Natural convection experiments in stratified pools have been performed in the SIMECO and the COPO facilities, which showed that much greater heat is transferred downwards for immiscible layers or before layers mix. A model for gap cooling and a set of simplified models for the system codes have been developed. MVITA code calculations have been performed for the Czech and Hungarian VVERs, towards evaluation of the in-vessel melt retention accident management scheme. Tests have been performed at the ULPU facility with organised flow for vessel external cooling. Considerable enhancement of the critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. The ARVI Project has reached the halfway stage. This paper presents the results obtained thus far from the project.

  19. Automatic Segmentation of Vessels in In-Vivo Ultrasound Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamimi-Sarnikowski, Philip; Brink-Kjær, Andreas; Moshavegh, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    presents a fully automatic segmentation algorithm, for robustly segmenting the vessel lumen in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. The automatic segmentation is performed using a combination of B-mode and power Doppler images. The proposed algorithm includes a series of preprocessing steps, and performs......Ultrasound has become highly popular to monitor atherosclerosis, by scanning the carotid artery. The screening involves measuring the thickness of the vessel wall and diameter of the lumen. An automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen, can enable the determination of lumen diameter. This paper...... a vessel segmentation by use of the marker-controlled watershed transform. The ultrasound images used in the study were acquired using the bk3000 ultrasound scanner (BK Ultrasound, Herlev, Denmark) with two transducers ”8L2 Linear” and ”10L2w Wide Linear” (BK Ultrasound, Herlev, Denmark). The algorithm...

  20. A model for ultrasound contrast agent in a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    A theoretical framework to model the dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent (UCA) inside a phantom vessel is presented. The model is derived from the reduced Navier-Stokes equation and is coupled with the evolving flow field solution inside the vessel by a similarity transformation approach. The results are computed, and compared with experiments available in literature, for the initial UCA radius of Ro=1.5 μm and 2 μm for the vessel diameter of D=12 μm and 200 μm with the acoustic parameters as utilized in the experiments. When compared to other models, better agreement on smaller vessel diameter is obtained with the proposed coupled model. The model also predicts, quite accurately, bubble fragmentation in terms of acoustic and geometric parameters. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Does bipolar electrocoagulation time affect vessel weld strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J D; Morris, D L

    1991-01-01

    The value of the bipolar electrocoagulator in the haemostasis of bleeding ulcers is controversial. We have therefore investigated the effect of different coagulation times on vessel weld strength achieved by the bipolar device. Welds were then made in vessels of known diameter using a standard 10F endoscopic haemostatic probe at coagulation times of two and 20 seconds. The intravascular temperature achieved at each time was measured. Vessel weld strength achieved by bipolar electrocoagulation was much greater at 20 seconds (approximately twice that at two seconds) and was highly significantly greater at all vessel diameters. There was a gradual reduction in weld strength with increasing vessel diameter, an effect that was seen for both two and 20 seconds of electrocoagulation. Intravascular temperature was significantly higher at 20 seconds than at two seconds. We conclude that vessel weld strength is related to coagulation time and that any future studies comparing the bipolar electrocoagulator with other haemostatic devices should use longer periods of bipolar electrocoagulation and record the coagulation time in order to optimise the clinical value of the device. PMID:1864540

  3. 46 CFR 173.007 - Location of the hook load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.007 Location of the hook load. When doing the calculations required in this subpart, the hook load must be considered to be located at the head of the crane. ...

  4. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  5. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Tempest in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    As the ASN made some statements about anomalies of carbon content in the EPR vessel bottom and top, the author recalls and comments some technical issues to better understand the information published on this topic. He notably addresses the role of the vessel, briefly indicates its operating conditions, shape and structure, and mechanical components for the top, its material and mechanical properties, and test samples used to assess mechanical properties. He also comments the phenomenon of radio-induced embrittlement, the vessel manufacturing process, and evokes the applicable regulations. He quotes and comments statements made by the ASN and Areva which evoke further assessments of the concerned components

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid eSepehrband

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  8. The integral analysis of 40 mm diameter pipe rupture in cooling system of fusion facility W7-X with ASTEC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kačegavičius, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kacegavicius@lei.lt; Povilaitis, Mantas, E-mail: Mantas.Povilaitis@lei.lt

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in W7-X facility. • Burst disc is sufficient to prevent pressure inside the plasma vessel exceeding 110 kPa. • Developed model of the cooling system adequately represents the expected phenomena. - Abstract: Fusion is the energy production technology, which could potentially solve problems with growing energy demand of population in the future. Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental facility of stellarator type, which is currently being built at the Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics located in Greifswald, Germany. W7-X shall demonstrate that in future the energy could be produced in such type of fusion reactors. The safety analysis is required before the operation of the facility could be started. A rupture of 40 mm diameter pipe, which is connected to the divertor unit (module for plasma cooling) to ensure heat removal from the vacuum vessel in case of no-plasma operation mode “baking” is one of the design basis accidents to be investigated. During “baking” mode the vacuum vessel structures and working fluid – water are heated to the temperature 160 °C. This accident was selected for the detailed analysis using integral code ASTEC, which is developed by IRSN (France) and GRS mbH (Germany). This paper presents the integral analysis of W7-X response to a selected accident scenario. The model of the main cooling circuit and “baking” circuit was developed for ASTEC code. There were analysed two cases: (1) rupture of a pipe connected to the upper divertor unit and (2) rupture of a pipe connected to the lower divertor unit. The results of analysis showed that in both cases the water is almost completely released from the units into the plasma vessel. In both cases the pressure in the plasma vessel rapidly increases and in 28 s the set point for burst disc opening is reached preventing further pressurisation.

  9. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  10. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  11. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  12. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  13. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  14. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  15. Reactor pressure vessel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butti, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A link and pin support system provides the primary vertical and lateral support for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel without restricting thermally induced radial and vertical expansion and contraction. (Auth.)

  16. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  17. 46 CFR 72.10-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 72.10-10 Section 72.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as practicable so as to minimize...

  18. 46 CFR 95.60-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 95.60-10 Section 95.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 95.60-10 Location. (a) Fire axes shall be distributed throughout the spaces available to persons...

  19. 46 CFR 92.10-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 92.10-10 Section 92.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as practicable so as...

  20. 46 CFR 193.60-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 193.60-10 Section 193.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 193.60-10 Location. (a) Fire axes shall be distributed throughout the spaces available...

  1. 46 CFR 76.60-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 76.60-10 Section 76.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 76.60-10 Location. (a) Fire axes shall be distributed throughout the spaces available to passengers and crew so as...

  2. 46 CFR 190.10-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 190.10-10 Section 190.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as...

  3. LOCAL VELOCITY PROFILES MEASURED BY PIV IN AN VESSEL AGITATED BY RUSHTON TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Šulc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV. The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 300 mm in inner diameter. The tank was agitated by a Rushton turbine 100 mm in diameter. The velocity fields were measured for three impeller rotation speeds 300 rpm, 450 rpm and 600 rpm and the corresponding Reynolds numbers in the range 50 000 < Re < 100 000, which means that the fully-developed turbulent flow was reached. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller rotational speed. The velocity profiles were averaged, and were expressed by Chebyshev polynomials of the 1st order. Although the experimentally investigated area was relatively far from the impeller, and it was located in upward flow to the impeller, no state of local isotropy was found. The ratio of the axial rms fluctuation velocity to the radial component was found to be in the range from 0.523 to 0.768. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the range from 0.293 to 0.667, which corresponds to a high turbulence intensity.

  4. Reactor pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 2, the general principles of reactor pressure vessel design are elaborated. Crack and fracture initiation and propagation are treated in some detail

  5. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    metals (e.g., cadmium, chromium, lead, copper , zinc, silver, nickel, and mercury), solids, and nutrients (USEPA, 2008b; USEPA 2010). Wastewater from... flotation ), and disinfection (using ultraviolet light) as compared to traditional Type II MSDs that use either simple maceration and chlorination, or...Coliform Naval Vessels Oceanographic Vessels Small Cruise Ships 25a Vendor 2 Hamann AG Biological Treatment with Dissolved Air Flotation and

  6. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter...

  7. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  8. Pressure vessels and methods of sealing leaky tubes disposed in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to pressure vessels and to methods of sealing leaky tubes in them and is especially applicable to pressure vessels in the form of sheet-and-tube type heat exchangers constructed with a large number of relatively small diameter tubes grouped in a bundle. To seal off a leaky tube in such a heat exchanger an explosive activated plug in the form of a hollow metal body is used, inserted at each end of the tube to be sealed. Using the arrangement of pressure vessel and associated tube sheets and the explosive activated plug method of sealing a leaky tube as described in this invention it is claimed that distortion of the adjacent tubes and the tube sheets is reduced when the explosive activated plugs are detonated. (U.K.)

  9. Construction of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts in fibrin scaffolds in 30 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Liqiong; Boyle, Michael J; Kamin, Yishai M; Huang, Angela H; Starcher, Barry C; Miller, Cheryl A; Vishnevetsky, Michael J; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-05-01

    Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts have been developed as a promising alternative to native veins or arteries for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the tissue-engineered blood vessels more favorable for clinical applications. A completely biological blood vessel (3-mm inner diameter) was constructed by culturing a 50:50 mixture of bovine smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with neonatal human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gels. After 30 days of culture under pulsatile stretching, the engineered blood vessels demonstrated an average burst pressure of 913.3±150.1 mmHg (n=6), a suture retention (53.3±15.4 g) that is suitable for implantation, and a compliance (3.1%±2.5% per 100 mmHg) that is comparable to native vessels. These engineered grafts contained circumferentially aligned collagen fibers, microfibrils and elastic fibers, and differentiated SMCs, mimicking a native artery. These promising mechanical and biochemical properties were achieved in a very short culture time of 30 days, suggesting the potential of co-culturing SMCs with fibroblasts in fibrin gels to generate functional small-diameter vascular grafts for vascular reconstruction surgery.

  10. THE ALGORITHM OF DETERMINATION OF EYE FUNDUS VESSELS BLOOD FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ON VIDEOSEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Nedzvedz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of the dynamic characteristics like the vessel diameter change, the linear and volume blood velocities in the vessels of the eye fundus is considered. Such characteristics allow to determine blood flow changes in the microvasculature affecting the blood flow in the brain, kidneys and coronary vessels. Developed algorithm includes four stages: the video sequence stabilization, the vessels segmentation with the help of a neural network, the determination of the instantaneous velocity in the vessels based on the optical flow and the analysis of the results.

  11. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, L; Cao, G; Gualerzi, A; Boschetti, F; Loy, F

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young’s modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. (paper)

  12. Comparison of Fixed Diameter-Limit and Selection Cutting in Northern Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Paul E. Sendak; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Diameter-limit cutting is a common type of harvest in which all merchantable trees above specific size thresholds are removed. Despite a long history of application, controlled experiments of these harvests are rare and the cumulative effects of repeated diameter-limit cuts are largely unknown. The Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine is the location of a long-term...

  13. Economic feasibility of products from inland West small-diameter timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelter Henry; Rong Wang; Peter Ince

    1996-01-01

    A large part of the forests located in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. West (inland West) is characterized by densely packed, small-diameter stands. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of using small-diameter material from this resource to manufacture various wood products: oriented strandboard (OSB), stud lumber, random-length...

  14. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  16. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  17. Vessel wall reaction after vena cava filter placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A; Elstrodt, JM; Nikkels, PGJ; Tiebosch, ATMG

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the interaction between the Cordis Keeper vena caval filter and vessel wall in a porcine model. Methods: Implantation of the filter was performed in five pigs. Radiologic data concerning inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and filter patency, filter leg span, and stability were

  18. SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.

  19. Multiple cell common pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    A multiple cell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery was developed that offers significant weight, volume, cost, and interfacing advantages over the conventional individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen configuration that is currently used for aerospace applications. The baseline CPV design was successfully demonstrated though the testing of a 26 cell prototype, which completed over 7,000 44 percent depth of discharge LEO cycles. Two-cell boilerplate batteries have now exceeded 12,500 LEO cycles in ongoing laboratory tests. CPV batteries using both nominal 5 and 10 inch diameter vessels are currently available. The flexibility of the design allows these diameters to provide a broad capability for a variety of space applications.

  20. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  1. Effective diameters and corresponding states of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Fernando

    Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.

  2. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  3. Procurement of replacement pressure vessels for MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.A. Jr.; Edwards, C.B. Jr.; McKibben, J.C.; Schoone, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) located in Columbia, Missouri, is the highest powered, highest steady-state flux university research reactor in the United States. The reactor is a 10-MW pressurized loop, in-pool-type, light-water-moderated, beryllium-reflected, flux trap reactor. MURR has a compact core (0.033 m 3 ) composed of eight fuel elements of the materials test reactor type arranged as an annular right circular cylinder between the inner and outer aluminum pressure vessels. Conservative engineering judgment resulted in the decision in 1988 to purchase new inner and outer pressure vessels. This paper details the difficulties encountered in procuring replacements for aluminum pressure vessels built to standards that are no longer applicable in attempting to meet nuclear standards that are not applicable to nonferrous material

  4. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for transferring fuel assemblies between a fuel transfer area and a fuel storage area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant is described. A fuel transfer area filled with reactor coolant communicating with the reactor vessel below the reactor coolant level provides a transfer area for fuel assemblies in transit to and from the reactor vessel. A positioning mechanism comprising at least one rotatable plug disposed on a fuel transfer tank located outside the reactor vessel cooperates with either the fuel transfer area or the fuel storage area to position a fuel assembly in transit. When in position, a transporting mechanism cooperating with the positioning mechanism lifts or lowers a chosen fuel assembly. The transporting mechanism together with the positioning mechanism are capable of transferring a fuel assembly between the fuel transfer area and the fuel storage area

  5. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... information for resource providers for each vessel with appropriate equipment and resources located in each... appropriate salvage and marine firefighting resources were identified and available for responding to...

  6. Extravasal occlusion of large vessels with titanic clips: efficiency, indications, and contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Yu V; Kim, A I; Kotov, S A

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of extravasal occlusion of blood vessels with titanic clips "Atrauclip" and "Ligaclip extra" was studied in order to reveal indications and contraindications to their use. Occlusion with the clips of both types was ineffective in vessels with a diameter of >7.0 mm. Arteritis or the presence of an intravascular occlusion facility in the vessel were also the contraindications for clip occlusion. In overcases the procedure of occlusion with titanic clips was efficient and atraumatic.

  7. 46 CFR 154.1816 - Cargo location plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo location plan. 154.1816 Section 154.1816 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1816 Cargo location plan. The master shall ensure that: (a) A cargo location plan is prepared that gives: (1) The location and...

  8. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  9. Assessment of W7-X plasma vessel pressurisation in case of LOCA taking into account in-vessel components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbonavičius, E., E-mail: Egidijus.Urbonavicius@lei.lt; Povilaitis, M., E-mail: Mantas.Povilaitis@lei.lt; Kontautas, A., E-mail: Aurimas.Kontautas@lei.lt

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of the vacuum vessel response to the LOCA in W7-X was performed using lumped-parameter codes COCOSYS and ASTEC. • Benchmarking of the results received with two codes provides more confidence in results and helps in identification of possible important differences in the modelling. • The performed analysis answered the questions set in the installed plasma vessel venting system during overpressure of PV in case of 40 mm diameter LOCA in “baking” mode. • Differences in time until opening the burst disk observed in ASTEC and COCOSYS results are caused by differences in heat transfer modelling. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of W7-X vacuum vessel response taking into account in-vessel components. A detailed analysis of the vacuum vessel response to the loss of coolant accident was performed using lumped-parameter codes COCOSYS and ASTEC. The performed analysis showed that the installed plasma vessel venting system prevents overpressure of PV in case of 40 mm diameter LOCA in “baking” mode. The performed analysis revealed differences in heat transfer modelling implemented in ASTEC and COCOSYS computer codes, which require further investigation to justify the correct approach for application to fusion facilities.

  10. Assessment of W7-X plasma vessel pressurisation in case of LOCA taking into account in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbonavičius, E.; Povilaitis, M.; Kontautas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the vacuum vessel response to the LOCA in W7-X was performed using lumped-parameter codes COCOSYS and ASTEC. • Benchmarking of the results received with two codes provides more confidence in results and helps in identification of possible important differences in the modelling. • The performed analysis answered the questions set in the installed plasma vessel venting system during overpressure of PV in case of 40 mm diameter LOCA in “baking” mode. • Differences in time until opening the burst disk observed in ASTEC and COCOSYS results are caused by differences in heat transfer modelling. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of W7-X vacuum vessel response taking into account in-vessel components. A detailed analysis of the vacuum vessel response to the loss of coolant accident was performed using lumped-parameter codes COCOSYS and ASTEC. The performed analysis showed that the installed plasma vessel venting system prevents overpressure of PV in case of 40 mm diameter LOCA in “baking” mode. The performed analysis revealed differences in heat transfer modelling implemented in ASTEC and COCOSYS computer codes, which require further investigation to justify the correct approach for application to fusion facilities.

  11. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The TMI-2 [Three Mile Island unit 2] Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program at Argonne National Laboratory is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which accounts for a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  12. Device for supporting the vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To hold a vacuum vessel securely at a predetermined position. Constitution: A vacuum vessel is supported on its one side to the standard mounting location of a support frame by way of a pin junction. The vacuum vessel is provided at its upper and lower positions with movable mounting portions, which are connected by way of connecting rods to fixed mounting locations on the upper and lower frames. The fixed mounting locations are disposed on a vertical plane including the axis of the torus center. This arrangement enables to hold even a large vacuum vessel at an exact predetermined position even under high temperature conditions without limiting the container's thermal expansion relative to the changes in temperature, thereby providing an extremely high rigidity against electromagnetic forces, earthquakes, etc. (Furukawa, Y.)

  13. Limiting Factors for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.

    2005-01-01

    different angular locations of the vessel outer surface could be enhanced by ∼1.2 to 2 times the CHF compared with a plain vessel without coatings. The CHF enhancement could be attributed to the structure of the porous coating itself and the capillary action it induced. The matrix of cavities and voids within the coating effectively trap vapor, which serve as active nucleation sites. These sites in turn are fed with liquid flowing through the interconnected channels. The pores on the surface of the porous coating serve as flow inlets for liquid supply to the heating surface, leading to appreciable enhancement in downward-facing boiling heat transfer and the local CHF limits. Results of the present study suggest that by utilizing an enhanced vessel/insulation design with vessel coating, it is possible to significantly enhance the CLSV and the CHF limits as well as minimize the two-phase flow instability problems, thus substantially increasing the margin for IVR

  14. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  15. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  16. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  17. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  18. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  19. Reactor vessel stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Beer, R.W.; Salton, R.B.; Spiegelman, S.R.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner, for facilitating the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud, has gripper jaws which when the tensioner is lowered into engagement with the upper end of the stud are moved inwards to grip the upper end and which when the tensioner is lifted move outward to release the upper end. (author)

  20. An 810 ft/sec soil impact test of a 2-foot diameter model nuclear reactor containment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A soil impact test was conducted on a 880-pound 2-foot diameter sphere model. The impact area consisted of back filled desert earth and rock. The impact generated a crater 5 feet in diameter by 5 feet deep. It buried itself a total of 15 feet - as measured to the bottom of the model. After impact the containment vessel was pressure checked. No leaks were detected nor cracks observed.

  1. Utilization of self-expanding stents in the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease in the distal small cerebral vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, Aquilla S.; Niemann, David B.; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beverly; Ahmed, Azam; Brooks, Nathaniel; Levine, Ross L.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, endovascular treatment of stenosis related to intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAD) involving arteries measuring less than 2 mm in diameter was limited. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature addressing stent placement for treatment of stenosis in arteries of this size. Four patients aged 33 to 80 years (mean 57.5 years) with medically refractory ICAD underwent angioplasty and stenting of small (<2 mm) distal intracerebral arteries. Vessel location and length of follow-up were anterior cerebral artery (ACA) A1 segment (5 months), ACA A2 segment (18 months), middle cerebral artery M1 segment (18 months), and posterior cerebral artery P1 segment (8 months) with vessel calibers ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 mm. Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 5 to 18 months. All procedures were successfully performed without complications. Follow-up out to 18 months demonstrated one vessel that went on to occlusion while the other stented vessel segments remained patent. One patient died 8 months after stenting, but the death was not related to neurological disease. The remaining patients experienced resolution of the presenting symptomatology and remained asymptomatic throughout follow-up. In this small series, stenoses of distal (<2 mm) cerebral arteries were amenable to treatment using new self-expanding stents. We safely and successfully treated four arteries smaller than 2 mm in diameter with newer self-expanding stents. All patients remained clinically asymptomatic. One stent occluded at 5 months and the others remained patent during follow-up. Longer term clinical follow-up is required to determine the durability and viability of this therapy. (orig.)

  2. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  3. Diameter effect on critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Shan, J.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The critical heat flux look-up table (CHF LUT) is widely used to predict CHF for various applications, including design and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. Using the CHF LUT for round tubes having inside diameters different from the reference 8 mm involves conversion of CHF to 8 mm. Different authors [Becker, K.M., 1965. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Burnout Conditions in Vertical Round Ducts, Aktiebolaget Atomenergie Report AE 177, Sweden; Boltenko, E.A., et al., 1989. Effect of tube diameter on CHF at various two phase flow regimes, Report IPE-1989; Biasi, L., Clerici, G.C., Garriba, S., Sala, R., Tozzi, A., 1967. Studies on Burnout, Part 3, Energia Nucleare, vol. 14, pp. 530-536; Groeneveld, D.C., Cheng, S.C., Doan, T., 1986. AECL-UO critical heat flux look-up table. Heat Transfer Eng., 7, 46-62; Groeneveld et al., 1996; Hall, D.D., Mudawar, I., 2000. Critical heat flux for water flow in tubes - II subcooled CHF correlations. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 2605-2640; Wong, W.C., 1996. Effect of tube diameter on critical heat flux, MaSC dissertation, Ottawa Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Ottawa] have proposed several types of correlations or factors to describe the diameter effect on CHF. The present work describes the derivation of new diameter correction factor and compares it with several existing prediction methods

  4. PDX vacuum vessel stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    A stress analysis of PDX vacuum vessel is described and the summary of results is presented. The vacuum vessel is treated as a toroidal shell of revolution subjected to an internal vacuum. The critical buckling pressure is calculated. The effects of the geometrical discontinuity at the juncture of toroidal shell head and cylindrical outside wall, and the concavity of the cylindrical wall are examined. An effect of the poloidal field coil supports and the vessel outside supports on the stress distribution in the vacuum vessel is determined. A method evaluating the influence of circular ports in the vessel wall on the stress level in the vessel is outlined

  5. Stent-assisted coil embolization of aneurysms with small parent vessels: safety and efficacy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Anna Luisa; Hou, Samuel Y; Puri, Ajit S; Silva, Christine F; Gounis, Matthew J; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a viable therapeutic approach for wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. However, it can be technically challenging in small cerebral vessels (≤2 mm). To present our experience with stents approved for SACE in aneurysms with small parent arteries. All patients who underwent stent-assisted aneurysm treatment with either a Neuroform or an Enterprise stent device at our institution between June 2006 and October 2012 were identified. Additionally, we evaluated each patient's vascular risk factors, aneurysm characteristics (ruptured vs non-ruptured, incidental finding, recanalized) and follow-up angiography data. A total of 41 patients with 44 aneurysms met our criteria, including 31 women and 10 men. Most of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation (75%). Stent placement in vessels 1.2-2 mm in diameter was successful in 93.2%. Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6 cases and vessel straightening was seen in 1 case only. Initial nearly complete to complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 88.6%. Six-month follow-up angiography showed coil compaction in three cases, one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and stent occlusion. Twelve to 20-months' follow-up showed stable coil compaction in two patients compared with previous follow-up, and aneurysm recanalization in two patients. Twenty-four to 36-months' follow-up showed further coil compaction in one of these patients and aneurysm recanalization in a previous case of stable coil compaction on mid-term follow-up. Our results suggest that SACE of aneurysms with small parent vessels is feasible in selected cases and shows good long-term patency rates of parent arteries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Measuring Electrospun Nanofibre Diameter: a Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziabari, M.; Mottaghitalab, V.; Haghi, A. K.; McGovern, S. T.

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on image analysis for electrospun nanofibre diameter measurement is presented. First, the SEM micrograph of the nanofibre web obtained by electrospinning process is converted to binary image using local thresholding method. In the next step, skeleton and distance transformed image are generated. Then, the intersection points which bring about untrue measurements are identified and removed from the skeleton. Finally, the resulting skeleton and distance transformed image are used to determine fibre diameter. The method is evaluated by a simulated image with known characteristics generated by ?-randomness procedure. The results indicate that this approach is successful in making fast, accurate automated measurements of electrospun fibre diameters. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  8. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Vessel Enhancement and Segmentation of 4D CT Lung Image Using Stick Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Tan; Hao, Yang; Jingli, Shi; Xuan, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Vessel enhancement and segmentation plays a significant role in medical image analysis. This paper proposes a novel vessel enhancement and segmentation method for 4D CT lung image using stick tensor voting algorithm, which focuses on addressing the vessel distortion issue of vessel enhancement diffusion (VED) method. Furthermore, the enhanced results are easily segmented using level-set segmentation. In our method, firstly, vessels are filtered using Frangi's filter to reduce intrapulmonary noises and extract rough blood vessels. Secondly, stick tensor voting algorithm is employed to estimate the correct direction along the vessel. Then the estimated direction along the vessel is used as the anisotropic diffusion direction of vessel in VED algorithm, which makes the intensity diffusion of points locating at the vessel wall be consistent with the directions of vessels and enhance the tubular features of vessels. Finally, vessels can be extracted from the enhanced image by applying level-set segmentation method. A number of experiments results show that our method outperforms traditional VED method in vessel enhancement and results in satisfied segmented vessels.

  10. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  11. In-vessel coolability and steam explosion in Nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.; Li, L.; Hansson, R.; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.; Manickam, L.; Tran, C.-T. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this research is to reduce the uncertainty in quantification of steam explosion risk and in-vessel coolability in the Nordic BWR plants which employ cavity flooding as severe accident management (SAM) strategy. To quantify the coolability of debris bed packed with irregular particles, the friction laws of fluid flow in particulate beds packed with non-spherical particles were investigated on the POMECO-FL test facility, and the experimental data suggest that the Ergun equation is applicable if the effective particle diameter of the particles is represented by the equivalent diameter of the particles, which is the product of Sauter mean diameter and shape factor of the particles. One-way coupling analysis between PECM model for melt pool heat transfer and ANSYS thermo-structural mechanics was performed to analyze the vessel creep, and the results revealed two different modes of vessel failure: a 'ballooning' of the vessel bottom and a 'localized creep' concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Single-droplet steam explosion experiments were carried out by using oxidic mixture of WO{sub 3}-CaO, and the results show an apparent difference in steam explosion energetics between the eutectic and non-eutectic melts at low melt superheat (100 deg. C). (Author)

  12. In-vessel coolability and steam explosion in Nordic BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.; Li, L.; Hansson, R.; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.; Manickam, L.; Tran, C.-T.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this research is to reduce the uncertainty in quantification of steam explosion risk and in-vessel coolability in the Nordic BWR plants which employ cavity flooding as severe accident management (SAM) strategy. To quantify the coolability of debris bed packed with irregular particles, the friction laws of fluid flow in particulate beds packed with non-spherical particles were investigated on the POMECO-FL test facility, and the experimental data suggest that the Ergun equation is applicable if the effective particle diameter of the particles is represented by the equivalent diameter of the particles, which is the product of Sauter mean diameter and shape factor of the particles. One-way coupling analysis between PECM model for melt pool heat transfer and ANSYS thermo-structural mechanics was performed to analyze the vessel creep, and the results revealed two different modes of vessel failure: a 'ballooning' of the vessel bottom and a 'localized creep' concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Single-droplet steam explosion experiments were carried out by using oxidic mixture of WO 3 -CaO, and the results show an apparent difference in steam explosion energetics between the eutectic and non-eutectic melts at low melt superheat (100 deg. C). (Author)

  13. Reactor vessel stud closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelman, S.R.; Salton, R.B.; Beer, R.W.; Malandra, L.J.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner apparatus for enabling the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud. The apparatus is adapted to engage the vessel stud by closing a gripper around an upper end of the vessel stud when the apparatus is seated on the stud. Upon lifting the apparatus, the gripper releases the vessel stud so that the apparatus can be removed

  14. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  15. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  16. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  17. Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…

  18. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BUKOLA

    They proffer logistic data for modeling and futuristic prediction for sustainable forest management. Diameter is one of the most ... in various quantitative estimation following the intricacy of time, availability of modern equipments .... growth functions. This trend is shown in Figure 1 where the prediction equations are plotted.

  19. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomenology of radiation-induced changes in blood vessels are systematized and authors' experience is generalized. Modern concepts about processes leading to vessel structure injury after irradiation is critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of X-ray vessel injury, consideration of which is not yet sufficiently elucidated in literature

  1. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomeology of radiation changes of blood vessels are systemized and the authors' experience is generalyzed. A critical analysis of modern conceptions on processes resulting in vessel structure damage after irradiation, is given. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of radiation injury of vessels

  2. Automatic design of prestressed concrete vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotomura, Kentaro; Murazumi, Yasuyuki

    1984-01-01

    Prestressed concrete appeared after high strnegth steel had been produced, therefore it has the history of only 40 years even in Europe where it was developed. High compressive force is given to concrete beforehand by high strength steel to resist tensile force. It is superior to ordinary steel in strength, economy, rust prevention, fire protection and workability, and it competes with ordinary steel in the fields of bridges, towers, water tanks, water pipes, barges, LPG and LNG tanks, reactor pressure vessels, reactor containment vessels and so on. The design of prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCV) being constructed in Japan adopts the form of mounting a semi-spherical dome on a cylindrical wall of 43m inside diameter and about 1.5m thickness, and the steel pipe sheaths for inserting tendons are arranged in the wall. The Taisei Construction Co. has developed the PC-ADE system which enables the optimum design of PCCVs. The outline of the automatic design system, the design of tendon arrangement, the preparation of the data on the load for stress analysis, the stress analysis by axisymmetric finite element method and the calculation of cross sections are explained. Design is a creative activity, and in the design of PCCVs also, the intention of designers should be materialized when this program is utilized. (Kako, I.)

  3. Inservice inspection of Halden BWR pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerli, O.; Hernes, T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of how the recertification inspection of the 20 years old Halden Reactor pressure vessel was carried out in accordance with the latest ASME-CODES, despite the fact that inspection accessibility was poor. As no volumetric inspection had been carried out since the preservice radiography in 1957, the ultrasonic inspection included the high flux region of all welds. In total 70% of longitudinal welds and 20% of bottom circumferential welds were inspected as well as the bottom nozzle connection. The vessel was not designed with provisions for inservice inspection, the welds are unaccessible from the outside and removal of the lid is virtually impossible. The ultrasonic probes could only be loaded through 77 mm diameter holes in the top lid and remotely positioned inside the vessel. The inspection was performed using 450C and 60OC 1 MHz angle probes and 2.25 MHz normal probes in immersion technique. In a zone around the welds, small regions with lack of bonding between the stainless steel cladding and the boiler steel were revealed. One root defect known and accepted from the preservice radiographs was examined. The defect was found to be 6x30mm as a maximum and well within acceptable limits according to the fracture mechanics analysis method recommended in ASME X1. The inspection required a period of three weeks' work in the reactor hall. (UK)

  4. MFTF-α+T end cell vacuum vessel and nuclear shield trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate and distinct vacuum vessel and nuclear shield trade studies were performed in series. The studies are: vacuum topology, nuclear shield location and composition, and water bulk shield location and material selection

  5. Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller

    1957-01-01

    A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).

  6. An Experimental investigation of critical flow rates of subcooled water through short pipes with small diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choon Kyung

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to improve our understanding on critical flow phenomena in a small size leak and to develop a model which can be used to estimate the critical mass flow rates through reactor vessel or primary coolant pipe wall. For this purpose, critical two-phase flow phenomena of subcooled water through short pipes (100 ≤ L ≤ 400 mm) with small diameters (3.4 ≤ D ≤ 7.15 mm) have been experimentally investigated for wide ranges of subcooling (0∼199 .deg. C) and pressure (0.5∼2.0MPa). To examine the effects of various parameters (i.e., the location of flashing inception, the degree of subcooling, the stagnation temperature and pressure, and the pipe size) on the critical two-phase flow rates of subcooled water, a total of 135 runs were made for various combinations of test parameters using four different L/D test sections. Experimental results that show effects of various parameters on subcooled critical two-phase flow rates are presented. The measured static pressure profiles along the discharge pipe show that the critical flow rate can be strongly influenced by the flashing location. The locations of saturation pressure for different values of the stagnation subcooling have been consistently determined from the pressure profiles. Based upon the test results, two important parameters have been identified. These are cold state discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling, which are found to efficiently take into account the test section geometry and the stagnation conditions, respectively. A semi-empirical model has been developed to predict subcooled two-phase flow rates through small size openings. This model provides a simple and direct calculation of the critical mass flow rates with information on the initial condition and on the test section geometry. Comparisons between the mass fluxes calculated by present model and a total of 755 selected experimental data from 9 different investigators show that the agreement is

  7. Laparoscopic prototype for optical sealing of renal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Larson, Eric R.; Gonzalez, David A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Energy-based, radiofrequency and ultrasonic devices provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternative for vessel sealing with less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated vessel sealing in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices in surgical use was developed, and tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels. The 5-mm-OD prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core fiber and side-delivery from the lower jaw, with beam dimensions of 18-mm-length x 1.2-mm-width. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3 s activation time. A total of 69 porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3 +/- 1.7 mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5 mm were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038 +/- 474 mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174 +/- 221 mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7 +/- 0.8, 3.4 +/- 0.7, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 mm. A novel optical laparoscopic prototype with 5-mm- OD shaft integrated within a standard Maryland jaw design consistently sealed vessels less than 5 mm with minimal thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

  8. In-vessel maintenance concepts for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, V.P.; Berger, J.D.; Yount, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts for rail-mounted and guided in-vessel handling machines (IVM) for remote maintenance inside tokamak fusion reactors are described. The IVM designs are based on concepts for tethered remotely operated vehicles and feature the use of multiple manipulator arms for remote handling and remote-controlled TV cameras for remote viewing. The concepts include IVMs for both single or dual rail systems located in the top or bottom of the reactor vessel

  9. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  10. [Clinical features of 32 patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Maturana, Donaldo; Amaro, Patricio; Segovia, Laura; Balestrini, Claudia

    2004-02-01

    The skin is a common target of small vessel vasculitis, with a wide assortment of pathological changes. This condition is usually associated to systemic diseases. To report the clinical and pathological features of patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. A retrospective review of 32 patients with a pathological diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis. Seventy two percent of patients were women. Cutaneous lesions were mainly located in the lower limbs (94%). The most common lesion was palpable purpura (62%). Connective tissue diseases and systemic vasculitis were the most commonly associated systemic diseases. Palpable purpura is the most common manifestation of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, that is usually associated to connective tissue diseases or systemic vasculitis.

  11. Device for guiding various diameter size cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.

    1982-01-30

    A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.

  12. Pressure vessel lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Elter, C.; Becker, G.; Pertiller, S.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a lid for closing openings in reactor pressure vessels containing helium, which is made as a circular casting with hollow spaces and a flat floor and is set on the opening and kept down. It consists of helium-tight metal cast material with sufficient temperature resistance. There are at least two concentric heat resistant seals let into the bottom of the lid. The bottom is in immediate contact with the container atmosphere and has hollow spaces in its inside in the area opposite to the opening. (orig./HP) [de

  13. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs

  15. Trapping of Embolic Particles in a Vessel Phantom by Cavitation-Enhanced Acoustic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Park, Simone; Vaughan, Benjamin L.; Cain, Charles A.; Grotberg, James B.; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation clouds generated by short, high-amplitude, focused ultrasound pulses were previously observed to attract, trap, and erode thrombus fragments in a vessel phantom. This phenomenon may offer a noninvasive method to capture and eliminate embolic fragments flowing through the bloodstream during a cardiovascular intervention. In this article, the mechanism of embolus trapping was explored by particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV was used to examine the fluid streaming patterns generated by ultrasound in a vessel phantom with and without crossflow of blood-mimicking fluid. Cavitation enhanced streaming, which generated fluid vortices adjacent to the focus. The focal streaming velocity, uf, was as high as 120 cm/s, while mean crossflow velocities, uc, were imposed up to 14 cm/s. When a solid particle 3-4 mm diameter was introduced into crossflow, it was trapped near the focus. Increasing uf promoted particle trapping while increasing uc promoted particle escape. The maximum crossflow Reynolds number at which particles could be trapped, Rec, was approximately linear with focal streaming number, Ref, i.e. Rec = 0.25Ref + 67.44 (R2=0.76) corresponding to dimensional velocities uc=0.084uf + 3.122 for 20 < uf < 120 cm/s. The fluidic pressure map was estimated from PIV and indicated a negative pressure gradient towards the focus, trapping the embolus near this location. PMID:25109407

  16. Trapping of embolic particles in a vessel phantom by cavitation-enhanced acoustic streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Park, Simone; Cain, Charles A; Grotberg, James B; Xu, Zhen; Vaughan, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation clouds generated by short, high-amplitude, focused ultrasound pulses were previously observed to attract, trap, and erode thrombus fragments in a vessel phantom. This phenomenon may offer a noninvasive method to capture and eliminate embolic fragments flowing through the bloodstream during a cardiovascular intervention. In this article, the mechanism of embolus trapping was explored by particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV was used to examine the fluid streaming patterns generated by ultrasound in a vessel phantom with and without crossflow of blood-mimicking fluid. Cavitation enhanced streaming, which generated fluid vortices adjacent to the focus. The focal streaming velocity, u f , was as high as 120 cm/s, while mean crossflow velocities, u c , were imposed up to 14 cm/s. When a solid particle 3–4 mm diameter was introduced into crossflow, it was trapped near the focus. Increasing u f promoted particle trapping while increasing u c promoted particle escape. The maximum crossflow Reynolds number at which particles could be trapped, Re c , was approximately linear with focal streaming number, Re f , i.e. Re c = 0.25Re f + 67.44 (R 2 = 0.76) corresponding to dimensional velocities u c = 0.084u f + 3.122 for 20 < u f  < 120 cm/s. The fluidic pressure map was estimated from PIV and indicated a negative pressure gradient towards the focus, trapping the embolus near this location. (paper)

  17. Effects of irradiation on renal vessels of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanayama, Hirotaka

    1982-01-01

    The male rabbits weighing approximately 3 kg were divided into two groups: one group received irradiation to the left kidney through 6 x 4 cm field size with doses of 5 Gy, while the other group was irradiated with 50 Gy. The vessel casts were observed using the injection replica scanning electron microscopic method. In 50 Gy irradiated group, the surface of blood vessel's lumen became irregular with a decrease in the number of glomeruli at 5 days. Partial narrowing was also seen in the cortex and glomerular vessels. The number of glomeruli decreased by 48% one week later and 90% 4 weeks later. The cortex vessels progressively narrowed, and irregularity of the net-like structure was also observed. Similarly, a decrease in the number of glomeruli and partial narrowing of the blood vessels were seen at 5 days on the nonirradiated side, but the damage was considerably less than that on the irradiated side. In the 5 Gy irradiated group, a decrease in the number of glomeruli was seen 5 days later and it became 71% 5 days later and 81% one week later. It returned to 95% 4 weeks later. No changes whatsoever were seen in the non-irradiated side after 4 weeks and changes in the number of glomeruli were not observed. The vasculation of medulla showed no changes in the 50 Gy or the 5 Gy irradiated group. There were seen no significant changes in the blood vessel diameter. (J.P.N.)

  18. Vacuum vessels for the LHC magnets arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first batch of pre-series vacuum vessels for the LHC dipole magnets has just been delivered to CERN. The vessels are components of the cryostats and will provide the thermal insulation for the superconducting magnets. The first batch of vacuum vessels for the LHC dipole magnets with the team taking part at CERN in ordering and installing them. Left to right : Claude Hauviller, Monique Dupont, Lloyd Williams, Franck Gavin, Alain Jacob, Christophe Vuitton, Davide Bozzini, Laure Sandri, Mikael Sjoholm and André de Saever. In 2006 all that will be seen of the LHC superconducting dipoles in the LHC tunnel will be a line of over 1230 blue cylindrical vacuum vessels. Ten vessels, each weighing 4 tonnes, are already at CERN. On 6 July the first batch of pre-series vessels reached the Lab-oratory from the firm SIMIC Spa whose works are near Savona in north-western Italy. Despite appearances, these 15-metre long, 1-metre diameter blue tubes are much more sophisticated than sections of a run-of-the-mill...

  19. An automated vessel segmentation of retinal images using multiscale vesselness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, M.; Malek, J.; Tourki, R.; Krissian, K.

    2011-01-01

    The ocular fundus image can provide information on pathological changes caused by local ocular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Automated analysis and interpretation of fundus images has become a necessary and important diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology. The extraction of blood vessels from retinal images is an important and challenging task in medical analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion which allows reducing the noise and better preserving small structures like vessels in 2D images. A vessel detection filter, based on a multi-scale vesselness function, is then applied to enhance vascular structures.

  20. Radiolytic model of CN Cofrentes using BWRVIA: analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation in locations of the vessel with application of noble metal son-line; Modelo radiolitico de C. N: Cofrentes utilizando el BWRVIA: analisis de la efectividad de mitigacion en localizaciones de la vasija con aplicacion de metales nobles on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Serrano Ledesma, C.; Sanchez Zapata, J. D.

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of mitigation is found from two chemical parameters: electrochemical potential (pm-a hydrogen injection) and Molar Ratio (for the application of noble metals). EPRI code exists, the BWRVIA (BWR Vessel Internals Application,) which enables setting model the impact radiolysis of water, the balance of liquid-vapor phase and recirculation have on the chemical variation of these parameters.

  1. Vessel Wall Reaction after Vena Cava Filter Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, Arend; Elstrodt, Jan M.; Nikkels, Peter G.J.; Tiebosch, Anton T.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the interaction between the Cordis Keeper vena caval filter and vessel wall in aporcine model.Methods: Implantation of the filter was performed in five pigs. Radiologic data concerning inferior vena cava(IVC) diameter and filter patency, filter leg span, and stability were collected. At 2 or 6 months post-implantation, histopathologic analysis of the IVC wall was performed.Results: All filters remained patent with no evidence of migration. However, at 6 months follow-up, two legs of one filter penetrated the vessel wall and were adherent to the liver. These preliminary results suggest that with the observed gradual increase in the filter span, the risk of caval wall penetration increases with time, especially in a relatively small IVC(average diameter 16 mm).Conclusion: The Cordis Keeper filter was well tolerated, but seems to be prone to caval wall penetration in the long term

  2. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs

  3. Evaluation of benign pulmonary lesions less than 20 mm in diameter by thin-section computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Yamada, Kouzo; Oshita, Fumihiro

    1997-01-01

    To establish diagnostic criteria for small solitary pulmonary nodules, the findings of thin-section computed tomography (CT) were compared with pathological findings. We evaluated thin-section CT images and compared them with pathological findings in 23 specimens of resected benign lesions less than 20 mm in diameter located in the peripheral region. The thin-section CT images were reconstructed using 2 mm thick sections taken by TCT-900S, HELIX (Toshiba, Tokyo) and were examined with two different windows and level settings. In every case, the surgical specimens were sliced transversely to correlate with the CT findings. The thin-section CT images were classified into two types; solid and air-containing types. The former consisted of benign pulmonary tumors, granulomas and some focal fibrosis, while the latter all consisted of focal fibrosis. Both types were difficult to distinguish from peripheral lung cancer based only on margin analysis of the lesion, but analysis of how pulmonary vessels relate to the lesion can allow benign pulmonary lesions to be distinguished from peripheral lung cancer. (author)

  4. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyakuno, Haruka, E-mail: h-kyakuno@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Nakai, Yusuke; Maniwa, Yutaka, E-mail: maniwa@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Matsuda, Kazuyuki [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Miyata, Yasumitsu [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature T{sub wd} ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter D{sub c} ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > D{sub c}) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at T{sub wd} upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below T{sub wd} freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < D{sub c}) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  5. Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.

  6. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-23

    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  7. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  8. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  9. Depiction of blood vessels by x-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Blood vessels in livers of a mouse and a rat were depicted by phase-contrast x-ray imaging with an x-ray interferometer without using contrast agents. X-ray interference patterns were converted to image mapping x-ray phase shift caused by the livers using the technique of phase-shifting x-ray interferometry. The arteries and veins to and from the livers were tied before excision in order to prevent blood from flowing out of the liver. The x-ray phase shift caused by blood was substantially different from that caused by other soft sues, and consequently trees of blood vessels were revealed in the images. Vessels of diameter smaller than 0.1 mm were detected. This result suggests new possibilities for investigating vascular systems. (author)

  10. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  11. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  12. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  13. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  15. Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the Safety of WWER-440/230 NPPs, a list of safety issues requiring broad studies of generic interest have been agreed upon by an Advisory Group who met in Vienna in September 1990. The list was later revised in the light of the programme findings. The information on the status of the issues, and on the amount of work already completed and under way in the various countries, needs to be compiled. Moreover, an evaluation of what further work is required to resolve each one of the issues is also necessary. In view of this, the IAEA has started the preparation of a series of status reports on the various issues. This report on the generic safety issue ''Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement'' presents a comprehensive survey of technical information available in the field and identifies those aspects which require further investigation. 39 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  17. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  18. Morphometric analysis of rat femoral vessels under a video magnification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available Abstract The right femoral vessels of 80 rats were identified and dissected. External lengths and diameters of femoral arteries and femoral veins were measured using either a microscope or a video magnification system. Findings were correlated to animals’ weights. Mean length was 14.33 mm for both femoral arteries and femoral veins, mean diameter of arteries was 0.65 mm and diameter of veins was 0.81 mm. In our sample, rats’ body weights were only correlated with the diameter of their femoral veins.

  19. Integral reactor vessel related to power reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widart, J.; Scailteur, A.

    1978-01-01

    Integral design applied to PWR pressure vessels allows to reach a high level of safety because: 1) it presents a better balance of the material in the geometry, resulting in an improved stress level (mainly faulted condition loadings); 2) location and geometry of the welds are designed in order to get a very sound pressure boundary of the upper part of the vessel; 3) the new location and geometry of the welds allow an easy ISI in such a way that ambiguity surrounding defect size or locaton is practically suppressed. (author)

  20. Reducing catheter-related thrombosis using a risk reduction tool centered on catheter to vessel ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Timothy R; Mahoney, Keegan J

    2017-11-01

    In vascular access practices, the internal vessel size is considered important, and a catheter to vessel ratio (CVR) is recommended to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate-sized device for the vessel. In 2016, new practice recommendations stated that the CVR can increase from 33 to 45% of the vessels diameter. There has been evidence on larger diameter catheters and increased thrombosis risk in recent literature, while insufficient information established on what relationship to vessel size is appropriate for any intra-vascular device. Earlier references to clinical standards and guidelines did not clearly address vessel size in relation to the area consumed or external catheter diameter. The aim of this manuscript is to present catheter-related thrombosis evidence and develop a standardized process of ultrasound-guided vessel assessment, integrating CVR, Virchow's triad phenomenon and vessel health and preservation strategies, empowering an evidence-based approach to device placement. Through review, calculation and assessment on the areas of the 33 and 45% rule, a preliminary clinical tool was developed to assist clinicians make cognizant decisions when placing intravascular devices relating to target vessel size, focusing on potential reduction in catheter-related thrombosis. Increasing the understanding and utilization of CVRs will lead to a safer, more consistent approach to device placement, with potential thrombosis reduction strategies. The future of evidence-based data relies on the clinician to capture accurate vessel measurements and device-related outcomes. This will lead to a more dependable data pool, driving the relationship of catheter-related thrombosis and vascular assessment.

  1. Tunable engineered skin mechanics via coaxial electrospun fiber core diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William; Powell, Heather Megan

    2014-10-01

    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Tunable Engineered Skin Mechanics via Coaxial Electrospun Fiber Core Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William

    2014-01-01

    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24712409

  3. Problems in manufacturing and transport of pressure vessels of integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovec, J.

    1997-01-01

    Integral water-cooled reactors are typical with eliminating large-diameter primary pipes and placing primary components, i.e. steam generators and pressurizers in reactor vessels. This arrangement leads to reactor pressure vessels of large dimensions: diameters, heights and thick walls and subsequently to great weights. Thus, even medium power units have pressure vessels which are on the very limit of present manufacturing capabilities. Principal manufacturing and inspection operations as well as pertinent equipment are concerned: welding, cladding, heat treatment, machining, shop-handling, non-destructive testing, hydraulic pressure tests etc. Tile transport of such a large and heavy component makes a problem which effects its design as well as the selection of the plant site. Railway, road and ship are possible ways of transport each of them having its advantages and limitations. Specific features and limits of the manufacture and transport of large pressure vessels are discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30 cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cm 2 at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of +- 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity

  5. Vessel used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Glover, J.S.; Shephard, B.P.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns the vessels used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels. These vessels prove to be particularly useful in analyses of the kind where a radioactive element or compound is separated into two phases and the radioactivity of one phase is determined. Such a vessel used in the counting of radiation includes an organic plastic substance tube appreciably cylindrical in shape whose upper end is open whilst the lower end is closed and integral with it, and an anti-radiation shield in metal or in metal reinforced plastic located at the lower end of the tube and extending along the wall of the tube up to a given height. The vessel contains a reaction area of 1 to 10 ml for holding fluid reagents [fr

  6. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation ({approx}30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  7. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation (∼30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  8. [Hemodynamic phenomena in retrobulhar and eyeball vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors connected with blood flow and indices regulating vascular diameter and some parameters influencing retrobulbar circulation such as type of vascular resistance, anatomical structure of vascular wall and vessel lumen. Neurogenic and angiogenic factors, rheological blood composition, presence of anatomical and pathological obstructions on blood flow pathway as well as degree of development of collateral circulation pathways--have influence on the volume and blood flow velocity in eyeball. There were discussed bulbar circulation hemodynamics, emphasizing the importance of perfusion pressure. The role of risk factors was underlined for pathological lesions in vessels supplying blood to eyeball and in ophthalmic artery (OA) and its collaterals, in central retinal artery (CRA) as well as posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs), and in venous system carrying away blood from eye. IN CONCLUSION--the results of many studies of retrobulbar blood flow in different types of ophthalmic diseases of the vascular etiopathogenesis indicate that registry of the mean values of blood flow parameters and vascular resistance indices parallel to measurement of blood flow spectrum in OA, CRA, PCAs arteries, might contribute much information to explain or to evaluate nature of pathological changes in retinal and choroidal circulation.

  9. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of supraaortic vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, L.; Puricelli, G.; Cerasano, A.; Cornalba, P.; Rota, L.; Facchinetti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen cases are reported of dilatation of supra-aortic vessels; in 14/16 patients the vessel involved was either the subclavian artery or the brachio-cephalich trunk. Special attention is paid to the choice of patients - the ideal one presenting with a single uncalcified lesion, with stenosis more than 50% of diameter; the symptoms have recently appeared, with a significant difference (more than 20 mmHg) in the pressure of the two arms. The technical aspects of the angioplastic procedure are discussed, especially in order to preserve the intracriminal circulation and to limit possible complications. The presence of reversed blood flow in the vertebral artery is extremely important to preserve intracranial circulation from possible embolism; normal flow obtained at the end of the procedure is therefore an useful proof of successful dilatation. The advantages are stressed of dilatation over the surgical technique used in the past. Finally, the importance is emphasized of a correct follow-up and doppler control of supra-aortic circulation

  10. Innovations in prestressed concrete pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.Y.; Ngo, D.; Lin, T.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The study explored a new approach to the design of a high-pressure PCPV that accepts tension and tension cracks in the outer region of the PCPV. It examined the possibility of incorporating artificially-introduced preformed separations that pre-determined crack locations in the design as a method of controlling high tensile stresses generated by internal temperature and pressure. The results showed that the PCPV so designed was, in the extreme case of the DSV, approximately 70% cheaper than the 18 steel vessels of equivalent capacity it replaces. (orig.)

  11. An Experimental Study Of The Stability Of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles In Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhaliwal, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske and Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske and Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y G , correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in

  12. ITER vacuum vessel, in vessel components and plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Enoeda, M.; Federici, G.

    2007-01-01

    Design of the NB ports including duct liners under heat loads of the neutral beams has been developed. Design of the in-wall shielding has been developed in more details considering the supporting structure and the assembly method. The ferromagnetic inserts have previously not been installed in the outboard midplane region due to irregularity caused by the tangential ports for NB injection. Due to this configuration, the maximum ripple is relatively large (∝1 %) in a limited region of the plasma and the toroidal field flux lines fluctuate ∝10 mm in the FW region. To avoid these problems, additional ferromagnetic inserts are to be installed in the equatorial port region. Detailed studies were carried out on the ITER vacuum vessel to define appropriate codes and standards in the context of the ITER licensing in France. A set of draft documents regarding the ITER vacuum vessel structural code were prepared including an RCC-MR Addendum for the ITER VV with justified exceptions or modifications. The main deviation from the base Code is the extensive use of UT in lieu of radiography for the volumetric examination of all one-side access welds of the outer shell and field joint. The procurement allocation of blanket modules among 6 parties was fixed and the blanket module design has progressed in cooperation with parties. Fabrication of mock-ups for prequalification testing is under way and the tests will be performed in 2007-2008. Development of new beryllium materials is progressing in China and Russia. The ITER limiters will be installed in equatorial ports at two toroidal locations. The limiter plasma-facing surface protrudes ∝8 cm from the FW during the start-up and shutdown phase. In the new limiter concept, the limiters are retracted by ∝8 cm during the plasma flat top phase. This concept gives important advantages; (i) mitigation of the particle and heat loads due to disruptions, ELMs and blobs, (ii) improvement of the power coupling with the ICRH antenna

  13. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention applies to a pressure vessel for nuclear reactors whose shell, made of cast metal segments, has a steel liner. This liner must be constructed to withstand all operational stresses and to be easily repairable. The invention solves this problem by installing the liner at a certain distance from the inner wall of the pressure vessel shell and by filling this clearance with supporting concrete. Both the concrete and the steel liner must have a lower prestress than the pressure vessel shell. In order to avoid damage to the liner when prestressing the pressure vessel shell, special connecting elements are provided which consist of welded-on fastening elements projecting into recesses in the cast metal segments of the pressure vessel. Their design is described in detail. (TK) [de

  14. Tracheid diameter is the key trait determining the extent of freezing-induced embolism in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Sperry, John

    2003-09-01

    We tested the hypotheses that freezing-induced embolism is related to conduit diameter, and that conifers and angiosperms with conduits of equivalent diameter will exhibit similar losses of hydraulic conductivity in response to freezing. We surveyed the freeze-thaw response of conifers with a broad range of tracheid diameters by subjecting wood segments (root, stem and trunk wood) to a freeze-thaw cycle at -0.5 MPa in a centrifuge. Embolism increased as mean tracheid diameter exceeded 30 microm. Tracheids with a critical diameter greater than 43 microm were calculated to embolize in response to freezing and thawing at a xylem pressure of -0.5 MPa. To confirm that freezing-induced embolism is a function of conduit air content, we air-saturated stems of Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (mean conduit diameter 13.7 +/- 0.7 microm) by pressurizing them 1 to 60 times above atmospheric pressure, prior to freezing and thawing. The air saturation method simulated the effect of increased tracheid size because the degree of super-saturation is proportional to a tracheid volume holding an equivalent amount of dissolved air at ambient pressure. Embolism increased when the dissolved air content was equivalent to a mean tracheid diameter of 30 microm at ambient air pressure. Our centrifuge and air-saturation data show that conifers are as vulnerable to freeze-thaw embolism as angiosperms with equal conduit diameter. We suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of conifer wood is maximized by increasing tracheid diameters in locations where freezing is rare. Conversely, the narrowing of tracheid diameters protects against freezing-induced embolism in cold climates.

  15. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  16. Most likely failure location during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Allison, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from which finite element calculation results are used in conjunction with analytical calculation results to predict failure in different LWR vessel designs during a severe accident. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR vessel and drain line penetration to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. Analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to consider geometries and materials occurring in other LWR vessel designs. Preliminary numerical analysis results indicate that if ceramic debris relocates within the BWR drain line to a distance below the lower head, the drain line will reach failure temperatures before the vessel fails. Application of failure maps for these debris conditions to other LWR geometries indicate that in-vessel tube melting will occur in either BWR or PWR vessel designs. Furthermore, if this melt is assumed to fill the entire penetration flow area, the melt is predicted to travel well below the lower head in any of the reference LWR penetrations. However, failure maps suggest the result that ex-vessel tube temperatures exceed the penetration's ultimate strength is specific to the BWR drain line because of its material composition and relatively large effective diameter for melt flow

  17. Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...

  18. Efficient scanning of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    1978-01-01

    Lead containers fabricated for transport of radioactive materials need to be evaluated for their shielding integrity. The common method of locating a strong gamma source inside the vessel and scanning the external surface by conventional detectors suffers from high radiation dose and low sensitivity. A new method has been proposed and tried. It is found to be more efficient. In the new method, 60 Co source is loaded at the centre of the lead vessel and the outer surface is scanned by NaI(Tl) detector. The transmitted virgin flux is scanned under the 60 Co channel in a single channel analyser. An area of 25 cm 2 is scanned for 10 to 20 seconds each time. The source strength required is considerably reduced by a factor of 10 or more as compared to the common method and external dose rates do not exceed 50 mR/h (130 nC. kg -1 h -1 ) on the vessel surface. The advantages are improved sensitivity, no interference from scattered radiation and assurance in repeatability of measurements. (M.G.B.)

  19. NET in-vessel vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.

    1991-02-01

    The CFFTP/Spar In-vessel Vehicle System concept for in-vessel remote maintenance of the NET/ITER machine is described. It comprises a curved deployable boom, a vehicle which can travel on the boom and an end effector or work unit mounted on the vehicle. The stowed boom, vehicle, and work unit are inserted via the equatorial access port of the torus. Following insertion the boom is deployed and locked in place. The vehicle may then travel along the boom to transport the work unit to any desired location. A novel feature of the concept is the deployable boom. When fully deployed, it closely resembles a conventional curved truss structure in configuration and characteristics. However, the joints of the truss structure are hinged so that it can fold into a compact package, of less than 20% of deployed volume for storage, transportation and insertion into the torus. A full-scale 2-metre long section of this boom was produced for demonstration purposes. As part of the concept definition the work unit for divertor handling was studied to demonstrate that large payloads could be manipulated within the confines of the torus using the in-vessel vehicle system. Principal advantages of the IVVS are its high load capacity and rigidity, low weight and stowed volume, simplicity of control and operation, and its relatively high speed of transportation

  20. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  1. Pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, D.

    2007-01-01

    This book guides through general and fundamental problems of pressure vessel design. It moreover considers problems which seem to be of lower importance but which turn out to be crucial in the design phase. The basic approach is rigorously scientific with a complete theoretical development of the topics treated, but the analysis is always pushed so far as to offer concrete and precise calculation criteria that can be immediately applied to actual designs. This is accomplished through appropriate algorithms that lead to final equations or to characteristic parameters defined through mathematical equations. The first chapter describes how to achieve verification criteria, the second analyzes a few general problems, such as stresses of the membrane in revolution solids and edge effects. The third chapter deals with cylinders under pressure from the inside, while the fourth focuses on cylinders under pressure from the outside. The fifth chapter covers spheres, and the sixth is about all types of heads. Chapter seven discusses different components of particular shape as well as pipes, with special attention to flanges. The eighth chapter discusses the influence of holes, while the ninth is devoted to the influence of supports. Finally, chapter ten illustrates the fundamental criteria regarding fatigue analysis. Besides the unique approach to the entire work, original contributions can be found in most chapters, thanks to the author's numerous publications on the topic and to studies performed ad hoc for this book. (orig.)

  2. Structural analysis of the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botija, José, E-mail: jose.botija@ciemat.es [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Javier; Fernández, Pilar; Medrano, Mercedes; Ramos, Francisco; Rincon, Esther; Soleto, Alfonso [Association EURATOM – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Davis, Sam; Di Pietro, Enrico; Tomarchio, Valerio [Fusion for Energy, JT-60SA European Home Team, 85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Masaki, Kei; Sakasai, Akira; Shibama, Yusuke [JAEA – Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Structural analysis to validate the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body design. ► Design code ASME 2007 “Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII”. ► First buckling mode: load multiplier of 10.644, higher than the minimum factor 4.7. ► Elastic and elastic–plastic stress analysis meets ASME against plastic collapse. ► Bolted fasteners have been analyzed showing small gaps closed by strong welding. -- Abstract: The JT-60SA cryostat is a stainless steel vacuum vessel (14 m diameter, 16 m height) which encloses the Tokamak providing the vacuum environment (10{sup −3} Pa) necessary to limit the transmission of thermal loads to the components at cryogenic temperature. It must withstand both external atmospheric pressure during normal operation and internal overpressure in case of an accident. The paper summarizes the structural analyses performed in order to validate the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body design. It comprises several analyses: a buckling analysis to demonstrate stability under the external pressure; an elastic and an elastic–plastic stress analysis according to ASME VIII rules, to evaluate resistance to plastic collapse including localized stress concentrations; and, finally, a detailed analysis with bolted fasteners in order to evaluate the behavior of the flanges, assuring the integrity of the vacuum sealing welds of the cryostat vessel body.

  3. Cold source vessel development for the advanced neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will be a user-oriented neutron research facility that will produce the most intense flux of neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the productions of cold neutrons is a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410 mm diameter sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel`s inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design are being performed with multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This paper presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that will be used to verify the final design.

  4. Automated retinal vessel type classification in color fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2013-02-01

    Automated retinal vessel type classification is an essential first step toward machine-based quantitative measurement of various vessel topological parameters and identifying vessel abnormalities and alternations in cardiovascular disease risk analysis. This paper presents a new and accurate automatic artery and vein classification method developed for arteriolar-to-venular width ratio (AVR) and artery and vein tortuosity measurements in regions of interest (ROI) of 1.5 and 2.5 optic disc diameters from the disc center, respectively. This method includes illumination normalization, automatic optic disc detection and retinal vessel segmentation, feature extraction, and a partial least squares (PLS) classification. Normalized multi-color information, color variation, and multi-scale morphological features are extracted on each vessel segment. We trained the algorithm on a set of 51 color fundus images using manually marked arteries and veins. We tested the proposed method in a previously unseen test data set consisting of 42 images. We obtained an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 93.7% in the ROI of AVR measurement and 91.5% of AUC in the ROI of tortuosity measurement. The proposed AV classification method has the potential to assist automatic cardiovascular disease early detection and risk analysis.

  5. Novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels based on the model of the retinal vascular network and mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Hengyi; Yu, Yajun

    1998-09-01

    Accurate edge detection of retinal vessels is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of subtle morphological changes of retinal vessels under different pathological conditions. A novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels is presented in this paper. Methods: (1) Wavelet-based image preprocessing. (2) The signed edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphological operation are applied to get the approximate regions that contain retinal vessels. (3) By convolving the preprocessed image with a LoG operator only on the detected approximate regions of retinal vessels, followed by edges refining, clear edge maps of the retinal vessels are fast obtained. Results: A detailed performance evaluation together with the existing techniques is given to demonstrate the strong features of our method. Conclusions: True edge locations of retinal vessels can be fast detected with continuous structures of retinal vessels, less non- vessel segments left and insensitivity to noise. The method is also suitable for other application fields such as road edge detection.

  6. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  7. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Giri, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Kymaelaeinen, O. [FortumEngNP (Finland); Bonnet, J.M. [CEA (France); Ikkonen, K. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Sairanen, R. [VTT (Finland); Bhandari, S. [FRAMATOME (France); Buerger, M. [USTUTT (Germany); Dienstbier, J. [NRI Rez (Czech Republic); Techy, Z. [VEIKI (Hungary); Theofanous, T. [UCSB (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI) project involved a total of nine organizations from Europe and USA. The work consisted of experiments and analysis development. The modeling activities in the area of structural analyses were focused on the support of EC-FOREVER experiments as well as on the exploitation of the data obtained from those experiments for modeling of creep deformation and the validation of the industry structural codes. Work was also performed for extension of melt natural convection analyses to consideration of stratification, and mixing (in the CFD codes). Other modeling activities were for (1) gap cooling CHF and (2) developing simple models for system code. Finally, the methodology and data was applied for the design of IVMR severe accident management scheme for VVER-440/213 plants. The work was broken up into five packages. They were divided into tasks, which were performed by different partners. The major experimental project continued was EC-FOREVER in which data was obtained on in-vessel melt pool coolability. In previous EC-FOREVER experiments data was obtained on melt pool natural convection and lower head creep failure and rupture. Those results obtained were related to the following issues: (1) multiaxial creep laws for different vessel steels (2) effects of penetrations, and (3) mode and location of lower head failure. The two EC-FOREVER tests reported here are related to (a) the effectiveness of gap cooling and (b) water ingression for in vessel melt coolability. Two other experimental projects were also conducted. One was the COPO experiments, which was concerned with the effects of stratification and metal layer on the thermal loads on the lower head wall during melt pool convection. The second experimental project was conducted at ULPU facility, which provided data and correlations of CHF due to the external cooling of the lower head.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Large-Diameter Steel Piles at Horns Rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders Hust; Brødbæk, K. T.; Møller, M.

    2009-01-01

    Today large-diameter monopiles are the most common foundation type used for large offshore wind farms. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of monopiles under monotonic loading taking the interaction between the pile and the subsoil into account. Focus is paid to a monopile used as founda......Today large-diameter monopiles are the most common foundation type used for large offshore wind farms. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of monopiles under monotonic loading taking the interaction between the pile and the subsoil into account. Focus is paid to a monopile used...... as foundation for a wind turbine at Horns Rev located in the Danish sector of the North Sea. The outer diameter of the pile is 4 m and the subsoil at the location consists primarily of sand. The behaviour of the pile is investigated under realistic loading conditions by means of a traditional Winkler...

  9. PWR vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Kinsman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on PWR pressure vessels which operate under NRC rules and regulatory guides intended to prevent failure of the vessels. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified under these rules and regulations are required to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. However, the flaw distribution assumed in the development of the NRC Regulations and recommended for the plant specific analyses is potentially over-conservative. This is because the distribution is based on the limited amount of vessel inspection data available at the time the criteria were being developed and does not take full advantage of the more recent and reliable domestic vessel inspection results. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding an effort through Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of developing a new flaw distribution based on the increased amount and improved reliability of domestic vessel inspection data. Results of Phase I of the program indicate that state-of-the-art NDE systems' capabilities are sufficient for development of a new flaw distribution that could ultimately provide life extension benefits over the presently required operating practice

  10. Nuclear reactor vessel decontamination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed in the present application, a decontamination system for reactor vessels. The system is operatable without entry by personnel into the contaminated vessel before the decontamination operation is carried out and comprises an assembly which is introduced into the vertical cylindrical vessel of the typical boiling water reactor through the open top. The assembly includes a circular track which is centered by guideways permanently installed in the reactor vessel and the track guides opposed pairs of nozzles through which water under very high pressure is directed at the wall for progressively cutting and sweeping a tenacious radioactive coating as the nozzles are driven around the track in close proximity to the vessel wall. The whole assembly is hoisted to a level above the top of the vessel by a crane, outboard slides on the assembly brought into engagement with the permanent guideways and the assembly progressively lowered in the vessel as the decontamination operation progresses. The assembly also includes a low pressure nozzle which forms a spray umbrella above the high pressure nozzles to contain radioactive particles dislodged during the decontamination

  11. Investigation of vessel visibility of iterative reconstruction method in coronary computed tomography angiography using simulated vessel phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Uto, Fumiaki; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Hoshino, Takashi; Miura, Youhei; Terakawa, Syouichi

    2012-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction methods can reduce the noise of computed tomography (CT) images, which are expected to contribute to the reduction of patient dose CT examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate impact of an iterative reconstruction method (iDose 4 , Philips Healthcare) on vessel visibility in coronary CT angiography (CTA) by using phantom studies. A simulated phantom was scanned by a CT system (iCT, Philips Healthcare), and the axial images were reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) and given a level of 1 to 7 (L1-L7) of the iterative reconstruction (IR). The vessel visibility was evaluated by a quantitative analysis using profiles across a 1.5-mm diameter simulated vessel as well as visual evaluation for multi planar reformation (MPR) images and volume rendering (VR) images in terms of the normalized-rank method with analysis of variance. The peak CT value of the profiles decreased with IR level and full width at half maximum of the profile also decreased with the IR level. For normalized-rank method, there was no statistical difference between FBP and L1 (20% dose reduction) for both MPR and VR images. The IR levels higher than L1 sacrificed the spatial resolution for the 1.5-mm simulated vessel, and their visual vessel visibilities were significantly inferior to that of the FBP. (author)

  12. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  13. Waste system optimization - can diameter selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashline, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the waste system optimization study is to define in terms of cost incentives the preferred waste package for HLW which has been converted to glass at a commercial reprocessing plant. The Waste Management Economic Model (WMEM) was employed to analyze the effect of varying important design parameters on the overall net present cost of waste handling. The parameters found to have the greatest effect on the calculated overall net present cost were can diameter, repository type (salt, basalt/bentonite, or welded tuff), allowable areal heat loading, and the repository availability date. The overall net present of a waste handling option is calculated over a 20-year operating period. It includes the total capital and operating costs associated with high-level and intermediate-level liquid waste storage, liquid waste solidification, hulls storage and compaction, and general process trash handling. It also includes the cask leasing and transportation costs associated with each waste type and the waste repository disposal costs. The waste repository disposal costs used in WMEM for this analysis were obtained from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories and thir RECON model. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  15. Small diameter electrospun silk fibroin vascular grafts: Mechanical properties, in vitro biodegradability, and in vivo biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Valentina; Farè, Silvia; Cattaneo, Irene; Figliuzzi, Marina; Alessandrino, Antonio; Freddi, Giuliano; Remuzzi, Andrea; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of autologous grafts currently used in clinical practice, vascular tissue engineering represents an alternative approach for the replacement of small diameter blood vessels. In the present work, the production and characterization of small diameter tubular matrices (inner diameter (ID)=4.5 and 1.5 mm), obtained by electrospinning (ES) of Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF), have been considered. ES-SF tubular scaffolds with ID=1.5 mm are original, and can be used as vascular grafts in pediatrics or in hand microsurgery. Axial and circumferential tensile tests on ES-SF tubes showed appropriate properties for the specific application. The burst pressure and the compliance of ES-SF tubes were estimated using the Laplace's law. Specifically, the estimated burst pressure was higher than the physiological pressures and the estimated compliance was similar or higher than that of native rat aorta and Goretex® prosthesis. Enzymatic in vitro degradation tests demonstrated a decrease of order and crystallinity of the SF outer surface as a consequence of the enzyme activity. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the ES-SF tubes was confirmed by the adhesion and growth of primary porcine smooth muscle cells. The in vivo subcutaneous implant into the rat dorsal tissue indicated that ES-SF matrices caused a mild host reaction. Thus, the results of this investigation, in which comprehensive morphological and mechanical aspects, in vitro degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were considered, indicate the potential suitability of these ES-SF tubular matrices as scaffolds for the regeneration of small diameter blood vessels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. PWR vessel inspection performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair Fairbrother, D.; Bodson, Francis

    1998-01-01

    A compact robot for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessels has been developed that reduces setup logistics and schedule time for mandatory code inspections. Rather than installing a large structure to access the entire weld inspection area from its flange attachment, the compact robot examines welds in overlapping patches from a suction cup anchor to the shell wall. The compact robot size allows two robots to be operated in the vessel simultaneously. This significantly reduces the time required to complete the inspection. Experience to date indicates that time for vessel examinations can be reduced to fewer than four days. (author)

  18. Healthy Lung Vessel Morphology Derived From Thoracic Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pienn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the lung vessel morphology in healthy subjects is necessary to improve our understanding about the functional network of the lung and to recognize pathologic deviations beyond the normal inter-subject variation. Established values of normal lung morphology have been derived from necropsy material of only very few subjects. In order to determine morphologic readouts from a large number of healthy subjects, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA datasets, negative for pulmonary embolism, and other thoracic pathologies, were analyzed using a fully-automatic, in-house developed artery/vein separation algorithm. The number, volume, and tortuosity of the vessels in a diameter range between 2 and 10 mm were determined. Visual inspection of all datasets was used to exclude subjects with poor image quality or inadequate artery/vein separation from the analysis. Validation of the algorithm was performed manually by a radiologist on randomly selected subjects. In 123 subjects (men/women: 55/68, aged 59 ± 17 years, the median overlap between visual inspection and fully-automatic segmentation was 94.6% (69.2–99.9%. The median number of vessel segments in the ranges of 8–10, 6–8, 4–6, and 2–4 mm diameter was 9, 34, 134, and 797, respectively. Number of vessel segments divided by the subject's lung volume was 206 vessels/L with arteries and veins contributing almost equally. In women this vessel density was about 15% higher than in men. Median arterial and venous volumes were 1.52 and 1.54% of the lung volume, respectively. Tortuosity was best described with the sum-of-angles metric and was 142.1 rad/m (138.3–144.5 rad/m. In conclusion, our fully-automatic artery/vein separation algorithm provided reliable measures of pulmonary arteries and veins with respect to age and gender. There was a large variation between subjects in all readouts. No relevant dependence on age, gender, or vessel type was observed. These data may

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchon, D.; Dukes, R.; Taylor, J.

    1975-01-01

    Results of some defect location studies on a pressure vessel are reported and correlated with those of ultrasonic inspection. Good agreement was observed, with a probability greater than 90% that a defect location detected would be confirmed by ultrasonics. This good agreement is considered to result from the use of peak sensing rather than the more commonly used leading edge triggering technique. Attention is drawn to the influence of the defect extension process upon the ease of detection, contrasting the difficulty of detecting slow crack growth with the ease of detection of pulses originating from the fracture of hard particles or their separation from the matrix, and to the influence of the Kaiser effect, which can mean that a flaw may not be detectable unless previously applied stress levels are exceeded, or that flaw growth has occurred since the previous inspection, or that some metallurgical recovery process has operated. (author)

  20. Pressure vessels for reactors made from structural steel with limited tensile strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machatti, H.

    1973-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel is prestressed in several directions with prestressing elements fabricated of steel with a high yielding point. This design allows a substantial reduction of wall thickness or an increase of the inner diameter at equal wall thickness. The prestress of the prestressing elements is designed to achieve a maximum stress release of the vessel walls at normal operating conditions and to fully utilize the maximum load of the vessel walls. For safety reasons the cross section of the prestressing elements is constructed in a way that strain is always 20 % lower the yield point. (P.K.)

  1. A basic study on the ITER tritium storage vessel design and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Yim, S. P.; Paek, S. W.; Lee, M. S.; Lee, S. H.; Shim, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The ZrCo getter beds are built of a primary vessel which contains the ZrCo powder mixed with Cu spheres of less than one mm diameter and of a secondary outer vessel. The purpose of the secondary outer vessel is to capture permeated or leaked tritium and to present a good thermal insulation when properly evacuated. A third volume, a helium filled loop, is installed in the primary volume to remove the decay heat and is used to perform tritium accountancy measurements

  2. Scoping calculations for design and analysis of large reactor vessels for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, C.; Kulak, R.F.; Ma, D.C.; Pan, Y.C.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Wang, C.Y.; Zeuch, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor vessels for commercial-sized LMFBR plants are quite large - ranging 40 to 70 ft in diameter and 50 to 70 ft in overall depth. These stainless steel vessels contain liquid sodium at relatively low pressures, but at high temperatures. The resulting thin-walled vessels present the structural designer and analyst with special problems, particularly in providing a balanced design to accommodate seismic loads, design basis accident loads, and thermal loadings. A comprehensive set of scoping calculations - though preliminary in detail and depth of design - provides substantial guidance to the vessel designer for subsequent design iterations. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the large-diameter top closure of the vessel - the deck structure

  3. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  4. Special enclosure for a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.; Wedellsborg, U.W.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure vessel enclosure is described comprising a primary pressure vessel, a first pressure vessel containment assembly adapted to enclose said primary pressure vessel and be spaced apart therefrom, a first upper pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose the upper half of said first pressure vessel containment assembly and be spaced apart therefrom, said upper pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim and a lower rim, each of said rims connected in a slidable relationship to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, mean for connecting in a sealable relationship said upper rim of said first upper pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, means for connecting in a sealable relationship said lower rim of said first upper pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, a first lower pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose the lower half of said first pressure vessel containment assembly and be spaced apart therefrom, said lower pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim connected in a slidable relationship to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, and means for connecting in a sealable relationship said upper rim of said first lower pressure vessel jacket to the outer surface of said first pressure vessel containment assembly, a second upper pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose said first upper pressure vessel jacket and be spaced apart therefrom, said second upper pressure vessel jacket having an upper rim and a lower rim, each of said rims adapted to slidably engage the outer surface of said first upper pressure vessel jacket, means for sealing said rims, a second lower pressure vessel jacket adapted to enclose said first lower pressure vessel jacket and be spaced apart therefrom

  5. Establishment of an animal model of mice with radiation- injured soft tissue blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Daiyou; Yu Dahai; Wu Jiaxiao; Wei Shanliang; Wen Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels. Methods: Forty male mice were irradiated with 30 Gy on the right leg. After the irradiation was finished each of the 40 male mice was tested with angiography, and its muscle tissues on the bilateral legs were examined with vessel staining assay and electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the number of vessels on the right leg was less than that on the left leg, the microvessel density, average diameter and average sectional area of the right leg were all lower than those of the left, and the configuration and ultra-structure of vessels were also different between both sides of legs. Conclusion: In the study authors successfully established an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels

  6. A system for the thermal insulation of a pre-stressed concrete vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Gilles; Petit, Guy.

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns the thermal insulation of a pre-stressed concrete vessel for a pressurised water nuclear reactor, this vessel being fitted internally with a leak-proof metal lining. Two rings are placed at the lower and upper parts of the vessel respectively. The upper ring is closed with a cover. These rings differ in diameter, are fitted with a metal insulating and mark the limits of a chamber between the vaporisable fluid and the internal wall of the vessel. This chamber is filled with a fluid in the liquid phase up to the liquid/vapor interface level of the fluid and with a gas above that level, the covering of the rings forming a cold fluid liquid seal. Each ring is supported by the vessel. Leak-proof components take up the radial expansion of the rings [fr

  7. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  8. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  9. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  10. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  11. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  12. Reactor pressure vessel status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Wichman, K.; Elliot, B.

    1994-12-01

    This report gives a brief description of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), followed by a discussion of the radiation embrittlement of RPV beltline materials and the two indicators for measuring embrittlement, the end-of-license (EOL) reference temperature and the EOL upper-shelf energy. It also summarizes the GL 92-01 effort and presents, for all 37 boiling water reactor plants and 74 pressurized water reactor plants in the United States, the current status of compliance with regulatory requirements related to ensuring RPV integrity. The staff has evaluated the material data needed to predict neutron embrittlement of the reactor vessel beltline materials. These data will be stored in a computer database entitled the reactor vessel integrity database (RVID). This database will be updated annually to reflect the changes made by the licensees in future submittals and will be used by the NRC staff to assess the issues related to vessel structural integrity

  13. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward

  14. Demineralized water flow cancelling experiments with ice plug into high diameter horizontal tube (300 nominal diameter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Corbescu, B.; Puiu, D.; Panaitescu, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation with ice plug of a high diameter horizontal pipeline section is a specific technique for repairs activities/ replacements of components owning to thermo-hydraulic installations working with liquid agents. The application of such technique don.t assumes stopping of the entire system. The ice plugging inside of the pipeline assumes using of a special device and of an own specific technology for application. The paper contains a brief description of the experimental technological facilities used, followed by setting off the main moments in evolution of two experimental tests carried out on the test section with 300 mm nominal diameter for demineralized water and, finally, by a brief results analysis and some conclusions. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  15. Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. ... Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and area-based recruitment models were developed. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  17. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  18. Power reactor pressure vessel benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of experimental and calculational benchmarks for use in understanding the radiation embrittlement effects in the pressure vessels of operating light water power reactors. The requirements of such benchmarks for application to pressure vessel dosimetry are stated. Recent developments in active and passive neutron detectors sensitive in the ranges of importance to embrittlement studies are summarized and recommendations for improvements in the benchmark are made. (author)

  19. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis

  20. Abnormal splenic artery diameter/hepatic artery diameter ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462

  1. An interior vessel viewing system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, R.

    1989-11-01

    It was anticipated that there could be damage to the interior walls of the vacuum vessel during operations of the DIII-D tokamak. A method of viewing the inside of the vessel from the outside was required, that would allow the interior walls to be inspected visually for damage and to locate any debris resulting from operations. A miniature closed circuit television color camera system was developed which could be inserted into one of several ports of the vessel during a 'clean' vent, i.e., vented to inert gas. The system has pan, tilt and zoom capability and carries its own lighting. The use of this system allows a quick assessment of the condition of the vessel to be made under 'clean' vent conditions. This precludes the need for the permit process and manned entry into the vessel which would allow air inside the vessel. A permanent record of the inspection can then be made on video tape. The design and configuration of this camera system is presented and its use as a diagnostic tool discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs

  2. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  3. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru.

    1997-01-01

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and γ rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  4. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru

    1997-07-31

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and {gamma} rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  5. Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for external cooling of an advanced reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    coatings by comparing the measurements with those for a plain vessel without coatings. An overall enhancement in nucleate boiling rates and CHF limits up to 100% were observed. Moreover, combination of data from quenching experiments and steady-state experiments produced new sets of boiling curves, which covered both the nucleate and transient boiling regimes with much greater accuracy. Beside the experimental work, a theoretical CHF model has also been developed by considering the vapor dynamics and the boiling-induced two-phase motions in three separate regions adjacent to the heating surface. The CHF model is capable of predicting the performance of micro-porous coatings with given particle diameter, porosity, media permeability and thickness. It is found that the present CHF model agrees favorably with the experimental data. Effects of an enhanced vessel/insulation structure on the local nucleate boiling rate and CHF limit have also been investigated experimentally. It is observed that the local two-phase flow quantities such as the local void fraction, quality, mean vapor velocity, mean liquid velocity, and mean vapor and liquid mass flow rates could have great impact on the local surface heat flux as boiling of water takes place on the vessel surface. An upward co-current two-phase flow model has been developed to predict the local two-phase flow behavior for different flow channel geometries, which are set by the design of insulation structures. It is found from the two-phase flow visualization experiments and the two-phase flow model calculations that the enhanced vessel/insulation structure greatly improved the steam venting process at the minimum gap location compared to the performance of thermal insulation structures without enhancement. Moveover, depending on the angular location, steady-state boiling experiments with the enhanced insulation design showed an enhancement of 1.8 to 3.0 times in the local critical heat flux. Finally, nucleate boiling and CHF

  6. 75 FR 54025 - Vessel and Facility Response Plans for Oil: 2003 Removal Equipment Requirements and Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... responders for each vessel or facility with appropriate equipment and resources located in each zone of operation; specific lists of equipment that the resource providers will make available in case of an...

  7. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pariaut, Romain; Gaschen Dvm, Lorrie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-02-01

    To establish a computed tomography (CT)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots. 13 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed. Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65). CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.

  8. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinayak S; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Garvin, Mona K; Abramoff, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV) classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  9. Neutron Assay System for Con?nement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Waste will be removed from confinement vessels remaining from 1970s-era experiments. Los Alamos has 9+ spherical confinement vessels remaining from experiments. Each vessel contains ∼ 500 lbs of radioactive debris such as actinide metals and oxides, metals, powdered silica, graphite, and wires and hardware. In order to dispose of the vessels, debris and contamination must be removed. Neutron assay system was designed to assay vessels before and after cleanout. System requirements are: (1) Modular and moveable; (2) Capable of detecting ∼100g 239 Pu equivalent in a 2-inch thick steel sphere with 6 foot diameter; and (3) Capable of safeguards-quality assays. Initial design parameters arethe use of 4-atm 3 He tubes with length of 6 feet, and 3 He tubes embedded in polyethelene for moderation. This paper describes the calibration of the Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) and quantification of its uncertainties. Assay uncertainty depends on five factors: (1) Statistical uncertainty in the assay measurement; (2) Statistical uncertainty in the background measurement; (3) Statistical uncertainty in the isotopics determination - This should be much smaller than the other uncertainties; (4) Systematic uncertainty due to position bias; and (5) Systematic uncertainty due to fluctuations in cosmic ray spallation. This one can be virtually eliminated by performing the background measurement with an empty vessel - but that may not be possible. We used modeling and experiments to quantify the systematic uncertainties. The calibration assumes a uniform distribution of material, but reality will be different. MCNPX modeling was used to quantify the positional bias. The model was benchmarked to build confidence in its results. Material at top of vessel is 44% greater than amount assayed, according to singles. Material near 19-tube detector is 38% less than amount assayed, according to singles. Cosmic ray spallation contributes significantly to the background. Comparing rates

  10. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  11. Stress analysis of hydride bed vessels used for tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillip, S.T.; Bannister, C.E.; Clark, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype hydride storage bed, using LaNi 4.25 Al 0.75 as the storage material, was fitted with strain gages to measure strains occurring in the stainless steel bed vessel caused by expansion of the storage powder upon uptake of hydrogen. The strain remained low in the bed as hydrogen was added, up to a bed loading of about 0.5 hydrogen to metal atom ratio (H/M). The strain then increased with increasing hydrogen loading (∼ 0.8 H/M). Different locations exhibited greatly different levels of maximum strain. In no case was the design stress of the vessel exceeded

  12. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Safety and security are top concerns in maritime navigation, particularly as maritime traffic continues to grow and as crew sizes are reduced. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a key role in regard to these concerns. This system, whose objective is in part to identify and locate ves...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  13. Latest feedback from a major reactor vessel dismantling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.; Segerud, P.; Sanchez, M.; Garcia, R.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse performed two large segmentation projects in 2010-2013 and then 2013-2015 at the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant in Spain. The power plant is located in Almonacid de Zorita, 43 miles east of Madrid, Spain and was in operation between 1968 and 2006. This paper will describe the sequential steps required to prepare, segment, separate, and package the individual component segments using under water mechanical techniques. The paper will also include experiences and lessons learned that Westinghouse has collected from the activities performed during the reactor vessel and vessel internals segmentation projects. (authors)

  14. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Graft of Small Diameter Based on Electrospun Polylactide Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Popryadukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular vascular grafts 1.1 mm in diameter based on poly(L-lactide microfibers were obtained by electrospinning. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data demonstrated that the samples treated at T=70°C for 1 h in the fixed state on a cylindrical mandrel possessed dense fibrous structure; their degree of crystallinity was approximately 44%. Strength and deformation stability of these samples were higher than those of the native blood vessels; thus, it was possible to use them in tissue engineering as bioresorbable vascular grafts. The experiments on including implantation into rat abdominal aorta demonstrated that the obtained vascular grafts did not cause pathological reactions in the rats; in four weeks, inner side of the grafts became completely covered with endothelial cells, and fibroblasts grew throughout the wall. After exposure for 12 weeks, resorption of PLLA fibers started, and this process was completed in 64 weeks. Resorbed synthetic fibers were replaced by collagen and fibroblasts. At that time, the blood vessel was formed; its neointima and neoadventitia were close to those of the native vessel in structure and composition.

  15. Location | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  16. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  17. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  18. Evaluation of ductile-brittle transition behavior with neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels using small punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S.; Oh, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    A Small Punch (SP) test was performed to evaluate the ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after neutron irradiation in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels produced by different manufacturing (refining) processes. The results were compared to the standard transition temperature shifts from the Charpy test and Master Curve fracture toughness test in accordance with the ASTM standard E1921. The samples were taken from 1/4t location of the vessel thickness and machined into a 10x10x0.5mm dimension. Irradiation of the samples was carried out in the research reactor at KAERI (HANARO) at about 290 .deg. C of the different fluence levels respectively. SP tests were performed in the temperature range of RT to -196 .deg. C using a 2.4mm diameter ball. For the materials before and after irradiation, SP transition temperatures (T sp ), which are determined at the middle of the upper and lower SP energies, showed a linear correlation with the Charpy index temperature, T 41J . T sp from the irradiated samples was increased as the fluence level increased and was well within the deviation range of the unirradiated data. The TSP had a correlation with the reference temperature (T 0 ) from the master curve method using a pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen

  19. The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null diverters. TPX is designed for 1,000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces

  20. Experimental investigation on motive nozzle throat diameter for an ejector expansion refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilir Sag, Nagihan; Ersoy, H. Kursad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of nozzle throat diameter and its location on performance were investigated. • The nozzle has an optimum throat diameter under the experiment condition. • The maximum performance has been achieved by using optimum nozzle throat diameter. • The variation of nozzle throat diameter with condenser water inlet temperature was examined. • Motive nozzle has no optimum position in the ejector refrigeration system. - Abstract: In this study, ejector was used to reduce throttling losses in a vapour compression refrigeration system. Effects on system performance of throat diameter and position of motive nozzle of ejector were investigated experimentally. An ejector was designed based on the established mathematical model and manufactured. The experiments were carried out by using different primary nozzle throat diameters. The experiments were further conducted by changing condenser water inlet temperature, which is one of the external parameters. The experimental results of the ejector system and those of the classic system were compared under same external operating conditions and for the same cooling capacity. In order to obtain same external operating conditions in both systems, the inlet conditions of the brine supplied to the evaporator and inlet water conditions (flow rate and temperature) to the condenser were kept constant. Maximum performance was obtained when the primary nozzle throat diameter was 2.3 mm within the areas considered in this study. When compared, it was experimentally determined that the ejector system that uses the optimum motive nozzle throat diameter exhibits higher COP than the classic system by 5–13%. Furthermore, it was found that the variation of coefficient of performance based on position of motive nozzle in two-phase ejector expander refrigeration cycle is lower than 1%.

  1. Clay Corner: Recreating Chinese Bronze Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson where students make faux Chinese bronze vessels through slab or coil clay construction after they learn about the history, function, and design of these vessels. Utilizes a variety of glaze finishes in order to give the vessels an aged look. Gives detailed guidelines for creating the vessels. (CMK)

  2. Design features of the KSTAR in-vessel control coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.K. [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-ku, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hkkim@nfri.re.kr; Yang, H.L.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, Jin-Yong; Jhang, Hogun; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-ku, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In-vessel control coils (IVCCs) are to be used for the fast plasma position control, field error correction (FEC), and resistive wall mode (RWM) stabilization for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The IVCC system comprises 16 segments to be unified into a single set to achieve following remarkable engineering advantages; (1) enhancement of the coil system reliability with no welding or brazing works inside the vacuum vessel, (2) simplification in fabrication and installation owing to coils being fabricated outside the vacuum vessel and installed after device assembly, and (3) easy repair and maintenance of the coil system. Each segment is designed in 8 turns coil of 32 mm x 15 mm rectangular oxygen free high conductive copper with a 7 mm diameter internal coolant hole. The conductors are enclosed in 2 mm thick Inconel 625 rectangular welded vacuum jacket with epoxy/glass insulation. Structural analyses were implemented to evaluate structural safety against electromagnetic loads acting on the IVCC for the various operation scenarios using finite element analysis. This paper describes the design features and structural analysis results of the KSTAR in-vessel control coils.

  3. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Dall’Olmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM- based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm. The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.

  4. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  5. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  6. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  7. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki

    1997-07-11

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  8. Molten material-containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The molten material-containing vessel of the present invention comprises a vessel main body having an entrance opened at the upper end, a lid for closing the entrance, an outer tube having an upper end disposed at the lower surface of the lid, extended downwardly and having an closed lower end and an inner tube disposed coaxially with the outer tube. When a molten material is charged from the entrance to the inside of the vessel main body of the molten material-containing vessel and the entrance is closed by the lid, the outer tube and the inner tube are buried in the molten material in the vessel main body, accordingly, a fluid having its temperature elevated by absorption of the heat of the molten material rises along the inner circumferential surface of the outer tube, abuts against the lower surface of the lid and cooled by exchanging heat with the lid and forms a circulating flow. Since the heat in the molten material is continuously absorbed by the fluid, transferred to the lid and released from the lid to the atmospheric air, heat releasing efficiency can be improved compared with conventional cases. (N.H.)

  9. Single pressure vessel (SPV) nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, D.; Grindstaff, B.; Fox, C. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Single pressure vessel (SPV) technology combines an entire multi-cell nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) space battery within a single pressure vessel. SPV technology has been developed to improve the performance (volume/mass) of the NiH{sub 2} system at the battery level and ultimately to reduce overall battery cost and increase system reliability. Three distinct SPV technologies are currently under development and in production. Eagle-Picher has license to the COMSAT Laboratories technology, as well as internally developed independent SPV technology. A third technology resulted from the acquisition of Johnson Controls NiH{sub 2} battery assets in June, 1994. SPV batteries are currently being produced in 25 ampere-hour (Ah), 35 Ah and 50 Ah configurations. The battery designs have an overall outside diameter of 10 inches (25.4 centimeters).

  10. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi; Bull, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  11. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2013-01-10

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  12. Microstructural evolution in reactor pressure vessel steel under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Katsumi; Fukuya, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Understanding microstructural changes in reactor pressure vessel steels is important in order to evaluate radiation-induced embrittlement, one of the major aging phenomena affecting the extension of plant life. In this study, actual surveillance test specimens and samples of rector vessel low-alloy steel (A533B steel) irradiated in a research reactor were examined using state-of-the-art techniques to clarify the neutron flux effect on the microstructural changes. These techniques included small angle neutron scattering and atom probes. Microstructural changes which are considered to be the main factors affecting embrittlement, including the production of copper-rich precipitates and the segregation of impurity elements, were confirmed by the results of the study. In addition, the mechanical properties were predicted based on the obtained quantitative data such as the diameters of precipitates. Consequently, the hardening due to irradiation was almost simulated. (author)

  13. Large vessel imaging using cosmic-ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenneson, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are assessed for their practical use in the tomographic imaging of the internal composition of large vessels over 2 m in diameter. The technique is based on the attenuation and scattering of cosmic-ray muons passing through a vessel and has advantages over photon-based methods of tomography that it is extendable to object containing high-density materials over many tens of metres. The main disadvantage is the length of time required to produce images of sufficient resolution and hence cosmic ray muon tomography will be most suited to the imaging of large structures whose internal composition is effectively static for the duration of the imaging period. Simulation and theoretical results are presented here which demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray muon tomography

  14. Ligation of lymph vessels for the treatment of recurrent inguinal lymphoceles following lymphadenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Bakholdt, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent lymphocele following groin dissection is generally a self-limiting condition, but in a few cases, the lymphocele persists and for this, there are not many options. Few reports have proposed the efficacy of lymph vessel ligation with patent blue as a vessel locator. We have......, and their data was retrieved from electronic patient records. RESULTS: In total, eight patients had this procedure performed for a total of ten inguinal regions. In all regions, leaking lymph vessels were easily found by the blue color and a median of 3 (range 1-5 vessels) vessels per region were ligated using...... and had the procedure performed again with immediate effect. CONCLUSIONS: Ligation of lymph vessels for the treatment of recurrent inguinal lymphoceles appears to be an appropriate treatment modality that is both quick and easy to perform with minimum risk, and in most cases, it results in immediate...

  15. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Findlay, Michael W. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Yang, Yunzhi, E-mail: ypyang@stanford.edu [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts.

  16. Submillimeter Diameter Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Vascular Graft Patency in Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutiongco, Marie F. A.; Kukumberg, Marek; Peneyra, Jonnathan L.; Yeo, Matthew S.; Yao, Jia Y.; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Le Visage, Catherine; Ho, Jackie Pei; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular surgery is becoming a prevalent surgical practice. Replantation, hand reconstruction, orthopedic, and free tissue transfer procedures all rely on microvascular surgery for the repair of venous and arterial defects at the millimeter and submillimeter levels. Often, a vascular graft is required for the procedure as a means to bridge the gap between native arteries. While autologous vessels are desired for their bioactivity and non-thrombogenicity, the tedious harvest process, lack of availability, and caliber or mechanical mismatch contribute to graft failure. Thus, there is a need for an off-the-shelf artificial vascular graft that has low thrombogenic properties and mechanical properties matching those of submillimeter vessels. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA) has excellent prospects as a vascular graft due to its bioinertness, low thrombogenicity, high water content, and tunable mechanical properties. Here, we fabricated PVA grafts with submillimeter diameter and mechanical properties that closely approximated those of the rabbit femoral artery. In vitro platelet adhesion and microparticle release assay verified the low thrombogenicity of PVA. A stringent proof-of-concept in vivo test was performed by implanting PVA grafts in rabbit femoral artery with multilevel arterial occlusion. Laser Doppler measurements indicated the improved perfusion of the distal limb after implantation with PVA grafts. Moreover, ultrasound Doppler and angiography verified that the submillimeter diameter PVA vascular grafts remained patent for 2 weeks without the aid of anticoagulant or antithrombotics. Endothelial cells were observed in the luminal surface of one patent PVA graft. The advantageous non-thrombogenic and tunable mechanical properties of PVA that are retained even in the submillimeter diameter dimensions support the application of this biomaterial for vascular replacement in microvascular surgery. PMID:27376059

  17. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing; Findlay, Michael W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10 −6 cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts

  18. Design study on steam generator integration into the VVER reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, J.; Matal, O.

    2004-01-01

    The primary circuit of VVER (PWR) units is arranged into loops where the heat generated by the reactor is removed by means of main circulating pumps, loop pipelines and steam generators, all located outside the reactor pressure vessel. If the primary circuit and reactor core were integrated into one pressure vessel, as proposed, e.g., within the IRIS project (WEC), a LOCA situation would be limited by the reactor pressure vessel integrity only. The aim of this design study regarding the integration of the steam generator into the reactor pressure vessel was to identify the feasibility limits and some issues. Fuel elements and the reactor pressure vessel as used in the Temelin NPP were considered for the analysis. From among the variants analyzed, the variant with steam generators located above the core and vertically oriented circulating pumps at the RPV lower bottom seems to be very promising for future applications

  19. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  20. Muscle-splitting approach to superior and inferior gluteal vessels: versatile source of recipient vessels for free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-07-01

    The superior gluteal vessel has been reported as a recipient in free-tissue transfer for the coverage of complex soft-tissue defects in the lumbosacral region, where a suitable recipient vessel is difficult to find. The characteristics of proximity, vessel caliber, and constancy make the superior gluteal vessel preferable to previously reported recipient vessels. However, there are technical difficulties in microsurgery (e.g., short pedicle length and deep location) and muscle injury (transection of the muscle) associated with use of the superior gluteal vessel. The purpose of this article is to present a modification of an approach to the gluteal vessel to alleviate technical difficulties and minimize muscle injury. From August of 1997 to January of 1999, six patients received microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle or myocutaneous flap to the sacral (4) and ischial (2) regions. The causes of defects were tumor (1), trauma (1), and pressure sores (4). A muscle-splitting approach was used on the superior gluteal vessel and was later applied to the inferior gluteal vessel. The gluteus maximus muscle was split as needed in the direction of its fibers, and the perforators were dissected down to the superior or inferior gluteal artery and vein deep into the muscle. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 22 months, and all of the flaps survived with complete recovery of the lesion. The major drawbacks of using the superior and inferior gluteal vessels can be overcome with the muscle-splitting approach, which provides increased accessibility and additional length to the vascular pedicle while causing minimal injury to the muscle itself. It also proves to be an easy, safe, and reliable method of dissection. When free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions is indicated, the muscle-splitting approach to the superior and inferior gluteal vessels is a recommended option in the selection of a recipient vessel.

  1. Location of leaks in pressurized underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Millions of underground storage tanks (UST) are used to store petroleum and other chemicals. The pressurized underground pipelines associated with USTs containing petroleum motor fuels are typically 2 in. in diameter and 50 to 200 ft in length. These pipelines typically operate at pressures of 20 to 30 psi. Longer lines, with diameters up to 4 in., are found in some high-volume facilities. There are many systems that can be used to detect leaks in pressurized underground pipelines. When a leak is detected, the first step in the remediation process is to find its location. Passive-acoustic measurements, combined with advanced signal-processing techniques, provide a nondestructive method of leak location that is accurate and relatively simple, and that can be applied to a wide variety of pipelines and pipeline products

  2. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  3. An approach to localize the retinal blood vessels using bit planes and centerline detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Barman, S A; Remagnino, P; Hoppe, A; Basit, A; Uyyanonvara, B; Rudnicka, A R; Owen, C G

    2012-11-01

    The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessel tree from the retinal images. The centerlines are extracted by using the first order derivative of a Gaussian filter in four orientations and then evaluation of derivative signs and average derivative values is performed. Mathematical morphology has emerged as a proficient technique for quantifying the blood vessels in the retina. The shape and orientation map of blood vessels is obtained by applying a multidirectional morphological top-hat operator with a linear structuring element followed by bit plane slicing of the vessel enhanced grayscale image. The centerlines are combined with these maps to obtain the segmented vessel tree. The methodology is tested on three publicly available databases DRIVE, STARE and MESSIDOR. The results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparable with state of the art techniques in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure vessel inspection criteria based on fitness-for-purpose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.L.; Cipolla, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper on pressure vessel inspection investigates the methodology required to establish an inspection strategy consistent with fracture mechanics analysis, i.e. to define allowable flaw sizes based on location within the vessel. The methodology is demonstrated using a sample problem for a typical pressurised water reactor pressure vessel, and shows the impact of certain assumptions on the inspection strategy. The results indicate that the flaw size varies with the shape of the assumed residual stress field and the through-thickness location. Also in general, the fracture mechanics evaluation allows flaws much larger than are allowed by the inspection acceptance criteria. (UK)

  5. The behaviour of the pulmonary vessels on X-ray films of children with asthma bronchiale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1986-01-01

    On X-ray films of 51 children with asthma bronchiale the authors determined the vascular diameter of the right ascending pulmonary artery, the right vein of the upper lobe, and the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields at an exactly defined distance from the hilus point, and compared these data with those of a control group of 143 healthy children. During the asthma attack the width of the right descending pulmonary artery and of the vein of the upper lobe corresponded to the values of the control group, whereas the vascular diameters in the upper and lower fields were clearly narrowed. Moreover, in most of the asthmatic children the authors found arc-shaped vessels and irregularly occluded vessels in the periphery of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  6. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.

    1995-01-01

    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  7. Development of Catamaran Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamaluddin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihull due to a couple of advantages has been the topic of extensive research work in naval architecture. In this study, a series of investigation of fishing vessel to save fuel energy was carried out at ITS. Two types of ship models, monohull (round bilge and hard chine and catamaran, a boat with two hulls (symmetrical and asymmetrical were developed. Four models were produced physically and numerically, tested (towing tank and simulated numerically (CFD code. The results of the two approaches indicated that the catamaran mode might have drag (resistance smaller than those of monohull at the same displacement. A layout of catamaran fishing vessel, proposed here, indicates the freedom of setting the deck equipments for fishing vessel.

  8. CT and histopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodules 10 mm or less in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Tian, Shu-ping [Navy General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-hong [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate CT and histopathologic features of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) ≤10 mm in diameter. CT appearances of 148 patients (150 lesions) who underwent curative resection of lung adenocarcinoma with pGGN ≤10 mm (25 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, 42 adenocarcinoma in situs, 38 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, and 45 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas) were analyzed for lesion size, density, bubble-like sign, air bronchogram, vessel changes, margin, and tumour-lung interface. CT characteristics were compared among different histopathologic subtypes. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess the relationship between CT characteristics of pGGN and lesion invasiveness, respectively. There were statistically significant differences among histopathologic subtypes in lesion size, vessel changes, and tumour-lung interface (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences of vessel changes, margin and tumour-lung interface between preinvasive and invasive lesions (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the vessel changes, unsmooth margin and clear tumour-lung interface were significant predictive factors for lesion invasiveness, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 2.57 (1.17-5.62), 1.83 (1.25-2.68) and 4.25 (1.78-10.14), respectively. Invasive lesions are found in 55.3% of subcentimeter pGGNs in our cohort. Vessel changes, unsmooth margin, and clear lung-tumour interface may indicate the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma with subcentimeter pGGN. (orig.)

  9. CT and MR angiographic findings in dissection of cervical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Brinkmann, G.; Heuser, K.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) for evaluation of dissection in cervical vessels. Material and methods: Dissection of cervical vessels was revealed by conventional angiography in 4 patients (two female, two male) of 30-62 years of age. Dissection was located in the carotid artery (n=3) and in the vertebral artery (n=1). In two patients CTA and in two patients MRA was performed. Results: Diagnosis of dissection was possible by CTA (internal carotid artery: n=2) and by MRA (internal carotid artery and vertebral artery). Imaging of the dissection membrane of the vessel wall was possible in one case with MRA. Conclusion: CT and MR angiography was successful for detection of typical morphology of dissection in all cases. If results in a greater number can be obtained it seems to be conceivable that both methods can be used in primary diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  10. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and...

  11. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being... HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a...

  12. Containment vessel design and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of analysis and design of the concrete containment vessels required for BWR and PWR is reviewed. A step-by-step critical appraisal of the existing work is given. Elastic, inelastic and cracking conditions under extreme loads are fully discussed. Problems associated with these structures are highlighted. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is included to cater for service, overload and dynamic cracking of such structures. Missile impact and seismic effects are included in this work. The second analysis is known as the limit state analysis, which is given to design such vessels for any kind of load. (U.K.)

  13. Stress analysis of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Song, D.H.; Son, K.H.; Kim, K.S.; Park, K.B.; Song, H.K.; So, J.Y.

    1979-01-01

    This interim report contains the results of the effort to establish the stress report preparation capability under the research project ''Stress analysis of pressure vessels.'' 1978 was the first year in this effort to lay the foundation through the acquisition of SAP V structural analysis code and a graphic terminal system for improved efficiency of using such code. Software programming work was developed in pre- and post processing, such as graphic presentation of input FEM mesh geometry and output deformation or mode shope patterns, which was proven to be useful when using the FEM computer code. Also, a scheme to apply fracture mechanics concept was developed in fatigue analysis of pressure vessels. (author)

  14. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-01-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-11-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment.

  16. The Clementine Nickel Hydrogen Common Pressure Vessel Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine spacecraft was launched in January 1994 to demonstrate advanced lightweight technologies for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO). One of the key technologies was the first use of a multi-cell nickel hydrogen (NiH2) common pressure vessel (CPV) battery. The 5.0 inch diameter, 22 cell, 15.0 ampere-hour NiH2 CPV battery was manufactured by Johnson Controls Battery Group Inc., (JCBGI). Battery test and integration was performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). ...

  17. Impact of Chronic Rheumatic Valve Diseases on Large Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunbas, Gokhan; Yuce, Murat; Ozer, Hasan O; Davutoglu, Vedat; Ercan, Suleyman; Kizilkan, Nese; Bilici, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF STUDY: Rheumatic valvular heart disease, which remains a common health problem in developing countries, has numerous consequences on the heart chambers and circulation. The study aim was to investigate the effects of chronic rheumatic valve disease on the diameters of the descending aorta (DA) and inferior vena cava (IVC). METHODS: A total of 88 patients with echocardiographically documented rheumatic valvular heart disease and 112 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. All patients underwent detailed echocardiographic examinations, while their height and body weight were recorded and adjusted to their body surface area. RESULTS: The most common involvement was mitral valve disease, followed by aortic valve disease and tricuspid valve disease. The mean diameter of the DA (indexed to BSA) was 1.79 ± 0.49 cm for patients and 1.53 ± 0.41 for controls (p Rheumatic valve disease, especially mitral stenosis, was closely related to remodeling of the great vessels.

  18. Trajectory planning of tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Weidong; Lai, Yinping; He, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. • Two trajectory planning methods are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. • The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot. • Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: Tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is mainly designed to carry a camera for close observation of the first wall of the vacuum vessel, which is essential for the maintenance of the future tokamak reactor without breaking the working condition of the vacuum vessel. A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. In order to improve efficiency of the remote maintenance, it is necessary to design a corresponding trajectory planning algorithm to complete the automatic full coverage scanning of the complex tokamak cavity. Two different trajectory planning methods, RS (rough scanning) and FS (fine scanning), according to different demands of the task, are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. To quickly locate the damage position, the first trajectory planning method is targeted for quick and wide-ranging scan of the tokamak D-shaped section, and the second one is for careful observation. Furthermore, both of the two different trajectory planning methods can ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning with an optimal end posture. The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Trajectory planning of tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China); Lai, Yinping; He, Tao [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. • Two trajectory planning methods are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. • The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot. • Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: Tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is mainly designed to carry a camera for close observation of the first wall of the vacuum vessel, which is essential for the maintenance of the future tokamak reactor without breaking the working condition of the vacuum vessel. A tokamak flexible in-vessel inspection robot is designed. In order to improve efficiency of the remote maintenance, it is necessary to design a corresponding trajectory planning algorithm to complete the automatic full coverage scanning of the complex tokamak cavity. Two different trajectory planning methods, RS (rough scanning) and FS (fine scanning), according to different demands of the task, are used to ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning. To quickly locate the damage position, the first trajectory planning method is targeted for quick and wide-ranging scan of the tokamak D-shaped section, and the second one is for careful observation. Furthermore, both of the two different trajectory planning methods can ensure the full coverage of the first wall scanning with an optimal end posture. The method is tested on a simulated platform of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) with the flexible in-vessel inspection robot, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  1. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, ca...

  2. Internet Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  3. Retinal Vessel Diameters and Their Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk and All-Cause Mortality in the Inter99 Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Munch, Inger Christine; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    equivalent (CRAE). Multiple linear regression analyses and Cox regression models were used. Results. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that narrower CRAE was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, age, and higher HDL cholesterol, whereas wider CRAE and CRVE were associated with smoking...

  4. The analysis of reactor vessel surveillance program data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power reactor vessel surveillance programs are provided by the reactor supplier and are designed to meet the requirements of ASTM Method E 185. (3). Each surveillance capsule contains sets of Charpy V-notch (Csub(v)) specimens representing selected materials from the vessel beltline region and some reference steel, tension test specimens machined from selected beltline materials, temperature monitors, and neutron flux dosimeters. Surveillance capsules may also contain fracture mechanics specimens machined from selected vessel beltline materials. The major steps in the conduct of a surveillance program include (1) the testing of the surveillance specimens to determine the exposure conditions at the capsule location and the resulting embrittlement of the vessel steel, (2) the extrapolation of the capsule results to the pressure vessel wall, and (3) the determination of the heatup and cooldown limits for normal, upset, and test operation. This paper will present data obtained from commercial light water reactor surveillance programs to illustrate the methods of analysis currently in use at Southwest Research Institute and to demonstrate some of the limitations imposed by the data available. Details concerning the procedures for testing the surveillance capsule specimens will not be included because they are considered to be outside of the scope of this paper

  5. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-06-01

    The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducting jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which comprises a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  6. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  7. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  8. Database and prediction model for CANDU pressure tube diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.Y.; Park, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The pressure tube (PT) diameter is basic data in evaluating the CCP (critical channel power) of a CANDU reactor. Since the CCP affects the operational margin directly, an accurate prediction of the PT diameter is important to assess the operational margin. However, the PT diameter increases by creep owing to the effects of irradiation by neutron flux, stress, and reactor operating temperatures during the plant service period. Thus, it has been necessary to collect the measured data of the PT diameter and establish a database (DB) and develop a prediction model of PT diameter. Accordingly, in this study, a DB for the measured PT diameter data was established and a neural network (NN) based diameter prediction model was developed. The established DB included not only the measured diameter data but also operating conditions such as the temperature, pressure, flux, and effective full power date. The currently developed NN based diameter prediction model considers only extrinsic variables such as the operating conditions, and will be enhanced to consider the effect of intrinsic variables such as the micro-structure of the PT material. (author)

  9. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  10. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao

    2010-05-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  11. In-vessel coolability and steam explosion in Nordic BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.; Hansson, R.; Li, L.; Kudinov, P.; Cadinu, F.; Tran, C-.T.

    2010-05-01

    The INCOSE project is to reduce the uncertainty in quantification of steam explosion risk and in-vessel coolability in Nordic BWR plants with the cavity flooding as a severe accident management (SAM) measure. During 2009 substantial advances and new insights into physical mechanisms were gained for studies of: (i) in-vessel corium coolability - development of the methodologies to assess the efficiency of the control rod guide tube (CRGT) cooling as a potential SAM measure; (ii) debris bed coolability - characterization of the effective particle diameter of multi-size particles and qualification of friction law for two-phase flow in the beds packed with multi-size particles; and (iii) steam explosion - investigation of the effect of binary oxides mixtures properties on steam explosion. An approach for coupling of ECM/PECM models with RELAP5 was developed to enhance predictive fidelity for melt pool heat transfer. MELCOR was employed to examine the CRGT cooling efficiency by considering an entire accident scenario, and the simulation results show that the nominal flowrate (∼10kg/s) of CRGT cooling is sufficient to maintain the integrity of the vessel in a BWR of 3900 MWth, if the water injection is activated no later than 1 hour after scram. The POMECO-FL experimental data suggest that for a particulate bed packed with multi-size particles, the effective particle diameter can be represented by the area mean diameter of the particles, while at high velocity (Re>7) the effective particle diameter is closer to the length mean diameter. The pressure drop of two-phase flow through the particulate bed can be predicted by Reed's model. The steam explosion experiments performed at high melt superheat (>200oC) using oxidic mixture of WO3-CaO didn't detect an apparent difference in steam explosion energetics and preconditioning between the eutectic and noneutectic melts. This points out that the next step of MISTEE experiment will be conducted at lower superheat. (author)

  12. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  13. PLANNING VESSEL BODY SECTION PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Grivachevsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of planning production of a vessel body section is considered. The problem is reduced to the classic Johnson’s tree-machine flow-shop scheduling problem. A genetic algorithm and computer experiment to compare efficiency of this algorithm and the algorithm of full enumeration are described.

  14. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  15. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  16. A Fast Measuring Method for the Inner Diameter of Coaxial Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fangyun; Fu, Luhua; Wang, Zhong; Yang, Tongyu; Liu, Changjie

    2017-03-22

    A new method for fast diameter measurement of coaxial holes is studied. The paper describes a multi-layer measuring rod that installs a single laser displacement sensor (LDS) on each layer. This method is easy to implement by rotating the measuring rod, and immune from detecting the measuring rod's rotation angles, so all diameters of coaxial holes can be calculated by sensors' values. While revolving, the changing angles of each sensor's laser beams are approximately equal in the rod's radial direction so that the over-determined nonlinear equations of multi-layer holes for fitting circles can be established. The mathematical model of the measuring rod is established, all parameters that affect the accuracy of measurement are analyzed and simulated. In the experiment, the validity of the method is verified, the inner diameter measuring precision of 28 μm is achieved by 20 μm linearity LDS. The measuring rod has advantages of convenient operation and easy manufacture, according to the actual diameters of coaxial holes, and also the varying number of holes, LDS's mounting location can be adjusted for different parts. It is convenient for rapid diameter measurement in industrial use.

  17. Ex-vessel boiling experiments: laboratory- and reactor-scale testing of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention. Pt. II. Reactor-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Slezak, S.E.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.77-88 (1997). This paper summarizes the results of a reactor-scale ex-vessel boiling experiment for assessing the flooded cavity design of the heavy water new production reactor. The simulated reactor vessel has a cylindrical diameter of 3.7 m and a torispherical bottom head. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling mainly results from the gravity head, which in turn results from flooding the side of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid-solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion. The results show that, under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity will be effective for in-vessel core retention in the heavy water new production reactor. The results also demonstrate that the heat dissipation requirement for in-vessel core retention, for the central region of the lower head of an AP-600 advanced light water reactor, can be met with the flooded cavity design. (orig.)

  18. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  19. Extraction of Trees Stem Diameters at Breast Height by Terrestrial Laser Sensor for Selective Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili ZHENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assist the operators of the logging harvester automatically and quickly select the appropriate trees for selective cutting, using two-dimensional laser scanner and inertial measurement system, the two-dimensional cloud points of the trunks at breast-height are obtained for several trees. After projection, clustering, linear transformation and fitting for the point clouds data, the parameters of the breast-height-diameters and center locations of the trees are obtained. The calculation is implemented in MATLAB by Polak-Ribiere-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient algorithm and the result is shown in VC++ environment. Using this method, absolute errors of the breast-height- diameters and center locations are 2.3 cm and (12.4, 11.4 cm respectively, and meet the requirements on the automatically selective cutting of the logging harvester.

  20. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  1. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  2. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  3. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  4. Green facility location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velázquez Martínez, J.C.; Fransoo, J.C.; Bouchery, Y.; Corbett, C.J.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    Transportation is one of the main contributing factors of global carbon emissions, and thus, when dealing with facility location models in a distribution context, transportation emissions may be substantially higher than the emissions due to production or storage. Because facility location models

  5. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  6. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactor plant consisting of several pre-stressed cast pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmann, E.

    1984-01-01

    Several cylindrical pressure vessel components made of pressure castings are arranged on a sector of a circle around the cylindrical cast pressure vessel for accommodating the helium cooled HTR. Each component pressure vessel is connected to the reactor vessel by a horizontal gas duct. The contact surfaces between reactor and component pressure vessel are in one plane. In the spaces between the individual component pressure vessels, there are supporting blocks made of cast iron, which are hollow and also have flat surfaces. With the reactor vessel and the component pressure vessels they form a disc-shaped connecting part below and above the gas ducts. (orig./PW)

  7. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2018-03-06

    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  8. Prediction of thermal margin for external cooling of reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Jun; Suh, Kune Y.

    1998-01-01

    and subcooled boiling. According to the calculation result, the critical heat flux (CHF) increased when the location changed from the bottom center to the upper edge of the hemisphere. Nevertheless, when the reactor vessel is filled with the debris, because the heat flux to the outer surface has the same trend of increase by means of natural convection within the debris, the DNBR decreased when the location changed from bottom up. We could also find that the DNBR increased for forced convection and subcooled boiling cases. We thus can conclude that the external cooling will certainly become more effective when we adapt flow and subcooling boiling simultaneously from the severe accident management point of view

  9. Pulsed dye laser treatment of rosacea using a novel 15 mm diameter treatment beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin; Paranjape, Amit; Jones, Christopher J

    2018-04-10

    The pulsed-dye laser has been used to treat facial redness and rosacea for decades. Recent advances in dye laser technology enable 50% higher output energies supporting 50% larger treatment areas, and beam-diameters up to 15 mm with clinically-relevant fluences. In this study, we investigate this novel pulsed-dye laser using a 15 mm diameter beam for treatment of rosacea. Twenty subjects with erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea were enrolled in the study. A total of 4 monthly treatments were administered, first treating linear vessels with a 3 × 10 mm elliptical beam, then diffuse redness with a 15-mm diameter circular beam. Blinded assessment of digital, cross-polarized photographs taken 2 months following the last treatment was performed using an 11-point clearance scale. Nineteen subjects completed the study. Blinded reviewers correctly identified baseline photos in 55 out of the total of 57 images (96.5%). The blinded reviewers scored 17 of the 19 subjects with an improvement greater than 40%, and 11 of the 19 subjects greater than 50%. The average improvement was 53.9%. Side effects were limited to mild edema, mild to moderate erythema, and mild to moderate bruising. This study demonstrates that a newly designed pulsed-dye laser having a novel 15-mm diameter treatment beam improves the appearance of rosacea with a favorable safety profile. Lasers Surg. Med. 9999:1-5, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Design of vacuum vessel for Indian Test Facility (INTF) for 100 keV neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Jaydeep; Yadav, Ashish; Gangadharan, Roopesh; Prasad, Rambilas; Ulahannan, Shino; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thickness calculation and optimization for the main shell, ducts, Dishends and top lid on the main shell. • Nozzle and flange design for the port openings. • Support structure design for the main shell and ducts. • FEA validation of the INTF vessel for operational, seismic and lifting condition. - Abstract: The Indian Test Facility (INTF) vacuum vessel is designed to install a full-scale test set-up of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) [1] for the qualification of beam parameters and the behavior of beam-line components prior to installation and operation in ITER. Vacuum vessel is designed in cylindrical shape having length of ∼9 m with diameter of ∼4.5 m and has a detachable top-lid for mounting as well as removal of internal components during installation and maintenance phases. The Vessel has hemispherical dish-ends with large openings for high-voltage bushing on one side and duct on another side. Vessel is provided with openings for hydraulic, cryo, gas-feed and diagnostics. Vessel duct is composed of three segments with length ranges from 3 m to 5 m with diameter of ∼1.5 m and one vessel at the end to house the second calorimeter. The objective of this paper is to present the design and analysis of vacuum vessel, with respect to its functional and operational requirements. The design calculations are done as per ASME-BPVC SectionVIII-Div.1 and subsequently Finite Element Analysis (FEM) method has been adopted to verify the design.

  11. Design of vacuum vessel for Indian Test Facility (INTF) for 100 keV neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jaydeep, E-mail: Jaydeep.joshi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ashish; Gangadharan, Roopesh [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Prasad, Rambilas [Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273001 (India); Ulahannan, Shino [Airframe Aerodesigns Pvt. Ltd., HAL Airport Exit Road, Old Airport Road, Bengaluru 17 (India); Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Thickness calculation and optimization for the main shell, ducts, Dishends and top lid on the main shell. • Nozzle and flange design for the port openings. • Support structure design for the main shell and ducts. • FEA validation of the INTF vessel for operational, seismic and lifting condition. - Abstract: The Indian Test Facility (INTF) vacuum vessel is designed to install a full-scale test set-up of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) [1] for the qualification of beam parameters and the behavior of beam-line components prior to installation and operation in ITER. Vacuum vessel is designed in cylindrical shape having length of ∼9 m with diameter of ∼4.5 m and has a detachable top-lid for mounting as well as removal of internal components during installation and maintenance phases. The Vessel has hemispherical dish-ends with large openings for high-voltage bushing on one side and duct on another side. Vessel is provided with openings for hydraulic, cryo, gas-feed and diagnostics. Vessel duct is composed of three segments with length ranges from 3 m to 5 m with diameter of ∼1.5 m and one vessel at the end to house the second calorimeter. The objective of this paper is to present the design and analysis of vacuum vessel, with respect to its functional and operational requirements. The design calculations are done as per ASME-BPVC SectionVIII-Div.1 and subsequently Finite Element Analysis (FEM) method has been adopted to verify the design.

  12. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  13. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  14. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  15. Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...

  16. Diameter of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Wakako

    1989-01-01

    In 300 cases, diameter of thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese is measured by computed tomography (CT) and the values are analyzed in relation to the age, sex and the level of the aorta on CT scan. Aorta becomes dilated with age. In female diameter of the aorta is correlated with age, on the other hand, diameter of those is not correlated with age in male. Diameter in male is larger than in female. Aorta tapers off and the ratio of tapering of the thoracic aorta is more prominent than that of the abdominal aorta. Therefore the calculations of the landmarks of tapering of the aorta and the ratio of diameter of the aorta to transverse diameter of the vertebral body at the levels of 10th thoracic and 3rd lumber vertebrae on CT scan are useful for judgement of normal range of diameter of the aorta. Calcifications of the wall of the aorta are seen initially at the age of 5th decade in the abdominal aorta and 6th decade in the thoracic aorta in healthy Japanese. They are noted in almost of the persons after the age of seventy years old. The presence of calcification is not correlated with diameter of the aorta at the same level on CT scan. (author)

  17. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  18. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  19. Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985

  20. Multidetector CT portal venography in evaluation of portosystemic collateral vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Jain, M.

    2008-01-01

    This essay shows the usefulness of multidetector CT angiography for evaluation of the splenoportal venous system, which is essential in the management of patients with portal hypertension and its complications, such as portal vein thrombosis. By providing scanning with reconstruction of thin axial source images and reformatting into thicker multiplanar reformats, multidetector CT can help to determine the extent and location of portosystemic collateral vessels in patients with portal hypertension and is probably the optimal imaging technique in this setting.

  1. Why and how acoustic emission in pressure vessel first hydrotest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzani, C.; Tonolini, F.; Villa, G.; Regis, V.

    1985-01-01

    The main advantages obtained performing the Acoustic Emission (AE) examination during pressure vessel first hydrotest are presented. The characteristics and performance of the AE instrumentation to be used for a correct test are illustrated. The main criteria for AE source characterization (location, typical AE parameters and their correlation with pressure value), the calibration and test procedures are discussed. The ndt post-test examinations and laboratory specimen experiments are also outlined. Personnel qualification requirements are finally indicated. (Author) [pt

  2. Pre-service Acoustic Emission Testing for Metal Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The field application of acoustic emission(AE) testing for brand-new metal pressure vessel were performed. We will introduce the test procedure for acoustic emission test such as instrument check distance between sensors, sensor location, whole system calibration, pressurization sequence, noise reduction and evaluation. The data of acoustic emission test contain many noise signal, these noise can be reduced by time filtering which based on the description of observation during AE test

  3. Commissioning result of the KSTAR in-vessel cryo-pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. B.; Lee, H. J.; Park, Y.M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-15

    KSTAR in-vessel cryo-pump has been installed in the vacuum vessel top and bottom side with up-down symmetry for the better plasma density control in the D-shape H-mode. The cryogenic helium lines of the in-vessel cryo-pump are located at the vertical positions from the vacuum vessel torus center 2,000 mm. The inductive electrical potential has been optimized to reduce risk of electrical breakdown during plasma disruption. In-vessel cryo-pump consists of three parts of coaxial circular shape components; cryo-panel, thermal shield and particle shield. The cryo-panel is cooled down to below 4.5 K. The cryo-panel and thermal shields were made by Inconel 625 tube for higher mechanical strength. The thermal shields and their cooling tubes were annealed in air environment to improve the thermal radiation emissivity on the surface. Surface of cryo-panel was electro-polished to minimize the thermal radiation heat load. The in-vessel cryo-pump was pre-assembled on a test bed in 180 degree segment base. The leak test was carried out after the thermal shock between room temperature to LN2 one before installing them into vacuum vessel. Two segments were welded together in the vacuum vessel and final leak test was performed after the thermal shock. Commissioning of the in-vessel cryo-pump was carried out using a temporary liquid helium supply system.

  4. Bounding the conservatism in flaw-related variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The fracture mechanics-based integrity analysis of a pressure vessel, whether performed deterministically or probabilistically, requires use of one or more flaw-related input variables, such as flaw size, number of flaws, flaw location, and flaw type. The specific values of these variables are generally selected with the intent to ensure conservative predictions of vessel integrity. These selected values, however, are largely independent of vessel-specific inspection results, or are, at best, deduced by ''conservative'' interpretation of vessel-specific inspection results without adequate consideration of the pertinent inspection system performance (reliability). In either case, the conservatism associated with the flaw-related variables chosen for analysis remains examination (NDE) technology and the recently formulated ASME Code procedures for qualifying NDE system capability and performance (as applied to selected nuclear power plant components) now provides a systematic means of bounding the conservatism in flaw-related input variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses. This is essentially achieved by establishing probabilistic (risk)-based limits on the assigned variable values, dependent upon the vessel inspection results and on the inspection system unreliability. Described herein is this probabilistic method and its potential application to: (i) defining a vessel-specific ''reference'' flaw for calculating pressure-temperature limit curves in the deterministic evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor vessels, and (ii) limiting the flaw distribution input to a PWR reactor vessel-specific, probabilistic integrity analysis for pressurized thermal shock loads

  5. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  6. Automated classification and quantitative analysis of arterial and venous vessels in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Minhaj; Son, Taeyoon; Toslak, Devrim; Lim, Jennifer I.; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    It is known that retinopathies may affect arteries and veins differently. Therefore, reliable differentiation of arteries and veins is essential for computer-aided analysis of fundus images. The purpose of this study is to validate one automated method for robust classification of arteries and veins (A-V) in digital fundus images. We combine optical density ratio (ODR) analysis and blood vessel tracking algorithm to classify arteries and veins. A matched filtering method is used to enhance retinal blood vessels. Bottom hat filtering and global thresholding are used to segment the vessel and skeleton individual blood vessels. The vessel tracking algorithm is used to locate the optic disk and to identify source nodes of blood vessels in optic disk area. Each node can be identified as vein or artery using ODR information. Using the source nodes as starting point, the whole vessel trace is then tracked and classified as vein or artery using vessel curvature and angle information. 50 color fundus images from diabetic retinopathy patients were used to test the algorithm. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy metrics were measured to assess the validity of the proposed classification method compared to ground truths created by two independent observers. The algorithm demonstrated 97.52% accuracy in identifying blood vessels as vein or artery. A quantitative analysis upon A-V classification showed that average A-V ratio of width for NPDR subjects with hypertension decreased significantly (43.13%).

  7. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10 -4 Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  8. Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.

    1999-01-01

    The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in

  9. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  10. 2013 EPA Vessels General Permit (VGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information for any vessel that submitted a Notice of Intent (NOI), Notice of Termination (NOT), or annual report under EPA's 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP)....

  11. Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers in a Tall Vessel with a Draught Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brož

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers (two, three, four, five and six blade pitched blade impellers with pitch angles α = 35° and 45° coaxially located in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with cylindrical draught tube provided with a standard dished bottom. The draught tube was equipped with four equally spaced radial baffles above the impeller pumping liquid upwards towards the liquid surface. In all investigated cases the liquid aspect ratio H/T = 1.2 - 1.5, the draught tube / vessel diameter ratios DT /T = 0.2 and 0.4 and the impeller / draught tube diameter ratio D/DT = 0.875. The pumping capacity of the impeller was calculated from the radial profile of the axial component of the mean velocity in the draught tube below the impeller at such an axial distance from the impeller that the rotor does not affect the vorticity of the flow. The mean velocity was measured using a laser Doppler anemometer with forward scatter mode in a transparent draught tube and a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm. Two series of experiments were performed, both of them under a turbulent regime of flow of the agitated liquid. First, the optimum height of the dished bottom was sought, and then the dependences of the dimensionless flow rate criterion and the impeller power number on the number of impeller blades were determined for both pitch angles tested under conditions of optimum ratio HT /DT. It follows from the results of the experiments that the optimum ratio HT /DT = 0.25 when the cross sectional areas of the horizontal flow around the bottom and the vertical inflow to the draught tube are the same. For all the tested pitched blade impellers the impeller power number when α = 45° exceeds the value of this quantity when pitch angle α  =   35°, while the flow rate number when α = 35° exceeds this quantity when α = 45°. On the other hand, the absolute values of the impeller power number when the draught tube was

  12. Histomorphometric comparative study of blood vessels and their pattern in follicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safora; Feizi, Farideh; Khafri, Thoraya; Aram, Mehrdad

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at assessment and histomorphometric analysis of intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) blood vessels in odontogenic lesions and their pattern on their clinical behavior by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. In a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, 45 paraffin blocks of ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, and follicular cyst were selected and stained immunohistochemically for CD34. In each slide, images of 3 microscopic fields with the highest microvessel density in intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) areas were captured at 40× magnification with attached camera system. Inner vascular diameter (IVD) and outer vascular diameter (OVD), cross-sectional area (CSA), and the wall thickness (WT) of the vessels were measured with Motic Plus 2 software. The vascular pattern in odontogenic lesions was analyzed. Outer vascular diameter, IVD, and CSA of the vessels in peritumoral (cystic) areas were greater in ameloblastoma than keratocyst (P = 0.001) and follicular cyst (P keratocyst and follicular cyst. Morphometric specifications of blood vessels (IVD, OVD, CSA) and their pattern in peritumoral (cystic) areas may influence the aggressive clinical behavior of ameloblastoma in comparison with keratocyst and follicular cyst.

  13. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  14. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  15. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for the planning and reporting of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant pressure vessels are presented. The guide specifically applies to inservice inspections of Safety class 1 and 2 nuclear power plant pressure vessels, piping, pumps and valves plus their supports and reactor pressure vessel internals by non- destructive examination methods (NDE). Inservice inspections according to the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/73) are discussed separately in the guide YVL 3.0. (4 refs.)

  16. Expanded Fermilab pressure vessel directory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, A.

    1983-01-01

    Several procedures have been written to manage the information pertaining to the vacuum tanks and pressure vessels for which the laboratory is responsible. These procedures have been named TANK1 for the vessels belonging to the Accelerator Division, TANK2 and TANK3 for the vessels belonging to the Research Division and to Technical Support respectively, and TANK4 for the vessels belonging to the Business Division. The operating procedures are otherwise identical in every respect.

  17. Expanded Fermilab pressure vessel directory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, A.

    1983-01-01

    Several procedures have been written to manage the information pertaining to the vacuum tanks and pressure vessels for which the laboratory is responsible. These procedures have been named TANK1 for the vessels belonging to the Accelerator Division, TANK2 and TANK3 for the vessels belonging to the Research Division and to Technical Support respectively, and TANK4 for the vessels belonging to the Business Division. The operating procedures are otherwise identical in every respect

  18. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  19. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  20. OAS :: Our Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the Charter Organizational Charts Organizational List Authorities Our Locations Contact Us Telephone: +1 (202

  1. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  2. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  3. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  4. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  5. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  6. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  7. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  8. Effect of tube diameter on the specific energy consumption of the ice making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangthieng, C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the favorite forms of ice for consuming is tube ice, which is produced by a refrigeration unit referred to as an ice making tower. In order to redesign the tower for the energy-efficiency purpose, the aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the effect of tube diameter on the ice thickness, the cooling load, and the specific energy consumption. The mathematical model of the ice formation within the tube is developed by assuming unsteady and one-dimensional heat conduction. The governing equations are composed of the wall and the ice regions with the convective boundary condition and isothermal solidification at the interface. The governing system is transformed into a dimensionless form and numerically solved by the finite difference method. The numerical results are validated by comparing the ice thickness obtained from the numerical prediction and that obtained from the field measurement, resulting in qualitative agreement. The variations of ice thickness, cooling load, and specific energy consumption with time for four different tube diameters are presented. The result shows the location of the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. By comparing between different tube diameters, the value of the minimum specific energy consumption of a small diameter tube is lower than that of a large diameter one. On the other hand, the behavior of the specific energy consumption of a large diameter tube indicates the existence of a low specific energy consumption period of time beyond the minimum point. Therefore, by choosing a proper tube diameter, the minimum value of the average specific energy consumption over the entire production cycle is obtained, leading to higher energy efficiency. - Research Highlights: → The result indicates the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. → A smaller diameter tube has a lower value of the minimum specific energy consumption, but a large one has an extended range of low specific

  9. AFRICOM: Does Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Decision Model,” 242-244. 26 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research...Susan Hesse & Mark S. Daskin . “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111 (1998), 423-447. Paye-Layeleh...ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  10. Vacuum vessel for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masao; Taguchi, Masami.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit effective utility of the space in the inner and outer sides of the container wall and also permit repeated assembly for use. Structure: Vacuum vessel wall sections are sealed together by means of welding bellows, and also flange portions formed at the end of the wall sections are coupled together by bolts and are sealed together with a seal ring and a seal cap secured by welding. (Nakamura, S.)

  11. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  12. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  13. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

  14. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel safety. 151.1512 Section... River § 151.1512 Vessel safety. Nothing in this subpart relieves the master of the responsibility for ensuring the safety and stability of the vessel or the safety of the crew and passengers, or any other...

  15. Reactor vessel supported by flexure member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.D.; Pankow, B.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a reactor pressure vessel which is provided with vertical support means in the form of circumferentially spaced columns upon which the vessel is mounted. The columns are adapted to undergo flexure in order to accommodate the thermally induced displacements experienced by the vessel during operational transients

  16. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United States and Great Britain ‘concerning reciprocal rights for United States and Canada in the... meaning of this statute. (e) A Mexican vessel may engage in a salvage operation on a Mexican vessel in any territorial waters of the United States in which Mexican vessels are permitted to conduct such operations by...

  17. Model tests for prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, R.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations with models of reactor pressure vessels are used to check results of three dimensional calculation methods and to predict the behaviour of the prototype. Model tests with 1:50 elastic pressure vessel models and with a 1:5 prestressed concrete pressure vessel are described and experimental results are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. 50 CFR 648.4 - Vessel permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying passengers for hire. (8) Atlantic bluefish vessels. (i) Commercial. Any vessel of the United... lands Atlantic bluefish in or from the EEZ in excess of the recreational possession limit specified at § 648.164 must have been issued and carry on board a valid commercial bluefish vessel permit. (ii) Party...

  19. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2010-01-01

    is developed for slender piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m. Hence, the method is not validated for piles with diameters of 4–6 m. The aim of the paper is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles in sand by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil-pile...... interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...... analyses by means of the commercial program FLAC3D incorporating a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The numerical model is validated with laboratory tests in a pressure tank at Aalborg University....

  20. Ultrasonic testing of electron beam closure weld on pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    One of the special products manufactured at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a small stainless steel vessel designed to hold a component under high pressure for long periods. The vessel is a thick-walled cylinder with a threaded receptacle into which a plug is screwed and welded after receiving the unit to be tested. The test cavity is then pressurized through a small diameter opening in the bottom and that opening is welded closed. When x-ray inspection techniques did not reveal defective welds at the threaded plug in a pressured vessel, occasional ''leakers'' occurred. With normal equipment tolerances, the electron beam spike tends to wander from the desired path, particularly at the root of the weld. Ultrasonic techniques were used to successfully inspect the weld. The testing technique is based on the observation that ultrasonic energy is reflected from the unwelded screw threads and not from the regions where the threads are completely fused together by welding. Any gas pore or any threaded region outside the weld bead can produce an echo. The units are rotated while the ultrasonic transducer travels in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation and toward the welded end. This produces a helical scan which is converted to a two-dimensional presentation in which incomplete welds can be noted. (U.S.)

  1. ATLAS Supplier Award for the ECT Vacuum Vessels

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded the ATLAS Supplier Award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS End- Cap Toroid (ECT) magnets. ATLAS Supplier Award ceremonies have now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ECTs. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volume of 550 cubic metres, the ECT vacuum vessels are obviously impressive in scale. They consist of large aluminium plates and a stainless steel central bore tube. In order to obtain the required undulations, the firm had to develop a special assembly and welding technique. Despite the chambers' imposing size, a very high degree of precision has been achieved in their geometry. Moreover, the chambers, which were delivered in July 2002 to CERN, were built i...

  2. Forging technology for large nuclear pressure vessel parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Hideki; Ikegami, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    The increasing output of nuclear power generation calls for larger vessels for next-generation nuclear power plants. A vessel with an increased diameter requires increased load for its forging, which can make it difficult to use a conventional solid die. In order to reduce the forging load, a rotary incremental forging method has been applied to hot forging. This method includes pressing and rotating a material in an incremental manner such that a target shape is obtained. This study aimed at improving the accuracy of numerical simulation for the rotary incremental forging to reduce the load when forging large vessels. This has enabled the temperature of the material and flow stress to be precisely predicted; an example of this is reported in the paper. Specifically, the heat transfer coefficient to be used for the numerical simulation had been determined experimentally from a small-scale hot-forging. The reduction of the flow stress associated with incremental forging, had been deduced from a compression test, and the value was applied to the numerical simulation. A preform was designed on the basis of the above simulation to perform a 1/1 size scale experiment. A precision of better than 5% has been confirmed for the shape prediction. (author)

  3. Cracking at nozzle corners in the nuclear pressure vessel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Cracks in nozzle corners at the pressure boundary of nuclear reactors have been frequently observed in service. These cracks tend to form with radial orientations with respect to the nozzle central axis and are believed to be initiated by thermal shock. However, their growth is believed to be primarily due to a steady plus a fluctuating internal pressure. Due to the impracticality of fracture testing of full-scale models, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory instituted the use of an intermediate test vessel (ITV) for use in fracture testing which had the same wall thickness and nozzle size as the prototype but significantly reduced overall length and diameter. In order to determine whether or not these ITVs could provide realistic data for full-scale reactor vessels, laboratory models of full-scale boiling water reactors and ITVs were constructed and tested. After briefly reviewing the laboratory testing and correlating results with service experience, results obtained will be used to draw some general conclusions regarding the stable growth of nonplanar cracks with curved crack fronts which are the most common precursors to fracture of pressure vessel components near junctures. Use of linear elastic fracture mechanics is made in determining stress-intensity distribution along the crack fronts

  4. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

    2014-10-28

    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  5. Differential expression of T- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal resistance vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels in kidney pre- and postglomerular resistance vessels was determined at the molecular and functional levels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and cultured smooth muscle cells...... on vascular diameter in the afferent arteriole. We conclude that voltage-dependent L- and T-type calcium channels are expressed and of functional significance in renal cortical preglomerular vessels, in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles, and in outer medullary vasa recta, but not in cortical efferent...

  6. Refinements of the radiographic cadaver injection technique for investigating minute lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suami, Hiroo; Taylor, G Ian; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Ren

    2007-07-01

    The authors previously reported a new technique with which to delineate the lymphatic vessels, using hydrogen peroxide to identify them and a lead oxide suspension to demonstrate them on radiographs. This technique provided excellent studies of the lymph vessels in human cadavers, but there was still room for improvement. Lymph collecting vessels run superficially in some regions, where they may be damaged while the surgeon is attempting to find them. Vessels smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter could not be cannulated with a 30-gauge needle, which was the smallest the authors had available, and the lead oxide suspension often blocked this cannula. The authors also encountered problems holding the cannula steady. The authors solved these problems by using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ink to better identify the lymphatics, an extruded glass tube instead of a metal needle to cannulate them, an agate pestle and mortar to grind the lead oxide into finer particles, powdered milk to suspend the lead oxide, and a micromanipulator to facilitate accurate and steady cannulation of the vessels. This study developed these modifications to focus on tributaries of the collecting lymphatic channels that are smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter.

  7. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.

  8. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-08-06

    Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score -2 and 2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie

    2018-06-04

    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  10. An agent-based model of the response to angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment in an atherosclerotic blood vessel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia E Curtin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: While animal models are widely used to investigate the development of restenosis in blood vessels following an intervention, computational models offer another means for investigating this phenomenon. A computational model of the response of a treated vessel would allow investigators to assess the effects of altering certain vessel- and stent-related variables. The authors aimed to develop a novel computational model of restenosis development following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent implantation in an atherosclerotic vessel using agent-based modeling techniques. The presented model is intended to demonstrate the body's response to the intervention and to explore how different vessel geometries or stent arrangements may affect restenosis development. METHODS: The model was created on a two-dimensional grid space. It utilizes the post-procedural vessel lumen diameter and stent information as its input parameters. The simulation starting point of the model is an atherosclerotic vessel after an angioplasty and stent implantation procedure. The model subsequently generates the final lumen diameter, percent change in lumen cross-sectional area, time to lumen diameter stabilization, and local concentrations of inflammatory cytokines upon simulation completion. Simulation results were directly compared with the results from serial imaging studies and cytokine levels studies in atherosclerotic patients from the relevant literature. RESULTS: The final lumen diameter results were all within one standard deviation of the mean lumen diameters reported in the comparison studies. The overlapping-stent simulations yielded results that matched published trends. The cytokine levels remained within the range of physiological levels throughout the simulations. CONCLUSION: We developed a novel computational model that successfully simulated the development of restenosis in a blood vessel following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment based on

  11. Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S; Maaz, K; Ali, G; Ensinger, W

    2009-01-01

    Failure current density of single gold nanowires is investigated in this paper. Single wires with diameters ranging from 80 to 720 nm and length 30 μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density was investigated while keeping the wires embedded in the polymer matrix and ramping up the current until failure occurred. The current density is found to increase with diminishing diameter and the wires with a diameter of 80 nm withstand 1.2 x 10 12 A m -2 before undergoing failure. Possible reasons for these results are discussed in this paper.

  12. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... exertion was approximately 15 units after both types of exercise. The dorsalis pedis arterial diameter was 1.50 +/- 0.20 mm (mean and SE) and the radial AD 2.45 +/- 0.12 mm. During both types of contractions the luminal diameters decreased approximately 3.5% within the first 30 s (P

  13. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  14. Evaluating Trajectory Queries over Imprecise Location Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Scott, Xike; Cheng, Reynold; Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory queries, which retrieve nearby objects for every point of a given route, can be used to identify alerts of potential threats along a vessel route, or monitor the adjacent rescuers to a travel path. However, the locations of these objects (e.g., threats, succours) may not be precisely...... obtained due to hardware limitations of measuring devices, as well as the constantly-changing nature of the external environment. Ignoring data uncertainty can render low query quality, and cause undesirable consequences such as missing alerts of threats and poor response time in rescue operations. Also......, the query is quite time-consuming, since all the points on the trajectory are considered. In this paper, we study how to efficiently evaluate trajectory queries over imprecise location data, by proposing a new concept called the u-bisector. In general, the u-bisector is an extension of bisector to handle...

  15. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  16. 33 CFR 165.1411 - Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI. 165.1411 Section 165.1411 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1411 Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI. (a) Location. The following...

  17. 15 CFR 744.7 - Restrictions on certain exports to and for the use of certain foreign vessels or aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be registered in the case of a vessel or aircraft under construction, and (3) To the country... Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF... operating vessel or aircraft or one under construction, located in any port including a Canadian port...

  18. Fuel-coolant interaction visualization test for in-vessel corium retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Ho; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong Wan [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A visualization test of the fuel-coolant interaction in the Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water (TROI) test facility was carried out. To experimentally simulate the In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR)- External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) conditions, prototypic corium was released directly into the coolant water without a free fall in a gas phase before making contact with the coolant. Corium (34.39 kg) consisting of uranium oxide and zirconium oxide with a weight ratio of 8:2 was superheated, and 22.54 kg of the 34.39 kg corium was passed through water contained in a transparent interaction vessel. An image of the corium jet behavior in the coolant was taken by a high-speed camera every millisecond. Thermocouple junctions installed in the vertical direction of the coolant were cut sequentially by the falling corium jet. It was clearly observed that the visualization image of the corium jet taken during the fuel-coolant interaction corresponded with the temperature variations in the direction of the falling melt. The corium penetrated through the coolant, and the jet leading edge velocity was 2.0 m/s. Debris smaller than 1 mm was 15% of the total weight of the debris collected after a fuel-coolant interaction test, and the mass median diameter was 2.9 mm.

  19. Rates of chemical reaction and atmospheric heating during core debris expulsion from a pressurized vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockman, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1986-01-01

    Core debris may be expelled from a pressurized reactor vessel during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Experimental studies of core debris expulsion from pressurized vessels have established that the expelled material can be lofted into the atmosphere of the reactor containment as particulate 0.4 to 2 mm in diameter. These particles will vigorously react with steam and oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Data on such reactions during tests with 80 kg of expelled melt will be reported. A model of the reaction rates based on gas phase mass transport will be described and shown to account for atmospheric heating and aerosol generation observed in the tests

  20. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.