Sample records for vessel design criteria

  1. Development of design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannazzaro, G., E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Barabash, V.; Kang, S.C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Fernandez, E. [Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Mar B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kalinin, G.; Obushev, A. [The Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, P.O. Box 788, Moscow (Russian Federation); Martínez, V.J.; Vázquez, I. [IDESA, Parque Científico Tecnológico, C/Profesor Potter 105, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Fernández, F.; Guirao, J. [NATEC, C/Marqués de San Esteban 52 Entlo, 33209 Gijón (Spain)


    Absrtract: The components located inside the ITER vacuum chamber (in-vessel components – IC), due to their specific nature and the environments they are exposed to (neutron radiation, high heat fluxes, electromagnetic forces, etc.), have specific design criteria which are, in this paper, referred as Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). The development of these criteria started in the very early phase of the ITER design and followed closely the criteria of the RCC-MR code. Specific rules to include the effect of neutron irradiation were implemented. In 2008 the need of an update of the SDC-IC was identified to add missing specifications, to implement improvements, to modernise rules including recent evolutions in international codes and regulations (i.e. PED). Collaboration was set up between ITER Organization (IO), European (EUDA) and Russian Federation (RFDA) Domestic Agencies to generate a new version of SDC-IC. A Peer Review Group (PRG) composed by members of the ITER Organization and all ITER Domestic Agencies and code experts was set-up to review the proposed modifications, to provide comments, contributions and recommendations.

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R


    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  3. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.


    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  4. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  5. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  6. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.


    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  7. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL


    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  8. Rock Slope Design Criteria (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  9. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford


    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  10. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...... such criteria. Reassessment of existing structures shall also be addressed. Special attention shall be given to issues affecting code formulation and development, with accounting of all uncertainties affecting actual structural behaviour.The emphasis is on ships, with offshore structures teated primarily...

  11. Four Criteria for Design Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hodges

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the adoption of the four criteria we outline will strengthen future design theories and encourage existing design theories to expand or reconfigure in useful directions. We propose four criteria for design theory creation and evaluation. These are (1 the theory should have substantial design applications, and be applicable to any topic; (2 the theory should use propositions—if-then language—as a way of describing, explaining, and predicting actual and existing aspects of designing; (3 where appropriate, a new theory should accept and adopt propositions and language contained in other design theories; and (4 the theory should accommodate, or at least acknowledge, generative activity. We are not proposing a new general design theory—this paper outlines a strong approach to studying and building theory. Please also note that this essay does not pretend to exhaust a topic that has been discussed for at least the last 50 years.

  12. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H


    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  13. 77 FR 23513 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... Management Criteria for PWR Reactor Vessel Internal Components.'' The original notice provided the ADAMS... published a notice requesting public comments on draft LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria...

  14. ITER Vacuum Vessel design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jones, L. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Jun, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC ' Sintez' , Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector -25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J.; Reich, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others


    After implementing a few design modifications (referred to as the 'Modified Reference Design') in 2009, the Vacuum Vessel (VV) design had been stabilized. The VV design is being finalized, including interface components such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils. It is necessary to make adjustments to the locations of the blanket supports and manifolds to accommodate design modifications to the in-vessel coils. The VV support design is also being finalized considering a structural simplification. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. The detailed layout of ferritic steel plates and borated steel plates was optimized based on the toroidal field ripple analysis. A dynamic test on the inter-modular key to support the blanket modules was performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An R and D program has started to select and qualify the welding and cutting processes for the port flange lip seal. The ITER VV material 316 L(N) IG was already qualified and the Modified Reference Design was approved by the Agreed Notified Body (ANB) in accordance with the Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  15. Design criteria monograph on turbopump inducers (United States)


    State of the art and design criteria for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers are summarized for optimal fabrication. Design criteria optimize hydrodynamic parameters to obtain highest suction specific speed without violating structural and mechanical constraints.

  16. Current Design Criteria for MMOD Impact of Metallic Pressurized Tanks (United States)

    Schonberg, William P.; Hull, Scott M.


    Most spacecraft have at least one pressurized vessel on board. For robotic spacecraft, it is usually a liquid propellant tank or battery. For human spacecraft, there are also pressurized living quarters and life-support systems. One of the design considerations of such spacecraft is the possible damage that might occur in the event of an on-orbit impact by a micrometeoroid or orbital debris (MMOD) particle. While considerable energy and effort has been expended in the study of the response of nonpressurized spacecraft components to these kinds of impacts, relatively few studies have been conducted on the pressurized elements of such spacecraft. In addition, the design criteria currently used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for pressurized tanks operating in the MMOD environment have not been tested or scrutinized since they were first proposed nearly 45 years ago. This paper reviews current NASA design criteria for pressurized vessels and offers suggestions for next steps in their further development.

  17. 46 CFR 154.471 - Design criteria. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design criteria. 154.471 Section 154.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.471 Design criteria. (a) The cargo tank support system must be designed: (1) For the loads in...

  18. 77 FR 16270 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... license renewal interim staff guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria for... Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and...

  19. 46 CFR 154.466 - Design criteria. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design criteria. 154.466 Section 154.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.466 Design criteria. (a) The insulation for a cargo tank without a secondary barrier must be...

  20. 46 CFR 154.460 - Design criteria. (United States)


    ... dynamic loads in § 154.409(e); (c) If the primary barrier fails, prevent the temperature of the vessel's structure from falling below the minimum allowable service temperature of the steel; and (d) Be designed so... tank for at least 15 days under the dynamic loads in § 154.409(e); (b) If a partial secondary barrier...

  1. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl


    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen...

  2. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  3. Design and evaluation criteria for layered architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ


    Full Text Available the information system application domain. A list of evaluation and design criteria for layered architectures are compiled in section 4. We applied this evaluation criteria to the ISO/OSI Network model [31], as well as the proposed language architecture... immediately below it, but also deeper layers) is the Swing user interface for Java [27]. Several other examples of layered architecture usage exist. The ISO/OSI network model comprises a formal specification. In contrast, the meaning of layered architec...

  4. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  5. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.


    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  6. Design and analysis of multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessels. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodpasture, D.W.; Burdette, E.G.; Callahan, J.P.


    During the past 25 years, a rather rapid evolution has taken place in the design and use of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs). Initially the concrete vessel served as a one-to-one replacement for its steel counterpart. This was followed by the development of the integral design which led eventually to the more recent multicavity vessel concept. Although this evolution has seen problems in construction and operation, a state-of-the-art review which was recently conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicated that the PCRV has proven to be a satisfactory and inherently safe type of vessel for containment of gas-cooled reactors from a purely functional standpoint. However, functionalism is not the only consideration in a demanding and highly competitive industry. A summary is presented of the important considerations in the design and analysis of multicavity PCRVs together with overall conclusions concerning the state of the art of these vessels.

  7. Structural design for a 10-GWh SMES vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.G.; Anderson, C.A.


    An approximate solution to the problem of the nonlinear elastic deformation of a periodically point-supported cylindrical shell is obtained. This solution is used to investigate the structural design of the vacuum vessel for the large underground superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) concept. Vacuum vessel designs are evaluated by varying such parameters as shell thickness, support spacing, material properties and physical configuration to keep the amount of material used and construction cost to a minimum.

  8. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  9. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans


    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  10. The criteria of fracture in the case of the leak of pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habil; Ziliukas, A.


    In order to forecast the break of the high pressure vessels and the network of pipes in a nuclear reactor, according to the concept of leak before break of pressure vessels, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of project, production, and mounting quality as well as of exploitation. It is also necessary to evaluate the process of break by the help of the fracture criteria. In the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant of, in Lithuania, the most important objects of investigation are: the highest pressure pipes, made of Japanese steel 19MN5 and having an anticorrosive austenitic: coal inside, the pipes of distribution, which arc made of 08X1810T steel. The steel of the network of pipes has a quality of plasticity: therefore the only criteria of fragile is impossible to apply to. The process of break would be best described by the universal criteria of elastic - plastic fracture. For this purpose the author offers the criterion of the double parameter.

  11. Design assessment for manufacturability of supporting structures for IWS and ELM coil of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu-Gyeong, E-mail: [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yun-Seok; Kwon, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Yung-Jin [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hee-Jae; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lee, Young-Ju [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: ► A “bridge type” welding method was proposed for IWS rib and ELM coil supports. ► This method could reduce the welding distortion and increase the manufacturability. ► Structural integrity of proposed design was assessed for both P and S type damages. ► Results show that the proposed designs meet the design criteria of RCC-MR. -- Abstract: A vacuum vessel is one of the core facilities of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and basically all-welded structure. Korea is responsible for the procurement of sector 1 and 6 of the main vessel. Accordingly, the design review for the fabrication is in progress by ITER Korea and Hyundai Heavy Industries. Due to anticipated manufacturing problems such as the welding distortion, the design of some components of main vessel, IWS (In-Wall Shield) supporting rib and ELM (Edge Localized Mode) coil support, needs to be modified. To release the risk of welding distortion, the welding method called “bridge type” is suggested and the shape of weld joint is adjusted to secure the manufacturability of the issued components. The elastic and limit analyses with fatigue evaluation have been performed under the most critical loading condition to verify the structural integrity of modified design. Analysis results show that the proposed designs meet the design criteria of RCC-MR. The design deviation requests have been submitted to ITER Organization and ANB (Agreed Notified Body) for approval and their verification is currently in progress.

  12. Design Procedure on Stud Bolt for Reactor Vessel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Wook; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Jeoung, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo


    The reactor pressure vessel flange is welded to the upper part of reactor pressure vessel, and there are stud holes to mount the closure head with stud bolts. The surface mating the closure head is compressed with O-ring, which acts as a sealing gasket to prevent coolant leakage. Bolted flange connections perform a very important structural role in the design of a reactor pressure vessel. Their importance stems from two important functions: (a) maintenance of the structural integrity of the connection itself, and (b) prevention of leakage through the O-ring preloaded by stud bolts. In the present study, an evaluation procedure for the design of stud bolt is developed to meet ASME code requirements. The developed design procedure could provide typical references in the development of advanced reactor design in the future.

  13. Design of Semi-composite Pressure Vessel using Fuzzy and FEM (United States)

    Sabour, Mohammad H.; Foghani, Mohammad F.


    The present study attempts to present a new method to design a semi-composite pressure vessel (known as hoop-wrapped composite cylinder) using fuzzy decision making and finite element method. A metal-composite vessel was designed based on ISO criteria and then the weight of the vessel was optimized for various fibers of carbon, glass and Kevlar in the cylindrical vessel. Failure criteria of von-Mises and Hoffman were respectively employed for the steel liner and the composite reinforcement to characterize the yielding/ buckling of the cylindrical pressure vessel. The fuzzy decision maker was used to estimate the thickness of the steel liner and the number of composite layers. The ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the working pressure as well as the ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the burst (failure) pressure were assessed. ANSYS nonlinear finite element solver was used to analyze the residual stress in the steel liner induced due to an auto-frettage process. Result of analysis verified that carbon fibers are the most suitable reinforcement to increase strength of cylinder while the weight stayed appreciably low.

  14. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.


    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  15. Design Criteria for Controlling Stress Corrosion Cracking (United States)

    Franklin, D. B.


    This document sets forth the criteria to be used in the selection of materials for space vehicles and associated equipment and facilities so that failure resulting from stress corrosion will be prevented. The requirements established herein apply to all metallic components proposed for use in space vehicles and other flight hardware, ground support equipment, and facilities for testing. These requirements are applicable not only to items designed and fabricated by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) and its prime contractors, but also to items supplied to the prime contractor by subcontractors and vendors.

  16. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new.

  17. Structural design and manufacturing of TPE-RX vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sago, H.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Ishigami, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Urata, K.; Kudough, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Oyabu, I. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Tokyo (Japan); Yagi, Y.; Sekine, S.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    TPE-RX is a newly constructed, large-sized reversed field pinch (RFP) machine installed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. This is the third largest RFP in the world. Major and minor radii of the plasma are 1.72 and 0.45 m, respectively. TPE-RX aims to optimize plasma confinement up to 1 MA. RFP plasma configuration was successfully obtained in March 1998. This paper reports the structural design and manufacturing of the vacuum vessel of TPE-RX. The supporting system on the bellows sections of the vessel was designed based on a detailed finite element method. The integrity of the vacuum vessel against a plasma disruption has been confirmed using dynamic inelastic analyses. (orig.)

  18. A review on courtyard design criteria in different climatic zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of courtyard in a building design can contribute meaningfully towards achieving a passive building with high energy efficiency, only when its design criteria are not ignored. It is on this note that this study examined the design criteria for courtyard in different climatic zones. The courtyard design criteria with ...

  19. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J.L.


    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  20. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.


    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  1. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  2. Circular cylinders and pressure vessels stress analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Vullo, Vincenzo


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of stress and strain analysis of circular cylinders and pressure vessels, one of the classic topics of machine design theory and methodology. Whereas other books offer only a partial treatment of the subject and frequently consider stress analysis solely in the elastic field, Circular Cylinders and Pressure Vessels broadens the design horizons, analyzing theoretically what happens at pressures that stress the material beyond its yield point and at thermal loads that give rise to creep. The consideration of both traditional and advanced topics ensures that the book will be of value for a broad spectrum of readers, including students in postgraduate, and doctoral programs and established researchers and design engineers. The relations provided will serve as a sound basis for the design of products that are safe, technologically sophisticated, and compliant with standards and codes and for the development of innovative applications.

  3. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model... (United States)


    ...] Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model LMZ1M Airship... on the proposed design criteria for the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics model LMZ1M airship. On March 12, 2012 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M...

  4. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development (United States)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.


    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  5. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  6. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel (United States)

    Spexarth, Gary


    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  7. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)


    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  8. Impact of structural design criteria on first wall surface heat flux limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  9. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratangelo, Enrico [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)


    certify the compliance of the Helium vessel and the cavity to the ASME code standard. After briefly recalling to the main contents of the the ASME Code (Sections II and Vlll - Division ll), the procedure used for finding all relevant stresses and comparing the obtained results with the maximum values allowed are explained. This part also includes the buckling verification of the cavity. In Chapter 5 the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps, whose function is to link the Helium vessel with the cavity, is studied. The present configuration of the dies is described and the manufacturing process is simulated in order to explain the origin of some defects fol.llld on real parts. Finally a new design of the dies is proposed and the resulting deformed piece is compared with the design requirements. Chapter 6 describes a finite elements analysis to assess the efficiency and the stiffness of the Helium vessel. Furthermore the results of the optimization of the Helium vessel (in order to increase the value of the efficiency) are reported. The same stiffness analysis is used in Chapter 7 for the Blade-Tuner study. After a description of this tuner and of its function, the preliminary analyses done to confirm the results provided by the vendor are described and then its limiting load conditions are found. Chapter 8 shows a study of the resistance of all the welds present in between the cavity and the end-cap and between the end-caps and the He vessel for a smaller superconducting cavity operating at 3.9 GHz. Finally Chapter 9 briefly describes some R&D activities in progress at INFN (Section of Pisa) and Fermilab that could produce significant cost reductions of the Helium vessel design. All the finite elements analyses contained and described in this thesis made possible the certification of the whole superconducting cavity-Helium vessel assembly at Fermilab. Furthermore they gave several useful indications to the Fermilab staff to improve the performance of the Helium

  10. 23 CFR 652.13 - Design and construction criteria. (United States)


    ... PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCOMMODATIONS AND PROJECTS § 652.13 Design and construction criteria. (a) The... design of bicycle routes. Copies of the AASHTO Guide may be obtained from the American Association of... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design and construction criteria. 652.13 Section 652.13...

  11. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  12. Issues in trial design for ANCA-associated and large-vessel vasculitis. (United States)

    Tarzi, Ruth M; Mason, Justin C; Pusey, Charles D


    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have informed the management of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, although challenges still exist. The evidence base for treating large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is weaker, but initiatives to standardize diagnostic criteria and outcome measures, and to validate biomarkers in LVV, together with newly initiated RCTs should start to address this need. In this Perspectives, we discuss the prerequisites for RCTs in vasculitis, existing trial evidence, continuing unmet needs, potential therapeutic avenues to explore and considerations in the design of future trials.

  13. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  14. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  15. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  16. Seismic Design Criteria for Soil Liquefaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferritto, J


    .... Safe and effective structural design of waterfront facilities requires calculating the expected site specific ground motion and determining the response of these complex structures to the induced loading...

  17. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan


    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  18. Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating...

  19. [Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design]. (United States)

    Rivasseau-Jonveaux, Thérèse; Pop, Alina; Fescharek, Reinhard; Chuzeville, Stanislas Bah; Jacob, Christel; Demarche, Laëtitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel


    The French Alzheimer plan anticipates new specialized structures for cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioural therapy of Alzheimer's patients: the cognitive-behavioural units as follow-care units, the units of reinforced hospitalization inside the long term care units and the adapted activities units. this plan indicates the need to make healing gardens integral parts of these units. The benefits of green space in urban environments has been demonstrated with regards to physical, psychological and sociological effects and similarly studies in hospitals have revealed objective and measurable improvements of patients well being. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French care units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of Alzheimer's patients. For the garden "art, memory and life" a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach was developed, complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. It is already used in the frame of non-pharmacological therapies to improve symptoms such as deambulation, sleep disorders, apathy and aggressive behaviors. Based on the literature, and our experience and research, recommendations for the design of such gardens dedicated to Alzheimer's patients can be proposed. Beyond taking into account obvious aspects relating to security, allowing for free access, a careful design of walk-ways and a conscious choice of plants is needed. A systematic analysis of the existing green spaces or garden must be conducted in order to pinpoint the weakness of the space and identify the potential for developing it into a real healing garden. Evaluation of adapted questionnaires for users and professionals allow to establish a list of requirements combining both user requests and therapeutic needs as basis for the design of the garden as well as to evaluate during the course of the project, whether the needs of the various stakeholders have been met or if adjustments are necessary.

  20. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 4. The vacuum vessel and cryostat of JT-60SU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others


    The vacuum vessel and the cryostat for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) have been designed. Two types of the complex materials for the vacuum vessel were chosen on the basis of the avoidance of tritium occlusion and the low irradiation, i.e. (1) SUS316 covered by tungsten plate (30mm thickness) as a {gamma}-ray shielding, (2) Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate (1mm thickness) as a tritium protector. Selecting the double skin type of vacuum vessel with toroidally continued structure gave the basic design of the vacuum vessel satisfying the design criteria of the vessel strength for the electromagnetic force, heat load and the property of radiation shielding. The characteristics of the SUS316 covered by tungsten plate type is that as the tungsten can shield the {gamma}-ray, the dose rate inside the vacuum vessel during the maintenance can reduce effectively. The advantage of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate type vacuum vessel is the quick reduction of the radioactive isotope because of no production of the isotopes with long half-life periods. Channel type and vertical type of the divertor were designed. The sector type of toroidally separated structure was selected for the remote handling. The material of the armor plate was not determined because no material endure the high heat load on the divertor. The cryostat composing the dome and the tank was designed. The electromagnetic force by the eddy current, generated at the plasma start up phase and at the quench of CS super-conducting coil, were small compared to the force produced by the stress limit. (author)

  1. DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Hill, J.R.; Kimball, J.K. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria.

  2. Multi-material topology design of laminates with strength criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik


    The objective of this paper is to present a novel approach for multi-material topology optimization of laminated composite structures where strength constraints are taken into account together with other global structural performance measures. The topology design problem considered contains very...... many design variables, and when strength criteria are included in the problem, a very large number of criteria functions must be considered in the optimization problem to be solved. Thus, block aggregation methods are introduced, such that global strength measures are obtained. These formulations...... are illustrated for multi-material laminated design problems where the maximum failure index is minimized while compliance and mass constraints are taken into account....

  3. Canberra Alpha Sentry Installation Functional Design Criteria (FDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, W.F.


    This document provides the functional design criteria for the installation of the Canberra Alpha Sentry System at selected locations within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The equipment being installed is identified by part number in Section 3 and the locations are given in Section 5. The design, procurement and installation are assigned to Fluor Federal Services.

  4. Design Criteria for Achieving Low Radon Concentration Indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    Design criteria for achieving low radon concentration indoors are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most...... the radon concentration in the indoor air. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the air indoors is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause...... lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible indoors in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. For the building envelope...

  5. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  6. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.


    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  7. Multi-Criteria Approach in Multifunctional Building Design Process (United States)

    Gerigk, Mateusz


    The paper presents new approach in multifunctional building design process. Publication defines problems related to the design of complex multifunctional buildings. Currently, contemporary urban areas are characterized by very intensive use of space. Today, buildings are being built bigger and contain more diverse functions to meet the needs of a large number of users in one capacity. The trends show the need for recognition of design objects in an organized structure, which must meet current design criteria. The design process in terms of the complex system is a theoretical model, which is the basis for optimization solutions for the entire life cycle of the building. From the concept phase through exploitation phase to disposal phase multipurpose spaces should guarantee aesthetics, functionality, system efficiency, system safety and environmental protection in the best possible way. The result of the analysis of the design process is presented as a theoretical model of the multifunctional structure. Recognition of multi-criteria model in the form of Cartesian product allows to create a holistic representation of the designed building in the form of a graph model. The proposed network is the theoretical base that can be used in the design process of complex engineering systems. The systematic multi-criteria approach makes possible to maintain control over the entire design process and to provide the best possible performance. With respect to current design requirements, there are no established design rules for multifunctional buildings in relation to their operating phase. Enrichment of the basic criteria with functional flexibility criterion makes it possible to extend the exploitation phase which brings advantages on many levels.

  8. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  9. Preliminary electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design for first wall and vacuum vessel of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucca, F., E-mail: [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Bertolini, C. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Crescenzi, F.; Crisanti, F. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Labate, C. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Acton 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy); Manzoni, M.; Marconi, M.; Pagani, I. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Ramogida, G. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Renno, F. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, M. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Roccella, S. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Viganò, F. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)


    The fusion advanced study torus (FAST), with its compact design, high toroidal field and plasma current, faces many of the problems met by ITER, and at the same time anticipates much of the DEMO relevant physics and technology. The conceptual design of the first wall (FW) and the vacuum vessel (VV) has been defined on the basis of FAST operative conditions and of “Snow Flakes” (SF) magnetic topology, which is also relevant for DEMO. The EM loads are one of the most critical load components for the FW and the VV during plasma disruptions and a first dimensioning of these components for such loads is mandatory. During this first phase of R&D activities the conceptual design of the FW and VV have been assessed estimating, by means of FE simulations, the EM loads due to a typical vertical disruption event (VDE) in FAST. EM loads were then transferred on a FE mechanical model of the FAST structures and the mechanical response of the FW and VV design for the analyzed VDE event was assessed. The results indicate that design criteria are not fully satisfied by the current drawing of the VV and FW components. The most critical regions have been individuated and the effect of some geometrical and material changes has been checked in order to improve the structure.

  10. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)


    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  11. Probabilistic Evaluation of Eurocode 5 Fire Design Criteria of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis for a three-hinge timber portal frame subjected to fire was undertaken. Eight modes of failure were identified for the frame and limit state function was formulated for each failure mode. The limit state functions were based on the Eurocode 5 design criteria. Uncertainties in the timber material ...

  12. Verification of Wegelin's design criteria for horizontal flow roughing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2006 ... Wegelin's design criteria founded on the “1/3 – 2/3” filter theory are still to date the most comprehensive models applied in ... cent reduction in raw water suspended solids (SS) concentration was compared against the expected model prediction. ... By logic and experience, a particle in water can bypass a.

  13. Design considerations for CALL based upon evaluation criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be included in a needs analysis for CALL evaluation, the rubric is presented. The author then illustrates how the evaluation criteria in the rubric can be used in the design of a new CALL system. Keywords: Software evaluation, CALL, language laboratory, MarkWrite, writing across the curriculum, software development ...

  14. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu


    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  15. Advanced in-vessel retention design for next generation risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately twenty (20) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. Early advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs assumed a lower head failure and incorporated various measures for ex-vessel accident mitigation. However,one of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 deg C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident/risk management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, this work presents the COrium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) that are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in-vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) are demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gastaldi, Dario, E-mail: [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Yang Ke; Tan Lili [Division of Specialized Materials and Devices, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)


    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  17. Multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Raslanas, S. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius (Lithuania)


    In order to design and realize an efficient building refurbishment, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive investigation of all solutions that form it. The efficiency level of the considered building's refurbishment depends on a great many of factors, including: cost of refurbishment, annual fuel economy after refurbishment, tentative pay-back time, harmfulness to health of the materials used, aesthetics, maintenance properties, functionality, comfort, sound insulation and longevity, etc. Solutions of an alternative character allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of economic, ecological, legislative, climatic, social and political conditions, traditions and for better the satisfaction of customer requirements. They also enable one to cut down on refurbishment costs. In carrying out the multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of a building refurbishment much data was processed and evaluated. Feasible alternatives could be as many as 100,000. How to perform a multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of alternate alternatives based on the enormous amount of information became the problem. Method of multivariant design and multiple criteria of a building refurbishment's analysis were developed by the authors to solve the above problems. In order to demonstrate the developed method, a practical example is presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Illumination Criteria in Imaging System Design for Security Applications, (United States)


    conjunction with pole spacing and distance from the critical area to be illuminated . Streetlights or roadway luminaires are characterized by their light...found best suited for perimeter illumination , when CCTV is employed, are the floodlights and the -o 4, , streetlights (roadway luminaires). The...A882 521 MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA FIB 13/1 ILLUMINATION CRITERIA IN IMAGING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SECURITY APP--ETC(U) DEC 79 A J GRAFF, P NESGBEDA, T

  19. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh


    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  20. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)


    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  1. An experimental study on coolability through the external reactor vessel cooling according to RPV insulation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Sang Baik


    LAVA-ERVC experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of insulation design features on the water accessibility and coolability in case of the external reactor vessel cooling. Alumina iron thermite melt was used as corium stimulant. And the hemispherical test vessel is linearly scaled-down of RPV lower plenum. 4 tests have been performed varying the melt composition and the configuration of the insulation system. Due to the limited steam venting capacity through the insulation, steam binding occurred inside the annulus in the LAVA- ERVC-1, 2 tests which were performed for simulating the KSNP insulation design. This steam binding brought about incident heat up of the vessel outer surface at the upper part in the LAVA-ERVC-1, 2 tests. On the contrary, in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests which were performed for simulating the APR1400 insulation design, the temperatures of the vessel outer surface maintained near saturation temperature. Sufficient water ingression and steam venting through the insulation lead to effective cooldown of the vessel characterized by nucleate boiling in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests. From the LAVA-ERVC experimental results, it could be preliminarily concluded that if pertinent modification of the insulation design focused on the improvement of water ingression and steam venting should be preceded the possibility of in-vessel corium retention through the external vessel cooling could be considerably increased.

  2. Implications of limiting mechanical thrombectomy to patients with emergent large vessel occlusion meeting top tier evidence criteria. (United States)

    Bhole, Rohini; Goyal, Nitin; Nearing, Katherine; Belayev, Andrey; Doss, Vinodh T; Elijovich, Lucas; Hoit, Daniel A; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Arthur, Adam S; Alexandrov, Anne W


    Recent guidelines for endovascular management of emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) award top tier evidence to the same selective criteria in recent trials. We aimed to understand how guideline adherence would have impacted treatment numbers and outcomes in a cohort of patients from a comprehensive stroke center. A retrospective observational study was conducted using consecutive emergent endovascular patients. Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was performed with stent retrievers or large bore clot aspiration catheters. Procedural outcomes were compared between patients meeting, and those failing to meet, top tier evidence criteria. 126 patients receiving MT from January 2012 to June 2015 were included (age 31-89 years, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 2-38); 62 (49%) patients would have been excluded if top tier criteria were upheld: pretreatment NIHSS score 360 min (58%). 26 (42%) subjects had more than one top tier exclusion. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and systemic hemorrhage rates were similar between the groups. 3 month mortality was 45% in those lacking top tier evidence compared with 26% (p=0.044), and 3 month mRS score 0-2 was 33% versus 46%, respectively (NS). After adjusting for potential confounders, top tier treatment was not associated with neurological improvement during hospitalization (β -8.2; 95% CI -24.6 to -8.2; p=0.321), 3 month mortality (OR=0.38; 95% CI 0.08 to 1.41), or 3 month favorable mRS (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.28 to 3.35). Our study showed that with strict adherence to top tier evidence criteria, half of patients may not be considered for MT. Our data indicate no increased risk of sICH and a potentially higher mortality that is largely due to treatment of patients with basilar occlusions and those treated at an extended time window. Despite this, good functional recovery is possible, and consideration of MT in patients not meeting top tier evidence criteria may be warranted. Published by the BMJ

  3. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.


    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  4. Development of nuclear design criteria for neutron spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordo, F.; Abanades, A. [E.T.S. Industriales, Madrid Polytechnic University, UPM, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2 -28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Spallation neutron sources allow obtaining high neutronic flux for many scientific and industrial applications. In recent years, several proposals have been made about its use, notably the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Japanese Spallation Source (JSNS) and the projects of Accelerator-Driven Subcritical reactors (ADS), particularly in the framework of EURATOM programs. Given their interest, it seems necessary to establish adequate design basis for guiding the engineering analysis and construction projects of this kind of installations. In this sense, all works done so far seek to obtain particular solutions to a particular design, but there has not been any general development to set up an engineering methodology in this field. In the integral design of a spallation source, all relevant physical processes that may influence its behaviour must be taken into account. Neutronic aspects (emitted neutrons and their spectrum, generation performance..), thermomechanical (energy deposition, cooling conditions, stress distribution..), radiological (spallation waste activity, activation reactions and residual heat) and material properties alteration due to irradiation (atomic displacements and gas generation) must all be considered. After analysing in a systematic manner the different options available in scientific literature, the main objective of this thesis was established as making a significant contribution to determine the limiting factors of the main aspects of spallation sources, its application range and the criteria for choosing optimal materials. To achieve this goal, a series of general simulations have been completed, covering all the relevant physical processes in the neutronic and thermal-mechanical field. Finally, the obtained criteria have been applied to the particular case of the design of the spallation source of subcritical reactors PDX-ADS and XT-ADS. These two designs, developed under the European R and D Framework Program, represent nowadays

  5. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Large-Vessel Vasculitis: Appropriateness of Current Classification Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balink


    Full Text Available Patients with clinical suspicion of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms and increased inflammatory parameters and may remain without diagnosis after routine diagnostic procedures. Both the nonspecificity of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG and the synergy of integrating functional and anatomical images with PET/CT offer substantial benefit in the diagnostic work-up of patients with clinical suspicion for LVV. A negative temporal artery biopsy, an ultrasonography without an arterial halo, or a MRI without aortic wall thickening or oedema do not exclude the presence of LVV and should therefore not exclude the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT when LVV is clinically suspected. This overview further discusses the notion that there is substantial underdiagnosis of LVV. Late diagnosis of LVV may lead to surgery or angioplasty in occlusive forms and is often accompanied by serious aortic complications and a fatal outcome. In contrast to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for vasculitis, based on late LVV effects like arterial stenosis and/or occlusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT sheds new light on the classification of giant cell arteritis (GCA and Takayasu arteritis (TA. The combination of these observations makes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of patients suspected for having LVV promising.

  6. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  7. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader


    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  8. Pendulum support of the W7-X plasma vessel: Design, tests, manufacturing, assembly, critical aspects, status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missal, B., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, F.; Schiller, T. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Werftstraße 17, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Friedrich, P. [Universität Rostock, FB Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Albert-Einsteins-Straße 2, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Capriccioli, A. [ENEA Frascati, Fusion Technology Unit, Frascati (Italy)


    Highlights: • Plasma vessel support has to allow vertical adjustment and horizontal passive movement. • Planar sliding tables with PTFE do not fulfill all requirements. • Pendulums can fulfill all requirements. • Geometry and material of spherical bearings had to be optimized in calculations and tests. • Optimized pendulums were manufactured and assembled. - Abstract: The superconducting helical advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The three dimensional shape of plasma will be generated by 50 non-planar magnetic coils. The plasma vessel geometry follows exactly this three dimensional shape of plasma. To ensure the superconductivity of coils a cryo vacuum has to be generated. Therefore the coils and their support structure are enclosed within the outer vessel. Plasma vessel, coil structures and outer vessel have to be supported separately. This paper will describe the vertical supports of plasma vessel which have to fulfill two special requirements, vertical adjustability and horizontal mobility. These two tasks will be carried out by plasma vessel supports (PVS) with hydraulic cylinders, special sliding tables during assembly and pendulum supports during operating phase. The paper will give an overview of design, calculation, tests, fabrication, assembly, critical aspects and status of PVS.

  9. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage (United States)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  10. Design criteria of activated sludge plants; Criteri di dimensionamento dei sistemi a fanghi attivi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Fraja Frangipane, Eugenio [Milan, Politecnico (Italy). DIIAR. Sez. Ambientale; Tatano, Fabio; Gruenebaum, Thomas


    The recent german design criteria of activated sludge plants are briefly presented. Then, synthetic considerations on design criteria sensibility and comparative analysis, full scale experimental evaluation of design criteria reliability, design optimization of activated sludge plants and german dimensioning rules of secondary clarifiers are developed.

  11. Food chain design using multi criteria decision making, an approach to complex design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Apaiah, R.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    Designing a food supply chain for a completely new product involves many stakeholders and knowledge from disciplines in natural and social sciences. This paper describes how Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) facilitated designing a food supply chain in a case of Novel Protein Foods. It made the

  12. Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films (United States)

    McCue, Ian; Demkowicz, Michael J.


    Liquid metal dealloying is a promising route for making metal nanocomposites with a wide range of microstructure morphologies. However, it is not well suited for synthesizing nanocomposites in thin-film form. We propose a new route to fabricating fully dense nanocomposite thin films by dealloying a binary parent alloy in a unary solid metal solvent. We fabricated and tested three thin-film diffusion couples to understand the alloy design criteria for synthesizing dealloyed thin films free of cracks and voids. We find that the best-quality dealloyed thin films may be obtained from alloys that do not undergo large volume changes upon dealloying and that exhibit minimal net vacancy flux during interdiffusion.

  13. Providing Eligibility Criteria On Turbocharger Filter Silencer Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Supply of ventilation air to either the engine room or diesel engine directly affects engine performances. Main criteria is supply of air volume and pressure into the cylinder. When Air starts to come until the cylinders, there many points which behave as restrictions. These are ventilation grills. ventilation fans, ventilation casings, misteliminators, manual or pneumatically adjusted fan dampers, number of bending of ventilation casing, cleanness of casings, air flow speed, air filters, turbocharger filter and silencers, engine’s scavenge air cooler restrictions. Here, we focused on optimum required air need through turbocharger for local diesel engine. While researching actual need, new turbocharger filter were designed and manufactured for engine manufacturer.

  14. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier


    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  15. Streamlined vessels for speedboats: Macro modifications of shark skin design applications (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Amran, S. N. A.; Zulkharnain, A.; Sunami, Y.


    Functional properties of shark denticles have caught the attention of engineers and scientist today due to the hydrodynamic effects of its skin surface roughness. The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help to reduce skin friction drag, shear stresses, making its movement to be more efficient and faster. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has conducted a study on alternative on improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels by applying the simplified version of shark skin skin denticles on the surface hull of the vessels. Models used for this study are constructed and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are then carried out to predict the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic effects of the biomimetic shark skins on those models. Interestingly, the numerical calculated results obtained shows that the presence of biomimetic shark skin implemented on the vessels give improvements in the maximum speed as well as reducing the drag force experience by the vessels. The pattern of the wave generated post cruising area behind the vessels can also be observed to reduce the wakes and eddies. Theoretically, reduction of drag force provides a more efficient vessel with a better cruising speed. To further improve on this study, the authors are now actively arranging an experimental procedure in order to verify the numerical results obtained by CFD. The experimental test will be carried out using an 8 metre flow channel provided by University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.

  16. Design and development of in-vessel viewing periscope for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka , Ibaraki (Japan)


    An in-vessel viewing system is essential not only to detect and locate damage of components exposed to plasma, but also to monitor and assist in-vessel maintenance operation. In ITER, the in-vessel viewing system must be capable of operating at high temperature (200degC), under intense gamma radiation (30 kGy/h) and high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope-type in-vessel viewing system has been chosen as a reference of the ITER in-vessel viewing system due to its wide viewing capability and durability for sever environments. According to the ITER research and development program, a full-scale radiation hard periscope with a length of 15 m has been successfully developed by the Japan Home Team. The performance tests have been shown sufficient capability at high temperature up to 250degC and radiation resistance over 100 MGy. This report describes the design and R and D results of the ITER in-vessel viewing periscope based on the development of 15-m-length radiation hard periscope. (author)

  17. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a... (United States)


    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155... equipment, including— (1) Sonar, sampling equipment, or other methods for locating the oil on the bottom or...

  18. Design, construction, and testing of the vacuum vessel for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (United States)

    Gerich, J. W.


    In 1980, the US Department of Energy gave the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory approval to design and build a tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to support the goals of the National Mirror Program. We designed the MFTF-B vacuum vessel both to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum environment and to structurally support the 42 superconducting magnets plus auxiliary internal and external equipment. During our design work, we made extensive use of both simple and complex computer models to arrive at a cost-effective final configuration. As part of this work, we conducted a unique dynamic analysis to study the interaction of the 32,000-ton concrete-shielding vault with the 2850-ton vacuum vessel system. To maintain a vacuum of 2 x 10 to the -8 Torr during the physics experiments inside the vessel, we designed a vacuum pumping system of enormous capacity. The vacuum vessel (4200 cu m) has been fabricated, erected, and acceptance tests have been completed at the Livermore site. The rest of the machine has been assembled, and individual systems have been successfully checked. On October 1, 1985, we began a series of integrated engineering tests to verify the operation of all components as a complete system.

  19. Fostering and Assessing Infographic Design for Learning: The Development of Infographic Design Criteria (United States)

    Nuhoglu Kibar, Pinar; Akkoyunlu, Buket


    In this ever more digital and visual world, it has become more vital that students are encouraged to create content during the learning process through effective visualization of their knowledge. Infographics are an effective method for such visualization. The current study therefore proposes an infographic design rubric (IDR) as a criteria-based…

  20. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford


    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and... (United States)


    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... point of origin. (2) Apra Harbor, Guam—All waters from surface to bottom of Apra Harbor, Guam, shoreward...

  2. Evaluasi Desain Dan Stabilitas Kapal Penangkap Ikan Di Palabuhanratu (Studi Kasus Kapal Psp 01) Fishing Vessel Design and Stability Evaluation in Palabuhanratu (Case Study of Psp 01 Training-fishing Vessel)


    Susanto, Adi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Imron, Mohammad


    PSP 01 is a training-fishing vessel that was built in a traditional dock yard in Palabuhanratu, so it was not completed with design drawings and stability calculation. This paper discusses on determining the vessel's suitability of design and stability condition followed by redesign of main dimension to obtain more optimal design. Simulation carried out in various load conditions and different vessel sizes to get the considerably ideal size of the vessel. The main dimension ratio and coeffici...

  3. Polar vessel hullform design based on the multi-objective optimization NSGA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Fei


    Full Text Available [Objectives] With the increasing exploitation of the Arctic abundant oil and gas resources, a large number of ships which meet the polar navigational requirements are needed.[Methods] In this paper, the fast elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA Ⅱ is applied to the hull optimization, and the multi-objective optimization method of polar vessel design is proposed. With the optimization goal of resistance and icebreaking resistance, filtering hull forms through the standard of polar vessel displacement and EEDI, fast ship hull optimization that satisfy the ice-ship dead weight and EEDI requirements has been achieved. Taking a 65 000 t shuttle tanker as an example, full parametric modeling method is adopted, the hull optimization of three different bow forms is conducted through the polar vessel multi-objective optimization method.[Results] The ship hull after optimization can satisfy the IA class navigation require, where the resistance in calm water decreases up to 12.94%, and the minimum propulsion power in ice field has a 27.36% reduction.[Conclusions] The feasibility and validity of the NSGA Ⅱ applying in polar vessel design is verified.

  4. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.


    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  5. Optimal design of high pressure hydrogen storage vessel using an adaptive genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ping [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zheng, Jinyang; Chen, Honggang; Liu, Pengfei [Institute of Chemical Machinery and Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    The weight minimum optimization of composite hydrogen storage vessel under the burst pressure constraint is considered. An adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to perform the optimal design of composite vessels. The proposed optimization algorithm considers the adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation which change with the fitness values of individuals and proposes a penalty function to deal with the burst pressure constraint. The winding thickness and angles of composite layers are chosen as the design variables. Effects of the population size and the number of generations on the optimal results are explored. The results using the adaptive genetic algorithm are also compared with those using the simple genetic algorithm and the Monte Carlo optimization method. (author)

  6. Optimization of a twin-skeg container vessel by parametric design and CFD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpu Chen


    Full Text Available The model tests results for the original lines of an 10000TEU container vessel show that the delivered power is higher and could not satisfy the requirement of energy saving effects and design targets. In this paper, the lines optimization of the 10,000 twin-skeg container vessel was carried out by parametric modeling and CFD simulations. At first, the CFD methods for twin-skeg hull form were validated by the comparison with the experimental results. Then more than one hundred parameters were adopted for the establishment of the fully parametric model. Based on the parametric model of the twin-skeg container vessel, the preliminary optimization was carried out by tight coupling of FRIENDSHIP-FRAMEWORK with potential flow of SHIPFLOW. Then several important parameters related to the after part of twin-skeg vessel were investigated by viscous flow computation. The final optimized variant PM11, which the total resistance was reduced by about 8.3% in model scale, is obtained within the constraints of general arrangement. And the model tests for variant PM11 was carried out in CSSRC, which shows that the resistance of optimized variant PM11 is decreased by about 8.6%.

  7. Design criteria for portable timber bridge systems : static versus dynamic loads (United States)

    John M. Franklin; S. E. Taylor; Paul A. Morgan; M. A. Ritter


    Design criteria are needed specifically for portable bridges to insure that they are safe and cost effective. This paper discusses different portable bridge categories and their general design criteria. Specific emphasis is given to quantifying the effects of dynamic live loads on portable bridge design. Results from static and dynamic load tests of two portable timber...

  8. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units AGENCY: Nuclear...-1274, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of....'' This guide applies to the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units...

  9. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system of the spent target vessel for neutron scattering facility 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Sasaki, Shinobu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aso, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In designing the neutron scattering facility, a spent target vessel should be replaced with remote handling devices in order to protect radioactive exposure, since it would be highly activated through the high energy neutron irradiation caused by the spallation reaction between mercury of the target material and the MW-class proton beam. In the storage of the spent target vessel, it is necessary to consider decay heat of the target vessel and mercury contamination caused by vaporization of the residual mercury in the vessel. A conceptual design has been carried out to establish basic concept and to clarify its specification of main equipments on handling and storage systems for the spent target vessel. This report presents the basic concept and a system plot plan based on latest design works of remote handling devices such as a spent target vessel storage cask and a target vessel exchange trolley, which aim at reasonability and simplification. In addition, storage systems for the spent moderator vessel, the spent proton beam window and the spent reflector vessel are also investigated based on the plot plan. (author)

  10. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: design criteria and conceptual design summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.A.


    This report summarizes the results of a literature survey that describes successful tests of geophysical instruments and their thermal protection systems. The conditions to which an instrument is subjected are formulated into relevant thermal and mechanical design criteria that have proved useful for improving passive thermal protection systems and selecting the preliminary feasibility of active refrigeration systems. A brief summary of the results of a series of conceptual designs on seven different active refrigeration systems is given. The systems are ranked according to feasibility for use in downhole active cooling applications.

  11. Evaluation of thermal protection structure mechanism of LMR reactor vessels and design improvement for thermal stress reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han


    LMR reactor vessels operated in high temperature have a severe thermal damage due to the significant temperature gradient in the hot pool free surface regions of reactor vessel. The thermal protection mechanism of LMR reactor vessel should be designed for the structural integrity in high temperature condition. In this study, the thermal protection mechanism of foreign LMR reactor vessels is investigated for the power upgrade of KALIMER and the modified reactor baffle design with a Y-piece type structure is proposed for the reduction of thermal damage for KALIMER reactor vessel. The modified reactor baffle design leads to reduce the thermal damage such as creep-fatigue and ratcheting in the transient operation condition.

  12. Design and implementation of motion planning of inspection and maintenance robot for ITER-like vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Cao, Qixin [Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    Robot motion planning is a fundamental problem to ensure the robot executing the task without clashes, fast and accurately in a special environment. In this paper, a motion planning of a 12 DOFs remote handling robot used for inspecting the working state of the ITER-like vessel and maintaining key device components is proposed and implemented. Firstly, the forward and inverse kinematics are given by analytic method. The work space and posture space of this manipulator are both considered. Then the motion planning is divided into three stages: coming out of the cassette mover, moving along the in-vessel center line, and inspecting the D-shape section. Lastly, the result of experiments verified the performance of the motion design method. In addition, the task of unscrewing/screwing the screw demonstrated the feasibility of system in function.

  13. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials (United States)


    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  14. A simple design for microwave assisted digestion vessel with low reagent consumption suitable for food and environmental samples (United States)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Behkami, Shima; Zain, Sharifuddin Md.; Bakirdere, Sezgin


    The objective of this work is to prepare a cost-effective, low reagent consumption and high performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessel that is capable to work in domestic microwave for digesting food and environmental samples. The designed vessel has a relatively thicker wall compared to that of commercial vessels. In this design, eight vessels are placed in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) holder to keep them safe and stable. This vessel needs only 2.0 mL of HNO3 and 1.0 mL H2O2 to digest 100 mg of biological sample. The performance of this design is then evaluated with an ICP-MS instrument in the analysis of the several NIST standard reference material of milk 1849a, rice flour 1568b, spinach leave 1570a and Peach Leaves 1547 in a domestic microwave oven with inverter technology. Outstanding agreement to (SRM) values are observed by using the suggested power to time microwave program, which simulates the reflux action occurring in this closed vessel. Taking into account the high cost of commercial microwave vessels and the volume of chemicals needed for various experiments (8-10 mL), this simple vessel is cost effective and suitable for digesting food and environmental samples.

  15. A Review on Courtyard Design Criteria in Different Climatic Zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    An International Multi-disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. AFRREV @ Ten .... design may create challenges for controlling temperature, glare, and energy consumption .... adhere strictly to this important design variant even right from the design stage, the sketches .... BEIAC 2012 - 2012 IEEE Business, Engineering and. Industrial.

  16. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification... (United States)


    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and... clarifies the NRC staff's position on the relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear... Position on the Relationship Between GDC Requirements and Technical Specification Operability,'' is...

  17. Conceptual framework for potential implementations of multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods for design quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harputlugil, T.; Prins, M.; Tanju Gültekin, A.; Ilker Topçu, Y.


    Architectural design can be considered as a process influenced by many stakeholders, each of which has different decision power. Each stakeholder might have his/her own criteria and weightings depending on his/her own perspective and role. Hence design can be seen as a multi-criteria decision making

  18. Design and Analysis of Boiler Pressure Vessels based on IBR codes (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Kanimozhi, B.


    Pressure vessels components are widely used in the thermal and nuclear power plants for generating steam using the philosophy of heat transfer. In Thermal power plant, Coal is burnt inside the boiler furnace for generating the heat. The amount of heat produced through the combustion of pulverized coal is used in changing the phase transfer (i.e. Water into Super-Heated Steam) in the Pressure Parts Component. Pressure vessels are designed as per the Standards and Codes of the country, where the boiler is to be installed. One of the Standards followed in designing Pressure Parts is ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). The mandatory requirements of ASME code must be satisfied by the manufacturer. In our project case, A Shell/pipe which has been manufactured using ASME code has an issue during the drilling of hole. The Actual Size of the drilled holes must be, as per the drawing, but due to error, the size has been differentiate from approved design calculation (i.e. the diameter size has been exceeded). In order to rectify this error, we have included an additional reinforcement pad to the drilled and modified the design of header in accordance with the code requirements.

  19. 50 CFR 424.12 - Criteria for designating critical habitat. (United States)


    ... population growth, and for normal behavior; (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or... into consideration the probable economic and other impacts of making such a designation in accordance...

  20. A Review on Courtyard Design Criteria in Different Climatic Zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Future Climate Changes .... Courtyards Design Shapes on Solar Heat gain and Energy Efficiency according to. Different Climatic Regions” ... directly proportional to how long the courtyard is (it's length), that the amount of solar heat gain in the ...

  1. Design criteria for mobile phones: a teenagers perspective.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Batchelor, J


    Full Text Available -suited to mobile phones, due to obvious limitations of screen size and resolution, audio and memory restrictions. Low cost and affordable mobile phones in Africa are developing a new conduit for learning, and are gradually influencing the way we view... to enhance their own learning styles. Mazzone, Read and Beale (2008) acknowledge that “designing with children is often an inspirational activity” and can give instructional designers a better understanding of the essence required in an artefact. 3...

  2. Design and in-vitro evaluation of a tissue engineered large vessel prosthesis (United States)

    Mahmood, Ayesha

    Tissue engineering of large diameter blood vessels can offer a promising long-term solution to the large population suffering from congenital vascular defects and other vascular disease. In this report design, assembly, in vitro maturation and evaluation of a large diameter, chitosan-based prosthesis is described. To facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation, collagen was included as a scaffold component to a chitosan scaffold. In vitro studies evaluated the role of collagen content, crosslinker type and crosslinking density on degradation kinetics, mechanical properties and cellular interactions. Finally, the vessel scaffold (ID = 12 mm, OD = 15 mm) was fabricated from a moderately cross-linked, 90%/10% chitosan/collagen material. A tubular scaffold with gradient porosity and interconnected pores was generated by controlled freezing and lyophilization of the polymer. For graft culture laminar and pulsatile flow systems were designed and porous scaffolds were seeded with vascular cells under static conditions. Laminar system grafts were seeded and cultured/analyzed over an 8 week period (15ml/min). For the pulsatile system SMC were seeded and after 2 weeks of pulsatile flow culture (360ml/min, 82 beats/min) microvascular EC were seeded lumenally to initiate a microvascular network followed by aortic EC seeding at 3 weeks. For both systems, cell viability at different culture periods showed the formation of high density of cell within few weeks of graft culture. However, the pulsatile flow system graft showed a significant increase in mechanical properties and ECM protein (collagen and elastin) deposition overtime. This novel chitosan based tissue engineered vascular graft shows promising results for large vessel replacements.

  3. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Design with Multiple Selection Criteria (United States)

    Shelton, Joey D.; Frederick, Robert A.; Wilhite, Alan W.


    The approach and techniques described herein define an optimization and evaluation approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system. The method uses Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, a propulsion thermo-chemical code, power series regression curves for historical data, and statistical models in order to optimize a vehicle system. The system, including parameters for engine chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, was modeled and optimized to determine the best design for seven separate design weight and cost cases by varying design and technology parameters. Significant model results show that a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Other key findings show the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology factors, and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. Each of the three key propulsion parameters; chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, are optimized in the seven design cases and results are plotted to show impacts to engine mass and overall vehicle mass.

  4. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)


    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Risk Informed Design and Analysis Criteria for Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Target performance can be achieved by defining design basis ground motion from results of a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment, and introducing known levels of conservatism in the design above the DBE. ASCE 4, 43, DOE-STD-1020 defined the DBE at 4x10-4 and introduce only slight levels of conservatism in response. ASCE 4, 43, DOE-STD-1020 assume code capacities shoot for about 98% NEP. There is a need to have a uniform target (98% NEP) for code developers (ACI, AISC, etc.) to aim for. In considering strengthening options, one must also consider cost/risk reduction achieved.

  6. Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria. Volume 2 (United States)


    Engineering and Design; Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. EM 1110-2-1601, Wash- ington, D. C., 1 July 1970. 712-1 Revised 9-70 z >f .0 WmW ...U-" ? ?- l ::,%’ ’ ’ " :: :S-,4X 4 ,, . ... . . ... " ss. - ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG. MS CP OF EGINEERS HYDRAULIC an appropriate manner. The Waterways Experiment Station has no objection to reproduction of the U. S. Army Engineer material published in this data

  7. Thermal-hydraulic criteria for the APT tungsten neutron source design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.


    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic design criteria (THDC) developed for the tungsten neutron source (TNS). The THDC are developed for the normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis accidents. The requirements of the safety analyses are incorporated into the design criteria, consistent with the integrated safety management and the safety-by-design philosophy implemented throughout the APT design process. The phenomenology limiting the thermal-hydraulic design and the confidence level requirements for each limit are discussed. The overall philosophy of the uncertainty analyses and the confidence level requirements also are presented. Different sets of criteria are developed for normal operations, operational transients, anticipated accidents, unlikely accidents, extremely unlikely accidents, and accidents during TNS replacement. In general, the philosophy is to use the strictest criteria for the high-frequency events. The criteria is relaxed as the event frequencies become smaller. The THDC must be considered as a guide for the design philosophy and not as a hard limit. When achievable, design margins greater than those required by the THDC must be used. However, if a specific event sequence cannot meet the THDC, expensive design changes are not necessary if the single event sequence results in sufficient margin to safety criteria and does not challenge the plant availability or investment protection considerations.

  8. QFD-ANP Approach for the Conceptual Design of Research Vessels: A Case Study (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kambagowni; Yeshwanth Sai, Koneru; Suresh, Challa


    Conceptual design is a subset of concept art wherein a new idea of product is created instead of a visual representation which would directly be used in a final product. The purpose is to understand the needs of conceptual design which are being used in engineering designs and to clarify the current conceptual design practice. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer oriented design approach for developing new or improved products and services to enhance customer satisfaction. House of quality (HOQ) has been traditionally used as planning tool of QFD which translates customer requirements (CRs) into design requirements (DRs). Factor analysis is carried out in order to reduce the CR portions of HOQ. The analytical hierarchical process is employed to obtain the priority ratings of CR's which are used in constructing HOQ. This paper mainly discusses about the conceptual design of an oceanographic research vessel using analytical network process (ANP) technique. Finally the QFD-ANP integrated methodology helps to establish the importance ratings of DRs.

  9. Technology update: Nickel-hydrogen Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs (United States)

    Harvey, Tim; Miller, Lee


    Information is given in viewgraph form on the nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs. Information given includes an energy analysis, a CPV design comparison, a summary of CPV characterization testing, a comparison of discharge voltage among designs, and life test performance summaries.

  10. Thermal-structural combined loads design criteria study (United States)

    Deriugin, V.; Brogren, E. W.; Jaeck, C. L.; Brown, A. L.; Clingan, B. E.


    A study was conducted to determine methodology for combining thermal structural loads and assessing the effects of the combined loads on the design of a thermal protection system and a hot structure of a high cross range delta wing space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The study presents guidelines for establishing a basis for predicting thermal and pressure environments and for determining limit and ultimate design loads on the vehicle during reentry. Limit trajectories were determined by using dispersions on a representative nominal mission and system parameters expected during the life of the vehicle. Nine chosen locations on the vehicle surface having TPS or hot structures were examined, and weight sensitivity analyses were performed for each location.

  11. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik


    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...... plane algorithm to determine the optimal frequency power weights of the input, using successive solutions to linear programs. We present a case study related to estimation of thermal parameters of a building....

  12. A Monte Carlo Based Analysis of Optimal Design Criteria (United States)


    Kepler and E. S. Rosenberg, Modeling HIV immune response and validation with clinical data, CRSC-TR07-09, March 2007; J. Biological Dynamics, 2 (2008...Processes, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2009. [11] M.P.F. Berger and W.K. Wong (Editors), Applied Optimal Designs, John Wiley & Sons, Chich...ester, UK, 2005. [12] P. Billingsley, Convergence of Probability Measures, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1968. [13] M. Davidian and D. Giltinan

  13. Optimal Fuzzy and Dynamics Design of Ecological Sandwich Panel Vessel Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martikka


    Full Text Available In this study the basic engineering principles, goals, and constraints are all combined with fuzzy methodology and applied to optimally design sandwich panel circular plate roofs for large vessels loaded statically and dynamically. These panels are made up of two stiff, strong veneer skins separated by vertical and peripheral stiffener plates. Advantages are high strength, lightweight, and sustainability. In the present approach, first the goals and constraints of the end user are identified and expressed as decision variables which are formulated using the engineering variables for materials, geometry, and function. Then same consistent fuzzy satisfaction functions are formed over the desired ranges to suit the customer's desires. The risk of extreme dynamic loadings exciting resonance is studied by natural frequency and mode analysis by FEM and analytical models. The results show the most critical locations and give guidelines for innovative remedies of the concept before detailed FEM analyses to finalize the design.

  14. Design prediction for long term stress rupture service of composite pressure vessels (United States)

    Robinson, Ernest Y.


    Extensive stress rupture studies on glass composites and Kevlar composites were conducted by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory beginning in the late 1960's and extending to about 8 years in some cases. Some of the data from these studies published over the years were incomplete or were tainted by spurious failures, such as grip slippage. Updated data sets were defined for both fiberglass and Kevlar composite stand test specimens. These updated data are analyzed in this report by a convenient form of the bivariate Weibull distribution, to establish a consistent set of design prediction charts that may be used as a conservative basis for predicting the stress rupture life of composite pressure vessels. The updated glass composite data exhibit an invariant Weibull modulus with lifetime. The data are analyzed in terms of homologous service load (referenced to the observed median strength). The equations relating life, homologous load, and probability are given, and corresponding design prediction charts are presented. A similar approach is taken for Kevlar composites, where the updated stand data do show a turndown tendency at long life accompanied by a corresponding change (increase) of the Weibull modulus. The turndown characteristic is not present in stress rupture test data of Kevlar pressure vessels. A modification of the stress rupture equations is presented to incorporate a latent, but limited, strength drop, and design prediction charts are presented that incorporate such behavior. The methods presented utilize Cartesian plots of the probability distributions (which are a more natural display for the design engineer), based on median normalized data that are independent of statistical parameters and are readily defined for any set of test data.

  15. Explaining the Criteria of Designing Urban Furniture and Landscape, with a Cultural-social Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Allahdadi


    Full Text Available Attention to the deep relationship between human personality and the place in which he lives causes the place to play a crucial role in cultural transformations and prevalence of human life style and formation of values, connections and human activities. Cities are not just a place of transit, but they are also environments that must have mutual communications with the inhabitants in order to realize the meaning of citizen, as there is a distinction between the status of citizenship and urbanization. Urban furniture is one of the elements of urban space that its quantity, beauty and durability play a major role in achieving a healthy and favorable city and satisfies the needs of citizens in terms of performance and beauty. Accordingly, the present study, using descriptive-analytical method and with data collection tools including library and documentary studies, examines the concept of product ecology and answers to the questions whether urban furniture can start or support social interaction or positively affect the roles of citizens? In this paper, the relationship between social-cultural design in urban furniture and the disturbances regarding uneven distribution of elements are identified, and finally the criteria of designing urban furniture and landscape are expressed with a social-design approach.

  16. Optimizing acoustical treatment. [structural design criteria for theater (United States)

    Beuran, N.; Ramboiu, S.; Farcas, I.; Halpert, E.


    A mathematical linear programming model is presented for optimizing acoustical treatment and interior decoration of concert and other public halls. This method provides the designer with a range of acoustically correct solutions at increased economical efficiency. The mathematical model uses geometrical data about the room, recommended reverberation time values, the architect's choice of given sound absorbing structures and finishing materials. The model permits inclusion of aesthetical considerations about conditioning, proportioning, or, on the contrary, reciprocal exclusion of any classes of material and/or sound absorbing structure.

  17. Investigation of frequency stability and design criteria of ring lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Lichtenberg Hansen, P.; Buchhave, Preben


    We present a comprehensive Jones matrix analysis of two commonly used ring laser resonators. Different aspects on how to obtain low loss eigenmodes and/or high loss difference between the two directions of the cavity, and thus high frequency stability, are investigated. Also different approximati...... approximations are evaluated. Since the theory has been kept general, the derived results can be applied to a large class of ring laser designs. Finally the influence of backscattered light on the stability is considered. Experimental results on two ring lasers are discussed....

  18. Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria. Volume I (United States)


    ratio of the energy head on the spillway to the spillway design head. This param- eter is believed to be more representative of the composite abutment... incrustation of iron bacteria up to I in. thick formed in uncoated 8-in. water pipe. Similar conditions prevailed in 10-in, pipe where the bond between the...indicate that organic and inorganic incrustations and deposits in steel conduits up to 6 ft in 224-1/l Revised 6-57 Revised 1-64 Revised 9-70 .4-1 Qdiameter

  19. Designing of an airport according to ecological noise criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.В. Коновалова


    Full Text Available  The analysis of recommendation for assessment of airport development consequences for environment was done. Based on, as an example, Kiev/Zhuliany airport it is shown that the problem of aircraft noise leads to constraints for airport capacity not only for hubs, but also for small airports. Three types of airport capacity and their connection are discussed. On the stage of ecological design it is recommended to use the value of maximum operational capacity to set the zone of protection against aircraft noise and for land-use planning.

  20. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This DOE standard gives design and evaluation criteria for natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE 5480.28. Goal of the criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, flooding, etc. They apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities; they may also be used for modification and upgrading of the latter.

  1. Pressure vessels design methods using the codes, fracture mechanics and multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Majid


    Full Text Available This paper gives a highlight about pressure vessel (PV methods of design to initiate new engineers and new researchers to understand the basics and to have a summary about the knowhow of PV design. This understanding will contribute to enhance their knowledge in the selection of the appropriate method. There are several types of tanks distinguished by the operating pressure, temperature and the safety system to predict. The selection of one or the other of these tanks depends on environmental regulations, the geographic location and the used materials. The design theory of PVs is very detailed in various codes and standards API, such as ASME, CODAP ... as well as the standards of material selection such as EN 10025 or EN 10028. While designing a PV, we must design the fatigue of its material through the different methods and theories, we can find in the literature, and specific codes. In this work, a focus on the fatigue lifetime calculation through fracture mechanics theory and the different methods found in the ASME VIII DIV 2, the API 579-1 and EN 13445-3, Annex B, will be detailed by giving a comparison between these methods. In many articles in the literature the uniaxial fatigue has been very detailed. Meanwhile, the multiaxial effect has not been considered as it must be. In this paper we will lead a discussion about the biaxial fatigue due to cyclic pressure in thick-walled PV. Besides, an overview of multiaxial fatigue in PVs is detailed

  2. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, D.W.


    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  3. Design Criteria in Revitalizing Old Warehouse District on the Kalimas Riverbank Area of Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto


    Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.

  4. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.

  5. Software design of the hybrid robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)


    A specific software design is elaborated in this paper for the hybrid robot machine used for the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) assembly and maintenance. In order to provide the multi-machining-function as well as the complicated, flexible and customizable GUI designing satisfying the non-standardized VV assembly process in one hand, and in another hand guarantee the stringent machining precision in the real-time motion control of robot machine, a client–server-control software architecture is proposed, which separates the user interaction, data communication and robot control implementation into different software layers. Correspondingly, three particular application protocols upon the TCP/IP are designed to transmit the data, command and status between the client and the server so as to deal with the abundant data streaming in the software. In order not to be affected by the graphic user interface (GUI) modification process in the future experiment in VV assembly working field, the real-time control system is realized as a stand-alone module in the architecture to guarantee the controlling performance of the robot machine. After completing the software development, a milling operation is tested on the robot machine, and the result demonstrates that both the specific GUI operability and the real-time motion control performance could be guaranteed adequately in the software design.

  6. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, UP 208 016 (India); Garg, Sanjeev, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, UP 208 016 (India)


    Research highlights: {yields} The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. {yields} Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. {yields} Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. {yields} Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  7. Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, D.D.; Raabe, P.H.


    This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs.

  8. 78 FR 33863 - Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability (United States)


    ... No: 2013-13352] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0179] Relationship Between General Design... Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-05, ``NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability.'' This RIS clarifies the NRC staff's position on the relationship...


    The report describes the development of engineering design criteria for the successful design, installation, and operation of sub-slab depressurization systems, based on radon (Rn) mitigation experience on 14 slab-on-grade houses in South Central Florida. The Florida houses are c...

  10. Design of a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Pressure vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Kai


    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a light water reactor with supercritical steam conditions which has been investigated within the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission. Due to the supercritical pressure of 25 MPa, water, used as moderator and as coolant, flows as a single phase through the core and can be directly fed to the turbine. Using the technology of coal fired power plants with supercritical steam conditions, the heat-up in the core is done in several steps to achieve the targeted high steam outlet temperature of 500.C without exceeding available cladding material limits. Based on a first design of a fuel assembly cluster for a HPLWR with a single pass core, the surrounding internals and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are dimensioned for the first time, following the safety standards of the nuclear safety standards commission in Germany. Furthermore, this design is extended to the incorporation of core arrangements with two and three passes. The design of the internals and the RPV are verified using mechanical or, in the case of large thermal deformations, combined mechanical and thermal stress analyses. Additionally, a passive safety component for the feedwater inlet of the RPV of the HPLWR is designed. Its purpose is the reduction of the mass flow rate in case of a LOCA for a feedwater line break until further steps are executed. Starting with a simple vortex diode, several steps are executed to enhance the performance of the diode and adapt it to this application. Then, this first design is further optimized using combined 1D and 3D flow analyses. Parametric studies determine the performance and characteristic for changing mass flow rates for this backflow limiter. (orig.)

  11. The role of classification and reference vessels in the design of inland fairways for commercial vessels – contribution to the Workshop of WG 141 Design Guidelines for Inland Waterways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, O.C.


    The Pianc WG 141 is proceeding in the conception of Design Guidelines for Inland Waterways. WG 141 aims to produce its first draft in the end of 2015. Part of the forseen content are classification of waterways and the object of reference vessels. The role of those subjects will be presented and

  12. Towards the Development of a Risk Model for Unmanned Vessels Design and Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wrobel


    Full Text Available An unmanned merchant vessel seems to be escaping from the stage of idea exploration. Once the concept proofs its safety, it may become a part of maritime reality. Although the safety aspect of such a ship has been addressed by a handful of scholars, the problem remains open. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge regarding actual operational circumstances and design of unmanned ships, which are yet to be developed. In the attempt of bridging this gap, the risk analysis associated with unmanned ships needs to be carried out, where all relevant hazards and consequences are assessed and quantified in systematic manner. In this paper we present the results of a first step of such analysis, namely the hazard analysis associated with the unmanned ships. The list of hazards covers various aspects of unmanned shipping originating from both design and operational phases of vessel’s life. Subsequently the hazards and related consequences are organized in a casual manner, resulting in the development of a structure of a risk model.

  13. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  14. Vision-based methodology for collaborative management of qualitative criteria in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian


    A Vision-based methodology is proposed as part of the management of qualitative criteria for design in early phases of the product development process for team based organisations. Focusing on abstract values and qualities for the product establishes a shared vision for the product amongst team...... establishes a field of tension that summarises the abstract criteria and pinpoints the desired uniqueness of the product. The Interaction Vision allows the team members to design the behaviour of the product without deciding on physical features, thus focusing on the cognitive aspects of the product...

  15. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.


    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP).

  16. The application of the multi-criteria analysis in evaluating of the road designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Ljubiša T.


    Full Text Available The analysis of the suitability of applying multi-criteria ranking of road design variants places the emphasis on the danger of fixing the ranking results, by the impact of subjective factors, in the process of determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. This danger is illustrated using two real examples. In the first example, subjective factors did not have a decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. In the second example, subjective factors had a more decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were not taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights.

  17. Design and Manufacturing Criteria for Beam Position Monitor (BPM) of Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) (United States)

    Hsueh, H. P.; Chang, C. C.; Hsu, S. N.; Huang, I. T.; Chen, Y. B.; Kuan, C. K.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Chen, J. R.


    There are quite some considerations when the button feedthrough is designed and manufactured in a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source like the to-be-constructed TPS. It is the responsibility of the button feedthrough designer to design a feedthrough with the lowest probable HOM problem. It is also required for the designer to analyze the consequences for each possible mechanical error during manufacturing and therefore set standards of tolerance. We have been using MAFIA to optimize the design of feedthrough including flange type on bending chamber section and primary BPM on insertion device section. We also have set some criteria for feedthrough manufacturing, inspection, and welding based on hands-on experience on feedthrough electrical properties measuring, sorting, inspection, and laser welding. Here we will present the MAFIA results, electrical measurement results, and laser welding results and analysis. Criteria based on these results will also be presented.

  18. Summary of the Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) Phase 2 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark Raymond [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report provides an end-of-year summary reflecting the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-LWR designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone in M3AT-15IN2001017 in work package AT-15IN200101. These criteria have been designated as ARDC, and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the GDC that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. The report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of example adaptations of ARDC for Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) and modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs.

  19. A microdissection study of perforating vessels in the perineum: implication in designing perforator flaps. (United States)

    Jin, Bai; Hasi, Wulan; Yang, Chao; Song, Jianxing


    The objective of this study is to determine the quantity, position, and caliber of perforating vessels in the perineum, and to provide an anatomic basis for designing perineal perforator flaps. Eleven adult cadavers (22 sides) were dissected under an operating microscope (x10). Microstructures, including perforating arteries, vena comitantes, vascular anastomoses, and cutaneous nerves, were measured with a sliding caliper (accurate to 0.2 mm). There were 4 relatively constant perforating arteries in the perineum: inguinal and perineal perforating branches of the superficial external pudendal artery, a perforating branch of the anterior cutaneous branch of the obturator artery, and a perforating branch of the lateral branch of the posterior scrotal (pudendal) artery. All 4 arteries were direct perforating branches. These perforating arteries and accompanying veins overlapped with each other and formed the upper, middle, and lower parts of the vascular anastomosis in deep fascia above the adductor wall. There were 4 important cutaneous nerves in the region originating from the following nerves: the genitofemoral nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, posterior scrotum (labium) major nerve, and rami perineales nervi cutanei femoris posterioris. The perineum has abundant blood supply, venous return, and innervation. Due to its covert location and manoeuvrability, perforator flaps from this region are good sources of donor tissue for perineal reconstruction.

  20. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepp, C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Austin, TX (United States); Hossain, Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nesbit, S. [M and O/Duke Engineering, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pezzopane, S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hardy, M. [A.F.T. Agapito and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)


    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC`s importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads.

  1. Toward User Interfaces and Data Visualization Criteria for Learning Design of Digital Textbooks (United States)

    Railean, Elena


    User interface and data visualisation criteria are central issues in digital textbooks design. However, when applying mathematical modelling of learning process to the analysis of the possible solutions, it could be observed that results differ. Mathematical learning views cognition in on the base on statistics and probability theory, graph…

  2. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring D Appendix D to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... associated with area dimensions ranging from several meters up to about 100 meters. (2) Middle scale—Defines...

  3. Application of multiple criteria decision making for the design and analysis of greenhouse cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.J.; Sanden, van de P.A.C.M.


    Greenhouse cropping systems have various objectives and can be controlled in various ways. Selection or design of an optimal cropping system requires weighing of the objectives as well as proper understanding of the input-output relations of the system. The field of Multiple Criteria Decision Making

  4. Canister storage building compliance assessment DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.M.


    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A ''General Design Criteria.'' No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion.

  5. Progress report:Specifications and design criteria for innovative corrosion monitoring and (downhole) sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Akemu, A.


    The objective of this sub-project is to establish specifications and design criteria for corrosion monitoring and corrosion sensor systems used in CO2 storage wells; this includes sensitivity analysis and an evaluation of technological maturity. In the Year 1 programme, we review the tools deployed

  6. Design and Management Criteria for Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Created Agricultural Wetlands (United States)

    Design and management criteria for created agricultural wetlands in the midwestern United States typically focus on maximizing the ability to process agricultural runoff. Ecological benefits for fish, amphibian, and reptiles are often secondary considerations. One example of this water quality focu...

  7. Design criteria for extraction with chemical reaction and liquid membrane permeation (United States)

    Bart, H. J.; Bauer, A.; Lorbach, D.; Marr, R.


    The design criteria for heterogeneous chemical reactions in liquid/liquid systems formally correspond to those of classical physical extraction. More complex models are presented which describe the material exchange at the individual droplets in an extraction with chemical reaction and in liquid membrane permeation.

  8. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)


    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  9. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks


    João Raposo; Ana Rodrigues; Carlos Silva; Tomaz Dentinho


    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city’s urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE’s characteristics other useful features, such as decision ...

  10. Acoustical standards and criteria documentation of sustainability in hospital design and construction


    Evans, Jack,; Himmel, Chad


    International audience; The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has multiple categories, including a 2009 version for healthcare buildings. Determination and award of Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) rating points for Acoustics requires theoretical calculation in design phase of ambient sound, privacy and intrusive outdoor noise relative to allowable criteria or performance validation testing aft...

  11. Toward User Interfaces and Data Visualization Criteria for Learning Design of Digital Textbooks


    Elena RAILEAN


    User interface and data visualisation criteria are central issues in digital textbooks design. However, when applying mathematical modelling of learning process to the analysis of the possible solutions, it could be observed that results differ. Mathematical learning views cognition in on the base on statistics and probability theory, graph theory, game theory, cellular automata, neural networks etc. Instead of this, research methodologies in learning design are diversified in behaviourism, c...

  12. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M.


    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.

  13. Small Business Conformity with Quality Website Design Criteria in a Marketing Communication Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Robinson Beachboard


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Professional companies selling persuasive-communication services via the World Wide Web need to be exemplars of effective informing practices. Their credibility is at risk if their websites do not excel in marketing message and use of medium. Their unique brands need to be expressed through website technology and content, or they cannot compete successfully. Background: Compares marketing communication consultants’ websites with expert criteria. Methodology: Content analysis of 40 advertising agency websites. Contribution: Links an evaluation of advertising agency compliance with expert website criteria to established branding constructs. Findings: Most small advertising agencies could improve their brand reputations through better compliance with experts’ recommended website design and content criteria. Recommendations for Practitioners: A hierarchy of recommendations for practitioners is offered, addressing ease and importance. Impact on Society: Clarity and credibility of message and medium improve our ability to practice effective informing. Future Research: Explore online communications of specialized populations such as digital marketing experts.

  14. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herva, Marta [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez, Antonio [Industrias de Diseno Textil, S.A., Edificio Inditex, Av. de la Diputacion s/n, Poligono de Sabon, 15142 Arteixo - A Coruna (Spain); Roca, Enrique, E-mail: [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Highlights: {yields} The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. {yields} The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. {yields} Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. {yields} Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. {yields} Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm{sup 2}) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm{sup 2}). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would

  15. Software design and technical considerations for the calibration of gas process vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.H.


    In a new facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the volume of 35 vessels were determined. A literature search was made to determine an appropriate calibration method. When no practical non-laboratory methods providing the targeted uncertainty were found, an innovative approach was developed using the Gas Law principles and a portable, computerized data acquisition system. These vessels were calibrated in their final installed configuration. Each tank was calibrated in less than 24 hours. The system was comprised of a portable computer, pressure sensor, resistance temperature device temperature sensor, bottled nitrogen, and a mass comparator. This paper will describe the development of the calibration program.

  16. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  17. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria. (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Álvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique


    The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm(2)) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm(2)). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the use stage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress on the design development and prototype manufacturing of the ITER In-vessel coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encheva, A.; Omran, H.; Devred, A.; Vostner, A.; Mitchell, N.; Mariani, N.; Jun, CH H.; Long, F.; Zhou, C.; Macklin, B.; Marti, H. P.; Sborchia, C.; della Corte, A. Della; Di Zenobio, A.; Anemona, A.; Righetti, R.; Wu, Y.; Jin, H.; Xu, A.; Jin, J.


    ITER is incorporating two types of In-Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide a reliable Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required in order that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements.

  19. Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Sustainable Energy Prioritization Using Fuzzy Axiomatic Design


    Basar Oztaysi; Mine Isik; Secil Ercan


    Sustainability has gained tremendous importance and has been an important issue both for policy makers and practitioners. Realizing that the resources on the earth are limited, renewable energy alternatives have flourished and started to replace the conventional energy alternatives. Energy planning using different energy alternatives, for the long term becomes a vital decision. In this study, fuzzy multi criteria decision- making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy pro...

  20. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.


    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  1. Definition of design criteria of mechanical transfer: an interaction between engineering and health areas. (United States)

    Luz, Taciana Ramos; Echternacht, Eliza Helena de Oliveira


    This study aims to analyze the factors that justify the low use of a mechanical transfer in the context of a long-term institution. It is a device intended for internal transportation of individuals who have mobility problems. The analysis involves researchers from the fields of health and engineering in order to generate design criteria that consider the needs of caregivers and patients of this institution. To understand the reality of this site and their specificities, was used Ergonomic Work Analysis.

  2. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  3. Multi-criteria decision analysis in conservation planning: Designing conservation area networks in San Diego County (United States)

    MacDonald, Garrick Richard

    To limit biodiversity loss caused by human activity, conservation planning must protect biodiversity while considering socio-economic cost criteria. This research aimed to determine the effects of socio-economic criteria and spatial configurations on the development of CANs for three species with different distribution patterns, while simultaneously attempting to address the uncertainty and sensitivity of CANs produced by ConsNet. The socio-economic factors and spatial criteria included the cost of land, population density, agricultural output value, area, average cluster area, number of clusters, shape, and perimeter. Three sensitive mammal species with different distribution patterns were selected and included the Bobcat, Ringtail, and a custom created mammal distribution. Forty problems and the corresponding number of CANs were formulated and computed by running each predicted presence species model with and without the four different socioeconomic threshold groups at two different resolutions. Thirty-two percent less area was conserved after considering multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations in comparison to CANs that did not consider multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations. Without including socio-economic costs, ConsNet's ALL_CELLS heuristic solution was the highest ranking CAN. After considering multiple socio-economic costs, the number one ranking CAN was no longer the ALL_CELLS heuristic solution, but a spatially different meta-heuristic solution. The effects of multiple constraints and objectives on the design of CANs with different distribution patterns did not vary significantly across the criteria. The CANs produced by ConsNet appeared to demonstrate some uncertainty surrounding particular criteria, but did not demonstrate substantial uncertainty across all criteria used to rank the CANs. Similarly, the range of socio-economic criteria thresholds did not have a substantial impact. ConsNet was very

  4. Design criteria for the plant-microbial fuel cell : electricity generation with living plants : from lab tot application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.


    Om de processen die ten grondslag liggen aan de P-MBC (Plant-Microbiële Brandstofcel) en de factoren die zijn vermogen bepalen beter te begrijpen was het doel van dit proefschrift om design criteria voor de PMBC te bepalen. De eerste focus van de design criteria was om het vermogen van de P-MBC te

  5. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.P. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Chokshi, N.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping & Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI.

  6. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André


    As part of the research work carried out by the Working Group 3 of COST Action FP0702, the need for vibrational comfort design for buildings and current regulations for comfort assessment of structural vibrations of timber floors in Europe have been summarised. Also the design practices of timber...... floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...... with three types of joists, i.e. solid timber joists, engineered I-joists and metal web joists. The unit point load deflection criterion is the most crucial one for structural design of timber floors with various types of joists and usually dominates the whole design. Finland tends to be the strictest...

  7. Nuclear analysis and shielding optimisation in support of the ITER In-Vessel Viewing System design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pampin, Raul [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ghani, Zamir; Hurst, Gemma [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lo Bue, Alessandro [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mangham, Samuel [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Puiu, Adrian [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Zheng, Shanliang [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) units proposed for ITER are deployed to perform in-vessel examination. During plasma operations, the IVVS is located beyond the vacuum vessel, with shielding blocks envisaged to protect components from neutron damage and reduce shutdown dose rate (SDR) levels. Analyses were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several shielding configurations. The neutron response of the system was assessed using global variance reduction techniques and a surface source, and shutdown dose rate calculations were undertaken using MCR2S. Unshielded, the absorbed dose to piezoelectric motors (PZT) was found to be below stable limits, however activation of the primary closure plate (PCP) was prohibitively high. A scenario with shielding blocks at probe level showed significantly reduced PCP contact dose rate, however still marginally exceeded port cell requirements. The addition of shielding blocks at the bioshield plug demonstrated PCP contact dose rates below project requirements. SDR levels in contact with the isolated IVVS cartridge were found to marginally exceed the hands-on maintenance limit. For engineering feasibility, shielding blocks at bioshield level are to be avoided, however the port cell SDR field requires further consideration. In addition, alternative low-activation steels are being considered for the IVVS cartridge.

  8. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs. (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C


    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the design criteria of 141 onsite wastewater treatment systems available on the French market. (United States)

    Dubois, V; Boutin, C


    New EC standards published in 2009 led to a surge in onsite wastewater treatment systems reaching the European market. Here we summarize their technical aspects and compare them to known values used in centralized wastewater treatment. The paper deals with two types of processes: attached-growth systems (AGS) on fine media and suspended-growth systems (SGS). Covering 141 technical approvals and 36 manufacturers, we compare onsite design criteria against the centralized wastewater design criteria for each process. The systems use a wide range of materials for bacterial growth, from soil, sand or gravel to zeolite, coconut shavings or rockwool cubes, with a huge range of variation in useful surface, from 0.26 m 2 /PE for one rockwool cube filter to 5 m 2 /PE for a (traditional system) vertical sand filter. Some rockwool can handle applied daily surface load of 160 g BOD 5 /m 2 . SGS design parameters range from 0.025 to 0.34 kg BOD 5 per kg MLVSS/d with hydraulic retention times of 0.28-3.7 d. For clarifier design, water velocity ranges from 0.15 to 1.47 m/h. In the sludge line, sludge storage volume ranges from 0.125 down to just 0.56 m 3 /PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a School Building in Turkey According to the Basic Sustainable Design Criteria (United States)

    Arslan, H. D.


    In Turkey, as well as many other developing countries, the significance of sustainable education buildings has only recently become recognized and the issue of sustainability issue has not been sufficiently involved in laws and regulations. In this study, first of all architectural sustainability with basic design criteria has been explained. After that selected type primary school project in Turkey has been evaluated according to the sustainable design criteria. Type project of school buildings significantly limits the sustainability performance expected from buildings. It is clear that type projects shorten the planning time as they include a designing process that is independent of settlement and they are repeated in various places with different characteristics, indeed. On the other hand; abundance of disadvantages such as the overlook of the natural physical and structural properties of the location mostly restricts the sustainable design of the building. For sustainable buildings, several factors such as the environment, land, climate, insolation, direction etc. shall be taken into consideration at the beginning stage. Therefore; implementation of type projects can be deemed to be inappropriate for sustainability.

  11. Active disturbance rejection controller design for dynamically positioned vessels based on adaptive hybrid biogeography-based optimization and differential evolution. (United States)

    Wu, Defeng; Ren, Fengkun; Qiao, Lei; Zhang, Weidong


    Vessels with a dynamic positioning system (DPS) are widely applied in ocean resource exploration. Because of the inaccuracy and coupling of the vessel dynamic model, it is important to design a controller that performs well in an oceanic environment. The active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is introduced in this study to control the vessel movement and positioning in the DPS. The merit of the ADRC is that it does not need an accurate plant and disturbance model. In the proposed method, an adaptive hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO) and differential evolution (DE) are developed. The orthogonal learning (OL) mechanism is employed to achieve adaptive switching to different searching mechanisms between BBO and DE. The proposed adaptive hybrid BBO-DE (AHBBODE) algorithm is then used to optimize the parameters of ADRC; these parameters are not easy to determine by using the trial and error method. Finally, the proposed method is compared with the BBO- and DE-based methods. The results show that better performance is obtained by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design concept of conducting shell and in-vessel components suitable for plasma vertical stability and remote maintenance scheme in DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takase, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); Mori, Kazuo; Kudo, Tatsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Conceptual design of in-vessel component including conducting shell has been investigated. • The conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability was clarified from the plasma vertical stability analysis. • The calculation results showed that the double-loop shell has the most effect on plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: In order to realize a feasible DEMO, we designed an in-vessel component including the conducting shell. The project is affiliated with the broader approach DEMO design activities and is conceptualized from a plasma vertical stability and engineering viewpoint. The dependence of the plasma vertical stability on the conducing shell parameters and the electromagnetic force at plasma disruption were investigated in numerical simulations (programmed in the 3D eddy current analysis code and a plasma position control code). The simulations assumed the actual shape and position of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components. The plasma vertical stability was most effectively maintained by the double-loop shell.

  13. Cálculo de patana especializada construida de PRFV. // Calculation of specialized shalow water vessels designed and manufactured with PRFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal


    Full Text Available Se trata del cálculo de resistencia y rigidez de una patana especializada para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en la zonapantanosa de la Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba, por lo que se recurre a materiales altamente duraderos y resistentes a la acción deun medio tan agresivo. Se trata de plásticos y fibra de vidrio. Por los altos pesos en la cubierta, su calculo no estaestablecido en los Registros de Buques, haciéndose necesario el calculo completo de la patana con este material ortotrópico.Para ello se recurrió al Método de los Elementos Finitos, a través del empleo de un programa de computación. Se llega aldiseño completo de las diferentes partes de la patana con este complejo material. Ya ha sido construida y está en operación.Palabras claves: Elementos finitos, embarcaciones, tratamiento de aguas,PRFV.___________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper deals with the calculations of resistance and rigidity of a specialized shalow water vessel for the treatment ofwaste waters. It will be located in the marshy area of Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, for this reason highly durable and resistantmaterials to the action of such aggressive environment are used. We are dealing with plastics and glass fiber due to the highweight in the cover the calculation is not established by Ships Registrations and therefore became necessary to carried outthe complete vessel calculation with this orthotropic material. It was neccesary applied the Finite Elements Method bymeans of a computation program. We arrived to the complete design of different parts of the vessel with this complexmaterial. It has already been built and it is in operation.Key words: Finite element, vessel, water treatment, PRFV.

  14. Cálculo de patana especializada construida de PRFV. // Calculation of specialized shalow water vessels designed and manufactured with PRFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal


    Full Text Available Se trata del cálculo de resistencia y rigidez de una patana especializada para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en la zonapantanosa de la Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba, por lo que se recurre a materiales altamente duraderos y resistentes a la acción deun medio tan agresivo. Se trata de plásticos y fibra de vidrio. Por los altos pesos en la cubierta, su calculo no estaestablecido en los Registros de Buques, haciéndose necesario el calculo completo de la patana con este material ortotrópico.Para ello se recurrió al Método de los Elementos Finitos, a través del empleo de un programa de computación. Se llega aldiseño completo de las diferentes partes de la patana con este complejo material. Ya ha sido construida y está en operación.Palabras claves: Elementos finitos, embarcaciones, tratamiento de aguas,PRFV._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper deals with the calculations of resistance and rigidity of a specialized shalow water vessel for the treatment ofwaste waters. It will be located in the marshy area of Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, for this reason highly durable and resistantmaterials to the action of such aggressive environment are used. We are dealing with plastics and glass fiber due to the highweight in the cover the calculation is not established by Ships Registrations and therefore became necessary to carried outthe complete vessel calculation with this orthotropic material. It was neccesary applied the Finite Elements Method bymeans of a computation program. We arrived to the complete design of different parts of the vessel with this complexmaterial. It has already been built and it is in operation.Key words: Finite element, vessel, water treatment, PRFV.

  15. The role of criteria in design and management of space systems (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.


    Explicit requirements and standards arising in connection with space systems management serve as a framework for technical management and furnish legally binding control of development, verification, and operations. As a project develops, additional requirements are derived which are unique to the system in question; these are designated 'derived requirements'. The reliability and cost-effectiveness of a space system are best ensured where a balance has arisen between formal (legally binding) and informal. Attention is presently given to the development of criteria consistent with total quality management.

  16. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design (United States)

    Li, Yongchang

    In systems engineering, design and operation of systems are two main problems which always attract researcher's attentions. The accomplishment of activities in these problems often requires proper decisions to be made so that the desired goal can be achieved, thus, decision making needs to be carefully fulfilled in the design and operation of systems. Design is a decision making process which permeates through out the design process, and is at the core of all design activities. In modern aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design phases so as to increase the odds of choosing a design that will ultimately be successful at the completion of the design process, therefore, decisions made during these early design stages play a critical role in determining the success of a design. Since aerospace systems are complex systems with interacting disciplines and technologies, the Decision Makers (DMs) dealing with such design problems are involved in balancing the multiple, potentially conflicting attributes/criteria, transforming a large amount of customer supplied guidelines into a solidly defined set of requirement definitions. Thus, one could state with confidence that modern aerospace system design is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) process. A variety of existing decision making methods are available to deal with this type of decision problems. The selection of the most appropriate decision making method is of particular importance since inappropriate decision methods are likely causes of misleading engineering design decisions. With no sufficient knowledge about each of the methods, it is usually difficult for the DMs to find an appropriate analytical model capable of solving their problems. In addition, with the complexity of the decision problem and the demand for more capable methods increasing, new decision making methods are emerging with time. These various methods exacerbate the difficulty of the selection

  17. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s) (United States)


    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  18. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) (United States)


    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  19. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Raposo


    Full Text Available This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city’s urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE’s characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  20. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks (United States)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz


    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  1. Verification of filter efficiency of horizontal roughing filter by Weglin's design criteria and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asis Mazumder


    Full Text Available The general objective of this study is to estimate the performance of the Horizontal Roughing Filter (HRF by using Weglin's design criteria based on 1/3–2/3 filter theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate HRF developed in the laboratory with Slow Sand Filter (SSF as a pretreatment unit with the help of Weglin's design criteria for HRF with respect to raw water condition and neuro-genetic model developed based on the filter dataset. The results achieved from the three different models were compared to find whether the performance of the experimental HRF with SSF output conforms to the other two models which will verify the validity of the former. According to the results, the experimental setup was coherent with the neural model but incoherent with the results from Weglin's formula as lowest mean square error was observed in case of the neuro-genetic model while comparing with the values found from the experimental SSF-HRF unit. As neural models are known to learn a problem with utmost efficiency, the model verification result was taken as positive.

  2. Physics design of the in-vessel collection optics for the ITER electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. (United States)

    Rowan, W L; Houshmandyar, S; Phillips, P E; Austin, M E; Beno, J H; Hubbard, A E; Khodak, A; Ouroua, A; Taylor, G


    Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.

  3. Ignitor Vacuum Vessel Structural Design with Dynamic Loads Due to Plasma Disruption Event (United States)

    Cucchiaro, Antonio; Crescenzi, Claudio; Mazzone, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Aldo; Ramogida, Giuseppe; Roccella, Massimo; Bianchi, Aldo; Parodi, Bruno; Linari, Mauro; Lucca, Flavio; Marin, Anna; Coppi, Bruno


    The new reference plasma disruption for IGNITOR produces a significant increase of electromagnetic (EM) loads and requires a dynamic elastic-plastic structural analysis of the vacuum vessel (VV). The EM loads due to the worst disruption event (VDE) have been calculated using the MAXFEA 2D code and it is found that the stresses and deformation that would be produced on a relatively thin chamber could be excessive. A varying thickness configuration for the VV has been adopted on the basis of a step by step optimization with the aim of minimizing the vertical displacement while complying with the allowable plastic strains. A non-linear analysis is required with a modelling of the entire (360°) VV structure. With the new thickness distribution, the VV is capable to withstand several hundred of cycles under plasma disruption conditions in compliance with the ASME III code rules.

  4. The Design of Rice Powder Production Vessel and the Pulverization of the Rice Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shibuta


    Full Text Available In recent years, the food self-support rate of Japan is 40%, and this value is the lowest level of major advanced country. The stable supply of food is a big subject that Japan has. Therefore, rice powder attracts attention for improvement of the food self-support rate in Japan. Previously, the rice powder is produced by two methods. One is dry type, and the other is wet type. However, these systems have a fault of the heat damage of the starch and the consumption of a large quantity of water. In our laboratory, as solution of those problems, production of the rice powder by using the underwater shock wave is considered. Shock wave is the pressure wave which is over velocity of sound by discharging high energy in short time. Propagating shock wave in water is the underwater shock wave. This food processing using an underwater shock wave has little influence of heat and its processing time is very short, preventing the loss of nutrients. In this research optical observation experiment and the numerical simulation were performed using trial vessel, in order to understand the behavior of the underwater shock wave in the development of the rice powder production vessel using an underwater shock wave at the factory. In addition, in order to understand the rice powder production and to develop it, the numerical simulation about pulverization of rice is performed. By this method, the pressure which takes for rice at the time of pulverization, and its pulverization phenomenon are solved. Analysis soft LS-DYNA was used for these numerical simulations. The comparative study of the experiment and the numerical simulation was investigated. The behavior of the shock wave in the device and transformation of rice were able to be clarified.

  5. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James


    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  6. Servicing the Arctic. Report 3 : Design of an Arctic Offshore Supply Vessel (AMTSV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.W.; Huisman, T.J.; Obers, M.P.W.; Schaap, T.; Van der Zalm, M.


    Background To design a ship its specific design requirements are to be known. These are, together with class notations, specified in previous reports and extended in this report. Since the requirements are formed iteratively, design freedom is possible. This is used to implement several innovations

  7. 45 CFR 170.304 - Specific certification criteria for Complete EHRs or EHR Modules designed for an ambulatory setting. (United States)


    ... or EHR Modules designed for an ambulatory setting. 170.304 Section 170.304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT... for Complete EHRs or EHR Modules designed for an ambulatory setting. The Secretary adopts the following certification criteria for Complete EHRs or EHR Modules designed to be used in an ambulatory...

  8. Risk-based multi-criteria design concept of the ITER SDS getter bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, S.-H., E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, H.-G.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Lee, H.G.; Jung, K.J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, S.-H.; Song, K.-M. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Camp, P.; Willms, S.; Glugla, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The main objective of ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is contracted to develop an optimal metal hydride bed that can be reveal the unprecedented fueling performance for the Tokamak. One function of the hydride bed is to keep safety requirements in terms of confinement of tritium. The hydride material for storing the deuterium and tritium fuelling gases is being made narrow with depleted uranium (DU) by its good performance. DU also has its own uncertainties, however, in applying it to realize the getter bed system having an all-round capability, especially in aspect of safety. This paper deals with from bed design target to the design variables in terms of comparison of risk-based multi-criteria using HAZOP (risk matrix) analysis. In analysis of the risks, important variables that denotes safety-effective, or cost-effective, or maintainability-effective, or manufacturability-effective are sometimes mutually interrelated with each other. As a conclusion the authors could recommend the way to concentrate and minimize the bed design variables with most meaningful risk-containing components that can be applied to increase the performance of hydride bed. It needs, however, that further study of comparison of risk analyses should be proceeded to complete the hydride bed design.

  9. The Examination of The Main Transportation Arteries of Konya In Terms of Landscape Architecture Design Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Güngör


    Full Text Available Ensuring comfort of use and security of pedestrians, which are the main users of urban green spaces, and the determination of their needs are important since local authorities are guiding for new pedestrian zone studies in the Konya city. Because of the problems caused by the upper structure, the necessary care is not given in terms of transportation comfort, pedestrian safety, vehicle security, plant design and ergonomic / antropemetric standards. The pedestrian way and refuge landscape designs have an important position and amount among open green areas on the scale of Konya. However, it was identified that the applications conducted were inadequate in terms of aesthetic and functional characteristics and were not suitable for the urban landscape design principles, in general, and the standards of urban afforestation of the streets. In this study, the current situation of 3 main streets of Konya used most intensely was examined in terms of landscape design criteria and some suggestions were made by attempting to identify the improvement works that should be performed by the public authorities.

  10. Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: A meta-review. (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till


    At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Concept design of the DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system adopting a systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gironimo, G., E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Carfora, D. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Esposito, G.; Lanzotti, A.; Marzullo, D. [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)


    Highlights: • An iterative and incremental design process for cassette-to-VV locking system of DEMO divertor is presented. • Three different concepts have been developed with a systematic design approach. • The final concept has been selected with Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process in virtual reality. - Abstract: This paper deals with pre-concept studies of DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system under the work program WP13-DAS-07-T06: Divertor Remote Maintenance System pre-concept study. An iterative design process, consistent with Systems Engineering guidelines and named Iterative and Participative Axiomatic Design Process (IPADeP), is used in this paper to propose new innovative solutions for divertor locking system, which can overcome the difficulties in applying the ITER principles to DEMO. The solutions conceived have been analysed from the structural point of view using the software Ansys and, eventually, evaluated using the methodology known as Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process. Due to the lack and the uncertainty of the requirements in this early conceptual design stage, the aim is to cover a first iteration of an iterative and incremental process to propose an innovative design concept to be developed in more details as the information will be completed.

  12. Application of Combined Sustained and Cyclic Loading Test Results to Alloy 617 Elevated Temperature Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I [Global Egineering and Technology, LLC, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of 900-950°C . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200°F (650°C). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 1200 °F, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures.

  13. A multi-criteria approach to camera motion design for volume data animation. (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsien; Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu


    We present an integrated camera motion design and path generation system for building volume data animations. Creating animations is an essential task in presenting complex scientific visualizations. Existing visualization systems use an established animation function based on keyframes selected by the user. This approach is limited in providing the optimal in-between views of the data. Alternatively, computer graphics and virtual reality camera motion planning is frequently focused on collision free movement in a virtual walkthrough. For semi-transparent, fuzzy, or blobby volume data the collision free objective becomes insufficient. Here, we provide a set of essential criteria focused on computing camera paths to establish effective animations of volume data. Our dynamic multi-criteria solver coupled with a force-directed routing algorithm enables rapid generation of camera paths. Once users review the resulting animation and evaluate the camera motion, they are able to determine how each criterion impacts path generation. In this paper, we demonstrate how incorporating this animation approach with an interactive volume visualization system reduces the effort in creating context-aware and coherent animations. This frees the user to focus on visualization tasks with the objective of gaining additional insight from the volume data.

  14. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.


    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  15. Sustainable Sites Initiative: US updated rating criteria for open spaces design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valente


    Full Text Available The paper presents the U.S. Sustainable Sites Initiative, by illustrating and commenting the recent updates of the rating criteria in addition to a number of certified projects, including some sites visited by the author in California. The system is compared with existing tools, as LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development Rating System, albeit some differences also in scale of interventions. In the work, scientific literature and personal considerations are given about those aspects still not evaluated by the system and its potential wider applicability with regard to directions of research on the topic. The theme fits well in the mainstream of studies dedicated to the design of resilient open spaces, contributing to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

  16. Design criteria for multi-layered scintillating fibre arrays with inclined columns

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, P; Pochodzalla, J


    Multi-layered scintillating fibre arrays read-out are commonly used as high resolution charged particle hodoscopes. Fibres of a column along the geometrical trajectory of incident particles are typically grouped to one pixel of a multi-channel read-out device. In some applications the incident particles will cross the detection plane with large angles w.r.t. the normal to the layers. Then, the packing of the fibres needs to be adapted to the incident particles and the columns need to be inclined. In this paper possible fibre array geometries are shown, relevant design criteria for detectors are discussed, and the effect of diverging particles incident on fibre arrays was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosolov SN


    Full Text Available Sergey N Mosolov,1 Andrey V Potapov,1 Uriy V Ushakov,2 Aleksey A Shafarenko,1 Anastasiya B Kostyukova11Department of Mental Disorders Therapy, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 2Moscow Psychiatric Outpatient Services #21, Moscow, RussiaBackground: International Remission Criteria (IRC for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC.Methods: We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10 criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP. The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI versus olanzapine.Results: Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5% initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1% met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%, or remittent (15% paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%. In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%, who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of

  18. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.


    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  19. Design and Use of a Novel Bioreactor for Regeneration of Biaxially Stretched Tissue-Engineered Vessels. (United States)

    Huang, Angela Hai; Lee, Yong-Ung; Calle, Elizabeth A; Boyle, Michael; Starcher, Barry C; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E


    Conventional bioreactors are used to enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical strength of tissue-engineered vessels (TEVs) by applying circumferential strain, which is uniaxial stretching. However, the resulting TEVs still suffer from inadequate mechanical properties, where rupture strengths and compliance values are still very different from native arteries. The biomechanical milieu of native arteries consists of both circumferential and axial loading. Therefore, to better simulate the physiological stresses acting on native arteries, we built a novel bioreactor system to enable biaxial stretching of engineered arteries during culture. This new bioreactor system allows for independent control of circumferential and axial stretching parameters, such as displacement and beat rate. The assembly and setup processes for this biaxial bioreactor system are reliable with a success rate greater than 75% for completion of long-term sterile culture. This bioreactor also supports side-by-side assessments of TEVs that are cultured under three types of mechanical conditions (static, uniaxial, and biaxial), all within the same biochemical environment. Using this bioreactor, we examined the impact of biaxial stretching on arterial wall remodeling of TEVs. Biaxial TEVs developed the greatest wall thickness compared with static and uniaxial TEVs. Unlike uniaxial loading, biaxial loading led to undulated collagen fibers that are commonly found in native arteries. More importantly, the biaxial TEVs developed the most mature elastin in the ECM, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The presence of mature extracellular elastin along with the undulated collagen fibers may contribute to the observed vascular compliance in the biaxial TEVs. The current work shows that biaxial stretching is a novel and promising means to improve TEV generation. Furthermore, this novel system allows us to optimize biomechanical conditioning by unraveling the interrelationships among the

  20. Design of an Ultra-wide Band Waveguide Transition for the Ex-vessel Transmission Line of ITER Plasma Position Reflectometry (United States)

    Simonetto, A.; Platania, P.; Garavaglia, S.; Gittini, G.; Granucci, G.; Pallotta, F.


    Plasma position reflectometry for ITER requires interfaces between in-vessel and ex-vessel waveguides. An ultra broadband interface (15-75 GHz) was designed between moderately oversized rectangular waveguide (20 × 12 mm), operated in TE01 (i.e., tall waveguide mode), and circular corrugated waveguide, with 88.9-mm internal diameter, propagating HE11. The interface was designed both as a sequence of waveguide components and as a quasi-optical confocal telescope. The design and the simulated performance are described for both concepts. The latter one requires more space but has better performance, and shall be prototyped.

  1. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.


    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  2. Textile heart valve prosthesis: from fabric design criteria to early in-vivo performances. (United States)

    Heim, Frederic; Durand, Bernard; Chafke, Nabil


    Percutaneous aortic valve implantation has become an alternative technique to surgical valve replacement in patients at high risk for open-chest surgery. Biological valve tissue is, however, a fragile material when folded for small-diameter catheter insertion purposes. Textile polyester is a less fragile material, and could be an alternative replacement for the valve leaflets. The dynamic performances obtained in vitro with a valve prosthesis made from textile have proven in previous studies to be satisfactory. However, as textile is a porous material the interaction processes between the fabric leaflet surfaces and living tissues remain unknown. The study aim was to discuss the fabric design criteria which are best suited to clinical application. An appropriate design provided strength, limited porosity and low bulk to the fabric, which was particularly suited for small-diameter catheter insertion purposes. The in-vivo behavior of a non-coated polyester textile valve prototype was then studied in the mitral position in a sheep model. The results showed that limited tissue ingrowth occurred, and Ca deposits tended to stiffen the fabric leaflets after a two-month implantation period, which was not compatible with the survival of the animal. The initial results obtained with this non-coated polyester textile valve confirmed that this revolutionary fabric is worthy of further investigation.

  3. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s) (United States)


    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care...

  4. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area. (United States)


    ... applicable. (e) Consideration of decommissioning. The surface facility shall be designed to facilitate... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area. 60.132 Section 60.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  5. Design and Implementation of a Database Management System to Support Administrative Activities Onboard Hellenic Navy Vessels (United States)


    well SPAS testing strategy will be discussed at this point. 1. Paradox Testing Paradox is designed to allow the developer to conduct tesiing through...34 St Deartmend Nate Grado 0m 1 L9 Offence # 2amaonAl M #’ 0. Name 10. Dale Apology IPunishment IStart Date IEnd Date IReporting Officer Disciplinary

  6. Design of universal cancer vaccines using natural tumor vessel-specific antigens (SANTAVAC). (United States)

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E


    Vaccination against endothelial cells (ECs) lining the tumor vasculature represents one of the most attractive potential cancer immunotherapy options due to its ability to prevent solid tumor growth. Using this approach, target antigens can be derived from ECs and used to develop a universal cancer vaccine. Unfortunately, direct immunization with EC preparations can elicit autoimmune vasculitis in normal tissues. Recently, tumor-induced changes to the human EC surface were described that provided a basis for designing efficient EC-based vaccines capable of eliciting immune responses that targeted the tumor endothelium directly. This review examines these data from the perspective of designing EC-based cancer vaccines for the treatment of all solid tumors, including the antigen composition of vaccine formulations, the selection ECs for antigen derivation, the production and control of antigens, and the method for estimating vaccine efficacy and safety. As the vaccine preparation requires a specifically derived set of natural cell surface antigens, a new vaccine preparation concept was formulated. Antigen compositions prepared according to this concept were named SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer).

  7. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria. Topical report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  8. A Review of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods Applied to the Sustainable Bridge Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Penadés-Plà


    Full Text Available The construction of bridges has been necessary for societies since ancient times, when the communication between and within towns, cities or communities was established. Until recently, the economic factor has been the only one considered in the decision-making of any type of construction process for bridges. However, nowadays, the objective should not be just the construction of bridges, but of sustainable bridges. Economic, social and environmental factors, which form the three pillars of sustainability, have been recently added. These three factors usually have conflicting perspectives. The decision-making process allows the conversion of a judgment into a rational procedure to reach a compromise solution. The aim of this paper is to review different methods and sustainable criteria used for decision-making at each life-cycle phase of a bridge, from design to recycling or demolition. This paper examines 77 journal articles for which different methods have been used. The most used methods are briefly described. In addition, a statistical study was carried out on the Multiple Attribute Decision-making papers reviewed.

  9. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations (United States)

    Raichel, Daniel R.


    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  10. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis. (United States)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter


    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential <480 mV in alkaline pH possess the best chance to achieve 100 % oxygen/hydrogen selectivity. NiFe layered double hydroxide is shown to satisfy this criterion at pH 13 in seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Insulation for Machines Having a High Lifespan Expectancy, Design, Tests and Acceptance Criteria Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Barré


    Full Text Available The windings insulation of electrical machines will remain a topic that is updated frequently. The criteria severity requested by the electrical machine applications increases continuously. Manufacturers and designers are always confronted with new requirements or new criteria with enhanced performances. The most problematic requirements that will be investigated here are the extremely long lifespan coupled to critical operating conditions (overload, supply grid instabilities, and critical operating environments. Increasing lifespan does not have a considerable benefit because the purchasing price of usual machines has to be compared to the purchasing price and maintenance price of long lifespan machines. A machine having a 40-year lifespan will cost more than twice the usual price of a 20-year lifetime machine. Systems which need a long lifetime are systems which are crucial for a country, and those for which outage costs are exorbitant. Nuclear power stations are such systems. It is certain that the used technologies have evolved since the first nuclear power plant, but they cannot evolve as quickly as in other sectors of activities. No-one wants to use an immature technology in such power plants. Even if the electrical machines have exceeded 100 years of age, their improvements are linked to a patient and continuous work. Nowadays, the windings insulation systems have a well-established structure, especially high voltage windings. Unfortunately, a high life span is not only linked to this result. Several manufacturers’ improvements induced by many years of experiment have led to the writing of standards that help the customers and the manufacturers to regularly enhance the insulation specifications or qualifications. Hence, in this publication, the authors will give a step by step exhaustive review of one insulation layout and will take time to give a detailed report on the standards that are linked to insulation systems. No standard can

  12. A new stent design with multiple radio-opaque markers for protection of side-branch vessels in bifurcation lesions: HJ stents. (United States)

    Hong, Myeong-Ki; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo


    Loss of side-branch vessels is a serious complication following stent implantation in parent vessels of bifurcation lesions. The purpose of this study was to introduce and test a new stent design for the protection of side-branch vessels in the management of bifurcation lesions. This stent has multiple radio-opaque markers in its central portion, whose presence is useful in avoiding stent-strut placement across the side-branch orifice and in correctly directing the insertion of a second guide wire through the struts into the side branch to minimize jailing of side branches during stent deployment in the parent vessel. In vitro tests of the acrylic resin bifurcation phantom model were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the catheterization laboratory with 10 stents with multiple radio-opaque markers and 10 stents without. Kissing balloon angioplasty was performed across the side branch after stent implantation in the parent vessel in both groups. Side-branch jailing by the stent (presence of any stent struts crossing the side-branch orifice) was determined visually and compared between the two groups. The jailed side branch with the stent struts was observed in one of 10 new stents and in five of 10 conventional stents without them. The in vitro tests demonstrated the superiority of a new stent design for the reduction of side-branch jailing in bifurcation lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiology information systems, picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology--overview and design criteria. (United States)

    Roberson, G H; Shieh, Y Y


    Information technology (IT), long taken for granted in commercial settings, is now being utilized for health-care applications. Medical imaging has lagged comparatively due to the extremely vast data content of each frame; thus, the requirement for expensive high-end components. Further, IT in radiology has evolved from two distinctly separate camps--information systems, known as RIS (radiology information systems) and PACS (picture archiving and communications systems). Both RIS and PACS applications have migrated to the PC environment, enabling cost-effective implementation, but from two backgrounds: RIS from vendors using conventional information systems platforms and products, and PACS from radiographic film and modality vendors. The radiology department at Texas Tech University has assembled a seamlessly integrated, enterprise-wide RIS/PACS/teleradiology intranet. The design criteria include user-friendliness, flexibility to respond to changing needs, and open modular architecture to assure interoperability, cost-effectiveness, and future-proofing of investment. Since no single venor could provide an integrated system meeting our specifications, we decided to assume the burden of constructing our own system. As the system integrator, we embrace open architecture, thus enabling the incorporation of industry-standard-compliant, COTS (commercially off the shelf) products as modules. Microsoft Windows NT operating system, Visual C++ programming language, TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internetworking protocol), relational SQL (structured query language) database, ODBC (open database connectivity), HL-7 (health level seven) and DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) interfaces are utilized. The usage of COTS components reduces the cost to very affordable levels. With this approach, any module in our system can be replaced when outmoded, without affecting other modules in our system, making it truly future-proof. Construction and evolution of

  14. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine


    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  15. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yongbo [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)


    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  16. 41 CFR 102-81.25 - Do the Interagency Security Committee Security Design Criteria apply to all new Federally owned... (United States)


    ... facilities such as those classified by the Department of Justice Vulnerability Assessment Study as Level V... Security Committee Security Design Criteria apply to all new Federally owned and leased facilities? 102-81... System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.25 Do the...

  17. Safe design of cooled tubular reactors for exothermic, multiple reactions; parallel reactions—I: Development of criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Ptasiński, K.J.


    Previously reported design criteria for cooled tubular reactors are based on the prevention of reactor temperature run away and were developed for single reactions only. In this paper it is argued that such criteri a should be based on the reactor selectivity, from which eventually a maximum

  18. The Legal Design of Sustainability Criteria on Biofuels Used by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe


    This article describes the legal power of the European Union - and the use of this power - to promote the sustainable use of biofuels by formally binding criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive. The use of the criteria has the twofold goal of making it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions...... caused by the use of fuels and to prevent the conversion of land characterized by high carbon stock and high biodiversity for biofuel production....

  19. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y


    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  20. Evaluation criteria on the design for assimilating remote sensing data using variational approaches (United States)

    Lu, Sha; Heemink, Arnold; Lin, Hai Xiang; Segers, Arjo; Fu, Guangliang


    Remote sensing, as a powerful tool for monitoring atmospheric phenomena, has been playing an increasingly important role in inverse modeling. Remote sensing instruments measure quantities that combine several state variables. This creates correlations between the state variables which share the same observation variable. Sometimes strong Sensor-Induced Artificial (SIA) correlations are introduced between physically unrelated states or parameters. This may cause numerical problems resulting in a low convergence rate or inaccurate estimates in gradient-based variational assimilation. In this work, two criteria or scoring rules are proposed to quantify the effectiveness of assimilating a specific set of remote sensing observations and to quantify the reliability of the estimates of the parameters. The criteria are derived by analyzing how the SIA correlations are created via shared observation data and how they influence the process of variational data assimilation. Experimental tests are conducted and show a good agreement with theory. The results illustrate the capability of the criteria to indicate the reliability of the assimilation process. Both criteria can be used as prejudge before the assimilation methodology is implemented.

  1. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals. (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Koenig, William; Bosson, Nichole; Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey L; Mack, William J; Sanossian, Nerses


    Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Each county's local emergency medical services agency (LEMSA) was queried for the presence of a stroke routing protocol. We reviewed these protocols for method of stroke identification and criteria for patient transport to a stroke center. Thirty-three LEMSAs serve 58 counties in California with populations ranging from 1,175 to nearly 10 million. Fifteen LEMSAs (45%) had stroke routing protocols, covering 23 counties (40%) and 68% of the state population. Counties with protocols had higher population density (1,500 vs. 140 persons per square mile). In the six counties without designated stroke centers, patients meeting criteria were transported out of county. Stroke identification in the field was achieved using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Screen in 72%, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen in 7% and a county-specific protocol in 22%. California EMS prehospital acute stroke routing protocols cover 68% of the state population and vary in characteristics including activation by symptom onset time and destination facility features, reflecting matching of system design to local geographic resources.

  2. Vasculite cutânea de pequenos vasos: etiologia, patogênese, classificação e critérios diagnósticos - Parte I Small vessel cutaneous vasculitis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification and diagnostic criteria - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Roberto Clivati Brandt


    Full Text Available Vasculite é a inflamação da parede dos vasos. Pode variar em gravidade desde doença autolimitada de um único órgão até doença grave com risco de morte por falência de múltiplos órgãos. Existem várias causas, embora só se apresente por poucos padrões histológicos de inflamação vascular. Vasos de qualquer tipo e em qualquer órgão podem ser afetados, resultando em ampla variedade de sinais e sintomas. Diferentes vasculites com apresentações clínicas indistinguíveis têm evolução e tratamento muito diferentes. Essa condição representa desafio para o médico, incluindo classificação, diagnóstico, exames laboratoriais pertinentes, tratamento e seguimento adequado. Neste artigo são revistos a classificação, a etiologia, a patogênese e os critérios diagnósticos das vasculites cutâneas.Vasculitis is an inflammation of vessel walls. It may range in severity from a self-limited disorder in one single organ to a life-threatening disease due to multiple-organ failure. It has many causes, although they result in only a few histological patterns of vascular inflammation. Vessels of any type in any organ can be affected, a fact that results in a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Different vasculitides with indistinguishable clinical presentations have very different prognosis and treatments. This condition presents many challenges to physicians in terms of classification, diagnosis, appropriate laboratory workup, treatment, and the need for careful follow-up. This article reviews the classification, etiology, pathology and diagnostic criteria of cutaneous vasculitis.

  3. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang


    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  4. Will the alphabet soup of design criteria affect discrete choice experiment results?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen


    Every discrete choice experiment needs one, but the impacts of a statistical design on the results are still not well understood. Comparative studies have found that efficient designs outperform especially orthogonal designs. What has been little studied is whether efficient designs come at a cos...

  5. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.


    ratio. While these two studies produced boundaries for acceptable/unacceptable stick dynamics for rotorcraft, they were not able to provide guidance on how variations of the stick dynamics in the acceptable region impact handling qualities. More recently, a ground based simulation study [5] suggested little benefit was to be obtained from variations of the damping ratio for a side-stick controller exhibiting high natural frequencies (greater than 17 rad/s) and damping ratios (greater than 2.0). A flight test campaign was conducted concurrently on the RASCAL JUH-60A in-flight simulator and the ACT/FHS EC-135 in flight simulator [6]. Upon detailed analysis of the pilot evaluations the study identified a clear preference for a high damping ratio and natural frequency of the center stick inceptors. Side stick controllers were found to be less sensitive to the damping. While these studies have compiled a substantial amount of data, in the form of qualitative and quantitative pilot opinion, a fundamental analysis of the effect of the inceptor force-feel system on flight control is found to be lacking. The study of Ref. [6] specifically concluded that a systematic analysis was necessary, since discrepancies with the assigned handling qualities showed that proposed analytical design metrics, or criteria, were not suitable. The overall goal of the present study is to develop a clearer fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with the inceptor dynamics that govern the handling qualities using a manageable analytical methodology.

  6. Functional design criteria for the 242-A evaporator and PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction) Plant condensate interim retention basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejka, C.C.


    This document contains the functional design criteria for a 26- million-gallon retention basin and 10 million gallons of temporary storage tanks. The basin and tanks will be used to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process distillate discharge stream, and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate stream. Completion of the project will allow both the 242-A Evaporator and the PUREX Plant to restart. 4 refs.

  7. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, N.


    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  8. Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns for Intelligent Sensors—Knowledge Engineering-Based Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas


    Full Text Available Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408 can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems in high risk environments. The paper presents the background and results of the previous research on patterns-based security specifications and introduces a new ontological approach. The elaborated ontology and knowledge base were validated on the IT security development process dealing with the sensor example. The contribution of the paper concerns the application of the knowledge engineering methodology to the previously developed Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for intelligent sensor security development. The issue presented in the paper has a broader significance in terms that it can solve information security problems in many application domains.

  9. In-vessel inspection before head removal: TMI II, Phase III (tooling and systems design and verification)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, G S; Ryan, R F; Pieleck, A W; Bibb, H Q


    Under EG and G contract K-9003 to General Public Utilities Corporation, a Task Order was assigned to Babcock and Wilcox to develop and provide equipment to facilitate early assessment of core damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. Described is the work performed, the equipment developed, and the tests conducted with this equipment on various mockups used to simulate the constraints inside and outside the reactor vessel that affect the performance of the inspection. The tooling developed provides several methods of removing a few control rod drive leadscrews from the reactor, thereby providing paths into which cameras and lights may be inserted to permit video viewing of many potentially damaged areas in the reactor vessel. The tools, equipment, and cameras demonstrated that these tasks could be accomplished.

  10. Satellite formation design in orbits of high eccentricity for missions with performance criteria specified over a region of interest (United States)

    Roscoe, Christopher William Thomas

    Several methods are presented for the design of satellite formations for science missions in high-eccentricity reference orbits with quantifiable performance criteria specified throughout only a portion the orbit, called the Region of Interest (RoI). A modified form of the traditional average along-track drift minimization condition is introduced to account for the fact that performance criteria are only specified within the RoI, and a robust formation design algorithm (FDA) is defined to improve performance in the presence of formation initialization errors. Initial differential mean orbital elements are taken as the design variables and the Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix (G-A STM) is used for relative motion propagation. Using mean elements and the G-A STM allows for explicit inclusion of J2 perturbation effects in the design process. The methods are applied to the complete formation design problem of the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and results are verified using the NASA General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). Since satellite formations in high-eccentricity orbits will spend long times at high altitude, third-body perturbations are an important design consideration as well. A detailed analytical analysis of third-body perturbation effects on satellite formations is also performed and averaged dynamics are derived for the particular case of the lunar perturbation. Numerical results of the lunar perturbation analysis are obtained for the example application of the MMS mission and verified in GMAT.

  11. Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns—Validation on the Intelligent Sensor Example Designed for Mine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the security issues of intelligent sensors that are able to measure and process data and communicate with other information technology (IT devices or systems. Such sensors are often used in high risk applications. To improve their robustness, the sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way to provide them with assurance. One of assurance creation methodologies is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408, used for IT products and systems. The contribution of the paper is a Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for the intelligent sensors security development. The paper concisely presents this method and its evaluation for the sensor detecting methane in a mine, focusing on the security problem of the intelligent sensor definition and solution. The aim of the validation is to evaluate and improve the introduced method.

  12. Design Criteria for Hierarchical Exclusive Code with Parameter-Invariant Decision Regions for Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Uricar


    Full Text Available The unavoidable parametrization of the wireless link represents a major problem of the network-coded modulation synthesis in a 2-way relay channel. Composite (hierarchical codeword received at the relay is generally parametrized by the channel gain, forcing any processing on the relay to be dependent on channel parameters. In this paper, we introduce the codebook design criteria, which ensure that all permissible hierarchical codewords have decision regions invariant to the channel parameters (as seen by the relay. We utilize the criterion for parameter-invariant constellation space boundary to obtain the codebooks with channel parameter-invariant decision regions at the relay. Since the requirements on such codebooks are relatively strict, the construction of higher-order codebooks will require a slightly simplified design criteria. We will show that the construction algorithm based on these relaxed criteria provides a feasible way to the design of codebooks with arbitrary cardinality. The promising performance benefits of the example codebooks (compared to a classical linear modulation alphabets will be exemplified on the minimum distance analysis.

  13. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 23 - Simplified Design Load Criteria (United States)


    ... that contains any of the following design features: (1) Canard, tandem-wing, close-coupled, or tailless... quarter-chord), delta planforms, or slatted lifting surfaces; or (5) Winglets or other wing tip devices... component of this wing load must be considered. (2) Minimum design airspeeds. The minimum design airspeeds...

  15. Optimum design criteria for a synchronous reluctance motor with concentrated winding using response surface methodology (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Seong-June; Jeon, Su-Jin


    This paper presents an optimization procedure using response surface methodology (RSM) to determine design parameters for reducing torque ripple. The RSM has been achieved to use the experimental design method in combination with finite element method and well adapted to make analytical model for a complex problem considering a lot of interaction of design variables.

  16. EDS V26 Containment Vessel Explosive Qualification Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haroldsen, Brent L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stofleth, Jerome H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of the test was to qualify the vessel for its intended use by subjecting it to a 1.25 times overtest. The criteria for success are that the measured strains do not exceed the calculated strains from the vessel analysis, there is no significant additional plastic strain on subsequent tests at the rated design load (shakedown), and there is no significant damage to the vessel and attached hardware that affect form, fit, or function. Testing of the V25 Vessel in 2011 established a precedent for testing V26 [2]. As with V25, two tests were performed to satisfy this objective. The first test used 9 pounds of Composition C-4 (11.25 lbs. TNT-equivalent), which is 125 percent of the design basis load. The second test used 7.2 pounds of Composition C-4 (9 lbs. TNT-equivalent) which is 100 percent of the design basis load. The first test provided the required overtest while the second test served to demonstrate shakedown and the absence of additional plastic deformation. Unlike the V25 vessel, which was mounted in a shipping cradle during testing, the V26 vessel was mounted on the EDS P2U3 trailer prior to testing. Visual inspections of the EDS vessel, surroundings, and diagnostics were completed before and after each test event. This visual inspection included analyzing the seals, fittings, and interior surfaces of the EDS vessel and documenting any abnormalities or damages. Photographs were used to visually document vessel conditions and findings before and after each test event.

  17. Engineering and Design: Revision of Thrust Block Criteria in TM 5-813-5/AFM 88-10, Vol 5 Appendix C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Richard


    The purpose of this ETL is to provide design engineers with criteria that will be used in preparing designs and project specifications for construction of thrust blocks for underground water and waste...

  18. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Automotive Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Corum, James [ORNL; Klett, Lynn B [ORNL; Davenport, Mike [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Simpson, Jr., William A [ORNL


    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?/90?/+45?/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53% (60%, by weight). The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  19. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.


    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  20. Experience of analyzing legislative and scientific components while choosing the assessment criteria in open competitions on design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetova Anna Yur'evna


    Full Text Available This research study defines the right of the customer to carry out public procurement for design objects of capital construction in the form of open competition, offers the comparative analysis of the evaluation criteria based on the old and the new legislative framework for public procurement. It was assumed, there in the legislation is no clear conceptual framework governing the selection of the evaluation criteria, the same as a method for improving the selection criteria for the assessment of the State order for the design. The process of public procurement in the Russian Federation beginning from 01.01.2014 g. is regulated by the federal law no. 44-FZ from 05.04.2013 “On the contract system in the procurement of goods, works and services for public and municipal needs” (hereinafter - the Law of the contract system. Open competition remains the most carefully prepared and developed of all the procedures for procurement. However, in practice the customers continued to violate the normative and legal regulation of public procurement. One of the most troublesome aspects of the Russian legislation is the criteria defined by customers to evaluate the participants who submitted their applications for the contest. Here we would like to note that according to the Law on contract system such criteria as “term of work performance” and “term and volume of providing the guarantee for quality of the works” aren’t subject to an assessment, in comparison with the Law on government procurements existing earlier. However, as scientific researches in the field show, these criteria were very essential and necessary for assessing the applications. The analysis of the past competitions showed that with the criterion “quality of works” the customer, in most cases, doesn’t establish any certain requirements to the participant of purchase. He asks to supply only the so-called offer on quality of works consisting in the detailed description of

  1. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 38 - Guidance on Compliance With Designation Criteria (United States)


    ... necessarily a third-party contractor). Designation Criterion 5 of section 5(b) of the Act: FINANCIAL INTEGRITY... financial integrity of transactions entered into by or through the facilities of the contract market... designated contract market should provide for the financial integrity of transactions by setting appropriate...

  2. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut


    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...

  3. Benders decomposition for discrete material optimization in laminate design with local failure criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munoz, Eduardo; Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.


    selection problems, and their comparison with standard methods of the discrete material optimization field. We aim to find global optimum designs, with respect to a certain convergence tolerance. We also aim to assess the possible impact in the design and manufacture process of laminated composite......We study the problem of designing a minimum compliance (or weight) composite laminate. The optimization is made by selecting, out of a set of candidate materials, the materials that will be used in the building process of a laminated structure. The material candidate set is given as data...... of the design problem, and are represented by the stress-strain relationship for each material. For example, consider an orthotropic material which can be oriented in four different angles (0, +/-45, and 90 degrees), then we must consider it as four different materials. This setting can be naturally applied...

  4. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. (United States)


    ... to monitor and control the behavior of systems important to safety, assuming occurrence of design basis events. (j) Compliance with mining regulations. To the extent that DOE is not subject to the...

  5. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan


    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  6. Use of SLICC criteria in a large, diverse lupus registry enables SLE classification of a subset of ACR-designated subjects with incomplete lupus. (United States)

    Aberle, Teresa; Bourn, Rebecka L; Chen, Hua; Roberts, Virginia C; Guthridge, Joel M; Bean, Krista; Robertson, Julie M; Sivils, Kathy L; Rasmussen, Astrid; Liles, Meghan; Merrill, Joan T; Harley, John B; Olsen, Nancy J; Karp, David R; James, Judith A


    SLE is traditionally classified using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) recently validated an alternative system. This study examined large cohorts of subjects with SLE and incomplete lupus erythematosus (ILE) to compare the impact of ACR and SLICC criteria. Medical records of subjects in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository were reviewed for documentation of 1997 ACR classification criteria, SLICC classification criteria and medication usage. Autoantibodies were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (ANA, antidouble-stranded DNA), precipitin (Sm) and ELISA (anticardiolipin). Other relevant autoantibodies were detected by precipitin and with a bead-based multiplex assay. Of 3575 subjects classified with SLE under at least one system, 3312 (92.6%) were classified as SLE by both systems (SLE(both)), 85 only by ACR criteria (SLE(ACR-only)) and 178 only by SLICC criteria (SLE(SLICC-only)). Of 440 subjects meeting 3 ACR criteria, 33.9% (149/440) were SLE(SLICC-only), while 66.1% (n=291, designated ILE) did not meet the SLICC classification criteria. Under the SLICC system, the complement criterion and the individual autoantibody criteria enabled SLE classification of SLE(SLICC-only) subjects, while SLE(ACR-only) subjects failed to meet SLICC classification due to the combined acute/subacute cutaneous criterion. The SLICC criteria classified more African-American subjects by the leucopenia/lymphopenia criterion than did ACR criteria. Compared with SLE(ACR-only) subjects, SLE(SLICC-only) subjects exhibited similar numbers of affected organ systems, rates of major organ system involvement (∼30%: pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, neurological) and medication history. The SLICC criteria classify more subjects with SLE than ACR criteria; however, individuals with incomplete lupus still exist under SLICC criteria. Subjects who gain SLE classification through SLICC criteria exhibit

  7. Design criteria for XeF2 enabled deterministic transformation of bulk silicon (100) into flexible silicon layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.


    Isotropic etching of bulk silicon (100) using Xenon Difluoride (XeF2) gas presents a unique opportunity to undercut and release ultra-thin flexible silicon layers with pre-fabricated state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. In this work, we present design criteria and mechanism with a comprehensive mathematical model for this method. We consider various trench geometries and parametrize important metrics such as etch time, number of cycles and area efficiency in terms of the trench diameter and spacing so that optimization can be done for specific applications. From our theoretical analysis, we conclude that a honeycomb-inspired hexagonal distribution of trenches can produce the most efficient release of ultra-thin flexible silicon layers in terms of the number of etch cycles, while a rectangular distribution of circular trenches provides the most area efficient design. The theoretical results are verified by fabricating and releasing (varying sizes) flexible silicon layers. We observe uniform translation of design criteria into practice for etch distances and number of etch cycles, using reaction efficiency as a fitting parameter.

  8. Design of coordinated energy and environmental policies: use of multi-criteria decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, L.A. [Oso Energy and Environmental Economics, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bernow, S. [Tellus Institute Inc., Boston, MA (United States)


    Conventional economic modeling tools that depend upon one criterion to select among possible alternatives for inclusion in an energy or environmental policy have limitations. Formulation of both sets of policies involves large numbers of stakeholders with differing views and preferences. Those views and preferences cannot always be determined in advance or with certainty since many of the attributes of these policy alternatives are non-market valued. The use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in an integrated assessment (IA) framework offers a far better alternative to cost/benefit and similar methods. To facilitate understanding of MCDM methods, we offer a typology for this broad class o models, suggest some of the types of problems that may be analyzed with these methods, and recommend the implementation of several MCDM methods in currently evolving IA frameworks. Depending upon the choice of method from this family of methods, a wide range of attributes associated with multi-pollutant reduction and energy system development strategies, and a diversity of stakeholder preferences may be incorporated into the analysis. The resulting policy space can then provide a basis for comparison and selection of policy alternatives in a political or negotiated process. (author)

  9. Biomechanics of postoperative shoes: plantar pressure distribution, wearing characteristics and design criteria: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Schuh, Reinhard; Trnka, Hans-Joerg; Sabo, Anton; Reichel, Martin; Kristen, Karl-Heinz


    Modern concepts in the postoperative treatment of first metatarsal osteotomies include special shoes that should decrease stress in the forefoot region. The purpose of this study was to determine plantar pressure distribution, wearing characteristics and stress-reducing effectiveness of five different types of commonly used postoperative shoes. Additionally, we wanted to modify the shoe that revealed the most favourable results in a way that improves forefoot relief as well as provides comfort to the patients. Eight persons consented to participate in the study. Plantar pressure distribution in five different types of postoperative shoes (Rathgeber(®) normal, Rathgeber(®) modified, 4. Darco(®) flat, Darco(®) VFE, Wocker(®)) was assessed using Mediologic(®) insoles. Also, subjective criteria considering wearing comfort, stability and rolling characteristics were evaluated. Based on the postoperative shoe revealing the most favourable results, further prototypes were developed. Each new model was targeted to meet the given requirements, minimal forefoot pressure, in a different way. The Rathgeber(®) modified model revealed the most favourable results concerning plantar pressure distribution as well as subjective wearing characteristics. Therefore, it was chosen for further modifications. After adding an extra layer of high elastic and springy material for shock absorption at the hallux region, forefoot relief and wearing characteristics showed improved results. The results of the present study indicate that damping material in the hallux region of postoperative shoes minimises stress in this region and improves patient's comfort.

  10. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper


    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design...... by trial-and-error methods. The use of COMSOL Multiphysics enables the construction of virtual catapults parts, non-linear analysis of structural parts where no analytical solution is known as well the analysis of the surviving designs, with respect to optimal performance. The result from COMSOL...

  11. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  12. Universal Design Criteria in Standards and Codes About Accessibility of Built Environments in Brazil. (United States)

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto


    This paper includes some criticism in analysis of the development and implementation of the national standards for accessibility of the built environment in Brazil, i.e., the NBR9050. Currently, the 2015 version of it resembles an encyclopaedia including a variety of exotic contributions gathered historically from different sources; however, that characteristic makes it work like a puzzle that keeps alive prejudices about users' needs and disabilities. Besides, there are conflicts between recommended ideas and previous requirements from older versions. The definition of Universal Design has been published since 2004, but there is still no indication of how to make the principles work in practice. Therefore, it is very hard for city officials to assess quality of environments, and professionals have serious constraints to explore their skills further while addressing users' diversified needs. Certainly, the current NBR9050 requires further editorial work. Nevertheless, an important decision is necessary: it is important to organize information so that readers may identify in each topic whether Universal Design application can be achieved or whether the proposed technical solution may lead to construction of limited spatial adaptation and reach only some poor accommodation of users with uncommon needs. Presenting some examples in context of socially inclusive environments, the newer revised version of NBR9050 is necessary to explain about pitfalls of bad design of accessibility for discriminated disabled users. Readers should be able to establish conceptual links between the best ideas so that Universal Design could be easily understood.

  13. Small scale green infrastructure design to meet different urban hydrological criteria. (United States)

    Jia, Z; Tang, S; Luo, W; Li, S; Zhou, M


    As small scale green infrastructures, rain gardens have been widely advocated for urban stormwater management in the contemporary low impact development (LID) era. This paper presents a simple method that consists of hydrological models and the matching plots of nomographs to provide an informative and practical tool for rain garden sizing and hydrological evaluation. The proposed method considers design storms, infiltration rates and the runoff contribution area ratio of the rain garden, allowing users to size a rain garden for a specific site with hydrological reference and predict overflow of the rain garden under different storms. The nomographs provide a visual presentation on the sensitivity of different design parameters. Subsequent application of the proposed method to a case study conducted in a sub-humid region in China showed that, the method accurately predicted the design storms for the existing rain garden, the predicted overflows under large storm events were within 13-50% of the measured volumes. The results suggest that the nomographs approach is a practical tool for quick selection or assessment of design options that incorporate key hydrological parameters of rain gardens or other infiltration type green infrastructure. The graphic approach as displayed by the nomographs allow urban planners to demonstrate the hydrological effect of small scale green infrastructure and gain more support for promoting low impact development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of integrated green design strategies in meeting green building criteria: A South Africa Study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available Green Star Office Design v1 9GBCSA 2008 rating tool. The first study was performed on a proposed new building in Groenkloof in Pretoria, while the second study was performed on a proposed new office building in Lynnwood Pretoria. Both buildings...

  15. 9 CFR 381.225 - Criteria and procedure for designating establishments with operations which would clearly... (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... water is used in preparing poultry products for human food); or (iv) It is, in whole or in part, the... of designation of an establishment under this section are subject to retention or detention, and...

  16. The Implications of Alternative Allocation Criteria in Adaptive Design for Panel Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Olena


    Full Text Available Adaptive survey designs can be used to allocate sample elements to alternative data collection protocols in order to achieve a desired balance between some quality measure and survey costs. We compare four alternative methods for allocating sample elements to one of two data collection protocols. The methods differ in terms of the quality measure that they aim to optimize: response rate, R-indicator, coefficient of variation of the participation propensities, or effective sample size. Costs are also compared for a range of sample sizes. The data collection protocols considered are CAPI single-mode and web-CAPI sequential mixed-mode. We use data from a large experiment with random allocation to one of these two protocols. For each allocation method we predict outcomes in terms of several quality measures and costs. Although allocating the whole sample to single-mode CAPI produces a higher response rate than allocating the whole sample to the mixed-mode protocol, we find that two of the targeted allocations achieve a better response rate than single-mode CAPI at a lower cost. We also find that all four of the targeted designs out-perform both single-protocol designs in terms of representativity and effective sample size. For all but the smallest sample sizes, the adaptive designs bring cost savings relative to CAPI-only, though these are fairly modest in magnitude.

  17. Functional design criteria, Project W-059, B Plant Canyon ventilation upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roege, P.E.


    This document outlines the essential functions and requirements to be included in the design of the proposed B Plant canyon exhaust system upgrade. The project will provide a new exhaust air filter system and isolate the old filters from the airstream.

  18. Design and development of a workflow for microbial spray formulations including decision criteria. (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Sauer, Ursula; Preininger, Claudia


    Herein, we present a workflow for the development of talc-based microbial inoculants for foliar spray consisting of four steps. These include together with decision-making criteria (1) the selection of additives based on their capability to wet juvenile maize leaves, (2) their adhesion on the plant, (3) their interaction with the biological systems, and (4) the choice of thickener for good dispersion stability. In total, 29 additives including polysaccharides and proteins, polyols, glycosides, oils, waxes, and surfactants (e.g., chitosan, gelatin, glycerol, saponin, castor oil, polyethylene, rhamnolipid) were evaluated. Contact angle and spreading index measurements revealed that the use of 5% Geloil, 1% rhamnolipid, or suitable combinations of Geloil + rhamnolipid and Nurture Yield S 2002 + rhamnolipid enhanced wetting of hydrophobic maize leaves and adherence, similarly to the commercial wetting agents recommended for plant protection 1% Prev B2 and 1% Trifolio S Forte. Interaction of additives with biological systems was based on biocompatibility and phytotoxicity assays, and cell viability monitoring using the endophytic Gram-negative bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Results from biocompatibility assays indicated that in contrast to rhamnolipid and Prev B2 Geloil, Nurture Yield S 2002 and Trifolio S Forte fully supported bacterial growth within a concentration range of 1 to 5%. Dose-dependent phytotoxicity was observed in plants treated with rhamnolipid. Most efficient formulation was composed of PsJN, talc, xanthan, and Geloil. Beyond that, the proposed workflow is expected to generally provide guidance for the development of spray formulations and help other researchers to optimize their choices in this area.

  19. Solving the Problem of Multiple-Criteria Building Design Decisions with respect to the Fire Safety of Occupants: An Approach Based on Probabilistic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rytas Vaidogas


    Full Text Available The design of buildings may include a comparison of alternative architectural and structural solutions. They can be developed at different levels of design process. The alternative design solutions are compared and ranked by applying methods of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. Each design is characterised by a number of criteria used in a MCDM problem. The paper discusses how to choose MCDM criteria expressing fire safety related to alternative designs. Probability of a successful evacuation of occupants from a building fire and difference between evacuation time and time to untenable conditions are suggested as the most important criteria related to fire safety. These two criteria are treated as uncertain quantities expressed by probability distributions. Monte Carlo simulation of fire and evacuation processes is natural means for an estimation of these distributions. The presence of uncertain criteria requires applying stochastic MCDM methods for ranking alternative designs. An application of the safety-related criteria is illustrated by an example which analyses three alternative architectural floor plans prepared for a reconstruction of a medical building. A MCDM method based on stochastic simulation is used to solve the example problem.

  20. Incorporation of environmental impact criteria in the design and operation of chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Bauer


    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start-up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment.

  1. Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy multi-criteria model for design concept selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Osezua Aikhuele


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for design concept selection by using an integrated Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP and an Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy modified TOP-SIS (IVIF-modified TOPSIS model. The integrated model which uses the improved score func-tion and a weighted normalized Euclidean distance method for the calculation of the separation measures of alternatives from the positive and negative intuitionistic ideal solutions provides a new approach for the computation of intuitionistic fuzzy ideal solutions. The results of the two approaches are integrated using a reflection defuzzification integration formula. To ensure the feasibility and the rationality of the integrated model, the method is successfully applied for eval-uating and selecting some design related problems including a real-life case study for the selec-tion of the best concept design for a new printed-circuit-board (PCB and for a hypothetical ex-ample. The model which provides a novel alternative, has been compared with similar computa-tional methods in the literature.

  2. A Fiber-Optic Probe Design for Combustion Chamber Flame Detection Applications-Design Criteria, Performance Specifications, and Fabrication Technique (United States)

    Borg, Stephen E.; Harper, Samuel E.


    This paper documents the design and development of the fiber-optic probes utilized in the flame detection systems used in NASA Langley Research Center's 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8-ft HTT). Two independent flame detection systems are utilized to monitor the presence and stability of the main-burner and pilot-level flames during facility operation. Due to the harsh environment within the combustor, the successful development of a rugged and efficient fiber-optic probe was a critical milestone in the development of these flame detection systems. The final optical probe design for the two flame detection systems resulted from research that was conducted in Langley's 7-in High Temperature Pilot Tunnel (7-in HTT). A detailed description of the manufacturing process behind the optical probes used in the 8-ft HTT is provided in Appendix A of this report.

  3. Criteria for effective design, construction, and gene knockdown by shRNA vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lich John D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi technology is a powerful methodology recently developed for the specific knockdown of targeted genes. RNAi is most commonly achieved either transiently by transfection of small interfering (si RNA oligonucleotides, or stably using short hairpin (sh RNA expressed from a DNA vector or virus. Much controversy has surrounded the development of rules for the design of effective siRNA oligonucleotides; and whether these rules apply to shRNA is not well characterized. Results To determine whether published algorithms for siRNA oligonucleotide design apply to shRNA, we constructed 27 shRNAs from 11 human genes expressed stably using retroviral vectors. We demonstrate an efficient method for preparing wild-type and mutant control shRNA vectors simultaneously using oligonucleotide hybrids. We show that sequencing through shRNA vectors can be problematic due to the intrinsic secondary structure of the hairpin, and we determine a strategy for effective sequencing by using a combination of modified BigDye chemistries and DNA relaxing agents. The efficacy of knockdown for the 27 shRNA vectors was evaluated against six published algorithms for siRNA oligonucleotide design. Our results show that none of the scoring algorithms can explain a significant percentage of variance in shRNA knockdown efficacy as assessed by linear regression analysis or ROC curve analysis. Application of a modification based on the stability of the 6 central bases of each shRNA provides fair-to-good predictions of knockdown efficacy for three of the algorithms. Analysis of an independent set of data from 38 shRNAs pooled from previous publications confirms these findings. Conclusion The use of mixed oligonucleotide pairs provides a time and cost efficient method of producing wild type and mutant control shRNA vectors. The addition to sequencing reactions of a combination of mixed dITP/dGTP chemistries and DNA relaxing agents enables read

  4. Evaluating lung cancer screening in China: Implications for eligibility criteria design from a microsimulation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre F Sheehan

    Full Text Available More than half of males in China are current smokers and evidence from western countries tells us that an unprecedented number of smoking-attributable deaths will occur as the Chinese population ages. We used the China Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM to simulate effects of computed tomography (CT-based lung cancer screening in China, comparing the impact of a screening guideline published in 2015 by a Chinese expert group to a version developed for the United States by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS. The China LCPM, built using an existing lung cancer microsimulation model, can project population outcomes associated with interventions for smoking-related diseases. After calibrating the model to published Chinese smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality rates, we simulated screening from 2016 to 2050 based on eligibility criteria from the CMS and Chinese guidelines, which differ by age to begin and end screening, pack-years smoked, and years since quitting. Outcomes included number of screens, mortality reduction, and life-years saved for each strategy. We projected that in the absence of screening, 14.98 million lung cancer deaths would occur between 2016 and 2050. Screening with the CMS guideline would prevent 0.72 million deaths and 5.8 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.58% and 1.97% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Screening with the Chinese guideline would prevent 0.74 million deaths and 6.6 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.30% and 2.79% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Through 2050, 1.43 billion screens would be required using the Chinese screening strategy, compared to 988 million screens using the CMS guideline. In conclusion, CT-based lung cancer screening implemented in 2016 and based on the Chinese screening guideline would prevent about 20,000 (2.9% more lung cancer deaths through 2050, but would require about 445 million (44.7% more screens than the

  5. Evaluating lung cancer screening in China: Implications for eligibility criteria design from a microsimulation modeling approach (United States)

    Sheehan, Deirdre F.; Criss, Steven D.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Pandharipande, Pari V.


    More than half of males in China are current smokers and evidence from western countries tells us that an unprecedented number of smoking-attributable deaths will occur as the Chinese population ages. We used the China Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM) to simulate effects of computed tomography (CT)-based lung cancer screening in China, comparing the impact of a screening guideline published in 2015 by a Chinese expert group to a version developed for the United States by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). The China LCPM, built using an existing lung cancer microsimulation model, can project population outcomes associated with interventions for smoking-related diseases. After calibrating the model to published Chinese smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality rates, we simulated screening from 2016 to 2050 based on eligibility criteria from the CMS and Chinese guidelines, which differ by age to begin and end screening, pack-years smoked, and years since quitting. Outcomes included number of screens, mortality reduction, and life-years saved for each strategy. We projected that in the absence of screening, 14.98 million lung cancer deaths would occur between 2016 and 2050. Screening with the CMS guideline would prevent 0.72 million deaths and 5.8 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.58% and 1.97% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Screening with the Chinese guideline would prevent 0.74 million deaths and 6.6 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.30% and 2.79% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Through 2050, 1.43 billion screens would be required using the Chinese screening strategy, compared to 988 million screens using the CMS guideline. In conclusion, CT-based lung cancer screening implemented in 2016 and based on the Chinese screening guideline would prevent about 20,000 (2.9%) more lung cancer deaths through 2050, but would require about 445 million (44.7%) more screens than the CMS guideline

  6. A multi-criteria optimization technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra Swain


    Full Text Available In this paper, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II technique is applied to obtain Pareto optimal set of solutions pertaining to the tuning of lead-lag structured SSSC-based stabilizer. The design objective is to get maximum damping (performance with minimum control effort (cost. Further a fuzzy based membership function value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution. Simulation results are presented under various loading conditions and disturbances for various control signals to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed design approach are illustrated for both single machine infinite bus and multi-machine power systems by comparing the proposed approach with some recently published single objective and evolutionary multi-objective approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm. It is observed that the proposed approach yields superior damping performance compared to some recently published approaches.

  7. Design and criteria of electrospun fibrous scaffolds for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vigani


    Full Text Available The complex pathophysiology of spinal cord injury may explain the current lack of an effective therapeutic approach for the regeneration of damaged neuronal cells and the recovery of motor functions. Many efforts have been performed to design and develop suitable scaffolds for spinal cord regeneration, keeping in mind that the reconstruction of a pro-regenerative environment is the key challenge for an effective neurogenesis. The aim of this review is to outline the main features of an ideal scaffold, based on biomaterials, produced by the electrospinning technique and intended for the spinal cord regeneration. An overview of the polymers more investigated in the production of neural fibrous scaffolds is also provided.

  8. Design criteria for a multiple input land use system. [digital image processing techniques (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Bryant, N. A.


    A design is presented that proposes the use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remote sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set, and that images taken of thematic maps or from remote sensing platforms can be converted to a raster scan. A major advantage of the raster format is that x, y coordinates are implicitly recognized by their position in the scan, and z values can be treated as Boolean layers in a three-dimensional data space. Such a system permits the rapid incorporation of data sets, rapid comparison of data sets, and adaptation to variable scales by resampling the raster scans.

  9. [Risk-sharing agreements: choice of study design and assessment criteria]. (United States)

    Launois, R; Ethgen, O


    A new taxonomy of market entry agreements (MEA), also known as risk-sharing agreements, was built. It is no longer based on the conventional distinction between outcome performance and financial contracts, proposed by Carlson. Instead, it formulates a clear distinction between monitoring studies and evaluation or impact studies. The nature of the studies implemented within these two categories is fundamentally different: monitoring studies contribute to continuous program performance tracking against expected results and evaluation studies seek to identify the specific effect associated with the treatment while controlling for potential sources of selection bias. In accordance with this framework, differential study designs, indicators and financial clauses were proposed to reduce clinical, economic and budgetary uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Shroud Design Criteria for a Lighter than Air Wind Energy System (United States)

    Samson, J.; Katebi, R.


    Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) is a novel form of wind energy research looking to utilize the greater wind resource at higher altitudes. This paper focuses on a lighter than air system developed by Altaeros Energies. Using two force ratios the relationship between the buoyancy and aerodynamic force is related to the geometric parameters of the shroud. A dependence on a so-called area ratio is also shown relating the shrouds area to the shrouds throat area used as a reference for aerodynamic calculations. This ratio was varied in simulation and was found to have a marked effect on the driving forces over the shroud. Finally, an investigation into whether helium or hydrogen should be used for this application is shown. It is found that the design of the shroud has to be aerodynamically optimized for successful operation and that the choice of which gas to employ becomes one of safety rather than enhanced performance.

  11. Parametric design criteria of an updated thermoradiative cell operating at optimal states (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Peng, Wanli; Lin, Jian; Chen, Xiaohang; Chen, Jincan


    An updated mode of the thermoradiative cell (TRC) with sub-band gap and non-radiative losses is proposed, which can efficiently harvest moderate-temperature heat energy and convert a part of heat into electricity. It is found that when the TRC is operated between the heat source at 800 K and the environment at 300 K , its maximum power output density and efficiency can attain 1490 W m-2 and 27.2 % , respectively. Moreover, the effects of some key parameters including the band gap and voltage output on the performance of the TRC are discussed. The optimally working regions of the power density, efficiency, band gap, and voltage output are determined. The maximum efficiency and power output density of the TRC operated at different temperatures are calculated and compared with those of thermophotovoltaic cells (TPVCs) and thermionic energy converters (TECs), and consequently, it is revealed that the maximum efficiency of the TRC operated at the moderate-temperature range is much higher than that of the TEC or the TPVC and the maximum power output density of the TRC is larger than that of the TEC but smaller than that of the TPVC. Particularly, the TRC is manufactured more easily than the near-field TPVC possessing a nanoscale vacuum gap. The results obtained will be helpful for engineers to choose the semiconductor materials, design and manufacture TRCs, and control operative conditions.

  12. Design criteria for bi-stable behavior in a buckled multi-layered MEMS bridge (United States)

    Michael, Aron; Kwok, Chee Yee


    In this paper, the bi-stability of a buckled multi-layered micro-bridge with elastically constrained boundary conditions is studied theoretically and experimentally. The residual moment due to non-symmetric distribution of residual stress in the layers of the micro-bridge is taken into consideration. The buckled shape model, which characterizes the initial buckled deflection, is employed in this study. A systematic method of designing bi-stable buckled micro-bridges has been developed and applied to multi-layered structures. The method is tested against ANSYS simulation and shown to be in excellent agreement. Two multi-layer micro-bridges have been fabricated: (i) 2.5 µm thick low stress SiO2/1 µm thick high compressive stress SiO2/2 µm thick SCS Si; (ii) 1 µm thick high compressive stress SiO2/2 µm thick SCS Si. The fabricated bridges are tested for bi-stability by thermal actuation and the results agree well with the analysis. The intrinsic bi-stable nature of a buckled micro-bridge can only be guaranteed as long as the residual moment is within a certain threshold value.

  13. Design and Operating Criteria for Fluorine Disposal by Reaction with Charcoal (United States)

    Schmidt, Harold W.


    Experiments with the charcoal-fluorine reaction for the disposal of fluorine have shown generally that this method is effective over a wide range of conditions. Pure fluorine or fluorine diluted with nitrogen to concentrations as low as 0.3 percent fluorine may be disposed of efficiently within the rate limitation. Maximum feed rates have been established and are inversely proportional to the charcoal-bed particle diameter. Moisture content in the charcoal had no appreciable effect on the disposal efficiency after the reaction zone was established and the moisture was driven off by the heat of reaction. There was no evidence of bed poisoning resulting from continued use. Design parameters may be based on the stoichiometric requirements plus sufficient excess charcoal to maintain desired efficiency toward the end of a disposal operation. The length of time a given reactor may be used continuously is limited by the rate of fluorine input and the resistance of the system to heat and fluorine attack. Refractory-lined reactors have been in routine field use at the Lewis Research Center for over a year and have given satisfactory service over a wide range of conditions.

  14. A quality control application in healthcare management using experimental design criteria. (United States)

    Savsar, Mehmet; Al-Ajmi, Moiedh M


    The purpose of this paper is to determine the significant factors that cause delays in surgery operations in a hospital and factors that affect productivity of surgery clinics. Data are collected from surgery clinics of an international hospital to identify main factors that affect delays in surgery operation. A design of experiment is then performed and the significance of the effects of these factors is determined. A regression model was also developed to find a relation between surgery delays and the selected factors. The results show that such factors as the type of doctors and missing information significantly affect the delay in surgery operations as compared with some other factors, such as admission time considered in the study. The models developed and the results obtained in this paper are specific to the application presented. However, the procedures are general and can be applied to similar problems. The results of the study can be used to control important factors to reduce the delays in surgery operations, reduce risks in patient health related to these delays, reduce hospital costs and improve the productivity of these clinics. The paper considers a management problem related to surgery delays which has not been considered before and presents a procedure to study the causes of the problem. It provides a methodology that could be used to study similar problems in health care management systems and to improve these systems by analyzing operations and activities with respect to the factors that affect productivity and efficiency of such operations.

  15. Design criteria applied for the Lower Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydroelectric Project in California (United States)

    Schleiss, A.


    The application of various criteria and certain new approaches to design is illustrated by the example of the Lower Collierville Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydropower Project in California. With a maximum internal water pressure of 72 bar, Lower Collierville Tunnel will be, when commissioned in 1989, the highest stressed pressure tunnel in the world not situated in granitic rocks. The geological conditions and the results of the geotechnical investigations are described briefly. For the steel-lined portion of the tunnel, the approach for determining the bearing capacity of the rock mass and the load sharing between steel and rock is discussed. The required length of steel liner was determined on the basis of rock mechanical (hydraulic jacking) and rock hydraulic (seepage losses and extension of saturated zone due to seepage) criteria. The use of a new theory allows the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interaction to be taken into account. Finally the methods of estimating the expected water losses and the sealing effect of the consolidation grouting are described.

  16. Seismic behavior of buried pipelines constructed by design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US (United States)

    Jeon, S.-S.


    Lifeline damage induced by earthquake loading not only causes structure damage but also communication problems resulting from the interruption of various energy utilities such as electric power, gas, and water resources. Earthquake loss estimation systems in the US, for example HAZUS (Hazard in US), have been established for the purpose of prevention and efficient response to earthquake hazards. Sufficient damage records obtained from earthquakes are required to establish these systems, however, in Korea, insufficient data sets of damage records are currently available. In this study, according to the design criteria and construction specifications of pipelines in Korea and the US, the behavior of both brittle and ductile pipelines embedded in dense sand overlying various in-situ soils, such as clay, sand, and gravel, were examined and compared with respect to the mechanical characteristics of pipelines under various earthquake loadings.

  17. The Non-absoluteness of the Leading Position of the Frequency ——On the Vocabulary Design Criteria of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qinghua


    Full Text Available The design criteria of the vocabulary outline of the second language teaching vary according to the teaching objectives. Under the same objective, the criteria are often more than one. The multiple criteria are sometimes compatible and sometimes conflicting. Through analyzing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the new Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Vocabulary Outline, this paper reveals the interactions between the task objectives, the criterion conditions and processing strategies, as well as the interaction relationships between the multiple criteria features of the vocabulary outline designing process, and then abstracts the general principles and overall rules. The research results subvert the habitual knowledge that the frequency criterion position ranked first, which is always popular at least in the Chinese academic circle. It finds that the leading position of frequency criterion only exists in the criteria compatibility model. In the conflict model of the locutionary criteria, the stylistic criterion and syntactic criterion are strong criteria, while the word frequency criterion relegates to the weak position. In the conflict model of the locutionary and illocutionary criteria, the illocutionary criterion is strong criterion, while the locutionary criterion relegates to the weak position, which indicates that the language can’t be above its purpose of usage. This research is conducive to the improvement of the vocabulary outline. It also has certain practical significance to the disciplinary theories of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Language or even to the whole second language teaching.

  18. Design and deployment of autoclave pressure vessels for the portable deep-sea drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pape


    Full Text Available Pressure barrels for sampling and preservation of submarine sediments under in situ pressure with the robotic sea-floor drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät housed at the MARUM (Bremen, Germany were developed. Deployments of the so-called MDP (MeBo pressure vessel during two offshore expeditions off New Zealand and off Spitsbergen, Norway, resulted in the recovery of sediment cores with pressure stages equaling in situ hydrostatic pressure. While initially designed for the quantification of gas and gas-hydrate contents in submarine sediments, the MDP also allows for analysis of the sediments under in situ pressure with methods typically applied by researchers from other scientific fields (geotechnics, sedimentology, microbiology, etc.. Here we report on the design and operational procedure of the MDP and demonstrate full functionality by presenting the first results from pressure-core degassing and molecular gas analysis.

  19. Recertification of the air and methane storage vessels at the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel (United States)

    Hudson, C. M.; Girouard, R. L.; Young, C. P., Jr.; Petley, D. H.; Hudson, J. L., Jr.; Hudgins, J. L.


    This center operates a number of sophisticated wind tunnels in order to fulfill the needs of its researchers. Compressed air, which is kept in steel storage vessels, is used to power many of these tunnels. Some of these vessels have been in use for many years, and Langley is currently recertifying these vessels to insure their continued structural integrity. One of the first facilities to be recertified under this program was the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel. This recertification involved (1) modification, hydrotesting, and inspection of the vessels; (2) repair of all relevant defects; (3) comparison of the original design of the vessel with the current design criteria of Section 8, Division 2, of the 1974 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code; (4) fracture-mechanics, thermal, and wind-induced vibration analyses of the vessels; and (5) development of operating envelopes and a future inspection plan for the vessels. Following these modifications, analyses, and tests, the vessels were recertified for operation at full design pressure (41.4 MPa (6000 psi)) within the operating envelope developed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mehrdadi , A. A. Azimi , G. R. Nabi Bidhendi, B. Hooshyari


    Full Text Available Advanced compact wastewater treatment processes are being looked for by cities all over the world as effluent standards are becoming more stringent and land available for treatment plants more scarce. In this investigation, a new biofilm process for this purpose was studied. The design and operational criteria of a full scale extended aeration activated sludge system was compared with an H-IFAS reactor which has been operated at a pilot scale. The objective was to define the feasibility of using the H-IFAS (Hybrid Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge reactor for upgrading the existing wastewater treatment plants with conventional processes. The results showed that besides the considerable difference between the organic loading of the two processes, H-IFAS reactor has a very good capability to reduce simultaneously the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. Organic degradation rate in extended aeration and H-IFAS systems were 0.3 and 6.22 kgCOD/ at 23.48°C, respectively. Nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal rate for the H-IFAS reactor were 343.28 g N/, 338.17 gN/, and 204.78gPO4-P/, respectively. At the same conditions, these criteria for extended aeration activated sludge processes were obtained as 75gN/, 28.5 gN/ and 7 gPO4-P/, respectively.

  1. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Interstate System Designations Under 23 U.S.C. 139... (United States)


    ... System Designations Under 23 U.S.C. 139 (a) and (b) A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways...-aid Highway Systems Pt. 470, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Interstate System Designations Under 23 U.S.C. 139 (a) and (b) Section 139...

  2. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 1: establish facility design criteria and utility benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) has been identified as one of the principal new energy storage technologies worthy of further research and development. The CAES system stores mechanical energy in the form of compressed air during off-peak hours, using power supplied by a large, high-efficiency baseload power plant. At times of high electrical demand, the compressed air is drawn from storage and is heated in a combustor by the burning of fuel oil, after which the air is expanded in a turbine. In this manner, essentially all of the turbine output can be applied to the generation of electricity, unlike a conventional gas turbine which expends approximately two-thirds of the turbine shaft power in driving the air compressor. The separation of the compression and generation modes in the CAES system results in increased net generation and greater premium fuel economy. The use of CAES systems to meet the utilities' high electrical demand requirements is particularly attractive in view of the reduced availability of premium fuels such as oil and natural gas. This volume documents the Task 1 work performed in establishing facility design criteria for a CAES system with aquifer storage. Information is included on: determination of initial design bases; preliminary analysis of the CAES system; development of data for site-specific analysis of the CAES system; detailed analysis of the CAES system for three selected heat cycles; CAES power plant design; and an economic analysis of CAES.

  3. Design and fabrication report on instrumented capsule (99M-01K.02H) for korean reactor pressure vessel material made by HANJUNG (Co)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T


    The instrumented capsules (99M-01K{center_dot}02H) was designed and fabricated. The purpose of the capsules were to evaluate the nuclear irradiation performance of the Korean nuclear reactor pressure vessel material, SA508 class 3 steel, fabricated by HANJUNG Co for Yonggwang Units 4,5 and Ulchin Unit 4. There are 5 stages having specimens and independent electric heaters in the capsule mainbody. 12 K-type thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe and sapphire neutron Fluence Monitors were also inserted in the apsule. Various types of specimens, such as round compact tension, Charpy insert, pre-cracked v-notch (PCVN), tensile, small punch (SP), magnetic Barkhausen effect (MBE), and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) specimens, were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was fabricated at DAEWOO Precision Co. according to KAERI detailed design specifications. This report describes the details of the design, fabrication and inspection of the 99M-01K and 99M-02H capsule. The capsules were irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 290{+-}10 deg C up to the fast neutron fluence (E>1.0 MeV) of 3.0x10{sup 19} (n/cm{sup 2})

  4. Concordance between four European centres of PET reporting criteria designed for use in multicentre trials in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrington, Sally F; Qian, Wendi; Somer, Edward J


    To determine if PET reporting criteria for the Response Adapted Treatment in Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL) trial could enable satisfactory agreement to be reached between 'core' laboratories operating in different countries.......To determine if PET reporting criteria for the Response Adapted Treatment in Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL) trial could enable satisfactory agreement to be reached between 'core' laboratories operating in different countries....

  5. 45 CFR 170.306 - Specific certification criteria for Complete EHRs or EHR Modules designed for an inpatient setting. (United States)


    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Certification Criteria for Health Information Technology § 170.306 Specific certification criteria.... Electronically calculate all of the clinical quality measures specified by CMS for eligible hospitals and...

  6. Vessel Operator System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  7. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig


    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  8. Quick opening closure: a brazilian design to pig launching and receiving vessels; Tampa de abertura rapida: um projeto brasileiro para lancadores e recebedores de pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Antonio T. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Originally designed to use at launcher and receiver pig traps on offshore, area, the quick opening closure, presented at this work, it has technical features that assure a singular performance. The safety is assured by the 'vent bleed screw' that stop the blockage mechanism in closed position until it to be totally removed. A limited pressure bleed, give a warning that there is pressure in the vessel. The height quality of the door and external ring grinding surfaces added to the circular block segments system mechanism give a same pressure all over the o'ring surface. This assure the leak proof warranty. The open an close Asca system composed by circular blocks segments more the push pull mechanism actuated by the same davit-screw that lift the door, provide a quick, safety and ease operation. The care at the design and the manufacture quality of the parts prevent grip rings and the door opening operation failure. (author)

  9. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online (United States)

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.


    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  10. Reliability-based econometrics of aerospace structural systems: Design criteria and test options. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech. (United States)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.


    The design criteria and test options for aerospace structural reliability were investigated. A decision methodology was developed for selecting a combination of structural tests and structural design factors. The decision method involves the use of Bayesian statistics and statistical decision theory. Procedures are discussed for obtaining and updating data-based probabilistic strength distributions for aerospace structures when test information is available and for obtaining subjective distributions when data are not available. The techniques used in developing the distributions are explained.

  11. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.


    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Rationale, design and methodology of the image analysis protocol for studies of patients with cerebral small vessel disease and mild stroke. (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Armitage, Paul A; Thrippleton, Michael J; Chappell, Francesca; Sandeman, Elaine; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Shuler, Kirsten; Wardlaw, Joanna M


    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is common in ageing and patients with dementia and stroke. Its manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, small subcortical infarcts, and brain atrophy. Many studies focus only on one of these manifestations. A protocol for the differential assessment of all these features is, therefore, needed. To identify ways of quantifying imaging markers in research of patients with SVD and operationalize the recommendations from the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging guidelines. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methodology of a brain image analysis protocol based on our experience from observational longitudinal studies of patients with nondisabling stroke. The MRI analysis protocol is designed to provide quantitative and qualitative measures of disease evolution including: acute and old stroke lesions, lacunes, tissue loss due to stroke, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, macrohemorrhages, iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantia nigra and brain stem, brain atrophy, and white matter hyperintensities, with the latter separated into intense and less intense. Quantitative measures of tissue integrity such as diffusion fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and the longitudinal relaxation time are assessed in regions of interest manually placed in anatomically and functionally relevant locations, and in others derived from feature extraction pipelines and tissue segmentation methods. Morphological changes that relate to cognitive deficits after stroke, analyzed through shape models of subcortical structures, complete the multiparametric image analysis protocol. Final outcomes include guidance for identifying ways to minimize bias and confounds in the assessment of SVD and stroke imaging biomarkers. It is intended that this information will inform the design of studies to examine the underlying pathophysiology of SVD

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (United States)


    ..., requires a license amendment if: (1) There is a substantial increase in the probability of an ex-vessel...-operated valves. (4) Equipment seismic qualification methods. (5) Piping design acceptance criteria. (6...

  14. Calculating the price of tanks, vessels and process equipment of petrochemical industry second criteria of integrity and survival remaining of API RP 579 (Fitness for service); Calculo do preco de tanques, vasos e equipamentos de processo da industria petroquimica segundo criterios de integridade e sobrevida remanescente do API RP 579 (Fitness for service)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morato, Paulo Cesar Vidal Morato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    By owning many tanks, vessels and process equipment, PETROBRAS has developed the concept of 'Fitness-For-Service' (suitability for use) under the standard API RP 579, i.e. to verify the structural integrity and remaining useful life of equipment in service. In this paper we will discuss how to calculate the remaining useful life of equipment used in accordance with such criteria and with this technical data, calculate the depreciated price. Steps: verification of applicability; surveys of the technical data of the equipment; surveys the minimum thickness of plating equipment over the years; calculation of the average annual rate of corrosion (tc); calculation of the required minimum thickness according to the criteria of API RP 579 (tr); calculation of remaining useful life (nr); calculation of the depreciated price (Vd) equipment. Conclusions: intended for evaluation of tanks price, vessels and process equipment according to API RP 579 concepts. Estimate the remaining useful life of equipment used and calculates the depreciated price. Scientific method based, consistent and robust, due to calculating established the remaining useful life. (author)

  15. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup


    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  16. Facility Design Criteria AN/GSC-39(V)1 Earth Terminal Complex Fixed Site Configuration. Addendum I. HEMP Considerations. (United States)


    con- Real Time Adaptive Control System (RTACS) struction shown in figure 2. Also, these facilities. criteria are to be included in the required con...8217 snould be eft in place Fnaf cier . should be done with a fine grt sandDaer (such as 400 grit) or steel wool Afte, ’,n v aluminum products are all of the

  17. ADA access to passenger vessels : finding safety equivalence solutions for weathertight doors with coamings : Phase 2 : a risk management approach to reconfiguration design solutions (United States)


    This report examines a risk management methodology to provide for both marine safety and disability access at weathertight doors into passenger accommodation spaces on U.S. passenger vessels. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance B...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P


    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  19. [Primary childhood vasculitis new classification criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, T.; Nielsen, Susan


    Primary vasculitis is seen in both adults and children, but some of the diseases like Kawasaki disease occur primarily in children. The Chapel Hill Classification Criteria for primary vasculitis refers to the size of vessels but has not been validated in children. Recently, new criteria for the c......Primary vasculitis is seen in both adults and children, but some of the diseases like Kawasaki disease occur primarily in children. The Chapel Hill Classification Criteria for primary vasculitis refers to the size of vessels but has not been validated in children. Recently, new criteria...

  20. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin


    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  1. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design (United States)


    ...) There is a substantial increase in the probability of an ex-vessel severe accident such that a.../AISC-690. (3) Motor-operated valves. (4) Equipment seismic qualification methods. (5) Piping design... and controls environmental qualification. (10) Seismic design criteria for non-seismic Category I...

  5. Evaluation of fatigue vessel in the Sta. M Garona NPP : real transients and design transients; Evaluacion de la fatiga en la vasija de CN Santa M de Garona: transitorios reales frente a transitorios de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Gorrochategui, I.


    The number of transient that control the fatigue of its reactor pressure vessel is included in the Sta. M Garona NPP Technical Specifications, being the different transients described in the design specification of the corresponding component. In this work, on the one hand, the description of the design transients with their corresponding real ones is compared and, on the other hand, the number of occurrences and the number of transients originally estimated is also compared. In both cases the influence of the difference between design and reality in the fatigue usage is discussed. (Author)

  6. THE RECONCILIATION OF HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT: The Success of Criteria in Guiding the Design and Assessment of Contemporary Interventions in Historic Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roha W. Khalaf


    Full Text Available Since built heritage continues to teach contemporary societies valuable lessons about traditional building practices among other substantial matters, its protection from environmentally insensitive development is important. The reconciliation of heritage conservation and development, therefore, is an appropriate research topic. This article aims at contributing to the global discourse on that topic, which is primarily supported by UNESCO and ICOMOS. It does so by evaluating the success of criteria in guiding the design and assessment of contemporary interventions in historic places. The purpose is to determine whether criteria, which usually come in the form of standards and/or design guidelines, hold the key to thoughtful change in historic places. To achieve this purpose, the present author first gives an overview of the current state of knowledge on the topic, then analyzes major scholarly literature to identify the strengths and weaknesses of criteria and finally suggests other avenues worth exploring. As a result of this qualitative research, readers would gain a better understanding of the background, questioning and principles that should frame new architecture in existing urban fabric.

  7. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia


    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure.

  8. Assessment of Design Tools and Criteria for Urban Rail Track Structures : Volume 2. At-Grade Slab Track. (United States)


    This report presents the results of a critical review of the technical factors which govern the design and performance of at-grade slab track for urban rail systems. The assessment of current design practices is based on a review of the literature an...

  9. Design Criteria for DC Link Filters in a Synchronous Generator-Phase Controlled Rectifier-Filter-Load System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greseth, Gregory


    .... The proposed Navy DC Zonal Electrical Distribution System (DC ZEDS) being designed for the new DD-21 utilizes a rectified ac generator output which is filtered and stepped to usable voltages by local dc-dc converters...

  10. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others


    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  11. Assessing Digital Student Productions, a Design-Based Research Study on the Development of a Criteria-Based Assessment Tool for Students’ Digital Multimodal Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Mikkeline; Jensen, Jesper Juellund; Olsen, Marie Veisegaard


    Digital multimodal production is becoming increasingly important as a 21st century skill and as a learning condition in school (K-12). Moreover, there is a growing attention to the significance of criteria-based assessment for learning. Nevertheless, assessment of students’ digital multimodal...... productions is often vague or lacking. Therefore, the research project aims at developing a tool to support assessment of student’s digital multimodal productions through a design-based research method. This paper presents a proposal for issues to be considered through a prototyping phase, based on interviews...

  12. Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Terry, Totemeier [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)


    Two different topics of Grade 91 steel are investigated for Gen IV nuclear reactor pressure vessel application. On the first topic, negligible creep of Grade 91 is investigated with the motivation to design the reactor pressure vessel in negligible creep regime and eliminate costly surveillance programs during the reactor operation. Available negligible creep criteria and creep strain laws are reviewed, and new data needs are evaluated. It is concluded that modifications of the existing criteria and laws, together with their associated parameters, are needed before they can be reliably applied to Grade 91 for negligible creep prediction and reactor pressure vessel design. On the second topic, effects of off-normal welding and heat treatment on creep behavior of Grade 91 are studied with the motivation to better define the control over the parameters in welding and heat treatment procedures. The study is focused on off-normal austenitizing temperatures and improper cooling after welding but prior to post-weld heat treatment.

  13. Design criteria of the bolometer diagnostic for steady-state operation of the W7-X stellarator. (United States)

    Zhang, D; Burhenn, R; Koenig, R; Giannone, L; Grodzki, P A; Klein, B; Grosser, K; Baldzuhn, J; Ewert, K; Erckmann, V; Hirsch, M; Laqua, H P; Oosterbeek, J W


    A bolometric diagnostic system with features necessary for steady-state operation in the superconducting stellarator W7-X was designed. During a pulse length of 1800 s with an ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) power of 10 MW, the components suffer not only from a large thermal load but also from stray radiation of the nonabsorbed isotropic microwaves. This paper gives an overview of the technical problems encountered during the design work and the solutions to individual problems to meet the special requirements in W7-X, e.g., component thermal protection, detector offset thermal drift suppression, as well as a microwave shielding technique.

  14. Reducing the risk of bias in health behaviour change trials: improving trial design, reporting or bias assessment criteria? A review and case study. (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; McCambridge, Jim; Prins, Jan M


    It has been suggested that randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health behaviour change (HBC) interventions are less rigorously designed than - for example- drug trials. This study presents an approach to clarifying whether this is due to poor trial design, incomplete trial reporting and/or the inappropriateness of commonly applied risk of bias assessment criteria. First, a framework of key sources of bias and common strategies for reducing bias risk is developed based on a literature review. Second, we describe the design of a multi-site RCT evaluating the cost-effectiveness of an HIV-treatment adherence intervention (case study). The choices made by the multidisciplinary team trying to minimise the risk of bias are compared against the risk of bias framework. Implementation of common strategies for reducing the risk of bias in the case study; alternative or additional strategies applied; a justification for each deviation from the risk of bias framework. Most of the common strategies for reducing the risk of bias could be implemented. Alternative strategies were developed for minimising the risk of performance bias and contamination. Several additional, domain-specific risk of bias strategies were implemented. The literature provides useful guidance for reducing the risk of bias in HBC trials. Yet, the case study suggests that HBC trial designers may face specific challenges that require alternative/additional measures for reducing the risk of bias. Using the risk of bias justification table (RATIONALE) could lead to better-designed HBC trials, more comprehensive trial reports and the data necessary for evaluating the appropriateness of commonly applied risk of bias assessment criteria to HBC trials.

  15. High Toughness Light Weight Pressure Vessel Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a pressure vessel with 25% better Fracture Strength over equal strength designed Fiberglass to help reduce 10 to 25% weight for aerospace use. Phase I is...

  16. Application of Bayesian network and multi-criteria decision analysis to risk-based design of chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.


    Fires and explosions in chemical plants are still among the major accidents threatening human lives and causing huge asset losses. Although might not completely be eliminated, the risks of such accidents can be reduced by allocating safety measures, applying inherently safer design (ISD) methods,

  17. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina


    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center’s Design Criteria for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Development (United States)


    that it is periodically updated as new testing techniques, advanced materials or new fabrication techniques are developed. The LaRC Wind Tunnel Model...all aspects of the model which includes all nuts and bolts, hinges, adhesives, sub-systems components, pneumatic lines and the primer /paint needed...RFI) testing, identification, and reduction plays an important role in the airworthiness of the airframe. Usually, prefabrication design can only

  19. Design and Implementation of a Capstone Course to Satisfy the Industry Needs of Virtual Product Development and ABET Engineering Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Omar


    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, computer aided engineering (CAE processes and procedures became an integral part of the product development cycle. Virtual product development (VPD refers to procedures that integrate the CAE tools in a unified approach that spans all the product development phases. Current industrial trends utilize VPD tools and procedures to reduce the product development time without jeopardizing the product quality. These trends led to an increasing demand for engineers with computer skills, multidisciplinary engineering knowledge, and acquaintance with VPD tools. ABET program outcomes emphasize providing courses with an accumulated background of curricular components to solve realistic open-ended engineering problems. Capstone design project (CDP course has been regarded as important learning activity that could be designed to provide senior engineering student an opportunity to solve such problems. A major objective of the CDP course is to simulate industrial setting and allow students to experience real-life engineering practice. This paper presents an implementation of the VPD procedures in a mechanical engineering CDP course. This integration simulates the industrial environment through multidisciplinary teams working together in subsystems to produce one product using standard commercial VPD tools. This course implementation is demonstrated using a case study of teams working to design and build a solar car.

  20. Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.


    Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

  1. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.


    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  2. Maury Journals - German Vessels (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  3. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-16 - Industrial vessel. (United States)


    ... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-16 Industrial vessel. This term means every vessel which by reason of its special outfit, purpose, design, or function engages in certain industrial... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial vessel. 90.10-16 Section 90.10-16 Shipping...

  5. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    The objective of this PhD thesis was to arrange for an integrated building design with respect to thermal comfort, daylighting and energy use, applicable for office buildings in Nordic climate. In order to achieve this, it is suggested that modelling of mean radiant temperature (MRT) should...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards...

  6. Design and selection criteria of surface continuous miners for open pit mining, using Turkish coal mine as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, N.; Balci, C.; Acaroglu, O.; Tuncdemir, H.; Eskikaya, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The use of surface continuous miners enables the effective design of mining operations. By changing the cutting depth of the operational drums it is possible to mine seams with different characteristics, i.e. different calorific values, ash contents etc. This paper, which is the result of a research project sponsored by NATO Science for Stability programme (TU-Excavation Project), discusses the design parameters of cutting experiments carried out on coal samples taken from the Mil-Ten Coal Company. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal samples were first determined and the samples subjected to cutting tests in a laboratory. For various tool spacings and cutting depths tool, forces in three directions and specific energy values were measured using a shaping machine, a force dynamometer and an advance data acquisition system. The cut material was subjected to sieve analysis and the results analysed to see if a surface continuous miner could be used in a coal mine in the Istanbul area. 2 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Technical features and criteria in designing fiber-reinforced composite materials: from the aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications. (United States)

    Gloria, Antonio; Ronca, Dante; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Chierchia, Marianna; De Santis, Roberto; Nicolais, Luigi; Ambrosio, Luigi


    Polymer-based composite materials are ideal for applications where high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios are required. From aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications, fiber-reinforced polymers have replaced metals, thus emerging as an interesting alternative. As widely reported, the mechanical behavior of the composite materials involves investigation on micro- and macro-scale, taking into consideration micromechanics, macromechanics and lamination theory. Clinical situations often require repairing connective tissues and the use of composite materials may be suitable for these applications because of the possibility to design tissue substitutes or implants with the required mechanical properties. Accordingly, this review aims at stressing the importance of fiber-reinforced composite materials to make advanced and biomimetic prostheses with tailored mechanical properties, starting from the basic principle design, technologies, and a brief overview of composites applications in several fields. Fiber-reinforced composite materials for artificial tendons, ligaments, and intervertebral discs, as well as for hip stems and mandible models will be reviewed, highlighting the possibility to mimic the mechanical properties of the soft and hard tissues that they replace.

  8. Design of operating rules in complex water resources systems using historical records, expert criteria and fuzzy logic (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; María Benlliure-Moreno, Jose; Fullana-Montoro, Juan


    Water resources systems in areas with a strong tradition in water use are complex to manage by the high amount of constraints that overlap in time and space, creating a complicated framework in which past, present and future collide between them. In addition, it is usual to find "hidden constraints" in system operations, which condition operation decisions being unnoticed by anyone but the river managers and users. Being aware of those hidden constraints requires usually years of experience and a degree of involvement in that system's management operations normally beyond the possibilities of technicians. However, their impact in the management decisions is strongly imprinted in the historical data records available. The purpose of this contribution is to present a methodology capable of assessing operating rules in complex water resources systems combining historical records and expert criteria. Both sources are coupled using fuzzy logic. The procedure stages are: 1) organize expert-technicians preliminary meetings to let the first explain how they manage the system; 2) set up a fuzzy rule-based system (FRB) structure according to the way the system is managed; 3) use the historical records available to estimate the inputs' fuzzy numbers, to assign preliminary output values to the FRB rules and to train and validate these rules; 4) organize expert-technician meetings to discuss the rule structure and the input's quantification, returning if required to the second stage; 5) once the FRB structure is accepted, its output values must be refined and completed with the aid of the experts by using meetings, workshops or surveys; 6) combine the FRB with a Decision Support System (DSS) to simulate the effect of those management decisions; 7) compare its results with the ones offered by the historical records and/or simulation or optimization models; and 8) discuss with the stakeholders the model performance returning, if it's required, to the fifth or the second stage

  9. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project (United States)

    Fleming, David C.


    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  10. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.


    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.


    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  12. Study of the liquid-film-forming apparatus as an alternative aeration system: design criteria and operating condition. (United States)

    Hongprasith, Narapong; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Painmanakul, Pisut


    Aeration is an important factor in aquaculture systems because it is a vital condition for all organisms that live in water and respire aerobically. Generally, mechanical surface aerators are widely used in Thailand due to their advantage for increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) and for their horizontal mixing of aquaculture ponds with large surface areas. However, these systems still have some drawbacks, primarily the low oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and energy. Regarding this issue, alternative aeration systems should be studied and applied. Therefore, this research aims to study the aeration mechanism obtained by the diffused-air aeration combined with a liquid-film-forming apparatus (LFFA). The effect of gas flow rates, types, and patterns of aerator installation were investigated in an aquaculture pond of 10 m × 10 m × 1.5 m. The analytical parameters were volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa), OTE, and aeration efficiency (AE). From the results, the '4-D' with partitions was proposed as the suitable pattern for the LFFA installation. The advantage could be obtained from high energy performance with 1.2 kg/kW h of AE. Then, the operation conditions can be applied as a design guideline for this alternative aeration system in the aquaculture ponds.

  13. Multi-criteria decision making approach and experimental design as chemometric tools to optimize HPLC separation of domperidone and pantoprazole. (United States)

    Sivakumar, T; Manavalan, R; Muralidharan, C; Valliappan, K


    This paper deals with multiple response simultaneous optimization using the Derringer's desirability function for the development of a reversed-phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of domperidone and pantoprazole in commercial pharmaceutical preparations. Twenty experiments, taking the retention factor of the first peak, the two resolutions, and three retention times as the responses with three important factors, mobile phase composition, buffer molarity and flow rate, were used to design mathematical models. The experimental responses were fitted into a second order polynomial and the six responses simultaneously optimized to predict the optimum conditions for the effective separation of the studied compounds. The optimum assay conditions were: methanol-acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (pH 7.0; 15.3 mM) (20:33:47, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.19 ml/min. While using this optimum condition, baseline separation with a minimum resolution of 2.0 and a run time of less than 6 min were achieved. The method showed good agreement between the experimental data and predictive value throughout the studied parameter space. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision.

  14. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.


    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  15. Design to fabrication integration and material craftsmanship - A performance driven stone architecture design system based on material, structural and fabrication constraints and criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Tanti, M.


    This paper presents a computational design methodology through describing of a case study on stone building system. In addition to establishing a performance driven form-finding methodology, the objective is to redefine local craftsmanship methods as industrial fabrication techniques in order to

  16. Analysis of gravity-induced particle motion and fluid perfusion flow in the NASA-designed rotating zero-head-space tissue culture vessel (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.


    The gravity induced motions, through the culture media, is calculated of living tissue segments cultured in the NASA rotating zero head space culture vessels. This is then compared with the media perfusion speed which is independent of gravity. The results may be interpreted as a change in the physical environment which will occur by operating the NASA tissue culture systems in actual microgravity (versus unit gravity). The equations governing particle motions which induce flows at the surface of tissues contain g terms. This allows calculation of the fluid flow speed, with respect to a cultured particle, as a function of the external gravitational field strength. The analysis is approached from a flow field perspective. Flow is proportional to the shear exerted on a structure which maintains position within the field. The equations are solved for the deviation of a particle from its original position in a circular streamline as a function of time. The radial deviation is important for defining the operating limits and dimensions of the vessel because of the finite radius at which particles necessarily intercept the wall. This analysis uses a rotating reference frame concept.

  17. 3D Printing of Artificial Blood Vessel: Study on Multi-Parameter Optimization Design for Vascular Molding Effect in Alginate and Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanbao Liu


    Full Text Available 3D printing has emerged as one of the modern tissue engineering techniques that could potentially form scaffolds (with or without cells, which is useful in treating cardiovascular diseases. This technology has attracted extensive attention due to its possibility of curing disease in tissue engineering and organ regeneration. In this paper, we have developed a novel rotary forming device, prepared an alginate–gelatin solution for the fabrication of vessel-like structures, and further proposed a theoretical model to analyze the parameters of motion synchronization. Using this rotary forming device, we firstly establish a theoretical model to analyze the thickness under the different nozzle extrusion speeds, nozzle speeds, and servo motor speeds. Secondly, the experiments with alginate–gelatin solution are carried out to construct the vessel-like structures under all sorts of conditions. The experiment results show that the thickness cannot be adequately predicted by the theoretical model and the thickness can be controlled by changing the parameters. Finally, the optimized parameters of thickness have been adjusted to estimate the real thickness in 3D printing.

  18. Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents for large coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation Examination) trial: Study protocol and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.


    Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove or r...... to cobalt-chromium bare-metal stents in this relevant, low-risk group of everyday patients. In addition, a comparison with similar BASKET patients will allow to estimate the impact of 12-versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy on these outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4......Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove...... or refute this hypothesis, we set up an 11-center 4-country prospective trial of 2260 consecutive patients treated with >= 3.0-mm stents only, randomized to receive Cypher (Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, FL), Vision (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Laboratories, IL), or Xience stents (Abbott Vascular). Only...

  19. Analysis of the micro-structural damages by neutronic irradiation of the steel of reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Characterization of the design steel; Analisis de los danos micro-estructurales por irradiacion neutronica del acero de la vasija de los reactores de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde. Caracterizacion del acero de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moranchel y Rodriguez, M.; Garcia B, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.m [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The vessel of a nuclear reactor is one of the safety barriers more important in the design, construction and operation of the reactor. If the vessel results affected to the grade of to have fracture and/or cracks it is very probable the conclusion of their useful life in order to guarantee the nuclear safety and the radiological protection of the exposure occupational personnel, of the public and the environment avoiding the exposition to radioactive sources. The materials of the vessel of a nuclear reactor are exposed continually to the neutronic irradiation that generates the same nuclear reactor. The neutrons that impact to the vessel have the sufficient energy to penetrate certain depth in function of the energy of the incident neutron until reaching the repose or to be absorbed by some nucleus. In the course of their penetration, the neutrons interact with the nuclei, atoms, molecules and with the same crystalline nets of the vessel material producing vacuums, interstitial, precipitate and segregations among other defects that can modify the mechanical properties of the steel. The steel A533-B is the material with which is manufactured the vessel of the nuclear reactors of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, is an alloy that, among other components, it contains atoms of Ni that if they are segregated by the neutrons impact this would favor to the cracking of the same vessel. This work is part of an investigation to analyze the micro-structural damages of the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde due to the neutronic irradiation which is exposed in a continuous way. We will show the characterization of the design steel of the vessel, what offers a comprehension about their chemical composition, the superficial topography and the crystalline nets of the steel A533-B. It will also allow analyze the existence of precipitates, segregates, the type of crystalline net and the distances inter-plains of the design steel of the vessel. (Author)

  20. Structural Criteria for the Rational Design of Selective Ligands: Convergent Hydrogen Bonding Sites for the Nitrate Anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Dixon, David A.; Garza , Jorge; Vargas, Rubicelia; Moyer, Bruce A.


    Molecular hosts for anion complexation are often constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding functional groups, D–H. The deliberate design of complementary host architectures requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Herein, we present a detailed study of the structural aspects of hydrogen bonding interactions with the NO3– anion. A large number of crystal structures are analyzed to determine the number of hydrogen bond contacts per anion and to further characterize the structural aspects of these interactions. Electronic structure calculations are used to determine stable geometries and interaction energies for NO3– complexes with several simple molecules possessing D–H groups, including water, methanol, N-methylformamide, and methane. Theoretical results are reported at several levels of density functional theory, including BP86/DN**, B3LYP/TZVP, and B3LYP/TZVP+, and at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ. In addition, MP2 binding energies for these complexes were obtained at the complete basis set limit by extrapolating from single point energies obtained with larger correlation-consistent basis sets. The results establish that NO3– has an intrinsic hydrogen bonding topography in which there are six optimal sites for proton location. The structural features observed in crystal structures and in the optimized geometries of complexes are explained by a preference to locate the D–H protons in these positions. For the strongest hydrogen bonding interactions, the N–O•••H angle is bent at an angle of 115 ± 10°, and the hydrogen atom lies in the NO3– plane giving O–N–O•••H dihedral angles of 0 and 180°. In addition, the D-H vector points towards the oxygen atom, giving D–H•••O angles that are near linear, 170 ± 10°. Due to steric hindrance, simple alcohol O–H and amide N–H donors form 3:1 complexes with NO3–, with H•••O distances of 1.85 ± 0.5 Å. Thus, the

  1. Design criteria for ionic liquid crystalline phases of phosphonium salts with three equivalent long n-alkyl chains. (United States)

    Ma, Kefeng; Lee, Kwang-Ming; Minkova, Liliya; Weiss, Richard G


    ) moves the anion X farther from the P(+) ion as a result of intramolecular X(-)...H(Y) H-bonding interactions and, therefore, substantially weakens intramolecular P(+)-X(-) ionic interactions within the ionic planes. In contrast to the trends mentioned for the 1PnX salts, liquid-crystalline phases of mPnYX are found more frequently when n is shorter and X is smaller. The observation that the liquid-crystalline phases of mPnYX salts have lower clearing and onset temperatures than the corresponding 1PnX may be attributed to the greater freedom of motion at and near the ionic planes of the former as a result of their more dispersed ionic interactions. Overall, a detailed study of the dependence of phase type and phase transition temperatures on several key structural factors of phosphonium salts has been made. The correlations found provide insights into how new mesmorphic phosphonium salts can be designed and exploited for a wide range of potential applications.

  2. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  3. CO2 Employment as Refrigerant Fluid with a Low Environmental Impact. Experimental Tests on Arugula and Design Criteria for a Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Bianchi


    Full Text Available In order to define design criteria for CO2 refrigeration systems to be used for agricultural products and foodstuff storage, a variable geometrical system was realized, with the goal of meeting a wide range of environmental and process conditions, such as producing low environmental impact and maintaining the highest Coefficient of Performance (COP, at the same time. This test-bench, at semi-industrial scale, was designed as a result of experimental tests carried out on Arugula. The storage tests showed that all samples stored in cold rooms with R.H. control showed a slight increase of weight but also small rot zones in all the boxes due to an excessive accumulation of water condensation; thus, the system may not have achieved conditions that RH requires in a given range, without reaching saturation condition. At the same time, the use of CO2 must be adequately tested along its thermodynamic cycle, during steady state and/or transient conditions, imposing variable working conditions that can simulate plant starting phase or some striking conservation process, like those that characterize sausages. The designed plant will allow studying these specific performances and evaluate COP variation, according to environmental and plant operating conditions.

  4. 2013 Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2011 Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. Cheboygan Vessel Base (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  11. Maury Journals - US Vessels (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  12. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  16. CASTOR GSF packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnside, M.E.


    Encapsulated vitrified materials (Isotopic Heat Sources) are currently stored in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) 324 Building located in the 300 Area. As part of the 324 Building transition program, the vitrified material, encapsulated in stainless steel canisters, must be removed. These canisters were originally intended to be used by the German government, but are no longer desired. As part of an agreement with the German government, the Germans are providing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with six (6) CASTOR GSF and four (4) GNS-12 casks.The canisters will be transported onsite in CASTOR GSF and GNS-12 casks for interim storage until final disposition of the material is determined.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Lead or Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) Test Facility - R&D Requirements, Design Criteria, Design Concept, and Concept Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Loewen; Paul Demkowicz


    The Idaho National Laboratory Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility will advance the state of nuclear technology relative to heavy-metal coolants (primarily Pb and Pb-Bi), thereby allowing the U.S. to maintain the pre-eminent position in overseas markets and a future domestic market. The end results will be a better qualitative understanding and quantitative measure of the thermal physics and chemistry conditions in the molten metal systems for varied flow conditions (single and multiphase), flow regime transitions, heat input methods, pumping requirements for varied conditions and geometries, and corrosion performance. Furthering INL knowledge in these areas is crucial to sustaining a competitive global position. This fundamental heavy-metal research supports the National Energy Policy Development Group’s stated need for energy systems to support electrical generation.1 The project will also assist the Department of Energy in achieving goals outlined in the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee Long Term Nuclear Technology Research and Development Plan,2 the Generation IV Roadmap for Lead Fast Reactor development, and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative research and development. This multi-unit Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility with its flexible and reconfigurable apparatus will maintain and extend the U.S. nuclear knowledge base, while educating young scientists and engineers. The uniqueness of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility is its integrated Pool Unit and Storage Unit. This combination will support large-scale investigation of structural and fuel cladding material compatibility issues with heavy-metal coolants, oxygen chemistry control, and thermal hydraulic physics properties. Its ability to reconfigure flow conditions and piping configurations to more accurately approximate prototypical reactor designs will provide a key resource for Lead Fast Reactor research and development. The other principal elements of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility

  18. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  19. A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu


    Full Text Available Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  20. Criteria for design and application of city-gates heaters; Criterio para aplicacao e dimensionamento de aquecedores para pontos de entrega de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique, Reis dos Reis Rodrigues; Machado, Leandro Bastos; Passos, Ney Goncalves; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Gas delivery pressures foreseen in supplying contracts with LDS's (local distribution companies) require the adoption of pressure regulating systems in city-gates, which are installations where gas custody is transferred from the shipper to the LDC's. Generally, pressure drop is such that causes a large decrease in temperature gas. This temperature drop, depending on how large it is, may be not allowable, for it would imply in materials weakening and also in hydrocarbons hydrates formation. For this reason, many city-gates design contemplate a heating system, upstream the pressure regulation system, in order to warrant an acceptable temperature range of the delivering gas. The fact that heating systems represent roughly 30% of material costs of city-gates has motivated an accurate study of current practices of design and application of those systems. This paper presents these study results, as a criteria proposal that will allow city-gates reduction costs, both CAPEX and OPEX, at a very propitious time, considering that Brazilian gas industry is going to have a great expansion in the next years. (author)

  1. Summary of Reported Whale-Vessel Collisions in Alaskan Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Neilson


    Full Text Available Here we summarize 108 reported whale-vessel collisions in Alaska from 1978–2011, of which 25 are known to have resulted in the whale's death. We found 89 definite and 19 possible/probable strikes based on standard criteria we created for this study. Most strikes involved humpback whales (86% with six other species documented. Small vessel strikes were most common (<15 m, 60%, but medium (15–79 m, 27% and large (≥80 m, 13% vessels also struck whales. Among the 25 mortalities, vessel length was known in seven cases (190–294 m and vessel speed was known in three cases (12–19 kn. In 36 cases, human injury or property damage resulted from the collision, and at least 15 people were thrown into the water. In 15 cases humpback whales struck anchored or drifting vessels, suggesting the whales did not detect the vessels. Documenting collisions in Alaska will remain challenging due to remoteness and resource limitations. For a better understanding of the factors contributing to lethal collisions, we recommend (1 systematic documentation of collisions, including vessel size and speed; (2 greater efforts to necropsy stranded whales; (3 using experienced teams focused on determining cause of death; (4 using standard criteria for validating collision reports, such as those presented in this paper.

  2. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels. (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine


    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  3. Maintenance and neuronal cell differentiation of neural stem cells C17.2 correlated to medium availability sets design criteria in microfluidic systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural stem cells (NSCs play an important role in developing potential cell-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease. Microfluidics has proven a powerful tool in mechanistic studies of NSC differentiation. However, NSCs are prone to differentiate when the nutrients are limited, which occurs unfavorable by fast medium consumption in miniaturized culture environment. For mechanistic studies of NSCs in microfluidics, it is vital that neuronal cell differentiation is triggered by controlled factors only. Thus, we studied the correlation between available cell medium and spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation of C17.2 NSCs in standard culture medium, and proposed the necessary microfluidic design criteria to prevent undesirable cell phenotype changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of microchannels with specific geometric parameters were designed to provide different amount of medium to the cells over time. A medium factor (MF, defined as the volume of stem cell culture medium divided by total number of cells at seeding and number of hours between medium replacement successfully correlated the amount of medium available to each cell averaged over time to neuronal cell differentiation. MF smaller than 8.3×10(4 µm3/cell⋅hour produced significant neuronal cell differentiation marked by cell morphological change and significantly more cells with positive β-tubulin-III and MAP2 staining than the control. When MF was equal or greater than 8.3×10(4 µm3/cell⋅hour, minimal spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation happened relative to the control. MF had minimal relation with the average neurite length. SIGNIFICANCE: MFs can be controlled easily to maintain the stem cell status of C17.2 NSCs or to induce spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation in standard stem cell culture medium. This finding is useful in designing microfluidic culture platforms for controllable NSC maintenance and differentiation. This study also

  4. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 131.11 Section 131.11... Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on sound...

  5. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change. (United States)

    Schauer, James Jay


    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.


    Smith, A.E.


    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  7. Network of endocardial vessels. (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup


    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.


    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  9. Sustainable Oceanographic Vessels - Setting an Example (United States)

    van Leer, J. C.


    In response to climate change, global warming and post “peak oil” fuel scarcity, the oceanographic community should consider reducing its carbon foot print. Why should scientists operate inefficient vessels while lecturing the general public on the need to reduce CO2 emissions? We have already seen curtailment of ship schedules and ship lay-ups, due in part to rising fuel costs, following $140/barrel crude oil. When the global recession ends, upward pressure on oil prices will again commence. Who can forecast how high fuel prices may ultimately rise during the typical 25-30 year lifetime of a research vessel? Are we to curtail future work at sea when oceanic climate research is becoming ever more important? A catamaran research vessel has been designed which can be electrically propelled from by a combination of high efficiency generators, photovoltaic panels and/or sails. Sail produced power is transformed with propellers and motor/generators into electric power which is stored in battery banks. This vessel could operate as the first true hybrid oceanographic research vessel. It could even continue operations without fuel in cases of a severe fuel shortage or fueling denial. Since the power produced by any water turbine increases with the cube of the velocity flowing over its propeller, the low fluid friction and high stability of a catamaran, with reasonably slender hulls, provide an important boost to efficient hybrid operation. The author has chartered a 42’ hybrid catamaran sailboat and found it efficient and extremely easy to operate and control. A 79’ motor sailing catamaran research vessel by Lock Crowther Designs will be presented as one example of a sustainable research vessel with excellent speed and sea-keeping. A center well makes operation as a small drilling/coring ship for coastal climate investigation possible. The center well also supports a host of remote sensing and robotic gear handling capabilities.

  10. Stress categorization in nozzle to pressure vessel connections finite elements models; Categorizacao de tensoes em modelos de elementos finitos de conexoes bocal-vaso de pressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Levi Barcelos de


    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III , is the most important code for nuclear pressure vessels design. Its design criteria were developed to preclude the various pressure vessel failure modes throughout the so-called 'Design by Analysis', some of them by imposing stress limits. Thus, failure modes such as plastic collapse, excessive plastic deformation and incremental plastic deformation under cyclic loading (ratchetting) may be avoided by limiting the so-called primary and secondary stresses. At the time 'Design by Analysis' was developed (early 60's) the main tool for pressure vessel design was the shell discontinuity analysis, in which the results were given in membrane and bending stress distributions along shell sections. From that time, the Finite Element Method (FEM) has had a growing use in pressure vessels design. In this case, the stress results are neither normally separated in membrane and bending stress nor classified in primary and secondary stresses. This process of stress separation and classification in Finite Element (FE) results is what is called stress categorization. In order to perform the stress categorization to check results from FE models against the ASME Code stress limits, mainly from 3D solid FE models, several research works have been conducted. This work is included in this effort. First, a description of the ASME Code design criteria is presented. After that, a brief description of how the FEM can be used in pressure vessel design is showed. Several studies found in the literature on stress categorization for pressure vessel FE models are reviewed and commented. Then, the analyses done in this work are presented in which some typical nozzle to pressure vessel connections subjected to internal pressure and concentrated loads were modeled with solid finite elements. The results from linear elastic and limit load analyses are compared to each other and also with the results obtained by formulae

  11. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.


    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  12. Antibody Immunity Induced by H7N9 Avian Influenza Vaccines: Evaluation Criteria, Affecting Factors, and Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenglei Hu


    Full Text Available Severe H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV infections in humans have public health authorities around the world on high alert for the potential development of a human influenza pandemic. Currently, the newly-emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9 virus poses a dual challenge for public health and poultry industry. Numerous H7N9 vaccine candidates have been generated using various platforms. Immunization trials in animals and humans showed that H7N9 vaccines are apparently poorly immunogenic because they induced low hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibody titers. However, H7N9 vaccines elicit comparable levels of total hemagglutinin (HA-reactive IgG antibody as the seasonal influenza vaccines, suggesting H7N9 vaccines are as immunogenic as their seasonal counterparts. A large fraction of overall IgG antibody is non-neutralizing antibody and they target unrecognized epitopes outside of the traditional antigenic sites in HA. Further, the Treg epitope identified in H7 HA may at least partially contribute to regulation of antibody immunity. Here, we review the latest advances for the development of H7N9 vaccines and discuss the influence of serological criteria on evaluation of immunogenicity of H7N9 vaccines. Next, we discuss factors affecting antibody immunity induced by H7N9 vaccines, including the change in antigenic epitopes in HA and the presence of the Treg epitope. Last, we present our perspectives for the unique features of antibody immunity of H7N9 vaccines and propose some future directions to improve or modify antibody response induced by H7N9 vaccines. This perspective would provide critical implications for rational design of H7N9 vaccines for human and veterinary use.

  13. The CREATE Program Software Applications for the Design and Analysis of Air Vehicles, Naval Vessels, Radio Frequency Antennas, and Ground Vehicles (United States)


    can handle arbitrary rotor configurations (e.g., conventional main rotor/ tail -fan; co-axial 6 main rotor/pusher propeller; tandem main rotors...contractor proposals. The Army Rotorcraft Program (AMRDEC/AED) is using Helios to assess the H-60 tail rotor effectiveness for providing directional...designed and tested for all the standard Linux and Unix operating systems. Each release is extensively tested both during the development process

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  15. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. For-Hire Vessel Directory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  3. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  6. New research vessels (United States)


    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  7. Large vessel vasculitides


    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana


    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  8. Very Versatile Vessel (United States)


    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  9. LQG Dynamic Positioning for a Supply Vessel (United States)

    Hansen, Scott Ron

    The purpose of this study is to merge my on the job marine experience and the control knowledge gathered throughout my studies at University of California San Diego into a practical control design. This thesis creates a Dynamic Positioning (DP) control loop for a supply vessel which utilizes two azimuthal thrusters as actuators. The control loop is designed to also account for external environmental disturbances and sensor measurement noise. The control loop is accomplished using modern control theory which makes use of known vessel dynamics and assumptions associated with the environment and sensor measurement variances. During this thesis research and design period, a testing platform for the control loop was required. Without the ability to retrofit a physical vessel with the proposed azimuthal thrusters it was determined that a simulation model would be required and was designed and implemented in Matlab Simulink to allow for control loop testing and validation. This simulation model is presented as part of the thesis research and design flow as it was a required element of the design and encompasses the knowledge acquired in my marine work and during my period at UCSD. Control loop performance results were obtained through testing on the generated simulation model. These results allowed for validation and optimization during the design phases of the vessel control loop. The principal conclusions were that the simulation model provided sufficient dynamics to properly execute the required tests to the control loop and that the implemented control loop was capable of operating within the determined parameters set forth in the design validation testing.

  10. Vessel Traffic Services. (United States)


    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  11. Vanishing corneal vessels (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder


    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  12. 30 CFR 762.12 - Additional criteria. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional criteria. 762.12 Section 762.12... UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.12 Additional criteria. (a) A State regulatory authority may establish additional or more stringent...

  13. Boosted learned kernels for data-driven vesselness measure (United States)

    Grisan, E.


    Common vessel centerline extraction methods rely on the computation of a measure providing the likeness of the local appearance of the data to a curvilinear tube-like structure. The most popular techniques rely on empirically designed (hand crafted) measurements as the widely used Hessian vesselness, the recent oriented flux tubeness or filters (e.g. the Gaussian matched filter) that are developed to respond to local features, without exploiting any context information nor the rich structural information embedded in the data. At variance with the previously proposed methods, we propose a completely data-driven approach for learning a vesselness measure from expert-annotated dataset. For each data point (voxel or pixel), we extract the intensity values in a neighborhood region, and estimate the discriminative convolutional kernel yielding a positive response for vessel data and negative response for non-vessel data. The process is iterated within a boosting framework, providing a set of linear filters, whose combined response is the learned vesselness measure. We show the results of the general-use proposed method on the DRIVE retinal images dataset, comparing its performance against the hessian-based vesselness, oriented flux antisymmetry tubeness, and vesselness learned with a probabilistic boosting tree or with a regression tree. We demonstrate the superiority of our approach that yields a vessel detection accuracy of 0.95, with respect to 0.92 (hessian), 0.90 (oriented flux) and 0.85 (boosting tree).

  14. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included. (United States)


    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  16. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  17. Development of an integrated data acquision system for research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    This article describes an integrated data acquisition system (IDAS) designed and developed for multi-oceanographic research vessels. The prime motivation was to provide a flexible system, which could be used in the context of ocean related...

  18. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels. (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L


    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  19. 75 FR 63258 - Vessel Re-Designations (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... also be submitted via Fax or by hand or express delivery. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Hand or express delivery...(b). An additional 25 percent of gross tonnage of certain food assistance programs is to be...

  20. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  1. [Large vessel vasculitides]. (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj


    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  2. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.


    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  3. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)


    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  4. Segmentation of vessels: the corkscrew algorithm (United States)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Firle, Evelyn A.


    Medical imaging is nowadays much more than only providing data for diagnosis. It also links 'classical' diagnosis to modern forms of treatment such as image guided surgery. Those systems require the identification of organs, anatomical regions of the human body etc., i. e. the segmentation of structures from medical data sets. The algorithms used for these segmentation tasks strongly depend on the object to be segmented. One structure which plays an important role in surgery planning are vessels that are found everywhere in the human body. Several approaches for their extraction already exist. However, there is no general one which is suitable for all types of data or all sorts of vascular structures. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of vessels. It can be classified as a skeleton-based approach working on 3D data sets, and has been designed for a reliable segmentation of coronary arteries. The algorithm is a semi-automatic extraction technique requiring the definition of the start and end the point of the (centerline) path to be found. A first estimation of the vessel's centerline is calculated and then corrected iteratively by detecting the vessel's border perpendicular to the centerline. We used contrast enhanced CT data sets of the thorax for testing our approach. Coronary arteries have been extracted from the data sets using the 'corkscrew algorithm' presented in this work. The segmentation turned out to be robust even if moderate breathing artifacts were present in the data sets.

  5. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.


    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  6. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.


    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  7. Deep learning for anomaly detection in maritime vessels using AIS-cued camera imagery (United States)

    Zang, Yi; Mukherjee, Abir; Fei, Chuhong; Liu, Ting; Lampropoulos, George


    The presented work is an extension of previous work carried out at A.U.G. Signals Ltd. The problem is approached herein for vessel identification/verification using Deep Learning Neural Networks in a persistent surveillance scenario. Using images with vessels in the scene, Deep Learning Neural Networks were set up to detect vessels from still imagery (visible wavelength). Different neural network designs were implemented for vessel detection and compared based on learning performance (speed and demanded training sets) and estimation accuracy. Unique features from these designs were taken to create an optimized solution. This paper presents a comparison of the deep learning approaches implemented and their relative capabilities in vessel verification.

  8. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Evaluation (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.


    Objectives: to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Study Design: retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Results: the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion’s site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. Conclusions: diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease. Key words:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, criteria, diagnose, early. PMID:24608210

  9. Reducing the risk of bias in health behaviour change trials: improving trial design, reporting or bias assessment criteria? A review and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marijn; McCambridge, Jim; Prins, Jan M.


    It has been suggested that randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health behaviour change (HBC) interventions are less rigorously designed than - for example- drug trials. This study presents an approach to clarifying whether this is due to poor trial design, incomplete trial reporting and/or the

  10. Reducing the risk of bias in health behaviour change trials: improving trial design, reporting or bias assessment criteria? A review and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M.; McCambridge, J.; Prins, J.M.


    Objective: It has been suggested that randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health behaviour change (HBC) interventions are less rigorously designed than - for example- drug trials. This study presents an approach to clarifying whether this is due to poor trial design, incomplete trial reporting

  11. Lecture Hall and Learning Design: A Survey of Variables, Parameters, Criteria and Interrelationships for Audio-Visual Presentation Systems and Audience Reception. (United States)

    Justin, J. Karl

    Variables and parameters affecting architectural planning and audiovisual systems selection for lecture halls and other learning spaces are surveyed. Interrelationships of factors are discussed, including--(1) design requirements for modern educational techniques as differentiated from cinema, theater or auditorium design, (2) general hall…

  12. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  13. Strain-based plastic instability acceptance criteria for ferritic steel safety class 1 nuclear components under level D service loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Su Kim


    Full Text Available This paper proposes strain-based acceptance criteria for assessing plastic instability of the safety class 1 nuclear components made of ferritic steel during level D service loads. The strain-based criteria were proposed with two approaches: (1 a section average approach and (2 a critical location approach. Both approaches were based on the damage initiation point corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capability point instead of the fracture point via tensile tests and finite element analysis (FEA for the notched specimen under uni-axial tensile loading. The two proposed criteria were reviewed from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy to select a more appropriate criterion. As a result of the review, it was found that the section average approach is more appropriate than the critical location approach from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy. Finally, the criterion based on the section average approach was applied to a simplified reactor pressure vessel (RPV outlet nozzle subject to SSE loads. The application shows that the strain-based acceptance criteria can consider cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads unlike the stress-based acceptance criteria and can reduce the overconservatism of the stress-based acceptance criteria, which often occurs for level D service loads.

  14. Study of the effects of wind power and vortex-induced vibrations to establish fatigue design criteria for high-mast poles. (United States)


    Traffic signal and high-mast poles are used by transportation agencies to control and illuminate intersections; their structural design is governed by national specifications. High-mast poles are luminaire supports located near highway interchanges t...

  15. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis


    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei


    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  17. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  18. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick


    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.

  19. Stability analysis criteria in landfill design based on the Spanish code; Criterios de estabilidad en el diseno de un vertedero, basado en la normativa espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaire Gepp, J.; Pardo de Santayana, F.


    The design of a landfill requires performing stability analyses. To perform such analyses it is necessary to define different design situations and their corresponding safety factors. Geo synthetics are normally used to construct the lining system of the landfills, causing critical slip surfaces to pass along one of the different geo synthetic interfaces. Determination of the shear strength of such critical interfaces is, therefore, an extremely important issue. In this paper, these aspects are analysed based on what is set in the Spanish codes and in the technical literature. As a result of the study, some tables are presented which relate the different design situations (normal, accidental or extraordinary) to the shear strength of the lining system to be used (peak or residual) and define the minimum factor of safety to be accomplished. (Author)

  20. Meeting the criteria of a nursing diagnosis classification: Evaluation of ICNP, ICF, NANDA and ZEFP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller-Staub, M.; Lavin, M.A.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van


    BACKGROUND: Few studies described nursing diagnosis classification criteria and how classifications meet these criteria. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to identify criteria for nursing diagnosis classifications and to assess how these criteria are met by different classifications. DESIGN/METHODS:

  1. Sand production prediction in oil wellbores : a set of criteria for design of reticulated expandable completion techniques based on large-scale transient experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, A.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vaziri, H. [BP America, Cleveland, OH (United States). E and P Technology Group; Islam, R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada)


    Various issues regarding supported wellbores in weakly consolidated and unconsolidated reservoir formations were discussed. Nearly 70 per cent of the total world's oil and gas reserves are found in poorly consolidated reservoirs, which are the most problematic in terms of sand production. Field studies also show a strong link between sand production and water influx. This paper describes a hollow cylindrical experiment of an expandable completion using both single-and two-phase fluid flow. Criteria were also provided for the possible severity of sand production under various aperture size versus sand grain size distribution conditions. The experiments on weakly-consolidated sandstones showed that expandable completions can successfully prevent shear failure around the wellbore. Pore collapse proved to be a potential failure mechanism under excessive drawdown or depletion. The study also evaluated the various aspects of interaction between a supporting liner and unconsolidated well and weakly consolidated rock formations. Shear failure was shown to be an important factor in almost all sanding issues. A stiffener proved capable of eliminating shear failure in the material around the well. In addition, the study evaluated the level of possible effects of a supported wellbore on productivity. While the sample compacted, its porosity and permeability was shown to decrease. However, supporting the wellbore provided room for higher drawdown which compensated the loss of permeability. The mechanism under which such completion techniques control mobilization of sand grains was also presented along with long-term performance and effectiveness. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. The impact of vessel speed reduction on port accidents. (United States)

    Chang, Young-Tae; Park, Hyosoo


    Reduced-speed zones (RSZs) have been designated across the world to control emissions from ships and prevent mammal strikes. While some studies have examined the effectiveness of speed reduction on emissions and mammal preservation, few have analyzed the effects of reduced ship speed on vessel safety. Those few studies have not yet measured the relationship between vessel speed and accidents by using real accident data. To fill this gap in the literature, this study estimates the impact of vessel speed reduction on vessel damages, casualties and frequency of vessel accidents. Accidents in RSZ ports were compared to non-RSZ ports by using U.S. Coast Guard data to capture the speed reduction effects. The results show that speed reduction influenced accident frequency as a result of two factors, the fuel price and the RSZ designation. Every $10 increase in the fuel price led to a 10.3% decrease in the number of accidents, and the RSZ designation reduced vessel accidents by 47.9%. However, the results do not clarify the exact impact of speed reduction on accident casualty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Digital Student Productions, a Design-Based Research Study on the Development of a Criteria-Based Assessment Tool for Students’ Digital Multimodal Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Mikkeline; Jensen, Jesper Juellund; Olsen, Marie Veisegaard


    productions is often vague or lacking. Therefore, the research project aims at developing a tool to support assessment of student’s digital multimodal productions through a design-based research method. This paper presents a proposal for issues to be considered through a prototyping phase, based on interviews...

  4. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. SC/OQ Vessel Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  6. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon


    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  11. Transposition of the great vessels (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  12. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. Vessel Permit System Data Set (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  14. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  16. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  17. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion. (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S


    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  18. El diseño de criterios de manejo del paciente diabético como estrategia de garantía de calidad Designing criteria to handle diabetes patients as a strategy for quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Martínez Ramírez


    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en el Hospital General de Zona nº 14 en Jalisco, México, con el objetivo de diseñar criterios estandarizados de manejo del paciente diabético en los servicios de hospitalización, como una estrategia de garantía de calidad, a través de la participación de un panel de expertos del servicio de medicina interna del propio hospital. La participación del médico responsable del proceso de la atención médica en el diseño de los criterios genera en el personal un sentido de pertenencia y facilita su adherencia y aplicación. Ciertamente, los criterios sugeridos son perfectibles y de ninguna manera se pretende su aplicación universal, si de alguna manera resultan útiles para quienes atienden estos pacientes, rebasaría con mucho los objetivos que los autores se plantearon en la planeación de la investigación.This study was carried out at the General Hospital of Zone Nº 14 of the IMSS in Jalisco, Mexico, with the goal of designing standardized criteria to handle hospitalized diabetes patients, as a strategy for quality assurance, through the participation of a panel of experts in internal medicine from the hospital. Participation by the attending physician in designing criteria generates a sense of belonging in the staff and makes adherence and application easier. The suggested criteria are subject to further improvement and are not intended for universal application, but to the extent that they have been useful in patient care they have far surpassed the authors' expectations when the goals of this research were originally established.

  19. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana


    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  20. Comparison of different hip prosthesis shapes considering micro-level bone remodeling and stress-shielding criteria using three-dimensional design space topology optimization. (United States)

    Boyle, Christopher; Kim, Il Yong


    Since the late 1980s, computational analysis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis components has been completed using macro-level bone remodeling algorithms. The utilization of macro-sized elements requires apparent bone densities to predict cancellous bone strength, thereby, preventing visualization and analysis of realistic trabecular architecture. In this study, we utilized a recently developed structural optimization algorithm, design space optimization (DSO), to perform a micro-level three-dimensional finite element bone remodeling simulation on the human proximal femur pre- and post-THA. The computational simulation facilitated direct performance comparison between two commercially available prosthetic implant stems from Zimmer Inc.: the Alloclassic and the Mayo conservative. The novel micro-level approach allowed the unique ability to visualize the trabecular bone adaption post-operation and to quantify the changes in bone mineral content by region. Stress-shielding and strain energy distribution were also quantified for the immediate post-operation and the stably fixated, post-remodeling conditions. Stress-shielding was highest in the proximal region and remained unchanged post-remodeling; conversely, the mid and distal portions show large increases in stress, suggesting a distal shift in the loadpath. The Mayo design conserves bone mass, while simultaneously reducing the incidence of stress-shielding compared to the Alloclassic, revealing a key benefit of the distinctive geometry. Several important factors for stable fixation, determined in clinical evaluations from the literature, were evident in both designs: high levels of proximal bone loss and distal bone densification. The results suggest this novel computational framework can be utilized for comparative hip prosthesis shape, uniquely considering the post-operation bone remodeling as a design criterion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3 laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya


    This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process.

  2. Histological evaluation and optimization of surgical vessel sealing systems (United States)

    Lathrop, Robert; Ryan, Thomas; Gaspredes, Jonathan; Woloszko, Jean; Coad, James E.


    Surgical vessel sealing systems are widely used to achieve hemostasis and dissection in open surgery and minimally invasive, laparoscopic surgery. This enabling technology was developed about 17 years ago and continues to evolve with new devices and systems achieving improved outcomes. Histopathological assessment of thermally sealed tissues is a valuable tool for refining and comparing performance among surgical vessel sealing systems. Early work in this field typically assessed seal time, burst rate, and failure rate (in-situ). Later work compared histological staining methods with birefringence to assess the extent of thermal damage to tissues adjacent to the device. Understanding the microscopic architecture of a sealed vessel is crucial to optimizing the performance of power delivery algorithms and device design parameters. Manufacturers rely on these techniques to develop new products. A system for histopathological evaluation of vessels and sealing performance was established, to enable the direct assessment of a treatment's tissue effects. The parameters included the commonly used seal time, pressure burst rate and failure rate, as well as extensions of the assessment to include its likelihood to form steam vacuoles, adjacent thermal effect near the device, and extent of thermally affected tissue extruded back into the vessel lumen. This comprehensive assessment method provides an improved means of assessing the quality of a sealed vessel and understanding the exact mechanisms which create an optimally sealed vessel.

  3. [Microsurgical Autologous Lymph Vessel Transplantation: Does Harvesting Lymphatic Vessel Grafts Induce Lymphatic Transport Disturbances in the Donor Limb?]. (United States)

    Weiss, M F; Baumeister, R G H; Zacherl, M J; Frick, A; Bartenstein, P; Rominger, A


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the extirpation of lymphatic vessels induces lymphatic transport disturbances in the donor limb of patients following the harvest of lymph vessel grafts. A total of 19 consecutive patients (15 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years, range 21.8-72.3) were examined by lymphoscintigraphy before and after surgery. The patients had previously been diagnosed with upper or lower limb lymphoedema in accordance with the criteria of the International Society of Lymphology, and autologous lymph vessel transplantation had been intended for treatment. Since only patients with normal scintigraphic tests at the harvesting site were considered for treatment, all consecutive patients (n=19) had normal scintigraphic tests of the donor limb prior to surgery. In order to quantify the visual scintigraphic findings, a well established numeric transport index (TI) was used, which combined 5 visual parameters of transport kinetics. To that end, the following visually assessed criteria were evaluated: temporal and spatial kinetics, radiopharmaceutical distribution pattern, time to appearance of inguinal lymph nodes, qualitative visualisation of lymph nodes and lymph vessels. All patients underwent a preoperative scintigraphic baseline study and a postoperative scintigraphic follow-up after autologous lymphatic vessel grafting. The mean time period from the baseline study to the date of microsurgical lymph vessel transplantation was 3.5 months (median 2.5 months). The scintigraphic follow-up was performed 48.6 months (median 57.8 months) following transplantation. In all patients the postoperative TI was very close to the TI calculated in the preoperative baseline scintigraphy, and all TIs were within the normal range (TIlymphatic drainage of the donor limb if safety precautions are taken into account. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  5. Retinal vessel detection and measurement for computer-aided medical diagnosis. (United States)

    Li, Xiaokun; Wee, William G


    Since blood vessel detection and characteristic measurement for ocular retinal images is a fundamental problem in computer-aided medical diagnosis, automated algorithms/systems for vessel detection and measurement are always demanded. To support computer-aided diagnosis, an integrated approach/solution for vessel detection and diameter measurement is presented and validated. In the proposed approach, a Dempster-Shafer (D-S)-based edge detector is developed to obtain initial vessel edge information and an accurate vascular map for a retinal image. Then, the appropriate path and the centerline of a vessel of interest are identified automatically through graph search. Once the vessel path has been identified, the diameter of the vessel will be measured accordingly by the algorithm in real time. To achieve more accurate edge detection and diameter measurement, mixed Gaussian-matched filters are designed to refine the initial detection and measures. Other important medical indices of retinal vessels can also be calculated accordingly based on detection and measurement results. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was validated by the retinal images obtained from different public databases. Experimental results show that the vessel detection rate of the algorithm is 100 % for large vessels and 89.9 % for small vessels, and the error rate on vessel diameter measurement is less than 5 %, which are all well within the acceptable range of deviation among the human graders.

  6. Evaluation of In-Vessel Corium Retention under a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Kang, Kyung-Ho; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Koo, Kil-Mo; Cho, Young-Ro; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong


    The current study on In-Vessel corium Retention and its application activities to the actual nuclear power plant have been reviewed and discussed in this study. Severe accident sequence which determines an initial condition of the IVR has been evaluated and late phase melt progression, heat transfer on the outer reactor vessel, and in-vessel corium cooling mechanism have been estimated in detail. During the high pressure sequence of the reactor coolant system, a natural circulation flow of the hot steam leads to a failure of the pressurizer surge line before the reactor vessel failure, which leads to a rapid decrease of the reactor coolant system pressure. The results of RASPLAV/MASCA study by OECD/NEA have shown that a melt stratification has occurred in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. In particular, laver inversion has occurred, which is that a high density of the metal melt moves to the lower part of the oxidic melt layer. A method of heat transfer enhancement on the outer reactor vessel is an optimal design of the reactor vessel insulation for an increase of the natural circulation flow between the outer reactor vessel and the its insulation, and an increase of the critical Heat flux on the outer reactor vessel by using various method, such as Nono fluid, coated reactor vessel, and so on. An increase method of the in-vessel melt cooling is a development of the In-vessel core catcher and a decrease of focusing effect in the metal layer.

  7. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  8. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program (United States)

    Beck, E. J.


    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  9. Aspirational Model Teaching Criteria for Psychology (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Boysen, Guy A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Tazeau, Yvette N.; Meyers, Steven A.; Sciutto, Mark J.


    In 2011, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology commissioned a presidential task force to document teaching criteria for model psychology teachers in undergraduate education. The resulting list of criteria reflects activities related to face-to-face course interaction and online teaching, training, and education; course design; implementation…

  10. Rain gauge network design for flood forecasting using multi-criteria decision analysis and clustering techniques in lower Mahanadi river basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Kar


    New hydrological insights for the region: This study establishes different possible key RG networks using Hall’s method, analytical hierarchical process (AHP, self organization map (SOM and hierarchical clustering (HC using the characteristics of each rain gauge occupied Thiessen polygon area. Efficiency of the key networks is tested by artificial neural network (ANN, Fuzzy and NAM rainfall-runoff models. Furthermore, flood forecasting has been carried out using the three most effective RG networks which uses only 7 RGs instead of 14 gauges established in the Kantamal sub-catchment, Mahanadi basin. The Fuzzy logic applied on the key RG network derived using AHP has shown the best result for flood forecasting with efficiency of 82.74% for 1-day lead period. This study demonstrates the design procedure of key RG network for effective flood forecasting particularly when there is difficulty in gathering the information from all RGs.

  11. Doehlert design-desirability function multi-criteria optimal separation of 17 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil by capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Ballus, Cristiano Augusto; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; de Souza Campos, Francisco Alberto; Bruns, Roy Edward; Godoy, Helena Teixeira


    In Brazil, the consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is increasing annually, but there are no experimental studies concerning the phenolic compound contents of commercial EVOO. The aim of this work was to optimise the separation of 17 phenolic compounds already detected in EVOO. A Doehlert matrix experimental design was used, evaluating the effects of pH and electrolyte concentration. Resolution, runtime and migration time relative standard deviation values were evaluated. Derringer's desirability function was used to simultaneously optimise all 37 responses. The 17 peaks were separated in 19min using a fused-silica capillary (50μm internal diameter, 72cm of effective length) with an extended light path and 101.3mmolL(-1) of boric acid electrolyte (pH 9.15, 30kV). The method was validated and applied to 15 EVOO samples found in Brazilian supermarkets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Characterization of wash-off from urban impervious surfaces and SuDS design criteria for source control under semi-arid conditions. (United States)

    Andrés-Doménech, Ignacio; Hernández-Crespo, Carmen; Martín, Miguel; Andrés-Valeri, Valerio C


    Knowledge about pollutant wash-off from urban impervious surfaces is a key feature for developing effective management strategies. Accordingly, further information is required about urban areas under semi-arid climate conditions at the sub-catchment scale. This is important for designing source control systems for pollution. In this study, a characterization of pollutant wash-off has been performed over sixteen months, at the sub-catchment scale for urban roads as impervious surfaces. The study was conducted in Valencia, Spain, a city with a Mediterranean climate. The results show high event mean concentrations for suspended solids (98mg/l), organic matter (142mgCOD/l, 25mgBOD5/l), nutrients (3.7mgTN/l, 0.4mgTP/l), and metals (0.23, 0.32, 0.62 and 0.17mg/l for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively). The results of the runoff characterization highlight the need to control this pollution at its source, separately from wastewater because of their different characteristics. The wash-off, defined in terms of mobilized mass (g/m2) fits well with both process-based and statistical models, with the runoff volume and rainfall depth being the main explanatory variables. Based on these results and using information collected from hydrographs and pollutographs, an approach for sizing sustainable urban drainage systems (SuDS), focusing on water quality and quantity variables, has been proposed. By setting a concentration-based target (TSS discharged to receiving waters <35mg/l), the results indicate that for a SuDS type detention basin (DB), an off-line configuration performs better than an on-line configuration. The resulting design criterion, expressed as SuDS volume per unit catchment area, assuming a DB type SuDS, varies between 7 and 10l/m2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Semi-automated retinal vessel analysis in nonmydriatic fundus photography. (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander Karl-Georg; Fischer, Joachim Ernst; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs


    Funduscopic assessment of the retinal vessels may be used to assess the health status of microcirculation and as a component in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Typically, the evaluation is restricted to morphological appreciation without strict quantification. Our purpose was to develop and validate a software tool for semi-automated quantitative analysis of retinal vasculature in nonmydriatic fundus photography. matlab software was used to develop a semi-automated image recognition and analysis tool for the determination of the arterial-venous (A/V) ratio in the central vessel equivalent on 45° digital fundus photographs. Validity and reproducibility of the results were ascertained using nonmydriatic photographs of 50 eyes from 25 subjects recorded from a 3DOCT device (Topcon Corp.). Two hundred and thirty-three eyes of 121 healthy subjects were evaluated to define normative values. A software tool was developed using image thresholds for vessel recognition and vessel width calculation in a semi-automated three-step procedure: vessel recognition on the photograph and artery/vein designation, width measurement and calculation of central retinal vessel equivalents. Mean vessel recognition rate was 78%, vessel class designation rate 75% and reproducibility between 0.78 and 0.91. Mean A/V ratio was 0.84. Application on a healthy norm cohort showed high congruence with prior published manual methods. Processing time per image was one minute. Quantitative geometrical assessment of the retinal vasculature may be performed in a semi-automated manner using dedicated software tools. Yielding reproducible numerical data within a short time leap, this may contribute additional value to mere morphological estimates in the clinical evaluation of fundus photographs. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  15. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels. (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard


    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  16. Biological Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  17. Effect of Keishibukuryogan on Endothelial Function in Patients with at Least One Component of the Diagnostic Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: A Controlled Clinical Trial with Crossover Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Nagata


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan, a traditional Japanese (Kampo formula, on endothelial function assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (Endo-PAT2000 in patients with metabolic syndrome-related factors by controlled clinical trial with crossover design. Ninety-two patients were assigned to group A (first KBG-treatment period, then control period; each lasting 4 weeks, with about one-year interval or group B (first control, then KBG-treatment. In forty-nine (27, group A; 22, group B patients completing all tests, the mean value of the natural logarithmic-scaled reactive hyperemia index (L_RHI increased and those of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA, malondialdehyde, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 decreased significantly during the KBG-treatment period, but not during the control period, and 4-week changes of L_RHI, NEFA, and malondialdehyde between the 2 periods showed significance. These results suggest that KBG has beneficial effect on endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome-related factors.

  18. Evaluation Criteria for the Educational Web-Information System (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; Meyen, Edward; Poggio, John C.; Semon, Sarah; Tillberg-Webb, Heather


    This article addresses how evaluation criteria improve educational Web-information system design, and the tangible and intangible benefits of using evaluation criteria, when implemented in an educational Web-information system design. The evaluation criteria were developed by the authors through a content validation study applicable to…

  19. Feasibility of potable water generators to meet vessel numeric ballast water discharge limits. (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; Viveiros, Edward; Falatko, Debra S; Tamburri, Mario N


    Ballast water is taken on-board vessels into ballast water tanks to maintain vessel draft, buoyancy, and stability. Unmanaged ballast water contains aquatic organisms that, when transported and discharged to non-native waters, may establish as invasive species. Technologies capable of achieving regulatory limits designed to decrease the likelihood of invasion include onboard ballast water management systems. However, to date, the treatment development and manufacturing marketplace is limited to large vessels with substantial ballast requirements. For smaller vessels or vessels with reduced ballast requirements, we evaluated the feasibility of meeting the discharge limits by generating ballast water using onboard potable water generators. Case studies and parametric analyses demonstrated the architectural feasibility of installing potable water generators onboard actual vessels with minimal impacts for most vessel types evaluated. Furthermore, land-based testing of a potable water generator demonstrated capability to meet current numeric discharge limits for living organisms in all size classes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  1. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats]. (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B


    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  2. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks (United States)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook


    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  3. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel


    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  4. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)


    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  5. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel (United States)


    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  6. Assessment of vessel-generated waste quantities on the inland waterways of the Republic of Serbia. (United States)

    Presburger Ulnikovic, Vladanka; Vukic, Marija; Nikolic, Radosav


    To establish the quantity and structure of waste generated during inland vessel exploitation, it is necessary to determine the amount of traffic on the waterways, the number of vessel dockings that generate and deliver waste materials to ports, and the types of inland navigation vessels. Criteria must also be established for the calculation of estimated average waste quantities. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of waste material quantities that was developed as part of the Technological Development Project TR 21037 of the Republic of Serbia. Required information on the amount of traffic, vessel types and numbers as well as the number of dockings was extracted from questionnaires and interviews with watermen and researchers. A set of criteria was defined in order to determine the number of passengers and crewmembers and to establish and classify quantities of vessel-generated waste (sanitary and fecal wastewater, bilge wastewater, waste oils, and solid waste). These data allowed for the Preliminary analysis of the national waterway traffic and transport infrastructure to be carried out. Results presented in this paper have triggered a number of recommendations for the construction of terminals and other facilities for the reception and management of waste streams, from the vessel where the waste is generated to the final destinations for waste processing and deposition. This is particularly applicable to countries who have not yet tackled the problem of vessel-generated waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  8. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy


    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  9. BPC 157 and blood vessels. (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag


    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  10. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity. (United States)

    Jin, Di


    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease using 3-T MRI and MRA: value of cisternal moyamoya vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Seiko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Yukio [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Fukui University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to propose new magnetic resonance (MR) criteria of diagnosing moyamoya disease (MMD) from cisternal moyamoya vessels (MMVs) on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the existing MR criteria and the proposed MR criteria. Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients with MMD (4 males, 16 females) diagnosed clinically using conventional angiography and 20 controls (13 male and 7 female arteriosclerosis patients). In these participants, 3-T MRI/MRA was evaluated by the existing MR criteria, which use MMVs in the basal ganglia, and the proposed MR criteria, which use cisternal MMVs, and then these two criteria were statistically compared by McNemar's test. Diagnostic accuracy was 62.5% with the existing MR criteria and 97.5% with the proposed MR criteria. The proposed MR criteria was more sensitive (1.00) than the existing MR criteria (0.45), but less specific (0.95) than the existing MR criteria (1.00). The proposed MR criteria using cisternal MMVs showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than the existing MR criteria. We believe that our proposed MR criteria will be beneficial for diagnosing MMD. (orig.)

  12. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.


    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  13. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  14. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  15. Assessment of whipping and springing on a large container vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barhoumi Mondher


    Full Text Available Wave induced vibrations increase the fatigue and extreme loading, but this is normally neglected in design. The industry view on this is changing. Wave induced vibrations are often divided into springing and whipping, and their relative contribution to fatigue and extreme loading varies depending on ship design. When it comes to displacement vessels, the contribution from whipping on fatigue and extreme loading is particularly high for certain container vessels. A large modern design container vessel with high bow flare angle and high service speed has been considered. The container vessel was equipped with a hull monitoring system from a recognized supplier of HMON systems. The vessel has been operating between Asia and Europe for a few years and valuable data has been collected. Also model tests have been carried out of this vessel to investigate fatigue and extreme loading, but model tests are often limited to head seas. For the full scale measurements, the correlation between stress data and wind data has been investigated. The wave and vibration damage are shown versus heading and Beaufort strength to indicate general trends. The wind data has also been compared to North Atlantic design environment. Even though it has been shown that the encountered wind data has been much less severe than in North Atlantic, the extreme loading defined by IACS URS11 is significantly exceeded when whipping is included. If whipping may contribute to collapse, then proper seamanship may be useful in order to limit the extreme loading. The vibration damage is also observed to be high from head to beam seas, and even present in stern seas, but fatigue damage in general is low on this East Asia to Europe trade.

  16. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen


    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  17. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.


    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  18. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems required...

  19. Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J; Henning, C; Grundler, W; Switzer, V; Hollaway, R; Morrison, J; Hagler, L; Kokko, E; Deteresa, S; Hathcoat, B; Dalder, E


    A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel that is nearly radiographically transparent. It was intended to contain a limited number of detonations of metal cased explosive assemblies in radiographic facilities such as the Advanced Hydrodynamic Facility (AHF) being studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 2-meter diameter pressure vessel was designed to contain up to 35 kg (80 lb) of TNT equivalent explosive without leakage. Over the past 5 years a total of three half-scale (1 meter diameter) vessels have been constructed, and two of them were tested to 150% load with 8.2 kg (18-pound) spheres of C4 explosive. The low density and high specific strength advantages used in this composite vessel design may have other additional applications such as transporting sensitive explosives that could otherwise be moved only in very small quantities. Also, it could be used for highly portable, explosive containment systems for law enforcement.

  20. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.


    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.