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Sample records for vespa orientalis hymenoptera

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    energy. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F., which may play a vital role in understanding this wasp biology, light trapping and generation of electricity. The mitochondrial genome of this hornet is 16,099 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding...

  2. Determination of some structural features of the nest paper of Vespa orientalis Linneaus, 1771 and Vespa crabro Linneaus, 1758 (Hymenoptera: Vespinae in Turkey

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    Bagriaçik Nil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nest materials and some physical features and elemental composition of Vespa orientalis and Vespa crabro nests. The nest surfaces were observed with a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In the V. orientalis nest, the average thickness of the fibers was 13.47μm, the nitrogen concentration was 18.75%, the percentages of the fibers, saliva, soil and the water absorption capacity were calculated to be 20%, 20%, 60% and 91%, respectively. In the V. crabro nest, the average thickness of the fibers was 11.48μm and the nitrogen concentration was 27.93%. The percentages of fiber, saliva and the water absorption capacity were calculated to be 23%, 77% and 100%, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukund, H; SP Gawade

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE). Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE) of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PV...

  4. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

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    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  5. Two Nests of the Hornet Vespa wilemani (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J., MARTIN

    1993-01-01

    A queenless nest and an abandoned embryo nest of Vespa wilemani are described. The queenless nest contained 292 cells, 10 adult workers and 11 adult males. The possibility that this species is synonymous with Vespa vivax is discussed.

  6. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  7. Some liver functions in the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) are performed in its cuticle: exposure to UV light influences these activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Itzhaky, Dganit; Lis, Monica; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

    2009-06-01

    The Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) coordinates its daily activities (e.g. flights out of the nest associated with digging activities and removal of the dug soil from the nest) with the amount of insolation. Thus, the stronger the insolation, the more intense the flight activity and vise versa. The hornet's cuticle bears a few yellow stripes interposed among brown parts of the gastral cuticle. These yellow stripes are composed of two elements, namely, a transparent cuticle and underneath it a layer of yellow granules. When the hornets are exposed to UV light, the layer containing the yellow granules is less active than in hornets kept in the dark. This diminished activity entails a lower production of glucose as well as of several enzymes prevalent also in the liver of mammals, like creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase. Thus solar irradiation stimulates and produces a change in the metabolic activities of the hornet. The fact that hornets link their flight activity with the insolation leads us to speculate that the sun contributes energetically to the hornet's activity.

  8. Establishment of Vespa bicolor in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, I-Hsin; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Chao, Jung-Tai; Yeh, Wen-Chi; Lee, Wei-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of a hornet, Vespa bicolor F., in Taiwan was confirmed based on successful field collection of adults of both sexes and two subterranean colonies. Information on nesting habitat, nest measurement, and colony composition of this species are provided in this article. V. bicolor is the ninth hornet species ever recorded from Taiwan. Possible pathway for the introduction of this alien species is also discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As vespas integram a comunidade de visitantes florais e podem constituir uma parcela representativa dos polinizadores. Por este motivo, objetivou-se conhecer e analisar a preferência floral das espécies de Vespidae, bem como investigar o uso de recursos florais por estas vespas. Foram realizadas coletas entre o período de 2001 a 2008 em diferentes localidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu, entre 08:00 a 17:00 horas, utilizando redes entomológicas para a captura dos vespídeos visitando flores. Os espécimes coletados foram depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. Coletou-se 1.483 indivíduos alocados em 73 espécies de vespas, sendo que 78,9% são Polistinae (30 espécies e 21,1% Eumeninae (43 espécies, visitando as flores de 33 espécies de plantas classificadas em 16 famílias botânicas; as famílias com maior número de espécies vegetais foram Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 e Apiaceae (3. A planta com o maior número de vespídeos coletados foi Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, seguida por Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 e Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. A análise da sobreposição de nicho trófico de 26 espécies que visitaram quatro ou mais floração, mostrou que a sobreposição foi igual ou maior que 50% em apenas seis casos.Floral Preferences of Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in the Rio Grande do Sul State, BrazilAbstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the

  10. Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera: Vespidae em lavouras de Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae no Sul de Minas Gerais

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    Janaina de Laira Freitas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As vespas sociais desempenham importante função nas comunidades, seja nos ecossistemas naturais seja nos agrícolas, realizando a polinização e/ou predação de outros organismos, principalmente de lagartas, o que revela seu potencial para o controle biológico. Objetivou-se com este trabalho inventariar a fauna de vespas sociais existentes em áreas de cultivo de café nos municípios de Inconfidentes e Ouro Fino, sul de Minas Gerais; verificar a atratividade de quatro iscas, além de avaliar a Influência de um fragmento de mata nativa sobre a riqueza e abundância das espécies. Foram capturados 3.405 indivíduos de vespas sociais, distribuídas em oito gêneros e 19 espécies. O cafezal associado a fragmento florestal, no município de Inconfidentes, registrou maior riqueza específica (S=17, abundância (N=2.656 e dominância (D= 0, 4448. O gênero Polybia foi o mais representativo, com sete espécies (37%. Agelaia pallipes (51% e Agelaia multipicta (15% foram as espécies mais abundantes. O índice de similaridade entre as áreas foi de 65%, com 13 espécies comuns. As armadilhas atrativas são eficientes para a coleta das espécies vespas sociais; e a manutenção de áreas de vegetação natural próximas aos cultivos garante uma maior abundância de espécies. No entanto, parece não ficar clara a influência da área de mata sobre a riqueza, pelo fato de várias espécies de vespas sociais serem euriécias.

  11. Differentiating between gynes and workers in the invasive hornet Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in Europe

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    Izaskun Pérez-de-Heredia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In theVespinae, morphological differences of castes are generally well-marked, except for some Vespa species, where it is difficult to distinguish between future queens and workers in autumn-winter colonies. Individual weights have widely been used as a distinguishing factor but recently cuticular hydrocarbon profiles seems to be the definitive tool, although much more expensive and time-consuming. Parameters such as size (mesoscutum width, wet and dry weight were analysed, throughout several colonies, to differentiate female castes (workers and gynes in the hornet Vespa velutina in Europe. These parameters were compared to cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. The results showed that in late autumn, but not earlier, populations are divided into two size groups, which, based on their CHC profiles, can be hypothesized to correspond to workers and gynes. This differentiation mirrored a good separation by size that proves to be more accurate than weight (wet and dry. The size limit between workers and gynes is established at a mesoscutum width of 4.5 mm.

  12. The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Giles E; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Jones, Eleanor P; Ostojá-Starzewski, Jozef C; Hall, Jayne; Tomkies, Victoria; Semmence, Nigel; Brown, Mike; Wakefield, Maureen; Stainton, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax) was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee (Apis mellifera), which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid 'true' males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

  13. The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Great Britain.

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    Giles E Budge

    Full Text Available The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee (Apis mellifera, which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid 'true' males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

  14. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  15. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  16. Cassini VESPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, A.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Cassini Mission has gathered thirteen years of data exploring Saturn and its moons, rings, magnetosphere, and atmosphere. As the mission comes to a close, scientists need to ensure that the information they have assembled during this extraordinary mission is easily accessible to new researchers. Each of Cassini's twelve instruments can take observations in different modes and with different sensors. The instrument teams store their data in disparate systems and formats, and process them to different levels. Creating a single, intuitive interface for new scientists to search across all of this data is a daunting task. The VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) framework offers a potential solution for this challenge. VESPA provides a standard data model, access protocol, and registration service so that any team can turn their dataset into a service provider. The Cassini archive team has created a prototype with VESPA to evaluate whether the framework is a solution for this flagship mission. The resulting system allows users to query data from any Cassini instrument in one place, along with data from other missions, other agencies, ground-based observations, and laboratory results. This poster will describe the Cassini experience setting up the VESPA server, importing various types of Cassini data, and gathering feedback from the science community.

  17. Avaliação ecológica rápida da fauna de vespas (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    MORATO, Elder F.; Sérvio Túlio Amarante; Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2008-01-01

    O Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD), localizado a noroeste do Estado do Acre, é considerado uma das áreas de maior diversidade da Amazônia. A importância de se considerar insetos em programas de conservação tem sido muito enfatizada. Vespas solitárias e sociais são componentes muito importantes dos ecossistemas, devido à posição que ocupam nas redes alimentares. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma avaliação ecológica rápida da fauna de vespas do PNSD, para subsidiar a elabo...

  18. Social wasps of two wetland ecosystems in brazilian Amazonia (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Vespas sociais de duas áreas úmidas na Amazônia brasileira (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Amazonia, 20 genera and more than 200 species of polistine wasps are recorded. Local faunas with 70 to 80 species are usually found in non floodable forest environments. However, a variety of wetlands exist in the region, the most expressive in surface area being varzea systems. In this paper, information is presented on polistines from two areas of wetlands in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Amapá. These are reciprocally compared and also with nearby terra firme locations. Collecting methods consisted of active search for nests, handnetting and automatic trapping of individuals. Forty-six species of 15 genera were collected in Mamirauá, AM, most being widespread common wasps. However, five species deserve special mention in virtue of rarity and/or restricted distribution: Metapolybia rufata, Chartergellus nigerrimus, Chartergellus punctatior, Clypearia duckei, and Clypearia weyrauchi. In Região dos Lagos, AP, 31 species of 9 genera were collected, nearly all being common species with the exception of some Polistes, like P. goeldi and P. occipitalis. Even though less rich than vespid faunas from terra firme habitats, the Mamirauá fauna proved to be quite expressive considering limitations imposed by the hydrological regime. In Região dos Lagos, however, the very low diversity found was below the worst expectations. The virtual absence of otherwise common species in environments like tidal varzea forests along Araguari River is truly remarkable. The causes of low diversity are probably related to isolation and relative immaturity of the region, allied to strong degradation of forested habitats.Vinte gêneros e mais de 200 espécies de vespas sociais são registrados na Amazônia brasileira. Faunas locais com 70 a 80 espécies são usualmente encontradas em florestas não inundáveis. Entretanto, uma grande variedade de áreas úmidas existe na região, com destaque para os sistemas de várzea. Neste artigo, apresentamos

  19. Étude neurophysiologique et comportementale du frelon asiatique Vespa velutina

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The hornet Vespa velutina is an invasive species introduced from China to France about 10 years ago. This social hymenoptera preys on numerous insects species, but predominantly from honeybee colonies, hence exerting a stong predation pressure on insect fauna. Its etablishment to Europe can have strong detrimental effects on human activities and local biodiversity. Olfaction plays a central role in the biology and behavior of hornets, for both intraspecific communication or food search. To li...

  20. Avaliação ecológica rápida da fauna de vespas (Hymenoptera: Aculeata do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brasil Rapid ecological assessment of wasp fauna (Hymenoptera: Aculeata of the Serra do Divisor National Park, Acre, Brazil

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    Elder F. Morato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD, localizado a noroeste do Estado do Acre, é considerado uma das áreas de maior diversidade da Amazônia. A importância de se considerar insetos em programas de conservação tem sido muito enfatizada. Vespas solitárias e sociais são componentes muito importantes dos ecossistemas, devido à posição que ocupam nas redes alimentares. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma avaliação ecológica rápida da fauna de vespas do PNSD, para subsidiar a elaboração de um plano de manejo do referido parque. A amostragem foi realizada em 12 sítios de coleta, situados no interior de oito tipologias de vegetação. Os insetos foram coletados através de armadilhas Malaise, as quais foram expostas em todos os sítios por 24 horas, totalizando 288 horas de amostragem. Foram consideradas nas análises vespas das famílias Chalcididae, Eucharitidae, Evaniidae, Mutillidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae e Vespidae. Ao todo, foram coletados 366 indivíduos distribuídos em 40 gêneros e 85 espécies. Os gêneros Ephuta (Mutillidae, Trypoxylon (Crabronidae e Conura (Chalcididae foram os mais ricos em espécies. Os sítios localizados na região norte do PNSD, considerada zona intangível e zona primitiva, foram os mais ricos em espécies. Cerca de 65% das espécies foram exclusivas a um único sítio, o que significa que as amostras possuem pequena similaridade faunística. Algumas espécies coletadas são consideradas raras.The Serra do Divisor National Park (PNSD, located at the northwest of Acre State, Amazonia, is considered an area of great biodiversity. The question of considering insects in conservation programs. Solitary and social wasps are important components of the terrestrial ecosystems due to their position in trophic webs. The present study aimed at making a rapid ecological assessment of the wasps from the PNSD in order to support the elaboration of a conservation and management plan for that park

  1. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

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    Larissa G. Elias

    Full Text Available Relações ecológicas interespecíficas, que resultam em benefício para todos os organismos participantes, são conhecidas como mutualismo. No entanto, tal cooperação abre espaço para o surgimento de estratégias oportunistas (ou de trapaça, representadas por indivíduos parasitas do mutualismo, que recebem o benefício de um dos parceiros sem oferecer nada em troca. A interação figueiras - vespas - de - figo é um sistema adequado para o estudo do mutualismo e de estratégias oportunistas (parasitas de mutualismos. Representantes do gênero Ficus (Moraceae apresentam uma relação mutualística com pequenas vespas polinizadoras (Agaonidae e são explorados por outras espécies de vespas não-polinizadoras. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto das vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus citrifolia e suas vespas polinizadoras, Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919. Para tal, foi comparada a produção de aquênios (função feminina e de fêmeas da espécie polinizadora (função masculina entre amostras de sicônios altamente infestados e pouco infestados por vespas não-polinizadoras, coletadas nos municípios de Londrina (Paraná, Campinas e Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brasil. Nossos resultados apontaram que as vespas não-polinizadoras exercem impacto negativo nos componentes feminino e masculino da planta, sendo maior no masculino. A produção de vespas polinizadoras foi cerca de sete vezes menor nos figos infestados, ao passo que a produção de aquênios foi 1,5 vez menor nesses mesmos figos. Hipóteses sobre a estabilidade do mutualismo na presença das espécies oportunistas são discutidas.Mutualism is the name given to interspecific interactions which result in benefit for all partners involved. However, such cooperation is open to opportunistic strategies: individuals that extract the benefit from the partner, but do not offer any benefit in exchange. The fig-fig wasp interaction is an appropriate case to

  2. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Variação na diversidade de vespas sociais em escala local numa floresta pluvial amazônica em Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.Vespas sociais são importantes nos ecossistemas neotropicais pela abundância e diversidade. A maioria dos inventários recentes não têm dedicado atenção aos atributos espaciais dos espécimes coletados. Dados espaciais são importantes para estudar e mitigar impactos sobre ecossistemas naturais e proteger espécies. Este artigo descreve e

  3. Medical consequences of the Asian black hornet (Vespa velutina) invasion in Southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Luc; Labadie, Magali; Chanseau, Pierre; Cabot, Claudine; Blanc-Brisset, Ingrid; Penouil, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the Asian black hornet Vespa velutina in Southwestern France has been confirmed since 2005. The medical literature indicates that in comparison with other Asian hornets' species V. velutina is not a major health threat in Asia. A review of data from French Poison Control Centers showed only one envenomation clearly linked to V. velutina. The victim developed severe symptoms with neuralgia sequels after being stung 12 times on the head. This case demonstrates that like native French hornet species V. velutina can be dangerous for man after multiple stings. The experience of Poison Control Centers in France shows that the increase of this Asian hornet population in the southwestern regions has not been correlated with an increase in the number of hymenoptera stings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.

  5. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  6. Olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: New insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Lapeyre, Benoit; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In the course of evolution, eusociality has appeared several times independently in Hymenoptera, within different families such as Apidae (bees), Formicidae (ants), and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), among others. The complex social organization of eusocial Hymenoptera relies on sophisticated olfactory communication systems. Whereas the olfactory systems of several bee and ant species have been well characterized, very little information is as yet available in Vespidae, although this family represents a highly successful insect group, displaying a wide range of life styles from solitary to eusocial. Using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstructions, we investigated the organization of the olfactory pathway in queens, workers, and males of the eusocial hornet Vespa velutina. First, we found that caste and sex dimorphism is weakly pronounced in hornets, with regard to both whole-brain morphology and antennal lobe organization, although several male-specific macroglomeruli are present. The V. velutina antennal lobe contains approximately 265 glomeruli (in females), grouped in nine conspicuous clusters formed by afferent tract subdivisions. As in bees and ants, hornets display a dual olfactory pathway, with two major efferent tracts, the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tracts (m- and l-ALT), separately arborizing two antennal lobe hemilobes and projecting to partially different regions of higher order olfactory centers. Finally, we found remarkable anatomical similarities in the glomerular cluster organizations among hornets, ants, and bees, suggesting the possible existence of homologies in the olfactory pathways of these eusocial Hymenoptera. We propose a common framework for describing AL compartmentalization across Hymenoptera and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2335-2359, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antimicrobial peptides from the venoms of Vespa bicolor Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhu; Yang, Xinbo; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhai, Lei; Lu, Zekuan; Liu, Jingze; Yu, Haining

    2008-11-01

    Hornets possess highly toxic venoms, which are rich in toxins, enzymes and biologically active peptides. Many bioactive substances have been identified from wasp venoms. Vespa mastoparan (MP-VBs) and Vespa chemotatic peptide presenting antimicrobial action (VESP-VBs) were purified and characterized from the venom of the wasp, Vespa bicolor Fabricius. The precursors encoding VESP-VBs and MP-VBs were cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. Analyzed by FAB-MS, the amino acid sequence and molecular mass for VESP-VB1 were FMPIIGRLMSGSL and 1420.6, for MP-VB1 were INMKASAAVAKKLL and 1456.5, respectively. The primary structures of these peptides are homologous to those of chemotactic peptides and mastoparans isolated from other vespid venoms. These peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi and induced mast cell degranulation, but displayed almost no hemolytic activity towards human blood red cells.

  8. VESPA: The vibrational spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrigo, Anna, E-mail: anna.fedrigo@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Colognesi, Daniele; Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bertelsen, Mads; Strobl, Markus [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hartl, Monika; Deen, Pascale P. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    VESPA, Vibrational Excitation Spectrometer with Pyrolytic-graphite Analysers, aims to probe molecular excitations via inelastic neutron scattering. It is a thermal high resolution inverted geometry time-of-flight instrument designed to maximise the use of the long pulse of the European Spallation Source. The wavelength frame multiplication technique was applied to provide simultaneously a broad dynamic range (about 0-500 meV) while a system of optical blind choppers allows to trade flux for energy resolution. Thanks to its high flux, VESPA will allow the investigation of dynamical and in situ experiments in physical chemistry. Here we describe the design parameters and the corresponding McStas simulations.

  9. From Trash to Treasure--Rebuilding a '66 Vespa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnault, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author got his 8th-grade students thinking about greener modes of transportation--and got them excited about technology education--in the course of rebuilding a badly damaged 1966 Vespa scooter. This turned out to be a wonderful project because it included almost the entire 8th grade, and showed students that…

  10. Fatal acute pulmonary oedema and acute renal failure following multiple wasp/hornet (Vespa affinis) stings in Sri Lanka: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Keerthi; Kannangare, Thamara; Jayasena, Ajith; Jayasekera, Aruni; Waduge, Roshitha; Weerakoon, Kosala; Kularatne, Senanayake A M

    2014-06-13

    Vespa affinis is a hornet widely distributed in Sri Lanka and it is responsible for the highest number of deaths related to Hymenoptera stings. Apart from the early reactions, victims often die in hospital many hours later due to complications such as myocardial infarction and multiple organ failure. Increased microvascular permeability and acute pulmonary oedema as the primary pathology is less known in hornet envenoming. Here, we report clinical and postmortem findings of two Sinhalese patients, a 48-year-old husband and his 46-year-old wife, who both died following a massive attack by hornets 32 hours and 9 hours after the incidence respectively. At postmortem examination, both patients had pleural effusions, acute pulmonary oedema and red cell casts in their urine. Their coronary arteries and histology of myocardium were normal. Early recognition of acute pulmonary oedema in hornet stings is needed with implementation of crucial treatments to avert deaths.

  11. VESPA: A community-driven Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Capria, M. T.; Schmitt, B.; Génot, V.; André, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Määttänen, A.; Thuillot, W.; Carry, B.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.; Fernique, P.; Beigbeder, L.; Millour, E.; Rousseau, B.; Andrieu, F.; Chauvin, C.; Minin, M.; Ivanoski, S.; Longobardo, A.; Bollard, P.; Albert, D.; Gangloff, M.; Jourdane, N.; Bouchemit, M.; Glorian, J.-M.; Trompet, L.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Juaristi, J.; Desmars, J.; Guio, P.; Delaa, O.; Lagain, A.; Soucek, J.; Pisa, D.

    2018-01-01

    The VESPA data access system focuses on applying Virtual Observatory (VO) standards and tools to Planetary Science. Building on a previous EC-funded Europlanet program, it has reached maturity during the first year of a new Europlanet 2020 program (started in 2015 for 4 years). The infrastructure has been upgraded to handle many fields of Solar System studies, with a focus both on users and data providers. This paper describes the broad lines of the current VESPA infrastructure as seen by a potential user, and provides examples of real use cases in several thematic areas. These use cases are also intended to identify hints for future developments and adaptations of VO tools to Planetary Science.

  12. Xanthopterin in the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis): light absorbance is increased with maturation of yellow pigment granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Benyamini, Avishai; Boiko, Yulia; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

    2009-01-01

    The Oriental hornet bears both brown and yellow colors on its cuticle. The brown component is contributed by the pigment melanin, which is dispersed in the brown cuticle and provides protection against insolation, while the yellow-colored part contains within pockets in the cuticle granules possessing a yellow pigment. These yellow granules (YG) are formed about 2 days prior to eclosion of the imago, and their production continues for about 3 days posteclosion. Xanthopterin is the main component of the granule and lends it its yellow color. Xanthopterin produces a characteristic excitation/emission maximum at 386/456 nm. Characterization by use of mass spectrometry showed the compound to have a molecular ion of 179, as expected from xanthopterin. Spectroscopic examination of the absorption of an entire stripe of yellow cuticle in the course of its metamorphosis revealed that the absorption steadily increases throughout the process to a maximal level of absorption about 3 days posteclosion. In the absence of the YG, the cuticle is permeable to the passage of all wavelengths within the visible range and to the UV range (290-750 nm) in all age groups of hornets. The newly ecloded hornets depart the nest to engage in activities requiring exposure to insolation only as the process of granule formation terminates, namely, when the layer of YG in the cuticle suffices to absorb all the harmful UV radiation.

  13. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers)

  14. Navigation organs of the oriental hornet : the ocelli and ciliated sensory epithelium of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenzweig, Eyal

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structure and the role of the orientation and navigation organs in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. 1771 (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), with special reference to the ocelli. The role of the cuticle, acting as a voltaic system providing the energy for the hornet to fly and

  15. Hornet cuticle - a composite structure comprised of a series of duplex lamellae attenuating toward the interior of the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Kirshboim, S; Steinberg, D; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    Our study deals with the ultramicroscopic structure of the yellow pigmented cuticular stripes on the abdomen of the oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). The abdominal cuticle is composed of numerous (more than 25) lamellae which progressively attenuate as one proceeds from the

  16. Navigation organs of the oriental hornet: the ocelli and ciliated sensory epithelium of the head

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Eyal

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structure and the role of the orientation and navigation organs in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. 1771 (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), with special reference to the ocelli. The role of the cuticle, acting as a voltaic system providing the energy for the hornet to fly and to navigate had been discussed in chapter 2

  17. A keystone-like grain in hornet comb cells : Its nature and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Riabinin, K; Kozhevnikov, M; van der Want, H; Stokiroos, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    In the roof of cells built by the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis (Vespinae, Hymenoptera), there is one or more grains differing in their composition and shape from the surrounding structures. These grains have a diameter of 100-200 mum and protrude slightly from the roof inward. They contain

  18. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  19. VESPA: developing the planetary science Virtual Observatory in H2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Capria, Teresa; Rossi, Angelo Pio

    2016-04-01

    The Europlanet H2020 programme will develop a research infrastructure in Horizon 2020. The programme includes a follow-on to the FP7 activity aimed at developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (VO). This activity is called VESPA, which stands for Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access. Building on the IDIS activity of Europlanet FP7, VESPA will distribute more data, will improve the connected tools and infrastructure, and will help developing a community of both users and data providers. One goal of the Europlanet FP7 programme was to set the basis for a European Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science. A prototype has been set up during FP7, most of the activity being dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), plasma physics (SPASE), and space archive services (IPDA). It remains consistent with extensions of IVOA standards.

  20. VESPA: Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory in H2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Capria, M. T.; Rossi, A. P.; Schmitt, B.; Andre, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Thuillot, W.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA). A general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames [1]. A procedure has been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (http://vespa.obspm.fr), using a resolver for target names. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol. The Europlanet H2020 program started in Sept 2015 will provide support to new data services in Europe (30 to 50 expected), and focus on the improvement of the infrastructure. Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data. The Europlanet H2020 project is funded by the European Commission under the H2020 Program, grant 654208. [1] Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014

  1. (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude experimentale de quelques parametres biologiques de ceranisus femoratus (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae) un nouvel ennemi naturel Pour le controle de megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom) (thysanoptera : thripidae) ravageur du niebe au benin.

  2. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L.) drude on T47D human breast cancer cell line: Potential mechanisms of action. M.H Abdolmohammadi, S Fouladdel, A Shafiee, G Amin, S Ghaffari, E Azizi ...

  3. The Antimicrobial Activity of Aliquidambar orientalis mill. Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate) free-radical. Results: The acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of L. orientalis showed maximum inhibition zone of 12 mm against Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Acylated flavonol glycoside from Platanus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Akbar, Seema; Dar, Javid A; Irtiza, Syed; Galal, Ahmed; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Ghazanfar, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design on Alisma orientalis of Fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chen, Xing-fu; Peng, Shi-ming; Liang, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Chun

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of combined N, P, K and micronutrient fertilizers on the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber, and to optimize the fertilizer application rate. Four factors five levels quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design was used. A function was established on nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and microelement fertilizer application rate with the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber. The established mathematical model was of high reliability for prediction with quadratic regression equation of R2 = 0. 8980. The order of increasing Alisma orientalis tuber yield was nitrogen > micronutrient fertilizer > potassium > phosphor. The results of the frequency analysis showed that for the target yield over 8 250 kg/hm2 and the confidence interval of 95%, the optimal fertilizer application rates were as follows :nitrogen of 241. 45 - 283. 55 kg/hm2, phosphor of 81. 14 - 208. 44 kg/hm2, potassium of 95. 57 - 239. 42 kg/hm2, and zinc fertilizer of 14. 32 - 16. 18 kg/hm2, boron fertilizer of 18. 84 - 19. 86 kg/hm2, and molybdenum fertilizer of 0. 151 -0. 159 kg/hm2 in micronutrient fertilizer. Nitrogen is related to the growth of Alisma orientalis, potassium promotes tuber bulking, micronutrient fertilizer consisted of zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer promotes Alisma orientalis growth and the absorption of nitrogen, phosphor and potassium. Moderate application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer can promote Alisma orientalis tuber yield. The nitrogen has the best effect.

  6. Hornet silk proteins in the cocoons produced by different Vespa species inhabiting Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Kojima, Katsura; Zhang, Qiang; Sezutsu, Hideki; Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Tamada, Yasushi

    2008-10-01

    We compared the components of hornet silk - a fibrous protein occurring in the cocoons produced by hornet larvae - among 6 species of the genus Vespa inhabiting Japan: V. simillima, V. dybowskii, V. crabro, V. mandarinia, V. ducalis, and V. analis. From the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and 5'-RACE, it was found that the major component proteins composing hornet silk could be divided into 6 groups. Among these 6 proteins, 5 proteins were common to the hornet silks of all 6 Vespa species. The SDS-PAGE major band corresponding to the remaining protein was observed only in the hornet silks of V. mandarinia and V. ducalis. This correspondence between V. mandarinia and V. ducalis can probably be explained in terms of the phylogenetic relationships of the Vespa species.

  7. VESPA: software to facilitate genomic annotation of prokaryotic organisms through integration of proteomic and transcriptomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Elena S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The procedural aspects of genome sequencing and assembly have become relatively inexpensive, yet the full, accurate structural annotation of these genomes remains a challenge. Next-generation sequencing transcriptomics (RNA-Seq, global microarrays, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS-based proteomics have demonstrated immense value to genome curators as individual sources of information, however, integrating these data types to validate and improve structural annotation remains a major challenge. Current visual and statistical analytic tools are focused on a single data type, or existing software tools are retrofitted to analyze new data forms. We present Visual Exploration and Statistics to Promote Annotation (VESPA is a new interactive visual analysis software tool focused on assisting scientists with the annotation of prokaryotic genomes though the integration of proteomics and transcriptomics data with current genome location coordinates. Results VESPA is a desktop Java™ application that integrates high-throughput proteomics data (peptide-centric and transcriptomics (probe or RNA-Seq data into a genomic context, all of which can be visualized at three levels of genomic resolution. Data is interrogated via searches linked to the genome visualizations to find regions with high likelihood of mis-annotation. Search results are linked to exports for further validation outside of VESPA or potential coding-regions can be analyzed concurrently with the software through interaction with BLAST. VESPA is demonstrated on two use cases (Yersinia pestis Pestoides F and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to demonstrate the rapid manner in which mis-annotations can be found and explored in VESPA using either proteomics data alone, or in combination with transcriptomic data. Conclusions VESPA is an interactive visual analytics tool that integrates high-throughput data into a genomic context to facilitate the discovery of structural mis

  8. Effects of the European hornet ( Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can ...

  9. Discrimination of Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaori Yara; Yasuhisa Kunimi

    2009-01-01

      Torymus sinensis and Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) are, respectively, introduced and indigenous parasitoid wasps that attack the invasive chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Japan...

  10. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  11. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D

    2015-12-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon(®), bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in the iglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hymenoptera Sphecoidea Fabriciana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1961-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the early years of systematic entomology Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) described an enormous number of insects, including several hundreds of Hymenoptera, from various parts of the world. His descriptions are generally short and incomplete, the classification of the species

  13. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Mitra, Aniruddha; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina), a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives. PMID:28659767

  14. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  15. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Here, we report the antiproliferative and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by Astrodaucus orientalis in human breast carcinoma cell line,. T47D. The antiproliferative effect determined with MTT assay and the changes in cell cycle pattern ...

  16. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  17. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom. PMID:24499044

  18. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-03-18

    Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom.

  19. Ciliary hair cells and cuticular photoreceptor of the hornet Vespa orientalis as components of a gravity detecting system : an SEM/TEM investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebloed, WL; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, JJL; Ishay, JS

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes three types of hair cell configurations with stereo- and kinocilia in the head of the hornet; these were encountered at the vertex and frons regions adjacent to the three ocelli and are assumed to be part of the hornet's gravity detecting system together with cuticular

  20. Virtual EPID standard phantom audit (VESPA) for remote IMRT and VMAT credentialing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Narges; Lehmann, Joerg; Legge, Kimberley; Vial, Philip; Greer, Peter B.

    2017-06-01

    A virtual EPID standard phantom audit (VESPA) has been implemented for remote auditing in support of facility credentialing for clinical trials using IMRT and VMAT. VESPA is based on published methods and a clinically established IMRT QA procedure, here extended to multi-vendor equipment. Facilities are provided with comprehensive instructions and CT datasets to create treatment plans. They deliver the treatment directly to their EPID without any phantom or couch in the beam. In addition, they deliver a set of simple calibration fields per instructions. Collected EPID images are uploaded electronically. In the analysis, the dose is projected back into a virtual cylindrical phantom. 3D gamma analysis is performed. 2D dose planes and linear dose profiles are provided and can be considered when needed for clarification. In addition, using a virtual flat-phantom, 2D field-by-field or arc-by-arc gamma analyses are performed. Pilot facilities covering a range of planning and delivery systems have performed data acquisition and upload successfully. Advantages of VESPA are (1) fast turnaround mainly driven by the facility’s capability of providing the requested EPID images, (2) the possibility for facilities performing the audit in parallel, as there is no need to wait for a phantom, (3) simple and efficient credentialing for international facilities, (4) a large set of data points, and (5) a reduced impact on resources and environment as there is no need to transport heavy phantoms or audit staff. Limitations of the current implementation of VESPA for trials credentialing are that it does not provide absolute dosimetry, therefore a Level I audit is still required, and that it relies on correctly delivered open calibration fields, which are used for system calibration. The implemented EPID based IMRT and VMAT audit system promises to dramatically improve credentialing efficiency for clinical trials and wider applications.

  1. Data mining and visualization from planetary missions: the VESPA-Europlanet2020 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardo, Andrea; Capria, Maria Teresa; Zinzi, Angelo; Ivanovski, Stavro; Giardino, Marco; di Persio, Giuseppe; Fonte, Sergio; Palomba, Ernesto; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Fonte, Sergio; Giommi, Paolo; Europlanet VESPA 2020 Team

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) activity, developed in the context of the Europlanet 2020 Horizon project, aimed at providing tools for analysis and visualization of planetary data provided by space missions. In particular, the activity is focused on minor bodies of the Solar System.The structure of the computation node, the algorithms developed for analysis of planetary surfaces and cometary comae and the tools for data visualization are presented.

  2. Armadilhas Atrativas como Ferramenta de Amostragem de Vespas Sociais (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Uma Meta-Análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Maciel

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. Studying social wasp diversity, with special concern regarding the chosen study method, is of increasing importance due to the acknowledgement of this group’s role in keeping the balance of ecosystems. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the using of bait traps in social wasp diversity studies in the Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil.

  3. Feeding Preferences of the Endangered Diving Beetle Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ya Ohba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner diving beetles are declining in most regions of Japan, and it is included in the Red Data List of species in 34 of 47 prefectures of Japan. However, basic ecological information about C. tripunctatus orientalis, such as its feeding habits, remains unknown. In order to elucidate the feeding habits of C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae, feeding preference experiments were carried out in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly higher than the number of tadpoles consumed, indicating that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer Odonata nymphs to tadpoles. In addition, all the first instar larvae of C. tripunctatus orientalis developed into second instars when they were supplied with motionless Odonata nymphs, but their survival rate was lower when they were supplied with motionless tadpoles. These results suggest that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer insects to vertebrates.

  4. Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., an Australasian yeast from nitidulid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Marc-André; Bowles, Jane M; Wiens, Frank; Dobson, Jessica; Ewing, Curtis P

    2006-10-01

    A novel species, Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., is described for haploid, heterothallic yeasts isolated from nitidulid beetles sampled in flowers in Rarotonga in the Cook Islands, and the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. As evidenced by analysis of D1/D2 large subunit rDNA sequences, the species is related to Candida hawaiiana, to which it is similar in growth responses. Cylindrical, conjugated asci and acicular ascospores of moderate size are formed. Rudimentary mating reactions were observed with Metschnikowia aberdeeniae and Metschnikowia continentalis, but not with C. hawaiiana. The type strain of M. orientalis is UWOPS 99-745.6(T) (h(+)) (=CBS 10331(T)=NRRL Y-27991(T)) and the designated allotype is UWOPS 05-269.1 (h(-)) (=CBS 10330=NRRL Y-27992).

  5. Cloning and Expression of Cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis Pollens in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis. Methods: RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+ vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. Results: The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. Conclusion: The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  6. Cloning and expression of cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis pollens in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Pazouki, Nazanin; Moghadam, Malihe; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2012-10-01

    Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis) trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis . RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+) vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  7. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Experiments were conducted to investigate (1 prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd. (Acari: Tetranychidae and B. tabaci, and (2 development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs, A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus.

  8. Mooreonuphis vespa, a new brooding species of Onuphidae (Annelida) from northern Spain (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Anadón, Nuria

    2013-11-29

    A new species of the genus Mooreonuphis Fauchald, 1982 collected from the Cantabrian shelf (Bay of Biscay) is described. Mooreonuphis vespa sp. nov. constitutes the first record of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: conspicuous dark brown transverse segmental pigment bands; antennae and palps with 3-5 basal ceratophoral rings and a very long distal ring; unusually long and slender peristomial and dorsal cirri; simple branchiae from chaetiger 17-19. We present observations on its reproductive biology (including brooding behaviour) and remark on the biogeography of the genus.

  9. 3D visualization of planetary data: the MATISSE tool in the framework of VESPA-Europlanet 2020 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardo, A.; Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Erard, S.; Giardino, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Fonte, S.; Palomba, E.; Antonelli, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    MATISSE is a web tool allowing 3D visualization of planetary data. Here we discuss the new functions implemented on MATISSE to allow visualization of derived and high-level data, as well as the implementation of protocols to make it compatible with the planetary Virtual Observatory, developed under the VESPA-Europlanet2020 activity.

  10. Pathogenic genotype of major piroplasm surface protein associated with anemia in Theileria orientalis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-07-27

    Serious disease outbreaks in cattle caused by Theileria orientalis have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region. Genetic variables of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) expressed on the surface of the piroplasm inside T. orientalis-infected erythrocytes are considered to be associated with variation in the pathogenicity of T. orientalis. Our study describes the clinically relevant MPSP types associated with anemia in Theileria-infected cattle. These results revealed that MPSP expression plays an important role in hematological alterations in Theileria-infected cattle, and that MPSP type 1 is strongly associated with bovine anemia, which can be a potential target for the prevention of bovine theileriosis.

  11. One year on VESPA, a community-driven Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Capria, M. T.; Schmitt, B.; Andre, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Thuillot, W.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Europlanet H2020 program started on 1/9/2015 for 4 years. It includes an activity to adapt Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques to Planetary Science data called VESPA. The objective is to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to provide simple data access and on-line visualization, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. The VESPA system, based on a prototype developed in a previous program [1], has been hugely improved during the first year of Europlanet H2020: the infrastructure has been upgraded to describe data in many fields more accurately; the main user search interface (http://vespa.obspm.fr) has been redesigned to provide more flexibility; alternative ways to access Planetary Science data services from VO tools are being implemented in addition to receiving data from the main interface; VO tools are being improved to handle specificities of Solar System data, e.g. measurements in reflected light, coordinate systems, etc. Existing data services have been updated, and new ones have been designed. The global objective (50 data services) is already overstepped, with 54 services open or being finalized. A procedure to install data services has been documented, and hands-on sessions are organized twice a year at EGU and EPSC; this is intended to favour the installation of services by individual research teams, e.g. to distribute derived data related to a published study. In complement, regular discussions are held with big data providers, starting with space agencies (IPDA). Common projects with ESA and NASA's PDS have been engaged, which should lead to a connection between PDS4 and EPN-TAP. In parallel, a Solar System Interest Group has been decided in IVOA; the goal is here to adapt existing astronomy standards to Planetary Science.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of Heliophysics

  12. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Chemical Heterogeneity in Inbred European Population of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gévar, J; Bagnères, A-G; Christidès, J-P; Darrouzet, E

    2017-08-01

    Invasive social insect populations that have been introduced to a new environment through a limited number of introduction events generally exhibit reduced variability in their chemical signatures (cuticular hydrocarbons) compared to native populations of the same species. The reduced variability in these major recognition cues could be caused by a reduction of genetic diversity due to a genetic bottleneck. This hypothesis was tested in an inbred European population of the invasive hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax. Our results show that, in spite of the limited amount of genetic diversity present in the European population, the chemical signatures of individuals were highly heterogeneous according to their caste, sex, and colony origin. In queens, some specific saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons were identified. These results suggest that epigenetic and/or environmental factors could play a role in modifying cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in this introduced hornet population despite the observed reduction of genetic diversity.

  14. Production of Early Diploid Males by European Colonies of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Darrouzet

    Full Text Available The invasive yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax was accidentally introduced in Europe in the early 2000s. As is the case in colonies of other wasp and hornet species, V. velutina colonies are known to produce sexuals (males and new queens at the end of the summer. We show that early-stage colonies in French populations frequently produce males well before the usual reproductive period. The vast majority of the males produced are diploid, which is consistent with the loss of genetic diversity previously reported in introduced populations in France. Since males do not participate in colony activities, the production of early diploid males at the expense of workers is expected to hamper colony growth and, ultimately, decrease the expansion of the species in its invasive range in Europe.

  15. Production of Early Diploid Males by European Colonies of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrouzet, Eric; Gévar, Jérémy; Guignard, Quentin; Aron, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The invasive yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax was accidentally introduced in Europe in the early 2000s. As is the case in colonies of other wasp and hornet species, V. velutina colonies are known to produce sexuals (males and new queens) at the end of the summer. We show that early-stage colonies in French populations frequently produce males well before the usual reproductive period. The vast majority of the males produced are diploid, which is consistent with the loss of genetic diversity previously reported in introduced populations in France. Since males do not participate in colony activities, the production of early diploid males at the expense of workers is expected to hamper colony growth and, ultimately, decrease the expansion of the species in its invasive range in Europe.

  16. The VESPA Survey: 100 New Variable Stars Discovered in Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, U.; Strabla, L.; Girelli, R.

    2017-06-01

    We describe the VESPA project made at IAU station 565, Astronomical Observatory in Bassano Bresciano (BS), Italy. It is one photometric survey of the northern hemisphere which has the aim of discovering and investigating new variable stars. In the first two years of activity we have discovered 100 new variable stars in the course of observations carried out from August 2014 to September 2016. The newly discovered stars comprise 80 eclipsing binary stars (66 of them classified as W Ursae Majoris, 11 as beta Lyrae, and 3 beta Persei), one rotating (ROT), one ellipsoidal variable (ELL), and 18 pulsating variables (5 of them classified as RRAB, 7 RRC, 3 HADS, 2 delta Scuti and one Cepheid). Variability classification is based on the properties of the optical light curves that we obtained using our 255 mm F/4.7 Newton robotic telescope.

  17. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  18. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  19. A comparative study on phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of Platycladus orientalis and Ocimum canum

    OpenAIRE

    Jhansee Mishra; Alok Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    In ayurveda, plants have been used for the treatment of so many diseases. Herbal drugs are easily available and have fewer side effects. So, many people are attracted towards the herbal drugs. Platycladus orientalis is one of the useful plant in Indian & Chinese medicine. It is used in treatment of so many diseases like diuretic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic and anthelmintic etc. In Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa Platycladus orientalis is grown as a...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTIONALITY BIOINDICATOR ANALYSIS THROUGH ISOTHERMS: Atherigona orientalis (DIPTERA, MUSCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa da Silva Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherigona  orientalis (Schiner é uma espécie de muscóide amplamente encontrado em áreas tropicais e subtropicais de todas as regiões biogeográficas. Podem ser potenciais vetores de agentes etiológicos de doenças, principalmente em áreas de poucos recursos sanitários, sendo então, consideradas como problema de Saúde Pública. Os métodos de interpretação ecológica da modificação ambiental baseiam-se na propriedade indicadora de organismos e comunidades bióticas. A multiplicidade dos diversos fatores estressantes, far-se-ão necessárias interpretações objetivas que possam fornecer uma impressão geral do efeito e da intensidade da carga existente. A dificuldade dos métodos da avaliação biológica reside em se compreender e empregar praticamente essa indicação biológica, como uma avaliação. Neste artigo a hipótese é que há um limiar térmico i.e. temperatura base (Tb para que se processe o desenvolvimento de A. orientalis e o aumento e/ou diminuição da população é função de sua sobrevivência, fertilidade, razão sexual e fecundidade, com limiares influenciados pelas isotermas. A adoção dessa hipótese considera que para o grupo de espécies  em questão, a desidratação não é uniforme. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20093

  1. Management of occupational Hymenoptera allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Chatelain, Rene; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Certain outdoor activities show a particularly high risk for being stung by Hymenoptera species. Avoidance of such stings is preferable for preventing unwanted local or systemic sting reactions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge on risk factors and management of Hymenoptera venom allergy. We will specifically focus on patients with an intense occupational exposure to Hymenoptera venom. Repeated stings were found to increase the risk for subsequent severe anaphylactic sting reactions. The male preponderance for severe anaphylactic sting reactions probably reflects in part a sex-specific occupational exposure being higher in males. When selecting a specific venom for therapy, current knowledge of cross-reactivity between venoms of various species should be considered. If available, venom immunotherapy should be performed using the venom of the culprit insect. Recently, a pilot study also showed the efficacy of venom immunotherapy when treating large local reactions. If an intensely exposed patient presents with a systemic anaphylactic sting reaction, efficacy of venom immunotherapy should be demonstrated by a tolerated sting challenge before allowing this patient to return to his/her occupation. Patients with bee venom allergy and an intense exposure should be treated with an increased maintenance dose of 200 μg bee venom. Patients with a history of large local reactions should be provided with an emergency kit, which should contain oral antihistamines and corticosteroids. In patients in whom local sting reactions induce symptoms of high clinical significance, an off-label use of venom immunotherapy may be discussed.

  2. Thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis mill wood before and after extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Terzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extractives on the thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (storax wood is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. To evaluate the effects of polar and apolar extractives on the thermal behavior of wood, sawdust samples from the heartwood of L. orientalis are extracted with either cold water (48 h, hot water (48 h, or ethanol/toluene (1:2 v/v (6 h prior to thermal analysis. Thermogravimetry (TG curves show that polar and apolar extractives promote char formation, increase the amount of residue, and improve the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood. In addition, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG curves demonstrate that thermal degradation of un-extracted and cold water-extracted wood samples occurs in a single step, while a two-step degradation pattern is seen for hot water- and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples. It is also observed that first degradation reactions in hot water and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples occur faster than those in unextracted and cold water-extracted wood samples. Although there are approximately half the number of extracted apolar compounds compared to polar compounds, the removal of both types of compounds affect the thermal properties of L. orientalis wood to the same degree. It is thus deduced that apolar extractives significantly affect the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood.

  3. A Historical Overview of Research on Babesia orientalis, a Protozoan Parasite Infecting Water Buffalo

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    Lan He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia (phylum apicomplexa. In China, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. major, B. ovata, and B. orientalis. Among them, B. orientalis is the most recently identified new Babesia species epidemic in China. This review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what learned about this parasite. This parasitic protozoan was found in 1984 in Central and South China and then named as B. orientalis in 1997 based on its differences in transmitting host, morphology, pathogenicity and characteristics of in vitro cultivation when compared with B. bigemina and B. bovis. It was found that Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides is the transmitting vector and water buffalo is the only reported host. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene also confirmed that B. orientalis is a new species. After species verification, four diagnostic methods including semi-nest PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, reverse line blot hybridization assay, and real-time PCR were established for lab and field use purposes. Genomic sequencing was conducted and the complete genomes of mitochondria and apicoplast were annotated. Future work will be focused on developing effective vaccines, identifying drug targets and screening useful drugs for controlling B. orientalis in water buffalo.

  4. Molecular characterisation of Theileria orientalis in imported and native bovines from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Abbas, Tariq; Wajid, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of Theileria orientalis in Pakistan are unknown; therefore, investigations using sensitive and precise molecular techniques are required. This study reports the first molecular characterisation of T. orientalis detected from imported (Bos taurus) and native cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) selected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. DNA samples from blood (n=246) were extracted and tested using conventional PCR utilising the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR). Theileria orientalis DNA was detected (15%; 22/147) only in imported cattle by conventional PCR, whereas 24.5% (36/147), 6% (3/50) and 6.1% (3/49) of the imported cattle and native Pakistani cattle and buffaloes, respectively were test-positive for T. orientalis using MT-PCR. Using MT-PCR, the prevalence of T. orientalis was significantly higher (PPakistan, and highlights the need for future studies to understand the spread of transboundary animal diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. EPG monitoring of the probing behaviour of the common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis on artificial diet and selected host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebicki, P.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Harding, R.M.; Rodoni, B.C.; Powell, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a polyphagous vector of a range of economically important pathogens, including phytoplasmas and viruses, which infect a diverse range of crops. Studies on the plant penetration behaviour by O. orientalis were conducted using

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-09-01

    A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms.

  7. VESPA. Behaviour of long-lived fission and activation products in the nearfield of a nuclear waste repository and the possibilities of their retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischofer, Barbara; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); and others

    2016-06-15

    The present document is the final report of the Joint Research Project VESPA (Behaviour of Long-lived Fission and Activation Products in the Near Field of a Nuclear Waste Repository and the Possibilities of Their Retention), started in July 2010 with a duration of four years. The following four institutions were collaborative Partners in VESPA: - Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH - Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) - Institut fuer Ressourcenoekologie (IRE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) - Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) VESPA was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) under the contract numbers 02 E 10770 (GRS), 02 E 10780 (FZJ-IEF-6), 02 E 10790 (HZDR-IRE), 02 E 10800 (KIT-INE).

  8. Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen, which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species.

  9. Identification of hornet silk gene with a characteristic repetitive sequence in Vespa simillima xanthoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Kojima, Katsura; Zhang, Qiang; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Vssilk 5 is a gene encoding a component protein of the silk produced by the larvae of the yellow hornet (Vespa simillima, Vespinae, Vespidae). In this study, we deduced the complete cDNA sequence of Vssilk 5. It was found that 2 silk proteins, Vssilk 5 N and Vssilk 5 C, in the cocoon of the yellow hornet are both encoded by the Vssilk 5 gene. Vssilk 5 N and 5 C are the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively, of the Vssilk 5 pro-protein (Vssilk 5p). The complete amino acid sequences of Vssilk 5 N and Vssilk 5 C were deduced. Although a non-repetitive amino acid sequence and coiled-coil structure are properties common to the major components of silk proteins produced by the larvae of the social superfamilies Apoidea and Vespoidea of the Apocrita, nearly the entire sequence of Vssilk 5 C consisted of a repeated sequence of amino acids, and the calculated coiled-coil probability for this protein was low. Vssilk 5 N is a protein without a repetitive amino acid sequence and has a low coiled-coil probability. Moreover, we found a water soluble protein, Vssilk 5S that is likely segmented from Vssilk 5 C and contains an N-terminal sequence identical to that of Vssilk 5 C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the number of biological invasions has continuously increased worldwide. Due to their environmental and economical consequences, invasive species are now a major concern. Social wasps are particularly efficient invaders because of their distinctive biology and behavior. Among them, the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a keen hunter of domestic honeybees. Its recent introduction to Europe may induce important beekeeping, pollination, and biodiversity problems. Hornets use olfactory cues for the long-range detection of food sources, in this case the location of honeybee colonies, but the exact nature of these cues remains unknown. Here, we studied the orientation behavior of V. velutina workers towards a range of hive products and protein sources, as well as towards prominent chemical substances emitted by these food sources. In a multiple choice test performed under controlled laboratory conditions, we found that hornets are strongly attracted to the odor of some hive products, especially pollen and honey. When testing specific compounds, the honeybee aggregation pheromone, geraniol, proved highly attractive. Pheromones produced by honeybee larvae or by the queen were also of interest to hornet workers, albeit to a lesser extent. Our results indicate that V. velutina workers are selectively attracted towards olfactory cues from hives (stored food, brood, and queen), which may signal a high prey density. This study opens new perspectives for understanding hornets' hunting behavior and paves the way for developing efficient trapping strategies against this invasive species.

  11. Predicting the spread of the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) following its incursion into Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Matt J; Franklin, Daniel N; Datta, Samik; Brown, Mike A; Budge, Giles E

    2017-07-24

    The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) is native to South-East Asia, and is a voracious predator of pollinating insects including honey bees. Since its accidental introduction into South-Western France in 2004, V. velutina has spread to much of western Europe. The presence of V. velutina in Great Britain was first confirmed in September 2016. The likely dynamics following an initial incursion are uncertain, especially the risk of continued spread, and the likely success of control measures. Here we extrapolate from the situation in France to quantify the potential invasion of V. velutina in Great Britain. We find that, without control, V. velutina could colonise the British mainland rapidly, depending upon how the Asian hornet responds to the colder climate in Britain compared to France. The announcement that a second hornet had been discovered in Somerset, increases the chance that the invasion first occurred before 2016. We therefore consider the likely site of first invasion and the probabilistic position of additional founding nests in late 2016 and early 2017. Given the potential dispersion of V. velutina, we conclude that vigilance is required over a large area to prevent the establishment of this threat to the pollinator population.

  12. Film formation and structural characterization of silk of the hornet Vespa simillima xanthoptera Cameron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Kojima, Katsura; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Seita

    2005-01-01

    We extracted silk produced by the larva of the hornet Vespa simillima xanthoptera Cameron from its nest. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the extracted hornet silk showed four major components with molecular weights between 35 and 60 kDa. The main amino acid components of the hornet silk protein were Ala (33.5%), Ser (16.9%), Asp (8.5%) and Glu (8.1%). The hornet silk could be dissolved in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) at 25 degrees C without incurring molecular degradation. A transparent film of hornet silk was obtained readily by the formation of a cast upon drying of the hornet silk in the HFIP solution. Residual HFIP solvent was removed from the film by extraction with pure water. Solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR measurements revealed that the secondary structures of hornet silk proteins in the native state consisted of coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations. The beta-sheet to alpha-helix ratio, which was changed by processing, was mainly responsible for the silk's thermostability.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Dan Mitroiu

    2015-03-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  14. A study on inhibitory effects of Siğla tree (Liquidambar orientalis Mill. var. orientalis) storax against several bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağdiç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan; Ozcan, Musa; Ozçelik, Sami

    2005-06-01

    In this study, Siğla (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The storax was dissolved in absolute ethanol and was tested at concentrations of 10.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 0.1%. Pure ethanol was used for the control. The antibacterial activity of the Siğla storax was determined by using the agar diffusion method. The growths of A. hydrophila, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were not inhibited by any of the concentrations of Siğla storax. The results showed that Siğla storax has antibacterial activity against many bacteria at concentrations of 10.0% and against some bacteria at concentrations of 1.0%, 0.4% and 0.2%. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of different locations on the morphological, chemical, pulping and papermaking properties of Trema orientalis (Nalita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, Nasima; Ni, Yonghao

    2010-03-01

    The chemical compositions and fiber morphology of stem and branch samples from Trema orientalis at three different sites planted in Bangladesh were determined and their pulping, bleaching and the resulting pulp properties were investigated. A large difference between the stem and branch samples was observed. The stem samples have consistently higher alpha-cellulose and lower lignin content, and longer fibers than the branch samples in all sites. T. orientalis from the Dhaka and Rajbari region had higher alpha-cellulose content and longer fiber length, resulting in higher pulp yield and better papermaking properties. The T. orientalis pulp from Rajbari region also showed the best bleachability. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Opisthoplatia orientalis and Blaptica dubia (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Guangyin; Cui, Ying; Dong, Pengzhi; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2017-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome in Blaberidae has been reported in this research. Opisthoplatia orientalis (Blaberidae, Epilamprinae) known as ground cockroach with golden edge is distributed in East and South Asia and widely used for thrombolytic therapy in China. Meanwhile, Blaptica dubia (Blaberidae, Blaberinae) has been adopted as feeder insect for various kinds of pets all over the world. In the present study, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. orientalis and B. dubia, and the mitogenome is 18 724  and 17 340 bp in length, respectively. The circular molecule consists of 13 protein coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with an AT content of 75.7% for O. orientalis and 72.8% for B. dubia. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis has been carried out with 11 related species and the status of these two species is further confirmed.

  17. Phlebotomus orientalis sand flies from two geographically distant Ethiopian localities: biology, genetic analyses and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Seblova

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to L. donovani of two P. orientalis colonies originating from different sites in Ethiopia: a non-endemic site in the lowlands - Melka Werer (MW, and an endemic focus of human VL in the highlands - Addis Zemen (AZ.Marked differences in life-cycle parameters between the two colonies included distinct requirements for larval food and humidity during pupation. However, analyses using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD PCR and DNA sequencing of cytB and COI mitochondrial genes did not reveal any genetic differences. F1 hybrids developed successfully with higher fecundity than the parental colonies. Susceptibility of P. orientalis to L. donovani was studied by experimental infections. Even the lowest infective dose tested (2×10(3 per ml was sufficient for successful establishment of L. donovani infections in about 50% of the P. orientalis females. Using higher infective doses, the infection rates were around 90% for both colonies. Leishmania development in P. orientalis was fast, the presence of metacyclic promastigotes in the thoracic midgut and the colonization of the stomodeal valve by haptomonads were recorded in most P. orientalis females by day five post-blood feeding.Both MW and AZ colonies of P. orientalis were highly susceptible to Ethiopian L. donovani strains. As the average volume of blood-meals taken by P. orientalis females are about 0.7 µl, the infective dose at the lowest concentration was one or two L. donovani promastigotes per sand fly blood-meal. The development of L. donovani was similar in both P. orientalis colonies; hence, the absence of visceral leishmaniasis in non-endemic area Melka Werer cannot be attributed to different susceptibility of local P. orientalis populations to L. donovani.

  18. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Various Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Causing Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Ökmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is being constantly developed worldwide. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus are common causes of bovine subclinical mastitis. Bioactive compound of medicinal plants shows anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant effects. The anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Liquidambar orientalis (L. orientalis extracts on subclinical mastitis causing bacteria in cows have not been reported to date. The aim of the present study was to examine anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects of L. orientalis leaf extracts on S. aureus and CNS isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis symptoms. In this study, 3.2 mg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethanol extracts of L. orientalis has shown to be a most potent anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant for all isolated bacterial species from mastitis cows. In this study, it was investigated anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the L. orientalis. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus numbered 17 (12 mm. In addition to anti-bacterial properties, anti-oxidant activity of L. orientalis extract was examined by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] free radical assay. Trolox was used as a positive control anti-oxidant. Ethanol extract exhibited a strong anti-oxidant activity like Trolox anti-oxidant which was effective at 2.58 mM concentration. Bioactive compounds of sweet gum may be useful to screening mastitis causing bacteria for clinical applications.

  19. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired...... report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing...... for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised....

  20. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  1. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  2. Seletividade de inseticidas a vespas predadoras de Leucoptera coffeella (Guér.-Mènev.) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoso, Daniel B.; Jusselino-Filho, Pedro; Guedes, Raul N. C.; Proque, Reginaldo

    2001-01-01

    Estudos de toxicidade relativa dos inseticidas organo-fosforados dissulfotom, etiom, paratiom-metílico e clorpirifós às vespas predadoras Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille, Polybia paulista Ihering e Protopolybia exigua Saussure e sua presa, o bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville), foram realizados em condições de laboratório. As concentrações que mataram 99% dos indivíduos de L. coffeella foram: 0,08; 83,95; 0,43; 0,07 mg i.a/cm² para dissulfotom, etiom, paratiom-...

  3. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biló, B M; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude-Elberink, J N G

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula spp.) and honeybee stings are the most prevalent, whereas in the Mediterranean area stings from Polistes and Vespula are more frequent than honeybee stings; bumblebee stings are rare throughout Europe and more of an occupational hazard. Several major allergens, usually glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 10-50 kDa, have been identified in venoms of bees, vespids. and ants. The sequences and structures of the majority of venom allergens have been determined and several have been expressed in recombinant form. A particular problem in the field of cross-reactivity are specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes, which may induce multiple positive test results (skin test, in vitro tests) of still unknown clinical significance. Venom hypersensitivity may be mediated by immunologic mechanisms (IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated venom allergy) but also by nonimmunologic mechanisms. Reactions to Hymenoptera stings are classified into normal local reactions, large local reactions, systemic toxic reactions, systemic anaphylactic reactions, and unusual reactions. For most venom-allergic patients an anaphylactic reaction after a sting is very traumatic event, resulting in an altered health-related quality of life. Risk factors influencing the outcome of an anaphylactic reaction include the time interval between stings, the number of stings, the severity of the preceding reaction, age, cardiovascular diseases and drug intake, insect type, elevated serum tryptase, and mastocytosis. Diagnostic tests should be carried out in all patients with a history of a systemic sting reaction to detect sensitization. They are not recommended in subjects with

  4. Crescimento de Siegesbeckia orientalis sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Growth of Siegesbeckia orientalis under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se contrastar os efeitos de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de S. orientalis, utilizando a análise de crescimento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em vasos, a pleno sol (A e sob sombrite 50% (B. As plantas tiveram seus índices de crescimento determinados aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 e 108 dias após o transplante (DAT, para A; e aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122 e 136 DAT, para B. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão. Os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t até 10%, no coeficiente de determinação e no fenômeno em estudo. As plantas apresentaram comportamento semelhante em A e B para a maioria das variáveis analisadas, embora as plantas sombreadas (radiação média de 218 µmol m-² s-¹ tivessem maior duração do ciclo cultural, cerca de 140 DAT, retardando os valores máximos e/ou mínimos, em relação às plantas a luz plena (média de 658 µmol m-² s-¹, com aproximadamente 110 DAT. Em B, foram obtidas também as maiores médias para a maioria dos índices avaliados - área foliar, altura, números de folhas e capítulos florais, biomassa seca total, taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar e área foliar específica -, sugerindo que a espécie é favorecida pelo sombreamento.This study aimed to contrast the effects of shading on the growth of S. orientalis by applying growth analysis. The experiments were conducted in pots under full sunlight (A and 50% shading (B. Plant growth indices were determined at 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 and 108 days after transplant (DAT for A and at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122, 136 DAT for B. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. Data were analyzed by means of regression analysis. The models were

  5. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  7. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Achterberg, Kees; Taeger, Andreas; Blank, Stephan M; Zwakhals, Kees; Viitasaari, Matti; Yu, Dicky Sick Ki; de Jong, Yde

    2017-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta) and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea), including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum) and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen) is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids.

  8. The antimicrobial activity of Liquidambar orientalis mill. against food pathogens and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, G; Turkcan, O; Ceylan, O; Gork, G

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim of this work was to investigate of the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of different extracts from L. orientalis. The extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against different food pathogens. These bacteria include 4 Gram positive and 3 Gram negative bacteria and one fungi. The leaf extracts of plant were tested by disc diffusion assay. The MIC was evaluated on plant extracts as antimicrobial activity. In addition to, the plant extracts were tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate) free-radical. The acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of L. orientalis showed maximum inhibition zone of 12 mm against Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to, the methanol extract displayed a strong antioxidant activity (trolox equivalent = 2.23 mM). L. orientalis extracts have antimicrobial, and antioxidant potential. Our results support the use of this plant in traditional medicine and suggest that some of the plant extracts possess compounds with good antibacterial properties that can be used as antibacterial agents in the search for new drugs.

  9. A Novel Lens orientalis Resistance Source to the Recently Evolved Highly Aggressive Australian Ascochyta lentis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama H. R. Dadu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial yield losses and poor seed quality are frequently associated with Ascochyta blight infection of lentil caused by Ascochyta lentis. Recently reported changes in aggressiveness of A. lentis have led to decreased resistance within cultivars, such as Northfield and Nipper in Australia. Furthermore, the narrow genetic base of the current breeding program remains a risk for further selective pathogen evolution to overcome other currently used resistances. Therefore, incorporation of potentially novel and diverse resistance genes into the advanced lines will aid to improve cultivar stability. To identify these, 30 genotypes sourced from five wild species (Lens orientalis, L. odomensis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei, including eight previously reported resistance sources, were screened for disease reaction to two recently isolated and highly aggressive isolates. Subsequently, two L. orientalis accessions were found highly resistant and a further six L. nigricans, one L. odomensis, one L. ervoides, one L. lamottei, and one L. orientalis accessions were moderately resistant. Several of these were more resistant than the currently deployed resistance source, ILL 7537. Furthermore, L. orientalis accession ILWL 180 was consistently resistant against other highly aggressive isolates recovered from diverse geographical lentil growing regions and host genotypes, suggesting stability and potential for future use of this accession in the Australian lentil breeding program.

  10. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  11. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species' distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species.

  12. Comparative study of fungal deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis mill heartwood extractives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K Moore; Doreen Mann; Nural Yilgor

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was done on Liquidambar Orientalis Mill heartwood extractive samples. These extractives were collected from wood decay specimens. The objective of the study was to determine the chemical composition of the extractives remaining after exposure to brown rot fungi Tyromyces Palustris and white rot fungi Trametes Vericolor...

  13. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  14. In vitro propagation of Amsonia orientalis Decne (Apocynaceae) | Öz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from shoot explants of Amsonia orientalis Decne. The seeds were germinated aseptically in Petri dishes containing growth-regulator-free MS medium. The shoot explants of 30-day-old grown seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l indole- 3- butryric acid ...

  15. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H- beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 1021 m-3, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  16. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Muğla-Fethiye Yöresinde Doğal Yayılış Yapan Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. Taksonlarının Uçucu Bileşenlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgin ÖZDERİN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile components of C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii which are belonging an important howthorn taxa for Turkey, was determined. Leaf and flower samples of plant taxa were collected from Muğla-Fethiye in 2012 and dried in room temperature for determining to volatile contents of howthorn taxa and these contents were determined by GC-MS As result of analyses, totally 53 volatile components belonging to C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii taxa were determined. According to GC-MS results, most effective components were determined as 2-Hexenal (38,55%, 3-Hexenol (13,98%, Capronaldehyde (6,81% for C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and Propyl methyl ketone (26.60%, Butyraldehyde(9,37%, 2-Hexenal (6,55% in case C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii

  18. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided.

  19. Mating system of the European hornet Vespa crabro: male seeking strategies and evidence for the involvement of a sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewok, S; Schmolz, E; Ruther, J

    2006-12-01

    We describe details of the mate finding strategy of drones of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and present evidence for the involvement of sex pheromones. Tests were carried out with free flying drones in natural habitats. Males patrolled the nest site itself, as well as nearby nonresource-based sites, without showing territorial behavior. Patrolling was restricted to sunny spots in the vegetation, and thus, the locations changed throughout the day. Drones were attracted to both caged gynes and to dead workers treated with gyne extracts, indicating the presence of a female-produced sex attractant. Treated workers also elicited copulation attempts by the attracted drones. Extracts from gynes, workers, and drones contained exclusively cuticular lipids, and the profile from gynes was much more diverse than that of workers and drones. The most striking differences observed related to the alkenes, monomethyl- and dimethylalkanes. The results provide a lead for potential attracting and copulation-releasing semiochemicals in V. crabro.

  20. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Summary In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C) and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta) above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg. PMID:23162695

  1. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kovac

    2012-07-01

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro, the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg, they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  2. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  3. An analysis of the horizontal burrow morphology of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis) and the distribution pattern of surface vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endo, C

    2008-01-01

    .... The burrowing patterns of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis Brumeister, 1838) (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) were investigated based on analyses of the relation between burrow morphology and plant distribution...

  4. Population studies of arthropods on Melia azedarach in Seville (Spain), with special reference to Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, J E; López, C; Avilla, C

    2011-12-01

    Eutetranychus orientalis has become an important pest of the ornamental tree Melia azedarach in the city of Seville (Spain). Trees suffer total defoliation at the end of summer. Studies were conducted in a regular plantation of this tree in the Miraflores Park in 2008 and 2009, to determine the arthropod faunal composition, with particular interest in the possible natural enemies of E. orientalis. Eutetranychus orientalis accounted for 98.3% of the arthropods found on the leaflets. Two species of phytoseiids were found, Euseius scutalis and Euseius stipulatus, but they only represented 0.2% of the arthropods. The most abundant insect was the predator thrips Scolothrips longicornis, which accounted for 0.9% of the arthropods found. The population of E. orientalis reached two peaks in 2008, with 325 individuals per leaflet in August, and 100 individuals per leaflet in November. Scolothrips longicornis densities closely followed E. orientalis, and predation was observed on various mite instars. Phytoseiids did not show such a response to the E. orientalis densities. Eutetranychus orientalis was more abundant in the exterior part of the plantation. No differences of arthropod densities were found between the various orientations in the plantation (north vs. south, east vs. west), although E. orientalis densities were different between rows. Distribution of E. orientalis population was highly aggregative, that of S. longicornis population was less aggregative, whereas the phytoseiid population showed a random distribution.

  5. Redescription de l'holotype de Ephemera orientalis Mclachlan, 1875 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, G.

    1965-01-01

    En 1875, R. McLachlan décrivit Ephemera orientalis d'après un unique exemplaire ♂, capturé au Japon par P. F. von Siebold. Depuis lors, l'espèce a été signalée à nouveau, non seulement du Japon, mais de Sibérie orientale, et ce par divers auteurs. Mais aucune iconographie n'en a été donnée. En 1952,

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a peroxiredoxin gene from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Li, Jianhong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byun Rae

    2005-04-01

    We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoPrx cDNA showed 69% identity to Drosophila melanogaster DPx-2540, 50% to D. melanogaster DPx-6005, and 47% to Glossina morsitans morsitans Prx. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a closer relationship of the deduced amino acid sequences of the GoPrx gene to the DPx-2540 within the 1-Cys Prx cluster. The cDNA encoding GoPrx was expressed as a 27-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The purified recombinant GoPrx was shown to reduce H(2)O(2) in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol, but did not show the activity in the presence of thioredoxin as electron donor. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoPrx transcripts in all tissues examined. When H(2)O(2) was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoPrx mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of GoPrx mRNA in the fat body were particularly high when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoPrx seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock.

  7. Importance of molehill disturbances for invasion by Bunias orientalis in meadows and pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.

  8. Burrowing mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) as a new test species for pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hyoung-Ho; Kim, Yongeun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Bae, Yeon Jae; Khim, Jong Seong; Cho, Kijong

    2016-09-01

    The potential of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan eggs and first-instar larvae in ecotoxicological testing was investigated. Both stages of E. orientalis showed high tolerance to various environmental variables, such as water temperature, pH, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon. Toxicological assays were conducted with three insecticides (emamectin benzoate, endosulfan, and cypermethrin), one fungicide (mancozeb), and one herbicide (paraquat dichloride). The two toxicity endpoints for the assay were the 14-day egg median hatching rate (EHC50) in static and renewal exposure systems and 24-h median larval mortality (LC50). Cypermethrin was the most toxic to both eggs (EHC50 in static system = 36.9 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system < 0.15 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 4.5 μg/L), and paraquat dichloride was the least toxic to eggs (EHC50 in static system = 54,359.8 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system = 49541.3 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 9259.5 μg/L). The results were compared to literature data of Daphnia magna Straus and Cloeon dipterum Linnaeus to determine its relative sensitivity to pesticides. These three species had different toxicities to the tested pesticides, especially according to the exposure system. E. orientalis eggs in the static system were found to be less sensitive were D. magna and C. dipterum, but eggs in the renewal system and larvae had similar or higher sensitivities to the tested pesticides. The results revealed that this species has potential for use in ecotoxicological testing of pesticides. Because of its geographic distribution, E. orientalis may be used as an alternative or complementary test species for ecotoxicological studies in Northeast Asian countries, where natural populations of the international standard species, D. magna, are rarely found.

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of coffee-leaf-miner and predatory wasps in organic coffee field in formation Dinâmica espacial e temporal do bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro e da vespa predadora em plantação de café orgânico em formação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Scalon

    2011-04-01

    café são suscetíveis ao ataque de mais de 850 tipos de fungos e insetos. Entre essas pragas, a mais importante em todo Brasil é o bicho mineiro do cafeeiro [Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae]. Estima-se que a perda no rendimento devido à infestação do bicho mineiro pode chegar a 80% em plantações onde não existe controle da praga. Embora o controle químico seja eficaz para combatê-la, ele acarreta um aumento no custo da produção e constitui um risco para o meio ambiente. O conhecimento da dinâmica espacial-temporal do bicho-mineiro e da vespa predadora (Hymenoptera: Vespidae pode fornecer informações valiosas para o controle biológico da praga. Uma maneira de investigar o sincronismo espacial-temporal entre presa e predador é calcular algum índice para análise de completa aleatoriedade espacial e compará-lo ao longo do tempo. Este artigo sugere o uso do índice de Morisita, juntamente com o método bootstrap, em uma sequência temporal para caracterizar a dinâmica espacial-temporal do bicho-mineiro e da vespa predadora em um hectare de uma plantação orgânica de café. Os resultados revelaram que o bicho-mineiro e a vespa predadora apresentaram um comportamento sazonal com um sincronismo temporal. Além disso, observou-se que minas novas e predadas apresentavam agrupamentos durante a estação mais seca do ano. Existem poucas evidências de interação espaço-temporal entre minas predadas e vespas predadoras.

  10. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Zengerer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  11. Photosynthetic performance of the aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to solar radiation along its vertical stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Rafael M; Bañares-España, Elena; Nieto-Caldera, José Ma; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Figueroa, Félix L

    2011-08-01

    We have studied the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the endangered aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to the gradient of light availability within its meadow canopy. We determined diurnal change in situ irradiance, light quality, in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, ex situ oxygen evolution rates, respiration rate and pigment concentration. The levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the red/far-red ratio decreased with depth within the canopies of A. orientalis. Apical leaves had a greater decrease of the maximal quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) in the morning and a faster recovery rate in the afternoon than those in the basal ones. The relative electron transport rate (ETRr) was not saturated at any time of the day, even in the apical leaves that received the highest light. The maximum light-saturated rate of gross photosynthesis (GP(max)) took place in apical leaves around noon. The chlorophyll a/b ratio values were higher, and the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio values lower, in apical leaves than basal ones. The highest concentrations in total carotenoids were reached in the apical leaves around noon. A. orientalis has a high capacity to acclimatize to the changes in the light environment, both in quality and quantity, presenting sun and shade leaves in the same stem through the vertical gradient in the canopy.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of ATX1 cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Yun, Eun Young; Li, Jian Hong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-04-01

    To search for an insect homologue of antioxidant protein 1 (ATX1), a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, cDNA library was screened and a cDNA clone, which encodes a 73 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 8.0 kDa and pI of 5.68, was isolated. The G. orientalis ATX1 (GoATX1) cDNA features both a MTCXXC copper-binding site in the N-terminus and a KTGK lysine-rich region in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoATX1 cDNA showed 63% identity to Drosophila melanogaster ATX1 and 55% to Ixodes pacificus ATX1. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoATX1 transcripts in midgut, fat body, and epidermis. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoATX1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. Fat body expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was increased following exposure to low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that GoATX1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. This is the first report about a functional role of insect ATX1 in antioxidant defense. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Palestinian traditional medicinal plants Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; AlMasri, Motasem; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Othman, Dua'a Ghazi

    2017-09-01

    Various epidemiological studies showed that herbal remedies containing polyphenols may protect against various diseases such as cancers, vascular diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Currently, such groups of bioactive compounds have become a subject of many antimicrobials and antioxidant investigations. Accordingly, the current study aimed to conduct biological and phytochemical screening for two Palestinian traditional medicinal plants, Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis. Current plants phytoconstituents and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated by using several types of American Type Culture Collection and multidrug resistant clinical isolates by using agar diffusion well-variant, agar diffusion disc-variant and broth microdilution methods. Phytochemical screenings showed that L. orientalis and E. laciniatum contain mixtures of secondary and primary metabolites Moreover, total flavonoid, tannins and phenols content in E. laciniatum extract were higher than the L. orientalis extracts with almost the same antioxidant potentials. Additionally, both plants organic and aqueous extracts showed various potentials of antimicrobial activity Conclusions: Overall, the studied species have a mixture of phytochemicals, flavonoids, phenols and tannins also have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which approved their folk uses in treatments of infectious and Alzheimer diseases and simultaneously can be used as therapeutic agents in the pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Descriptive osteology of Squalius orientalis from Urmia Lake basin of Iran

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    Saber Vatandoust

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteological features are important to study the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationship of fishes. Since there is no information is available about osteological features of Squalius orientalis, therefore this study was aimed to provide a detailed description of the osteological features of this species from the Urmia lake basin of Iran and comparing it with population of S. orientalis from the Caspian Sea basin. For this purpose, the specimens were collected from Zarineh River of the Urmia lake basin and cleared and stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for osteological examinations. Finally, a detailed osteological features of this species was provided and compared with those of the Caspian Sea basin. Based on the results, having a longer pre-vomer, dorsally oriented parasphenoid alar, longer ventral blade-shaped process of the orbitosphenoid, concaved masticatory plate, pointed ascending process of the palatine, concaved posterior margin of the opercle, and a small posterior process of the cleithrum can differentiate S. orientalis of the Urmia Lake basin from those of the Caspian Sea basin. In addition, the observed osteological difference suggest that both studied populations belong to same taxon.

  15. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile. Alguns aspectos da biologia da nidificação da vespa Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 são registrados pela primeira vez. As observações foram conduzidas no vale de Azapa, deserto litoral do norte do Chile. Sessenta ninhos foram coletados e examinados, cada um composto por 1-14 células. A maioria dos ninhos estava aderida a postes de concreto. As únicas presas registradas nas células foram larvas de Geometridae (Lepidoptera. Um parasitóide, Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae, foi também registrado. Vários artrópodes, principalmente aranhas, foram encontrados utilizando ninhos vazios.

  16. Molecular cloning of the precursor polypeptide of mastoparan B and its putative processing enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, from the black-bellied hornet, Vespa basalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V S Y; Tu, W-C; Jinn, T-R; Peng, C-C; Lin, L-J; Tzen, J T C

    2007-04-01

    Mastoparan B, a cationic toxin, is the major peptide component in the venom of Vespa basalis. Molecular cloning of its cDNA fragment revealed that this toxin was initially synthesized as a precursor polypeptide, containing an N-terminal signal sequence, a prosequence, the mature toxin, and an appendix glycine at C-terminus. Sequence alignment between precursors of mastoparan B and melittin from honeybee venom showed a significant conservation in prosequence. Alternate positions existing in both prosequences were either proline or alanine known as the potential cleaving sites for dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Subsequently, a putative dipeptidyl peptidase IV cDNA fragment was cloned from Vespa basalis venom gland. The prosequence may possibly be removed via sequential liberation of dipeptides during the processing of mastoparan B.

  17. Naamlijst van de Nederlandse bronswespen (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Checklist of the chalcid wasps of the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) A first list of Dutch Chalcidoidea was published by Snellen van Vollenhoven in Herklots (Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1858). This list contained 24 species of chalcids, partly synonyms of each other. In a new list (Snellen van

  18. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  19. (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of. Congo.

  20. Description, accessibility and usage of SOIR/Venus Express atmospheric profiles of Venus distributed in VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompet, L.; Geunes, Y.; Ooms, T.; Mahieux, A.; Wilquet, V.; Chamberlain, S.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Vandaele, A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Venus Express SOIR profiles of pressure, temperature and number densities of different constituents of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus are the only experimental data covering the 60 km to 220 km range of altitudes at the terminator of Venus. This unique dataset is now available in the open access VESPA infrastructure. This paper describes the content of these data products and provides some use cases.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Allergy to Hymenoptera Stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Kijmassuwan, Teera; Visitsunthorn, Kittipos; Pacharn, Panchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of allergy to stings from the Hymenoptera order of insects in a hospital in Thailand. A descriptive retrospective analytical study was carried out in inpatients and outpatients suffering from Hymenoptera stings from 2009 to 2013 in Siriraj Hospital. Medical records of 386 patients with an allergy to Hymenoptera stings were evaluated. Anaphylaxis was more common in patients younger than 15 years, who comprised 22.3% of patients in this study. The most common sting type was from wasps (58.3%). Eighty-five percent of patients sought medical treatment less than 24 hours after being stung. A systemic reaction and anaphylaxis were found in 9.9% and 4.4% of subjects, respectively. In 17 patients with anaphylaxis, only 11 patients (64.7%) received an epinephrine (adrenaline) injection as treatment, and only 8 (47.1%) received epinephrine autoinjectors or epinephrine-prefilled syringes to prevent a possible subsequent severe reaction. Significantly more patients younger than 15 years received epinephrine for prevention of an allergic reaction than did those older than 15 years (87.5% vs 11.7%, P < 0.001). Antibiotics were given to 43.0% of patients. Anaphylaxis from Hymenoptera stings was more common in children than in adults. Only half of the patients visited the emergency room within 1 hour of being stung. Overuse of antibiotics and underuse of epinephrine were found. More information about Hymenoptera stings should be provided to the public, and the use of epinephrine should be encouraged in the case of severe reactions and anaphylaxis.

  2. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

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    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.1.ik; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.2.ik; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.3.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.4.ik. Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  3. Divisão de trabalho em colônias da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Division of labor in colonies of the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas 100 horas de observação usando o método "scanning sample" para a qualificação e quantificação dos atos comportamentais de rainhas e operárias de quinze colônias de Polistes canadensis canadensis. Foi descrito um repertório comportamental com 28 atos, no qual rainhas executam 19 atos na colônia, enquanto operárias 26, ocorrendo 17 atos em comum entre as duas castas. Dentre esses atos, dois foram exclusivos do repertório de rainhas e nove de operárias. O resultado do teste do qui-quadrado apontou diferenças significativas entre os repertórios das duas castas, sendo que rainhas permanecem mais tempo no ninho e executam com maior freqüência atividades intra-nidais, ligadas à reprodução, enquanto que as operárias executam mais freqüentemente atividades relacionadas à manutenção das colônias, como a atividade de forrageamento que demanda um maior risco e alto custo energético.Using "scanning sample" methods for qualifying and quantifying behavioral acts of queens and workers belonging to fifteen colonies of Polistes canadensis canadensis, one hundred hours of observation were performed. A behavioral repertoire with twenty-eight acts was described, in which queens perform nineteen acts in the colony, while workers perform twenty-six, and seventeen common acts between the two castes occur. Among those acts, two were exclusive to queen's repertoire and nine to worker's. Chi-square test pointed significant differences between the repertoires of the two castes, where the queens remain longer in the nest and perform the intra-nidal tasks, related to the reproduction, while the workers perform more frequently tasks related to the maintenance of the colonies, such as the foraging, which demands higher risks and high energetic costs.

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Cha, So Young; Yoon, Myung Hee; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Sang Mong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2005-07-04

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), were determined. The 15,521-bp-long G. orientalis mitogenome contains typical gene complement, base composition, and codon usage found in metazoan mitogenomes. The G. orientalis mitogenome contains the third lowest A+T content (70.5%) among the complete insects mt genome sequences. The initiation codon for the G. orientalis COI gene appears to be ATG, instead of the tetranucleotides, which have been postulated to act as initiation codon for Locusta migratoria and some lepidopteran COI genes. The initiation codon for ND2 appears to be GTG, which is rare, but has been designated as an initiator of Tricholepidion gertschi ND2. All anticodons of G. orientalis tRNAs were identical to Drosophila yakuba and L. migratoria. The tRNA(Ser)(AGN) could not form a stable stem loop structure in the DHU arm as shown in many other insect tRNA(Ser)(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence information from all mt genes supported a monophyletic Diptera, a monophyletic Lepidoptera, a monophyletic Coleoptera, a monophyletic Mecopterida (Diptera+Lepidoptera), and a monophyletic Endopterygota (Diptera+Lepidoptera+Coleoptera), suggesting that the complete insect mitogenome sequence has a resolving power to the diversification events within Endopterygota. However, the relationships of ancient insect orders were unstable, indicating the limited use of mitogenome information at deeper phylogenetic depth.

  5. Symbiotic and genetic diversity of Rhizobium galegae isolates collected from the Galega orientalis gene center in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, E E; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Dzyubenko, N I; Onichtchouk, O P; Kurchak, O N; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Young, J P W; Simarov, B V; Lindström, K

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the rRNA intergenic spacer and of five parts of the symbiotic region adjacent to nod box sequences. By all criteria, the R. galegae bv. officinalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis strains form distinct clusters. The nod box regions are highly conserved among strains belonging to each of the two biovars but differ structurally to various degrees between the biovars. The findings suggest varying evolutionary pressures in different parts of the symbiotic genome of closely related R. galegae biovars. Sixteen R. galegae bv. orientalis strains harbored copies of the same insertion sequence element; all were isolated from a particular site and belonged to a limited range of chromosomal genotypes. In all analyses, the Caucasian R. galegae bv. orientalis strains were more diverse than R. galegae bv. officinalis strains, in accordance with the gene center theory.

  6. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  7. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged biochemistry results were obtained from blood samples from cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged biochemistry (pbiochemistry changes observed in cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged <6 months appeared less severe than in adult dairy cattle.

  8. Clonal integration of Fragaria orientalis in reciprocal and coincident patchiness resources: cost-benefit analysis.

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    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation. Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis.

  9. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

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    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group. Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.

  10. Exposure of mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera) eggs to heavy metals and discovery of biomarkers.

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    Mo, Hyoung-ho; Lee, Sung-Eun; Son, Jino; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Bae, Yeon Jae; Cho, Kijong

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess acute toxicity of heavy metals in eggs of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan, and to elucidate relationships between heavy metal toxicity and protein expression patterns determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Acute toxicity analysis was conducted using five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury), and the toxicity endpoint was established from the egg hatching rate during a 14-day exposure period. Median hatching toxicity (HC₅₀) values were determined for each heavy metal, and the most toxic heavy metal was found to be mercury (0.11 mg/L), followed by copper (0.32 mg/L) and lead (4.39 mg/L). E. orientalis eggs were highly tolerant to cadmium and chromium (>120 mg/L). Proteinchip array analysis using a strong anion exchange proteinchip (Q10) in conjunction with SELDI-TOF-MS was used to assess the protein expression patterns after exposure to heavy metals at the EHC10 (prohibiting hatching concentration to 10% eggs), except for cadmium and chromium, which were used at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100mg/L. Three novel biomarker candidate proteins, i.e., 4269, 4283, and 4623 m/z, were identified for the detection of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems at the level of HC₁₀ in E. orientalis eggs. SELDI-TOF MS analysis for detecting differential expression of proteins was found to be more effective than Q10 proteinchip separation in the mayfly eggs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling the Effects of Radioactive Effluent on Thunnus orientalis and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

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    Zhixiong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the Pacific Ocean by the radioactive pollutants released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised legitimate concerns over the viability of marine wildlife. We develop a modified Crank-Nicholson method to approximate a solution to the diffusion-advection-decay equation in time and three spatial dimensions to explore the extent of the effects of the radioactive effluent on two marine species: the Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis and the Pacific Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

  12. STUDY OF THE FLAVOUR PROFILES OF THE FRUITS AND TERMINAL BRANCHLETS OF PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS (L. FRANCO

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    S AFSHARIPOOR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, is a native plant growing wild in Iran. Methods. The essential oils of fresh fruits and terminal branch lets with adherent leaves of this plant were obtained by means of steam distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. Results and Discussion. Eighty components were identified in the investigated essential oils. The essential oil obtained from the branchlets of this plant contained 21 monoterpenoids, 28 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids, while the essential oil of the fruits contianed 27 monoterpenoids, 12 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids. The major constituent of both oils was ?-3-Carene

  13. IRON CHELATING AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF KAYU MANIK LEAVES (Trema orientalis

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    Salprima Yudha S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A methanol soluble fraction extracted from Kayu Manik leaves (Trema orientalis from Seluma, Bengkulu, exhibited an antiradical activity 69.73% (scavenging activity of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical that was almost similar to that of 1 mM ascorbic acid. On the other hand, the iron chelating activity was 40.74%. We believe that it would be useful to take the results as an alternative for processing industries and can be observed as a good source of new agent for iron chelator.

  14. Physiology and proteomics research on the leaves of ancient Platycladus orientalis (L.) during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Yongyu; Wang, Fei; Li, Yiming; Su, Li; Zhao, Zhong

    2015-08-03

    Ancient trees have an important value in humanities and history, and also have an important scientific value in the investigation of the decline and senescence mechanisms. Thus, we conducted an environmental stress study using ancient trees. To evaluate age-dependent changes in physiology and the leaf proteome, we assessed the low-temperature stress responses of 20 ± 5-, 500 ± 100- and 1200 ± 200-year-old Platycladus orientalis (L.) samples obtained outdoors during winter. Several physiological parameters were evaluated. Leaf proteomes were obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 77 protein spots were identified successfully using MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS. The majority of the identified protein species were classified into functional categories including defense/stress-related, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, and hormone-related functions. A general reduction in the abundance of protein species was observed as the age of the studied trees increased; reduction in photosynthesis and defense/stress-related categories were particularly apparent in the leaves of ancient trees. However, the number of protein species with functions in energy and carbohydrate metabolism increased with age. An increase in the abundance of lipid metabolism and hormone-related protein species was a primary characteristic of the leaves of ancient trees under low-temperature stress during winter. These results improve our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of stress responses in ancient trees. Low temperature is the most common meteorological challenge in the study area. For evergreen plants, low-temperature stress has a great impact on the leaves of ancient P. orientalis. Thus, we conducted an environmental stress study using ancient trees. Recently, various studies were carried out in ancient trees. However, no information is available on the molecular mechanisms of defense to low-temperature stress in ancient trees. Therefore, this original study

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of phospholipase A1 isolated from hornet (Vespa basalis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2008-12-01

    Phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1)) isolated from the black-bellied hornet (Vespa basalis) catalyzes the hydrolysis of emulsified phospholipids in addition to the potent haemolytic activity responsible for its lethal effect. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PLA(1) from hornet venom with a molecular weight of 32 kDa are reported. PLA(1) was crystallized at 277 K using PEG 4000 as precipitant and a 96.5% complete native data set was collected from a frozen crystal to 2.5 A resolution at 100 K with an overall R(merge) of 6.8%. The crystal belongs to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.2, b = 70.2, c = 81.6 A, alpha = 107.0, beta = 109.9, gamma = 100.9 degrees . In each asymmetric unit, three or four subunits of PLA(1) are present according to the calculation of the solvent content.

  16. Vespa velutina nest distribution at a local scale: An 8-year survey of the invasive honeybee predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis

    2017-08-01

    Vespa velutina is an invasive species that was observed for the first time in France and Europe in 2004, which rapidly threatened domestic honeybees with active predation. For the first time in this study, we analyzed the distribution of V. velutina nests at a local scale to understand the pattern of nesting, and in 8 years of monitoring, a total of 528 nests were surveyed. With the exception of 2 years, the nests of V. velutina were randomly distributed within the monitored area, which suggested that intraspecific competition for nesting sites and/or food was unlikely. When the data for all years were combined, an aggregated distribution of nests at the seafront in the vicinity of the oyster farm and sportfishing activities was observed. This distribution suggested that seafood, attractive to vespids, might provide a valuable alternative food source that favored colony development. We also tested the effect of spring queen trapping of V. velutina on the distribution of nests in 2014, which was the year with the greatest number of colonies within the area; the position of the traps did not influence the distribution of the nests. For the first time, this study showed that (i) intraspecific competition was unlikely to be a mechanism for population regulation, (ii) some areas were more likely favored for hornet nests, and (iii) spring queen wasp trapping was inefficient as a method to limit the distribution of the V. velutina population. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  18. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  19. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  20. Immunoaffinity purification and characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Jaculus orientalis

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    Cherkaoui-Malki Mustapha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interconversion of two important energy metabolites, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (the major ketone bodies, is catalyzed by D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH1: EC 1.1.1.30, a NAD+-dependent enzyme. The eukaryotic enzyme is bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane and harbors a unique lecithin-dependent activity. Here, we report an advanced purification method of the mammalian BDH applied to the liver enzyme from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis, a hibernating rodent adapted to extreme diet and environmental conditions. Results Purifying BDH from jerboa liver overcomes its low specific activity in mitochondria for further biochemical characterization of the enzyme. This new procedure is based on the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against BDH from bacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study improves the procedure for purification of both soluble microbial and mammalian membrane-bound BDH. Even though the Jaculus orientalis genome has not yet been sequenced, for the first time a D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase cDNA from jerboa was cloned and sequenced. Conclusion This study applies immunoaffinity chromatography to purify BDH, the membrane-bound and lipid-dependent enzyme, as a 31 kDa single polypeptide chain. In addition, bacterial BDH isolation was achieved in a two-step purification procedure, improving the knowledge of an enzyme involved in the lipid metabolism of a unique hibernating mammal. Sequence alignment revealed conserved putative amino acids for possible NAD+ interaction.

  1. A regulatory gene (ECO-orf4) required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2014-02-01

    ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Skin Bacterial Community Reorganization Following Metamorphosis of the Fire-Bellied Toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Tripathi, Binu; Waldman, Bruce

    2017-07-19

    In organisms with complex life histories, dramatic changes in microbial community structure may occur with host development and immune system maturation. Amphibian host susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis may be affected by the reorganization of skin microbial community structure that occurs during metamorphosis. We tracked changes in the bacterial communities inhabiting skin of Korean fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) that we infected as tadpoles with different strains of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the pathogenic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis. We found that B. orientalis undergoes a major change in skin bacterial community composition between 5 and 15 days following metamorphosis. Richness indices and phylogenetic diversity measures began to diverge earlier, between aquatic and terrestrial stages. Our results further reveal differences in skin bacterial community composition among infection groups, suggesting that the effect of Bd infection on skin microbiome composition may differ by Bd strain. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the structural and temporal dynamics of microbiome shifts during metamorphosis in wild and captive amphibian populations. Analyses of the ontogeny of microbiome shifts may contribute to an understanding of why amphibians vary in their susceptibility to chytridiomycosis.

  3. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

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    LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN

    2016-01-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  4. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  5. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-12-02

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided.

  6. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  7. The complete mitogenome sequences of the palaeopteran insects Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) and Davidius lunatus (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mee; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Man Il; Kim, Min Jee; Park, Hae Chul; Kim, Kee Young; Lee, In Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-09-01

    Currently, the palaeopteran lineages (insect orders Ephemeroptera and Odonata) that have a problematic relationship with neopteran lineages are poorly represented by mitogenome sequences. In this study, we have determined the complete mitogenome of the oriental mayfly, Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), and the dragonfly Davidius lunatus (Odonata: Gomphidae). The 16 463 bp mitogenome of E. orientalis and the 15 912 bp mitogenome of D. lunatus have many of the features typically detected in insect mitogenomes. Although the initiation codon for the D. lunatus COI gene is the typical ATA, E. orientalis is unusual in that no typical start codon was detected in the start region of the COI gene. The A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes have some unusual features. The E. orientalis A+T-rich region harbors two identical 55 bp sequences separated by 158 bp, and the D. lunatus A+T-rich region harbors a tandem repeat comprising two identical 261 bp copies and one partial copy of the repeat. Additionally, the A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes harbor the stem-and-loop structures flanked by the conserved sequences "TA(A)TA" at the 5' end and "G(A)nT" at the 3' end, which have been suggested to be the signals involved in minor strand replication initiation. Furthermore, the D. lunatus A+T-rich region contains two tRNA-like structures with proper anticodon and cloverleaf structures.

  8. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  9. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  10. Utilização da amostragem seqüencial para avaliar a eficiência do parasitismo de Deladenus (Beddingia siricidicola (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae em adultos de Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O nematóide Deladenus (Beddingia siricidicola (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae é o principal agente de controle de Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, vespa-da-madeira. ao esterilizar as fêmeas do inseto, atinge níveis de parasitismo próximos a 100%, com média de 70%. o monitoramento da eficiência do nematóide tem sido realizado pela avaliação da sua presença no aparelho reprodutor de machos e fêmeas do inseto. porém, esse processo é exaustivo e antieconômico quando aplicado a amostras muito grandes. o objetivo desta pesquisa foi testar a técnica da amostragem seqüencial para avaliação da eficiência do parasitismo de Deladenus (Beddingia siricidicola em adultos de Sirex noctilio, a qual se mostrou como uma alternativa viável, pois se baseia em um tamanho variável de amostra, definido em função dos resultados obtidos durante os levantamentos amostrais, resultando em redução do tamanho da amostra, dos custos da atividade e precisão nos resultados. foram também abordados aspectos do parasitismo por Deladenus (Beddingia siricidicola.

  11. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  12. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  13. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  14. Bibliography of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) (1964-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahari, H.; Yu, D.S.; Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    A bibliography of the family Braconidae/Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae is given for the period 1964-2003. It is an addition to Shenefelt's bibliography (1965), which covers the period 1785-1963. In total 10,436 references are listed.

  15. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  16. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  17. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  18. Rilascio e insediamento di Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera Torymidae) in Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Loru, Laura; Fois, Xenia; Fadda, Maria Leonarda; Peddes, Angelo; Pantaleoni, Roberto Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The classical biological control based on the release of the parasitoid Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) is considered to be the only effective method of controlling Dryocosmus kuriphilus ((Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. In our multi-year study, performed between 2009 and 2015, we confirm the establishment of T. sinensis in Sardinia (Italy) and its effectiveness in controlling gall wasp infestation.

  19. Transcriptome Profile of the Asian Giant Hornet (Vespa mandarinia Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 Sequencing: De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation, and Discovery of SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhusan Patnaik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespa mandarinia found in the forests of East Asia, including Korea, occupies the highest rank in the arthropod food web within its geographical range. It serves as a source of nutrition in the form of Vespa amino acid mixture and is listed as a threatened species, although no conservation measures have been implemented. Here, we performed de novo assembly of the V. mandarinia transcriptome by Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing. Over 60 million raw reads and 59,184,811 clean reads were obtained. After assembly, a total of 66,837 unigenes were clustered, 40,887, 44,455, and 22,390 of which showed homologous matches against the PANM, Unigene, and KOG databases, respectively. A total of 15,675 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms, and 5,132 unigenes were mapped to 115 KEGG pathways. The zinc finger domain (C2H2-like, serine/threonine/dual specificity protein kinase domain, and RNA recognition motif domain were among the top InterProScan domains predicted for V. mandarinia sequences. Among the unigenes, we identified 534,922 cDNA simple sequence repeats as potential markers. This is the first transcriptomic analysis of the wasp V. mandarinia using Illumina HiSeq 4000. The obtained datasets should promote the search for new genes to understand the physiological attributes of this wasp.

  20. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (phabits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion.

  1. Is there a Future for the Isolated Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Southern Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YILMAZ, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky is mainly found in the northern region of Turkey.There is also an approximate 40,000 ha of isolated relict oriental beech forest in southern Turkey. Thisrelict population differs somewhat from the northern distribution in terms of average altitudinaldistribution, health conditions, and reactions to climate change. Beech forest distribution in southernTurkey starts at about 1000 m, contrary to the northern distribution, which begins at about 150-200 m. Insouthern Turkey, the average temperature is higher, and summer drought occurs due to irregular rainfall.Beech trees in the south decay at earlier ages due to their sprout origins and higher temperatures than in thenorth. In recent decades, some part of the beech forests have shed leaves during the summer in response tosevere drought. Therefore, these relict populations are on the verge of extinction under unfavorableconditions.

  2. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of cassava residues and glucose inhibitory kinetics on β-glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-11-26

    Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis β-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k(+0)) and reverse (k(-0)) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of L-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, D-aminoglucose, acetyl-D-glucose, and D-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes, 42,158 (28.32%, and 23,179 (15.57% had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21% unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs.

  5. Hyacinthus orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... Plant growth is restricted by many environmental factors. Soil salinity is considered as an important agricultural problem for dry and semi-dry fields in many regions around the world. It is known that salinity is an important stress factor restricting water and nutrient intake of plants. In this study, the.

  6. Polymorphism and genomic structure of the A+T-rich region of mitochondrial DNA in the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa Orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Cha, So Young; Kim, Mi Ae; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Yong Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jin, Byung Rae; Han, Yeon Soo

    2007-08-01

    The complete A+T-rich region of mitochondrial DNA has been cloned and sequenced from 48 individuals of Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), collected from five Korean localities. Thirty-six haplotypes acquired from 48 individuals were found to range in size from 917 to 925 bp, with a sequence divergence from 0.1% to 14.3% and an A+T content from 74.5 to 76.3%. Phylogeographic analysis of the G. orientalis haplotypes showed the presence of two clearly differentiated mitochondrial clades, separated by 13.4% of a minimum uncorrected sequence divergence, which suggests the presence of an unknown, similar Gryllotalpa species or a once isolated G. orientalis population. Structural analysis in search of the conserved structural elements previously described in the caeliferan Orthoptera and Diptera revealed that the G. orientalis A+T-rich region harbored a stretch of the [TA(A)]n sequence, which has been suggested to be involved in the control of transcription or replication. In contrast to the abundance of the sequence stretches containing the stem-and-loop structure in the G. orientalis A+T-rich region, the 3' flanking sequence "G(A)nT," which is well conserved in a variety of organisms, including the caeliferan Orthoptera and Diptera, was not conserved in the A+T-rich region of G. orientalis.

  7. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea, including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids.

  8. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; Blank, Stephan M.; Zwakhals, Kees; Viitasaari, Matti; Yu, Dicky Sick Ki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta) and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea), including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum) and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen) is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids. PMID:28894397

  9. Discrimination of Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and T. beneficus Yasumatsu et Kamijo and their hybrids by allele-specific PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yara, Kaori; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2009-01-01

    Torymus sinensis and Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) are, respectively, introduced and indigenous parasitoid wasps that attack the invasive chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Japan...

  10. Phytochemical characterization of phenolics by LC-MS/MS and biological evaluation of Ajuga orientalis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Göger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Ajuga orientalis. According to the antimicrobial results, the methanol extract of A. orientalis showed a MIC value of 312.5 µg/mL against the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. Anticandidal activity of extract was found as 156.3 µg/mL both against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis strains. Whereas the extract was more effective against C. tropicalis with the MIC value of 78.1 µg/mL. The in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined as IC50=0.4 ± 0.02 mg/mL whereas the standard BHT IC50 was 0.01 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC of extract was determined 1.3 mM TEAC, while BHT, 1.9 mM TEAC.

  11. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of kala-azar in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Esayas; Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Kindu, Mizan; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012) and Metema (October 2012-September 2013) districts. A total of 51,411 sand fly specimens were collected and identified (10,776 from highland and 40, 635 from the lowland areas). Seven species were found in the highland area: two Phlebotomus spp. (P. orientalis and P. rodhaini) and five Sergentomyia species. Whereas 19 species were found in the lowland area: six Phlebotomus (P. orientalis, P. rodhaini, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi and P. martini) and 13 Sergentomyia species. Of the Phlebotomus spp., P. orientalis was the predominant species in both the highland (99.9%) and lowland (93.7%) areas. Indoor collections using pyrethrum spray catches and sticky traps indicated that P. orientalis has a strong exophilic and exophagic behaviors in both districts. In both areas, this species showed seasonal occurrence and showing abundance during the dry months (March-May/June) of the year and increasing in numbers till the rain season, when numbers dropped dramatically. Mean density of P. orientalis in the two areas had positive and significant correlation with mean temperature in light trap collections (P0.05). Regarding the rainfall pattern, density of P. orientalis had negative and statistically insignificant correlation (for light trap collections for both areas) and significant correlation (for sticky trap collections for lowland area). The current study indicated the

  12. Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae Efeitos da dieta e idade da fêmea em relação à prole e à razão sexual do parasitoide solitário Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yuan Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. Theories predict that females of parasitoid wasps would adjust the offspring sex ratio to environmental conditions in the oviposition patch, but the diet and age of females would also affect the sex ratio adjustment. Our focus was to test the effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875. Our results showed that females fed with honey had significantly less female biased offspring sex ratio than those fed only with water. Offspring sex ratio (male percentage decreased with female age or female longevity at the beginning of oviposition but increased at the end. There should be a sperm limitation in P. vindemmiae females at the end of oviposition, and a higher frequency of unfertilized eggs were laid then. Females also laid more unfertilized eggs at the beginning of oviposition, which would be necessary to insure the mating among offspring. Male offspring developed faster and emerged earlier, which would also reduce the risk of virginity in offspring with female-biased sex ratio.Efeitos da dieta e idade da fêmea em relação à prole e à razão sexual do parasitoide solitário Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. As teorias predizem que as fêmeas parasitoides de vespas ajustam a relação razão sexual dos descendentes, de acordo com condições ambientais, em cada oviposição. Entretanto, a dieta e idade das fêmeas também podem afetar o ajuste da razão sexual. Nosso foco foi testar os efeitos da dieta e idade da fêmeas em relação a razão sexual da prole da vespa parasitoide Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875. Nossos resultados mostraram que as fêmeas alimentadas com mel apresentaram uma razão sexual significativa menor de fêmeas, do que aquelas alimentadas apenas com água. A

  13. Morphological and physiological variation between queens and workers of Protonectarina sylveirae (de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini Variações morfológicas e fisiológicas entre rainhas e operárias de Protonectarina sylveirae (de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini

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    Getulio Minoru Tanaka Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and physiological variation between queens and workers of Protonectarina sylveirae (de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini. The Neotropical swarm-founding wasps, Epiponini, range from the absence of morphological differentiation between castes to highly distinct castes. We measured eight body parts of females of two colonies of Protonectarina sylveirae (de Saussure, 1854. ANOVA and Discriminant Analysis evidenced significant differences between castes, as previously observed by other authors for other species of Epiponini. However, some females previously categorized as queens, were actually workers, supported by our statistic analyses. These individuals showed intermediate morphological features between queens and workers, having distinct patterns of hairs and clypeal spots. The castes of P. sylveirae are distinct, however intermediate individuals may be found in colonies promoting social flexibility.As vespas enxameadoras neotropicais, Epiponini, apresentam desde ausência de diferenciação morfológica entre as castas até castas altamente distintas. Medimos oito partes corporais das fêmeas de duas colônias de Protonectarina sylveirae (de Saussure, 1854. ANOVA e Análise Discriminante evidenciaram diferenças significativas entre as castas, como observado anteriormente por outros autores em outros Epiponini. No entanto, algumas fêmeas, previamente categorizadas como rainhas, eram na verdade operárias, com base nas análises estatísticas. Esses indivíduos apresentaram características morfológicas intermediárias entre rainhas e operárias, tendo padrões distintos de pilosidade e da marca do clípeo. As castas em P. sylveirae são distintas, no entanto indivíduos intermediários podem ser encontrados nas colônias promovendo uma flexibilidade social.

  14. KERAGAMAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT GEMPOL(Nauclea orientalis L. DARI BEBERAPA POHON INDUK

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    Kurniawati Purwaka Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. is one of the fast growing species that potential to be developed in agroforestry system. These species used as wood production and also Jabon, which is the alternative for sengon wood. Gempol adapted growth at wet and drylands such as at riverbanks, rice fields and yards. The constrained of the development of community forests of gempol for high productivity is the availability of good quality seed sources. Seeds and seedlings are largely determined by the quality of the parent tree, hence the diversity of the mother plant will affect the seeds it produces. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of the growth of seedlings in the nursery gempol of 64 parent trees from Majalengka and Banten. The study design used was completely randomized design consisting of 64 trees parent gempol, with three replications and each replication consisted of six seedlings. The variables measured were the diameter and height of seedlings. The results showed that significantly affected the parent tree diameter and height of seedlings gempol. Growth in diameter is the best demonstrated by the parent tree 16 at 5.4 cm. The high growth (32.88 cm produced by seeds from the parent tree 10. Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. merupakan salah satu tanaman cepat tumbuh yang potensial untuk dikembangkan dengan pola agroforestry.. Jenis tanaman ini dimanfaatkan khususnya masyarakat Jawa Barat sebagai pohon penghasil kayu pertukangan selain sengon dan jabon.Gempol mampu beradaptasi pada lahan basah maupun kering seperti di bantaran sungai, pematang sawah, tegalan dan pekarangan.  Pengembangan hutan rakyat gempol yang produktifitas tinggi terkendala ketersediaan sumber benih yang berkualitas. Benih dan bibit yang berkualitas sangat ditentukan oleh pohon induknya, oleh karena itu keragaman pada pohon induk akan berpengaruh terhadap bibit yang dihasilkannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui keragaman pertumbuhan bibit gempol di

  15. Functional expression and characterization of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from the black-bellied hornet Vespa basalis in Sf21 insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Kuo; Tzen, Jason T C; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yang, Wei-Hung; Huang, Chun-Fa; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The maturation of mastoparan B, the major toxin peptide in the venom of Vespa basalis, requires enzymatic cleavage of its prosequence presumably via sequential liberation of dipeptides. The putative processing enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, was expressed as a glycosylated His-tag fusion protein (rDPP-IV) via the baculovirus expression system. rDPP-IV purified by one-step nickel-affinity chromatography was verified by Western blot and LC-MS/MS analysis. The k(cat)/K(m) of rDPP-IV was determined to be in the range of 10-500 mM(-1)·S(-1) for five synthetic substrates. The optimal temperature and pH for rDPP-IV were determined to be 50 °C and pH 9. Enzymatic activity of rDPP-IV was significantly reduced by 80 and 60% in the presence of sitagliptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride respectively.

  16. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

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    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-16

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898.

  17. Identification of four major hornet silk genes with a complex of alanine-rich and serine-rich sequences in Vespa simillima xanthoptera Cameron.

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    Sezutsu, Hideki; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Kojima, Katsura; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Tamada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tsunenori

    2007-11-01

    Hornet silk, a fibrous protein in the cocoon produced by the larva of the vespa, is composed of four major proteins. In this study, we constructed silk-gland cDNA libraries from larvae of the hornet Vespa simillima xanthoptera Cameron and deduced the full amino acid sequences of the four hornet silk proteins, which were named Vssilk 1-4 in increasing order of molecular size. Portions of the amino acid sequences of the four proteins were confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and N-terminal protein sequencing. The primary sequences of the four Vssilk proteins (1-4) were highly divergent, but the four proteins had some common properties: (i) the amino acid compositions of all four proteins were similar to each other in that the well-defined and characteristic repetitive patterns present in most of the known silk proteins were absent; and (ii) the characteristics of the amino acid sequences of the four proteins were also similar in that Ser-rich structures such as sericin were localized at both ends of the chains and Ala-rich structures such as fibroin were found in the center. These characteristic primary structures might be responsible for the coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations that make up the unique secondary structure of hornet silk proteins in the native state. Because heptad repeat sequences of hydrophobic residue are present in the Ala-rich region, we believe that the Ala-rich region of hornet silk predominantly forms a coiled coil with an alpha-helix conformation.

  18. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

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    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  19. Predicting Future Seed Sourcing of Platycladus orientalis (L. for Future Climates Using Climate Niche Models

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    Xian-Ge Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate niche modeling has been widely used to assess the impact of climate change on forest trees at the species level. However, geographically divergent tree populations are expected to respond differently to climate change. Considering intraspecific local adaptation in modeling species responses to climate change will thus improve the credibility and usefulness of climate niche models, particularly for genetic resources management. In this study, we used five Platycladus orientalis (L. seed zones (Northwestern; Northern; Central; Southern; and Subtropical covering the entire species range in China. A climate niche model was developed and used to project the suitable climatic conditions for each of the five seed zones for current and various future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. Our results indicated that the Subtropical seed zone would show consistent reduction for all climate change scenarios. The remaining seed zones, however, would experience various degrees of expansion in suitable habitat relative to their current geographic distributions. Most of the seed zones would gain suitable habitats at their northern distribution margins and higher latitudes. Thus, we recommend adjusting the current forest management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Taeko

    2014-02-01

    The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light.

  1. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

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    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of co-fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis on sea buckthorn juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi

    2013-06-01

    This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product.

  3. Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Kościsty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N

    2013-01-01

    Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Methylobacterium platani sp. nov., isolated from a leaf of the tree Platanus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Juhyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Nam, Young-Do; Bae, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2007-12-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated PMB02(T), was isolated from a leaf of the tree Platanus orientalis. Colonies grown on TYG agar plates were circular, pink-pigmented and slow-growing, being 0.2-1.5 mm in diameter after 3 days growth. The cells of strain PMB02(T) were Gram-negative, aerobic, motile rods that possessed oxidase and catalase activities and grew at 20-30 degrees C, pH 6-8 and in media containing less than 1 % NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was identified as Q-10. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain PMB02(T) was related to members of the genus Methylobacterium. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the strain in a clade with the species Methylobacterium aquaticum and Methylobacterium variabile, with which it showed sequence similarities of 97.7 and 97.4 %, respectively. The values for DNA-DNA hybridization between strain PMB02(T) and M. aquaticum CCM 7218(T) and M. variabile GR3(T) were less than 32 %. On the basis of the phenotypic characterization, the phylogenetic analysis and the DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain PMB02(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium platani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PMB02(T) (=KCTC 12901(T)=JCM 14648(T)).

  5. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Overexpression of the Galega orientalis gibberellin receptor improves biomass production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Jiang, Jishan; Dzyubenko, Nikolay; Chapurin, Vladimir; Wang, Zan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are well-known phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions including stem elongation and leaf expansion. GA receptors perceive GA and transmit signals to activate GA-regulated reactions. In this study, a GA receptor gene with homology to other leguminous plants was isolated from Galega orientalis and termed GoGID. The 1732-bp full-length GoGID gene included an open reading frame of 1035 bp encoding a peptide of 344 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that GoGID shares conserved HGGS motif and active amino acid sites (Ser-Asp-Val/IIe) that are essential for maintaining it GA-binding activity. GoGID mRNA expression was more abundant in leaves than in roots or stems and could be up-regulated by the exogenous hormones. Overexpression of GoGID in transgenic tobacco plants promoted plant elongation and improved biomass production. These results suggested that GoGID functions as a GA receptor to alter GA-mediated signaling. GoGID may have a role in genetic engineering for the improvement of forage crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural tree collectives of pure oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link] on mountain forests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucler, Ali Omer; Yucesan, Zafer; Demirci, Ali; Yavuz, Hakki; Oktan, Ercan

    2007-04-01

    Distribution area of oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link.] in the world is only in the north-east of Turkey and Caucasian. Because of being the semi monopoly tree with respect to its distribution and representing the upper forest line, it is necessary to analyse, evaluate and model the stand structures of oriental spruce forests in Turkey. In this research, some sampling plots were selected in timberline and treeline in the subalpine forest zone in Turkey. In these sampling plots some information about occurrence and development of the tree collectives was obtained. A total of 12 sampling plots (6 in timberline and 6 of them in treeline) were studied and horizontal and vertical stand profiles were obtained, while number of trees ranges between 2-86 in the tree collectives in treeline and in timberline 3-12. According to this, area per tree in treeline and in timberline is determined as 1.02 m2 and 3.75 m2 on an average respectively. Mean age of trees to reach breast height is 43 years in treeline sampling plots and 22 years in timberline sampling plots. According to the ratio of h (mean height) / d1.30 (diameter at breast height), stand stability values were calculated and it was determined if the stands were stable on the basis of the sampling plots. Stability values of the sampling plots changed between 33 and 75.

  8. Detection of Theileria orientalis in mosquito blood meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2016-10-15

    Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

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    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  10. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  11. Duas espécies novas de Dendroblatta Rehn (Blattellidae coletados no Acre (Brasil em ninhos de vespas Two new species of Dendroblatta Rehn (Blattellidae collected from Acre (Brazil in wasps' nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available D. falcifera sp. nov. e D. moratoi sp. nov. coletadas no interior de ninhos de vespas da família Sphecidae, servindo como presas para imaturos, são descritas do Estado do Acre, Brasil.D. falcifera sp. nov. and D. moratoi sp. nov., collected inside the wasps' nests of the family Sphecidae serving as preys for the immature forms, are described from the State of Acre, Brazil.

  12. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  13. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  14. Geotropic sensitivity of hornets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Rosenzweig, Eyal; Rosenzweig, Ofer; Berke, Samuel

    Oriental Hornet workers, Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera: Vespinae) were measured for their responses to changes in the direction of the gravitational field and this under both static and kinetic (centrifugal) conditions. The hornets can build a comb (oriented towards the gravitational force) when their multifaceted eyes are covered. Building activity is undertaken in the dark as well as by hornets that had been blinded or had eclosed in the dark and had never seen any light. If the frons plate of hornets is damaged, there is no or little building, and the comb direction is distorted. Hornets eclosing from and developing in combs subjected to centrifugal spinning build combs whose direction is affected both by rotation and by the resultant of the gravitational and centrifugal forces.

  15. The potential of parasitoid Hymenoptera as bioindicators of arthropod diversity in agricultural grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annette Anderson; Stephen McCormack; Alvin Helden; Helen Sheridan; Anne Kinsella; Gordon Purvis

    2011-01-01

    .... This study tested the hypothesis that parasitoid Hymenoptera are potential bioindicators that provide a useful means to assess the wider biodiversity of arthropod populations in agro-ecosystem...

  16. Alternative reproductive strategies of Hypocrea orientalis and genetically close but clonal Trichoderma longibrachiatum, both capable of causing invasive mycoses of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, Irina S; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kredics, László; Hatvani, Lóránt; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Belayneh, Temesgen; Kubicek, Christian P

    2008-11-01

    The common soil fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota) shows increasing medical importance as an opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. Regardless of the disease type and the therapy used, the prognosis for Trichoderma infection is usually poor. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been identified as the causal agent in the majority of reported Trichoderma mycoses. As T. longibrachiatum is very common in environmental samples from all over the world, the relationship between its clinical and wild strains remains unclear. Here we performed a multilocus (ITS1 and 2, tef1, cal1 and chit18-5) phylogenetic analysis of all available clinical isolates (15) and 36 wild-type strains of the fungus including several cultures of its putative teleomorph Hypocrea orientalis. The concordance of gene genealogies recognized T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis to be different phylogenetic species, which are reproductively isolated from each other. The majority of clinical strains (12) were attributed to T. longibrachiatum but three isolates belonged to H. orientalis, which broadens the phylogenetic span of human opportunists in the genus. Despite their genetic isolation, T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis were shown to be cosmopolitan sympatric species with no bias towards certain geographical locations. The analysis of haplotype association, incongruence of tree topologies and the split decomposition method supported the conclusion that H. orientalis is sexually recombining whereas strict clonality prevails in T. longibrachiatum. This is a rare case of occurrence of sexual reproduction in opportunistic pathogenic fungi. The discovery of the different reproduction strategies in these two closely related species is medically relevant because it is likely that they would also differ in virulence and/or drug resistance. Genetic identity of environmental and clinical isolates of T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis

  17. Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) from the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844), cultured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Shirakashi, S; Takami, I; Grabner, D

    2011-09-01

    A new aporocotylid blood fluke is described, based on specimens from the ventricle of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Wakayama and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to the members of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953, but shows distinct differences in the body form, location of the testis and the orientation of the ootype. The body of the new species is long and slender, whereas other Cardicola species are small and generally lanceolate. The testis is mostly located posterior to the caeca and anterior to the ovary, occupying 31-45% of body length, in contrast to the known Cardicola species, whose testis is typically intercaecal. The ootype is oriented anteriorly, while in most congeners, it is directed posteriorly or horizontally. Phylogenetic analyses of this aporocotylid, together with Cardicola orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara et Takami, 2010 from the same host, were conducted based on DNA sequences of the ITS2 rDNA and the 28S region of ribosomal RNA. The analyses revealed that the new blood fluke belongs to the genus Cardicola despite the marked morphological differences. Thus, this aporocotylid is named Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. and the generic diagnosis is emended in this paper. In addition, 100% identity among the ITS2 sequences from the present species, Cardicola sp. from T. orientalis in Mexico and Cardicola sp. from the northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) in Spain suggests that C. opisthorchis n. sp. has a broad geographical distribution and that it infects both the Pacific and northern bluefin tuna. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  19. Balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolites production of Amycolatopsis orientalis depending on initial glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar-Kayali, Hulya; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glucose concentration as a carbon source in the range of 5-20 g/L on the fermentative productions of intra-and extra-cellular ethanol, acetate, formate, oxalate, lactate, and pyruvate, as well as pyruvate decarboxylase in A. orientalis were investigated, depending on the incubation period. Intra-and extra-cellular pyruvate levels increased with rising glucose concentrations up to 15 and 20 g/L of glucose, respectively. In addition, intra-cellular pyruvate levels reached their maximum on the 48th hour in the range of 12.5-20 g/L of glucose, except for 5 and 10 g/L while extra-cellular pyruvate were at the 48th and 60th hours. As a fermentative end product, intra-and extra-cellular ethanol levels increased with increasing glucose concentrations of the growth medium and with incubation period. Activity of pyruvate decarboxylase, one of the key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation, increased significantly with increasing glucose concentrations up to the 48th hour. Intra-and extra-cellular acetate levels increased significantly with increasing glucose concentrations of the growth medium and reached their maximums on the 48th hour, as was the case also for pyruvate. Intra-cellular formate levels increased up to 15 g/L, while extra-cellular levels increased with increasing glucose concentration. The maximum intra-and extra-cellular lactate levels were determined at 12.5 g/L and 20 g/L of glucose on the 48th hour, respectively. The results suggest that elevated ethanol production suppressed lactate and formate production, supported via possibly formed CO(2). In addition, pyruvate, as well as acetate, were used as carbon sources due to the depletion of glucose contents in the growth medium.

  20. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ15N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ15N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  1. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Bradley

    Full Text Available Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT, a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15N∼11.5‰ were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15N∼13.9‰. Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies.

  2. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  4. Interaction of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis with Oreochromis mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Yun, Susan; Lewis, J.; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of piscine francisellosis. Although Fno causes septicemia and can live extracellularly in infected tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), the early interaction of Fno with vasculature endothelium is unknown. In the present study, we examined the interaction of wild-type Fno (WT) and two Fno knockout [intracellular growth loci C (ΔiglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (ΔpdpA)] strains with the endothelial O. mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line (TmB) at 25 °C and 30 °C. Similar amounts of WT, ΔiglC, and ΔpdpA attached and were detected intracellularly after 5 h of incubation at both temperatures; however temperature affected attachment and uptake. While significantly greater amounts of Fno (WT, ΔiglC, and ΔpdpA) were detected intracellularly when TmB cells were incubated at 30 °C, bacteria attached to TmBs at greater levels at 25 °C. Only WT Fno was able to replicate intracellularly at 25 °C, which resulted in Fno mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis at 24 and 72 h post-infection. WT Fno incubated at 30 °C as well as ΔiglC,and ΔpdpA incubated at 25 °C and 30 °C were all defective for survival, replication, and the ability to cause cytotoxicity in TmB. Taken together, these results demonstrate that temperature plays a vital role for Fno intracellular survival, persistence and cytotoxicity.

  5. Prevalence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in cultured tilapia on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; McGovern-Hopkins, Kathleen; Klinger-Bowen, Ruth; Fox, Bradley K; Brock, James; Antonio, Nathene; Waal, Zelda van der; Rushton, Stephen; Mill, Aileen; Tamaru, Clyde S

    2013-06-01

    Francisellosis is an emergent disease in cultured and wild aquatic animals. The causative agent, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), is a gram-negative bacterium recognized as one of the most virulent pathogens of warmwater fish. The main objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of Fno in cultured tilapia (specifically, Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Koilapia [also known as Wami Tilapia] O. hornorum, Blue Tilapia O. aureus, and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus hybrids) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, using conventional and real-time PCR assays followed by statistical modeling to compare the different diagnostic methods and identify potential risk factors. During 2010 and 2012, 827 fish were collected from different geographical locations throughout the island of Oahu. Upon collection of fish, the water temperature in the rearing system and the length of individual fish were measured. Extraction of DNA from different tissues collected aseptically during necropsy served as a template for molecular diagnosis. High correlation between both molecular methods was observed. Moreover, the bacterium was isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and confirmed to be Fno utilizing a species-specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay. Although a direct comparison of the prevalence of Fno between the different geographical areas was not possible, the results indicate a high prevalence of Fno DNA in cultured tilapia throughout the farm sites located on Oahu. Of the different tilapia species and hybrids currently cultured in Hawaii, Mozambique Tilapia were more susceptible to infection than Koilapia. Water temperature in the rearing systems and fish size also had a strong effect on the predicted level of infection, with fish held at lower temperatures and smaller fish being more susceptible to piscine francisellosis.

  6. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  7. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom

  8. Faunistic study on Pompilidae (Inseta: Hymenoptera) family in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study that comprises Ankara, Kýrýkkale and Çankýrý provinces, 30 specimens in total were collected, and 6 species belonging to Turkey Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) family were identified as new records in Turkey fauna. The locality and members of these specimens are shown in this material. Their distribution is also ...

  9. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that occur on oak trees (Quercus spp.) and produce galls on a certain part of the host. In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in ...

  10. Faunistic study on Pompilidae (Inseta: Hymenoptera) family in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... In this study that comprises Ankara, Kırıkkale and Çankırı provinces, 30 specimens in total were collected, and 6 species belonging to Turkey Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) family were identified as new records in Turkey fauna. The locality and members of these specimens are shown in this material. Their.

  11. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  12. Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt. Salwa Mohamed', Samy Zalatz, Hassan Fadll, Sohair Gadallal & Moustafa Sharaf“ l. Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 2. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, ...

  13. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  14. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  15. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Gunter J.; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M. Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I.; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N. G.; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B.; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a

  16. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

  17. A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil. A new species of Zamischus from Brazil is described and diagnosed. The species is closely related to Z. brasiliensis but differs in the morphology of antennae and scutellum. Z. aquilesi sp. nov. was collected via Malaise trapping in a tobacco field in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.

  18. De schermbloemzandbij Andrena nitidiuscula terug in Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2005-01-01

    New records of Andrena nitidiuscula in the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) In 2005 Andrena nitidiuscula was observed from late June till mid August in a garden and a few other sites near Maastricht (Limburg). These observations are the first since 1950 and refute the classification as extinct in

  19. Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Danúncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time. PMID:22140334

  20. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  1. Improvement of Vase Life and Postharvest Factors of Lilium orientalis ‘Bouquet’ by Silver Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein NEMATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lily is one of the prominent cut flowers on the international markets, so that its longevity is an important post-storage attribute. Blockage of xylem vessels and insufficient water uptake contributes to the short vase life of cut flowers. Bacteria block stem xylem vessels and because of that reduce rates of water supply to flowers. Nano silver has antimicrobial effects at low concentration. Prolongation of vase life cut lilies (L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’ flowers by nano-silver particles was studied. Cut flowers were kept in vase containing 5, 15, 25, 30 ppm of nano-silver solutions and deionized water as control treatment under controlled conditions. During vase period, vase life, vase solution uptake, initial fresh and bacterial numbers were measured. According to the results, all nano-silver treatments extended the longevity of cut flowers compare to control. Among these treatments the concentration of 30 ppm of silver-nano showed the highest vase solution uptake, initial fresh weight and lowest bacteria colony during the first 2 days of vase life. It was concluded that nano silver particles had a high potential for eliminating of bacterial contaminants. These for suggest that application of solutions containing superior advantageous of nano-silver particles is recommended to improve postharvest of L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’.

  2. Growth-inhibiting effects of seco-tanapartholides identified in Artemisia princeps var. orientalis whole plant on human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-H; Na, Y-E; Ahn, Y-J

    2003-01-01

    The present work aimed at isolating antibacterial constituents from the whole plant of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis active towards nine human intestinal bacteria. The growth-inhibiting activities of materials derived from the Artemisia whole plant towards test bacteria were examined using an impregnated paper disc method. The biologically active constituents of the Artemisia whole plant were characterized as the sesquiterpene lactones seco-tanapartholides A and B by spectroscopic analysis. In a test using 1 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B produced a clear inhibitory effect against Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These compounds did not affect the growth of test lactic acid-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bif. breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lact. casei) and Escherichia coli, whereas weak growth inhibition towards Bif. bifidum was observed. At 0.5 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B exhibited moderate growth inhibition towards Cl. perfringens but weak growth inhibition towards Bact. fragilis and Staph. aureus. Inhibitory action of seco-tanapartholides A and B towards specific bacteria without any adverse effects on lactic acid-producing bacteria may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of A. princeps var. orientalis whole plant. These naturally occurring Artemisia whole plant-derived materials could be useful as a new preventive agent against various diseases caused by harmful intestinal bacteria such as clostridia.

  3. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  4. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  5. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

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    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  6. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  7. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

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    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  8. Alfaxalone versus alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    To determine a dexmedetomidine concentration, to be added to an alfaxalone-based bath solution, that will enhance the anaesthetic and analgesic effects of alfaxalone; and to compare the quality of anaesthesia and analgesia provided by immersion with either alfaxalone alone or alfaxalone with dexmedetomidine in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). Pilot study followed by a prospective, randomized, experimental trial. Fourteen oriental fire-bellied toads. The pilot study aimed to identify a useful dexmedetomidine concentration to be added to an anaesthetic bath containing 20 mg 100 mL(-1) alfaxalone. Thereafter, the toads were assigned to one of two groups, each comprising eight animals, to be administered either alfaxalone (group A) or alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine (group AD). After immersion for 20 minutes, the toads were removed from the anaesthetic bath and the righting, myotactic and nociceptive reflexes, cardiopulmonary variables and von Frey filaments threshold were measured at 5 minute intervals and compared statistically between groups. Side effects and complications were noted and recorded. In the pilot study, a dexmedetomidine concentration of 0.3 mg 100 mL(-1) added to the alfaxalone-based solution resulted in surgical anaesthesia. The toads in group AD showed higher von Frey thresholds and lower nociceptive withdrawal reflex scores than those in group A. However, in group AD, surgical anaesthesia was observed in two out of eight toads only, and induction of anaesthesia was achieved in only 50% of the animals, as compared with 100% of the toads in group A. The addition of dexmedetomidine to an alfaxalone-based solution for immersion anaesthesia provided some analgesia in oriental fire-bellied toads, but failed to potentiate the level of unconsciousness and appeared to lighten the depth of anaesthesia. This limitation renders the combination unsuitable for anaesthetizing oriental fire-bellied toads for invasive procedures. © 2015

  9. Behavioral syndrome in a native and an invasive hymenoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Moreau, Jérôme; Poidatz, Juliette; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have focused on the role of behavior in biological invasions. Individuals may differ consistently in time for several behavioral traits (personality) which covary (behavioral syndrome) resulting in different behavioral types, some of them favoring invasion. Social hymenopterans have a strong potential to be invaders and their success depends primarily on the foundresses' ability to found viable colonies. They are expected to be active, explorative and bold for optimally establishing their nest. In Europe, 2 hornet species coexist: the native Vespa crabro and the invasive Vespa velutina. These 2 species may compete for nesting sites and we suggest that the initial success of V. velutina has been favored by its behavior in outperforming V. crabro for the traits involved in nest initiation. Here, we (i) defined the personality of V. crabro and V. velutina, (ii) tested for the existence of behavioral syndrome in these species, and (iii) compared their performances using an open-field test. Our results show that V. crabro foundresses behave consistently but not V. velutina; this lack of consistency being mainly due to reduced variance among individuals. This result questions the possibility of detecting consistent behavioral differences in species having recently undergone a strong bottleneck. Both species exhibit the same correlations between activity, boldness and exploration and V. velutina clearly outperforms V. crabro for all traits. Our results suggest that activity, boldness, and exploration are implicated in both hornet nest initiation and invasion process which contributed to explain why social hymenopterans are so successful at colonization. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Fauna de Hymenoptera em Ficus spp. (Moraceae na Amazônia Central, Brasil Fauna of Hymenoptera in Ficus spp. (Moraceae in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Nazareno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A interação Ficus (Moraceae - vespas de figo é considerada um dos exemplos mais extremos de mutualismo entre planta e inseto. Neste trabalho, descreve-se a fauna de vespas de figo associada a cinco espécies de Ficus na Amazônia Central, considerando alguns aspectos do modo de polinização nas espécies Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. O estudo foi desenvolvido durante o período de abril a julho de 2004 em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Estado do Amazonas. O número de espécies de vespas de figo por hospedeiro variou de uma a 13. Vespas do gênero Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, polinizadoras de Ficus (Urostigma spp., apresentam pentes coxais e bolsos torácicos adaptados à coleta e ao transporte de pólen, indicando modo ativo de polinização. No subgênero Pharmacosycea, a polinizadora do gênero Tetrapus Mayr, 1885, não apresenta estrutura morfológica adaptada ao transporte de pólen, condizente com o modo passivo de polinização. Além das vespas de figo, F. (Pharmacosyceae maxima e F. (Urostigma pertusa apresentaram associação com ácaros, formigas (Solenopsis sp., Formicidae, besouros (Staphylinidae e larvas de Diptera e Lepidoptera.The interaction between Ficus (Moraceae and fig wasps is considered one of the most extreme examples of plant-insect mutualism. In the present study, we reported the fig wasp fauna associated with five Ficus species in the Central Amazon, Brazil, and considered some aspects of the pollination mode found in Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. The study was carried out from April to July 2004, in the cities of Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil. The number of fig wasp species per host tree varied from one to 13. Wasps of the genus Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, pollinators of

  11. Spermatogenesis in the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Lo Nostro, F.; Papeschi, A.; Cladera, J.; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * modified meiosis * abortive division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/azo.12148/pdf

  12. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... on state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as on novel directions trying to improve therapy....

  13. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-01-01

    .... Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long...

  14. Phylogenetic insights into the evolution of parasitism in hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James B

    2003-01-01

    The Hymenoptera are one of the four megadiverse orders of insects, with over 100000 described species and several times this number still waiting to be described. A major part of this diverse group is formed of large lineages of parasitoid wasps. Some of these lineages have in turn given rise to subgroups that have gone on to diversify into other lifestyles, such as gall-forming on, and pollination of, plants, as well as a broad array of food-collecting behaviors associated with social living in colonies. Thus, the Hymenoptera demonstrate the large evolutionary potential of parasitism as a lifestyle, in contrast to early assertions that parasitism tends to lead to evolutionary 'dead ends' driven by overspecialization. Phylogenetic approaches have already led to a number of important insights into the evolution of parasitism in Hymenoptera. A series of examples are discussed in this review, including the origin of parasitism in the order, the development of koinobiosis in some groups, coevolution with symbiotic viruses, and the evolution in some groups away from parasitism and into such habits as gall formation, pollination of figs, nest building and sociality. The potential for comparative analysis of hymenopteran habits is large, but progress is still in its early stages due to the paucity of available well-supported phylogenies, and the still limited accumulation of basic biological data for many taxa.

  15. A case of anaphylaxis: horse-fly or hymenoptera sting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, O; Emiliani, F; Foschi, F G; Stefanini, G F

    2009-10-01

    In literature it has been described a high risk of systemic reaction after blood-sucking Dyptera bites, like mosquitoes and horsefly, in people sensitive to hymenoptera. A 51 year old man, allergic to hymenoptera venom and with a history of i.v. reaction after Mueller, who has been treated with Vespula sp. ITS for the last 3 years, was stung by a yellow, black and green insect on the neck. Five minutes after the bite, he suffered generalized hitching and urticaria, oral cavity and lower limbs paresthesia, followed by lost of consciousness. At the Emergency Room he was successfully treated with adrenaline, intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroid. The description of the insect as well as the lack of the sting on the site suggested a wasp as the culprit. By studying one of these insect that has been captured by the patient, it turned out it wasn't a Vespula, but a horsefly, the Tabanus bovinus, which resembles Hymenoptera. Skin prick test and RAST for Tabanus confirmed the allergology diagnosis. In conclusion, also Tabanus bovines can cause systemic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.

  16. Effect of different solvents on extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÇOKLAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of bio compounds from plant materials is one of the most important step of the processes such as dietary supplement production and recovery of the compounds from the industrial wastes. It is highly affected from the factors such as solvent type, particle size, extraction time and temperature. To determine the total phenolics, individual phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruit extracted with different solvents and to specify the best solvent for extraction of phenolics were aimed in this research. Fruits, picked from wild growing trees in Beyşehir, were extracted with water, methanol and methanol:water (1:1 mixture. Highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in methanol:water extract. While gallic acid was extracted effectively in water, methanol:water mixture was the best solvent for extraction of procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (-- epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and rutin.

  17. Discovery of the New Plant Growth-Regulating Compound LYXLF2 Based on Manipulating the Halogenase in Amycolatopsis orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Han, Ting; Ge, Mei; Zhu, Li; Qian, XiuPing

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis HCCB10007 genome revealed new gene clusters involved in natural product biosynthesis that were not associated with the production of known compounds. Halogenases are a type of tailoring enzymes that are usually found within these secondary gene clusters. In this study, we identified an indole-type halometabolite 6-chrolo-1H-indole-3-carboxamide, named LYXLF2, by whole genome mining and metabolic profiling of a flavin-dependent halogenase mutant. LYXLF2 is a new plant growth-regulating compound that promotes root elongation. The results of this study demonstrated that the special gene knock-out/comparative metabolic profiling approach provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products by genome mining.

  18. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non

  19. Las avispas bandera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano González Giselle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas. Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones  entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y taxonomía de  Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución geográfica de los géneros de la f amilia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  20. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patrizia Carrieri

    Full Text Available Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV. This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care.The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012 collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors.Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19] and men who have sex with men (MSM (1.97 [1.22; 3.19] had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61], homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02], and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97] were major predictors of suicide risk.Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  1. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  2. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  3. Type II thioesterase gene (ECO-orf27) from Amycolatopsis orientalis influences production of the polyketide antibiotic, ECO-0501 (LW01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2012-11-01

    ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.

  4. The distinctive character of shell morphology Rectidens sumatrensis (DUNKER, 1852) against Elongaria orientalis (LEA, 1840) (two local species, bivalvia: Unionidae) from the Brantas river, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandi, Moch.; Hariyanto, Sucipto; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-09-01

    This research is directed to recognize the main characters of shell morphology that can easily be used to distinguish the two local species of Bivalia Unionidae in the Brantas River in East Java (Indonesia) which are very similar, namely Rectidens sumatrensis and Elongaria orientalis. A total of 49 individuals sampled specimens of both species were characterized based on identification guide Jutting (1953). About of 30 of shell morphological characters were observed, there are three characters identified in specimens Rectidens sumatrensis that can be used to distinguish from the specimen Elongaria orientalis, namely the presence of wrinkles noticeable on the surface structure of the interior of the shell; anteriorly of the greatest diameter of the shell, there is generally a shallow concavity in the flanks; and the two cardinal teeth in each valve shells left and right are relatively undeveloped.

  5. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  6. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  7. Cloning and characterization of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2005-04-01

    A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoSOD1 cDNA showed 75% identity to Lasius niger SOD1, 73% to Apis mellifera SOD1, and 70-68% to SOD1 sequences from other insects. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined. The expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was induced when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoSOD1 seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock.

  8. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palatability of Baits Containing (S)-Methoprene to Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle P. Montgomery; Cas Vanderwoude; A. Jasmyn J. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wasmannia auropunctata Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), little fire ant, is recognized as a serious pest ant species that affects agriculture, homes, gardens, and natural ecosystems in Hawaii, USA, and elsewhere...

  11. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  12. The first known fossil Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Miocene Dominican amber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    The first fossil species of the genus Masona van Achterberg, 1995, of the subfamily Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. It originates from approximately 15-20 millions years old (= Miocene) Dominican amber.

  13. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  14. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera;

  15. Revision of Zelodia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of Thai Zelodia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are revised. Twenty-one species are treated, 19 new species are described, i.e. Zelodia charoeni, Zelodia chongkraii, Zelodia cholathorni, Zelodia idrisi, Zelodia nikomi, Zelodia nopadoli, Zelodia pahangensis, Zelodia panyaii, Zelodia poonsathii, Zelodia ratanae, Zelodia saksiti, Zelodia surachaii, Zelodia suyaneeae, Zelodia toyae, Zelodia uthaii, Zelodia wangi, Zelodia wichaii, Zelodia wirati, Zelodia wirotei. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  16. Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele P. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Here we provide a description of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The specimen was collected by cineol baittrap at Parque Estadual São Camilo, a conservation unit in western Paraná. The bee has mostly a female phenotype, except by the right half of its head, including the presence of 11 flagellomeres, ivory markings on scape and parocular area, by the pilosity of the right galea, and by deformed male characteristics on mid and hind tibiae of right legs.

  17. Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

    2004-03-01

    The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual

  18. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  19. GENOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF TURNERA HEXAPLOID, T. ORIENTALIS AND T. VELUTINA, AND A DIPLOID, T.GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE SERIES TURNERA RELACIONES GENÓMICAS ENTRE DOS ESPECIES HEXAPLOIDES DE TURNERA, T. ORIENTALIS y T. VELUTINA, Y UNA DIPLOIDE, T. GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE, SERIE TURNERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    We hybridized two hexaploid species (2n=6x=30 T. orientalis and T. velutina and one diploid species (2n=2x=10, T. grandiflora. These species had regular meiosis forming 15 II the hexaploids and 5 11 the diploid. One hexaploid, 2n=6x=30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, one pentaploid, 2n=5x=25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora and one tetraploid, 2n=4x=20 (T. velutina x T. grandiflora hybrids were obtained and studied cytologically to deter ine their genomic relationships. Meiotic behavior in the T. orientalis x T. velutina hybrid was very irregular, with many laggard chromosomes and bridges at AI and AII. Mean pairing relationships were 10,38 I,9,66 II,0,07III and 0,03 IV. The hybrid T. orientalisx T. grandiflora presented irregular meiosis. Mean pairing relationships were 14,66 I and 5,16 II. T. velutina x T. grandiflora presented the most irregular meiosis, with mean pairing relationships of 6,94 I, 6,42 II an 0,05 IV. The three hybrids were sterile. The genome constitution of T. orientalis is AºAºBBBºBº and of T. grandiflora is Cg Cg. On the basis of chromosome associations in the hybrids, we propose the genomic formula AAAvAvCvCv for T. velutina. One genome of T. orientalis is similar to one of the three genomes of T. velutina. The latter species shows one genome similar to the genome of T. grandiflora. Both T. orientalis and T. velutina are segmentary alohexaploids
    Hemos hibridizado dos especies hexaploides (2n = 6x = 30 T. orientalis y T. velutina y una especie diploide (2n = 2x = 10, T. grandiflora. Estas especies habían meiosis regular la formación de 15 II de la hexaploides y 5 11 diploide el. Una hexaploide, 2n = 6x = 30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, un pentaploide, 2n = 5x = 25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora y un tetraploide, 2n = 4x = 20 (x T. velutina T . grandiflora híbridos se han obtenido y estudiado citológicamente para

  20. Egg parasitoid wasps as natural enemies of the neotropical stink bug Dichelops melacanthus Vespas parasitoides de ovos como inimigos naturais do percevejo neotropical Dichelops melacanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Laumann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the potential of five species of Scelionidae wasps - Telenomus podisi, Trissolcus basalis, Trissolcus urichi, Trissolcus teretis and Trissolcus brochymenae - as natural enemies of the neotropical stink bug Dichelops melacanthus, and to determine if the presence of eggs of other stink bug species influences the parasitism and development of the parasitoids. Two kinds of experiments were done in laboratory: without choice of hosts (eggs of D. melacanthus and with choice (eggs of D. melacanthus and of Euschistus heros. Biological parameters, including proportion of parasitism, immature survivorship, progeny sex ratio, immature stage development period, and host preference were recorded. All the evaluated parasitoids can parasitize and develop on D. melacanthus eggs. The first choice of eggs did not influence the proportion of D. melacanthus eggs parasitized by Tr. basalis, Tr. teretis or Tr. brochymenae. However, D. melacanthus eggs as the first choice of Te. podisi and Tr. urichi increased, respectively, 9 and 14 times the chance for parasitism on eggs of this species. Behavioral and ecological aspects of parasitoids should be considered prior to their use in biological control programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial de cinco espécies de vespas Scelionidae - Telenomus podisi, Trissolcus basalis, Trissolcus urichi, Trissolcus teretis e Trissolcus brochymenae -, como inimigos naturais do percevejo neotropical Dichelops melacanthus, e determinar se a presença de ovos de outras espécies de percevejo tem influência sobre o parasitismo e o desenvolvimento dos parasitoides. Foram realizados dois tipos de experimentos em laboratório: sem escolha de hospedeiros (ovos de D. melacanthus e com escolha (ovos de D. melacanthus e de Euschistus heros. Foram registrados parâmetros biológicos que incluíram: proporção de parasitismo, sobrevivência de imaturos, razão sexual da prog

  1. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  2. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-07-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world.

  3. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  4. Estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera (insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Genise

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión sobre los estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera plP.- tende destacar la forma tan particular en que la etología es encarada en este grupo de insectos, resaltando ciertas modalidades y conceptos, algunos de ellos de posible aplicación en otros grupos, cspecialmente de invertebrados. Los puntos sobresalientes pueden resumirse así; 1 El estudio de los grupos de Hymenoptera solitarios cercanamente emparentados con los sociales, para rastrear evolutivamente los patrones de comportamiento que ya presentes en las especies no sociales se habrían combinado para dar una conducta social. 2 La división en fases de esta evolución como esquema básico para encarar las investigaciones y la búsqueda de modelos de transición entre fases que permitan ejemplificar sin discontinuidades importantes el proceso evolutivo. 3 El estudio de la filogenia de otros patrones de comportamiento no directamente relacionados con la conducta social, que alcanzan su máxima expresión en grupos no sociales. 4 El estudio del comportamiento de los organismos que posiblemente hayan actuado como agentes selectivos en la evolución. 5 La contribución que los estudios etológicos hacen a la ecología, al esclarecer ciertos aspectos relacionados con la inserción de las especies en los ecosistemas

  5. Sexual associations for two species of mutillid wasps (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae, with the description of a new species of Anomophotopsis Associação de sexos em duas espécies de vespas mutilídeas (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Anomophotopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Queiroz Garcia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The sexes of Pseudometocha melanocephala (Perty, 1833 and of a new species of Anomophotopsis are associated based on mating pairs found in the field and also in laboratory mating trials. The previously unknown male of Pseudomethoca melanocephala (Perty, 1833 and both sexes of Anomophotopsis quinteroi Cambra, sp. nov., are described. We present the first distribution record of P. melanocephala from Argentina. Anecdotal data on their mating behavior are also discussed.Machos e fêmeas de Pseudomethoca melanocephala (Perty, 1833 e de uma nova espécie de Anomophotopsis foram associados com base em casais em cópula encontrados no campo e em testes em condições de laboratório. São descritos os machos de Pseudomethoca melanocephala (Perty, 1833, que até então permaneciam desconhecidos, bem como machos e fêmeas de Anomophotopsis quinteroi Cambra, sp. nov. Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de P. melanocephala para a Argentina. Dados adicionais sobre os testes de associação sexual são também apresentados.

  6. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi; Seyed Ali Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) (Cupressaceae) was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.), rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.), and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst). Fresh leaves and fruits...

  7. Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Mellon, Fred A; Kroon, Paul A

    2006-05-31

    As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the leaves of these species are eaten raw or cooked, although Eruca flowers are also consumed. There is considerable potential with raw plant material for a higher exposure to bioactive phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products, and also phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamin C. These compounds are susceptible to ontogenic variation, and the few published studies that have addressed this topic have been inconsistent. Thus, an ontogenic study was performed and all samples were analyzed using a previously developed robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of the major phytochemicals in all tissues of the rocket species. Seeds and roots of both Eruca and Diplotaxis contained predominantly 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. Leaves of Eruca and Diplotaxis contained high amounts of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate with lower levels of 4-methylthiobutlyglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate. Flowers of Eruca and Diplotaxiscontained predominantly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate. In addition, roots of both Diplotaxisspecies contained 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate but 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was absent from roots of Eruca. Seeds and seedlings of all Eruca contained N-heterocyclic compounds but no sinapine, whereas Diplotaxis contained sinapine but not the N-heterocycles. In all tissues of B. orientalis, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenylglucosinolate were predominant. All rocket tissues, except roots, contained significant levels of polyglycosylated flavonoids, with/without hydroxycinnamoyl

  8. Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis

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    Lipkin Alexey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides.

  9. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

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    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  10. Antithrombotic effects of ethanol extract of Crataegus orientalis in the carrageenan-induced mice tail thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Rana; Bor, Zeynep; Bektas, Nurcan; Meriçli, Ali Hikmet; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2011-03-01

    Crataegus species (common name is Hawthorn) are medicinal plants, which have flavonoids, triterpene acids, proanthocyanidins, and organic acids as main constituents, used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main causes of multiple cardiovascular diseases is intravascular thrombosis and current agents, which are used for the treatment and prevention of thrombosis, have some side effects. Therefore, new antithrombotic and thrombolytic agents are still needed. Antithrombotic function of ethanol extract of Crataegus orientalis (COE) leaves was investigated in carrageenan-induced mice tail thrombosis model. Mice were injected with 40 μl (1%) carrageenan (Type I) dissolved in physiological saline by intraplantar administration in the right hind paw. After carrageenan injection, the extract was administered at the doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Heparin was used as a positive control (10 and 100 IU). The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24th, 48th, and 72nd hours. 100mg/kg COE and 10IU heparin were not significant when compared to control groups at the time interval (24-72 h) that results was obtained. At 24th hour, both 200 and 300 mg/kg of COE showed a significant antithrombotic activity (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). However, 200 mg/kg COE lost its significance and there was a decrease in the significance values of 300 mg/kg COE (p<0.05) at 48 and 72 h. From these results, it was concluded that COE significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced mice tail thrombosis in vivo. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  12. Hymenoptera venom allergy: work disability and occupational impact of venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolocci, Giulia; Folletti, Ilenia; Torén, Kjell; Muzi, Giacomo; Murgia, Nicola

    2014-08-06

    Little is known about the Hymenoptera venom allergy impact on work ability and the effect of venom immunotherapy (VIT) on work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of work disability in patients treated with VIT and the effects of VIT on occupational functioning. 181 patients, aged 18-71 years, treated with VIT while working, were investigated by questionnaire. Participants were classified into employed and self-employed and, based on work exposure to Hymenoptera, into three risk categories: high risk, occasionally high risk and low risk. Work disability was defined as having to have changed jobs/tasks and/or suffered economic loss because of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Predictors of work disability were assessed in logistic regression models. 31 (17%) patients reported work disability. Being self-employed and having the severe reaction at work were associated with work disability (pallergy could determine work disability. Patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy having a high-risk job for exposure to Hymenoptera seem to have higher risk of work disability and refer more frequently a positive effect of VIT on work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Predator deterrence by mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, J H

    1986-06-01

    Volatile lipids from the mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) are potent olfactory repellents of foraging ants (Formica, Crematogaster) in biologically relevant contexts and quantities. In contrast, differential success in capture of bee and fly prey by predatory asilid flies (Efferia), reduviid bugs (Apiomerus), and arachnids (Agelenopsis, Argiope) is better explained by prey size than by chemical repellence, aposematism, or possession of a sting. Supernormal doses of some allomones, applied to worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) that were fed toArgiope aurantia spiders, elicted more frequent preenvenomation pauses following ensnarement but did not significantly increase other prey-handling times. These pauses merely delayed the bee's demise. Mandibular gland secretions of solitary bees augment their other secondary defenses in at least two contexts: (1) during intranest encounters when repelling intruding ants, and (2) retaliation delivered to their arthropodan predators which, if the bee is nearly too large for the predator to handle, may allow the bee to escape.

  14. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

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    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  15. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  16. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-06-19

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  18. Revision of the Paridris nephta species group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atrox Talamas, sp. n. (Yunnan Province, China, P. bunun Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. ferus Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand, P. kagemono Talamas, sp. n. (Japan, P. minator Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, P. mystax Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, P. nephta (Kozlov (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia, P. nilaka Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand, P. reptilis Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. rugulosus Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Vietnam, P. solaris Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, P. teres Talamas, sp. n. (Vietnam, P. toketoki Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. verrucosus Talamas, sp. n. (Guangdong Province, China, P. yak Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand.

  19. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

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    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  20. Estudos morfométricos sobre a diferenciação de castas em Dolichovesputa maculata Linnaeus 1763 (hymenoptera: Vespidea: Vespinae) e Protopolybia chartergoides Gribodo 1891 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Poistinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Tocchini Felippotti

    2006-01-01

    As vespas sociais são importantes no estudo da evolução do comportamento social por suas colônias apresentarem diferentes graus de diferenciação de castas ? desde morfologicamente similares até distintas, associado à eventual presença de fêmeas intermediárias, que apresentam ovários desenvolvidos e não são inseminadas. Dentro da família Vespidae são encontrados três subfamílias de vespas sociais, Stenogastrinae, Polistinae e Vespinae. A diferenciação entre as castas é interessante, pois aus...

  1. Vertical stratification of selected Hymenoptera in a remnant forest of the Po Plain (Italy, Lombardy (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae

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    Filippo Di Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities of the canopy of temperate forests are still relatively unexplored. Furthermore, very little is known on how vertical stratification for some insect groups is related to biological strategies. In this study, we investigated the community composition of both canopy and understory of the families Ampulicidae, Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera of the Natural Reserve of “Bosco della Fontana”, a remnant lowland forest in northeastern Italy. Observed patterns in vertical stratification have been related to species foraging habits. Our study reveals that the bulk of the community of Spheciformes of the understory consists of species predating dipterans and spiders, while species associated with the canopy are mainly predators of sap-sucking honeydew producers and epiphyte grazers, like aphids, thrips, and barkflies. Comparing the communities of canopy and understory may lead to a better understanding of species ecology and provides useful information to forest managers.

  2. Improvement of Vase Life and Postharvest Factors of Lilium orientalis ‘Bouquet’ by Silver Nano Particles

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    Seyed Hossein NEMATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lily is one of the prominent cut flowers on the international markets, so that its longevity is an important post-storage attribute. Blockage of xylem vessels and insufficient water uptake contributes to the short vase life of cut flowers. Bacteria block stem xylem vessels and because of that reduce rates of water supply to flowers. Nano silver has antimicrobial effects at low concentration. Prolongation of vase life cut lilies (L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’ flowers by nano-silver particles was studied. Cut flowers were kept in vase containing 5, 15, 25, 30 ppm of nano-silver solutions and deionized water as control treatment under controlled conditions. During vase period, vase life, vase solution uptake, initial fresh and bacterial numbers were measured. According to the results, all nano-silver treatments extended the longevity of cut flowers compare to control. Among these treatments the concentration of 30 ppm of silver-nano showed the highest vase solution uptake, initial fresh weight and lowest bacteria colony during the first 2 days of vase life. It was concluded that nano silver particles had a high potential for eliminating of bacterial contaminants. These for suggest that application of solutions containing superior advantageous of nano-silver particles is recommended to improve postharvest of L. orientalis ‘Bouquet’.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

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    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  5. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Signori, Alessio; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA.

  6. Serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballada, F; Alonso, M; Vizcaino, L; Coutinho, V; Núñez, R; Vidal, C; Boquete, M; González-Quintela, A

    2013-01-01

    Increased tryptase concentrations are a risk marker for the severity of reactions to Hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy To investigate serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured in adult patients with HVA (n = 91, 37 of whom were beekeepers), beekeepers without HVA (n = 152), and control individuals from the general adult population (n = 246). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum tryptase levels were positively associated with beekeeping activities (P Beekeeping and HVA are independently associated with increased concentrations of serum tryptase.

  7. New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae

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    M. Ayelen Lutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae. The genus Melaloncha Brues is a large assemblage of New World, parasitoid phorid flies. They are parasitoids of Apoidea bees. However, here we present the first record of a wasp parasitized by Melaloncha sp. The new host is Polybia scutellaris (White, a neotropical eusocial wasp. The parasitized wasp was found in an urban park near the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It appears that the genus Melaloncha parasitizes a wider range of social Hymenoptera than currently known.

  8. A Polyphasic Approach for Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Fastidious Aquatic Pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

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    José G. Ramírez-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis, an emerging infectious disease in Asia and Latin America. In this study two outbreaks of francisellosis were diagnosed in the UK on the basis of histopathology, electron microscopy, PCR, bacterial isolation and fulfillment of Koch's postulates. Furthermore, a phenotypic fingerprint based on biochemical analyses, metabolic activity, chemotaxonomic composition, and antimicrobial assays was generated for the novel isolates, the Fno type strain Ehime-1 from Asia and other Fno from Latin America. The genetic relatedness between the novel Fno and other Francisellaceae species was investigated by sequencing and comparing the 16SrRNA gene, 8 housekeeping genes (individually and concatenated and the 16SrRNA-ITS-23SrRNA sequence. The phenotypic profiling indicated a high degree of similarity among the Fno strains as all were able to metabolize dextrin, N-acetyl-D glucosamine, D-fructose, α-D-glucose, D-mannose, methyl pyruvate, acetic acid, α-keto butyric acid, L-alaninamide, L-alanine, L-alanylglycine, L-asparagine, L-glutamic acid, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, inosine, uridine, glycerol, D L-α-glycerol phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. The chemotaxonomic analyses indicated that 24:1 (20.3%, 18:1n-9 (16.9%, 24:0 (13.1% 14:0 (10.9%, 22:0 (7.8%, 16:0 (7.6%, and 18:0 (5.5% were the predominant structural fatty acids in Fno. The antimicrobial assays showed little variation between the isolates and high susceptibility to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, tobramycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid, and streptomycin in all the Fno analyzed. In all the phylogenetic trees the Fno strains clustered together in independent branches confirming a high degree of homogeneity. Interestingly in five of the 11 trees i.e., mutS, putA, rpo

  9. Nesting associations between Chartergus globiventris Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae and Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Souza

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. O sucesso das espécies de vespas sociais está relacionado tanto a construção quanto a manutenção das colônias. Várias espécies utilizam de diversas estratégias para evitar a predação de seus ninhos, como a associação com outros insetos e vertebrados. O presente estudo descreve o primeiro registro da associação da vespa social Chartergus globiventris Saussure com a ave Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Sudeste do Brasil. Foram registradas oito colônias de C. globiventris ativas em diferentes espécies arbóreas, das quais três estavam associadas a ninhos ativos de T. sulphurescens. A associação entre a ave e a vespa tem sido tratada como comensalismo, pois apenas a ave obtém vantagens aparente, como discutido na literatura. Contudo, é necessário realizar experimentações ou análises mais aprofundadas a fim de se obter afirmações sobre os benefícios dessa relação.

  10. The genus Agelaia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil O gênero Agelaia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Agelaia Lepeletier 1836 belongs to the swarming genera of the Polistinae, with species distributed from Mexico to northern Argentina. Fifteen of the 31 described species are found in Brazil. Four species occur in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, two of them recorded herein for the first time. Redescriptions and a key to these species are provided.Agelaia Lepeletier, 1836 pertence ao grupo de vespas enxemeadoras de Polistinae, com espécies que se distribuem desde o México até o norte da Argentina. No Brasil, são encontradas 15 das 31 espécies descritas. Quatro espécies ocorrem no Rio Grande do Sul, duas das quais aqui registradas pela primeira vez para este Estado. Estas espécies são redescritas e uma chave para sua identificação é fornecida.

  11. Una especie nueva del género Telenomus (Hymenoptera:Scelionidae parasitoide de posturas de Chrysopidae (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina A new species of the genus Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae egg parasitoid of Chrysopidae (Neuroptera from Mendoza , Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Telenomus chrysoperlae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera que se comporta como parasitoide de huevos de Chrysoperla asoralis (Bank (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina. Se compara con las especies afines T. chrysopae Ashmead y T. tridentatus Johnson & Bin.Telenomus chrysoperlae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera egg parasitoid of Chrysoperla asoralis (Bank (Neuroptera from Mendoza , Argentina , is described and illustrated. It is compared with the congeners T. chrysopae Ashmead and T. tridentatus Johnson & Bin.

  12. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  13. Phylogeography of two parthenogenetic sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): relationship of population genetic differentiation to host plant distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Barker, A.; Boevé, J.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Vos, de H.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different

  14. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  15. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilo, M. B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J. N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Roigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G. J; Rueff, F

    2016-01-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management...

  16. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  17. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  18. Diagnostic value of the basophil activation test in evaluating Hymenoptera venom sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj, Andreja; Silar, Mira; Bajrovic, Nissera; Adamic, Katja; Music, Ema; Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of allergy to Hymenoptera venom is usually confirmed with skin testing and measurement of specific serum IgE antibody, tests which are sometimes inconclusive. In these cases, additional in vitro tests are necessary. The aim of this study was to show the applicability of the basophil activation test in detecting sensitization to Hymenoptera venom and to compare the test sensitivity and clinical positive-predictive value with skin prick tests and measurement of allergen-specific serum IgE. This prospective study was conducted between June 2004 and December 2007 and included a large group of 204 patients. All patients had a history of at least one systemic allergic reaction of Müller grades II-IV after a Hymenoptera sting. We compared results of the basophil activation test, specific serum IgE and skin prick tests with patients' clinical history and data on culprit insects. The overall clinical sensitivities of the basophil activation test, specific serum IgE and skin prick tests were 90%, 76% and 64%, respectively; the clinical positive-predictive values of the three tests were 79%, 73% and 78% for bee venom, 86%, 59% and 43% for wasp venom; and 84%, 77% and 22% for both venoms. Our results revealed a higher clinical sensitivity and comparable or better clinical positive-predictive value of basophil activation tests than skin prick tests and allergen-specific serum IgE in the detection of allergy to Hymenoptera venom.

  19. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  20. Hymenoptera of Niğde province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    12 Tem 2010 ... Hymenoptera of Niğde province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna. Ayla Tüzün and Serdar Yüksel. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ankara, Tandogan / Ankara 06100, Turkey. Accepted 19 May, 2010. The present study is based on 1240 specimens obtained from the field studies in the ...

  1. Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Eberlein, Bernadette; Moreno Aguilar, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different...

  2. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  3. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  4. Sawflies from the Sălaj County of Romania (Hymenoptera: Symphyta

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    Zombori L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 38 sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Symphyta were captured in the two years of 2014–2015 in the Sălaj County of Romania. Most of the species are fairly common far and wide in Transylvania.

  5. The European Pamphiliidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), with special reference to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Aartsen, van B.

    1986-01-01

    Keys are given to the European genera and species of the Pamphiliidae (Symphyta: Megalodontoidea). Ten species are added to the list of the Dutch Hymenoptera. Cephalcia alashanica europaea Benes, 1976 is synonymized with C. a. alashanica Gussakovskij, 1935 (syn. nov.), Acantholyda parvula Zirngiebl,

  6. An annotated catalogue of Primary types of symphyta (Hymenoptera) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary types of 48 species of Symphyta (Hymenoptera), described by Van Achterberg & Van Aartsen (2), Benson (7), Cameron (1), Forsius (13), Koornneef (1) and Snellen van Vollenhoven (24), housed in the collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (Leiden), the Instituut voor

  7. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  8. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  9. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T....

  10. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  11. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  12. Five newly recorded species of the genus Streblocera Westwood (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the genus Streblocera (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae are reported for the first time from Korea: Streblocera (Eutanycerus affinis Belokobylskij, Streblocera (E. galinae Belokobylskij, Streblocera (E. lienhuachihensis Chou, Streblocera (E. major Belokobylskij, and Streblocera (Streblocera spasskensis Belokobylskij. Diagnosis and photographs for the species are provided.

  13. De roodrandzandbij Andrena rosae in de Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der F.; Reemer, M.; Peeters, T.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Andrena rosae in the Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae) Andrena rosae is a fairly large, black and red mining bee. It has declined dramatically in the 20th century in northwestern Europe. In the Netherlands the species only survived in and around the Biesbosch, at the

  14. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  15. Insect Pupil Mechanisms. I. On the Pigment Migration in the Retinula Cells of Hymenoptera (Suborder Apocrita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Kuiper, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The pupil mechanism of Hymenoptera (suborder Apocrita) has been studied by simultaneous recordings of transmission and reflection from the compound eye of virtually intact animals. It is confirmed that the light flux in the photoreceptors is controlled by pigment granules in the retinula cells; the

  16. The prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in adults: the results of a very crowded city in Euroasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelincik, Aslı; İşsever, Halim; Unal, Derya; Işık, Erol; Demirturk, Mustafa; Gül, Hülya; İliaz, Raim; Kara, Erdal; Ertek, Belkıs; Özşeker, Ferhan; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Büyüköztürk, Suna

    2015-01-01

    There are scarce data about the prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in the general adult population of Istanbul. A total of 17,064 randomly selected telephone numbers were contacted and 11,816 (69.25%) individuals who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire. Those who disclosed hypersensitivity reactions due to Hymenoptera stings in this initial survey were called again and given another questionnaire. Those who were suspected of experiencing hypersensitivity reactions to Hymenoptera stings were invited for a clinical investigation with in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests. According to the first questionnaire, a total of 1171 (9.9%; 95% CI: 9.38-10.47%) were suspected of having a hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings. 51.75% (n: 606) answered the second questionnaire and 21% (n: 128) of these were still suspected of having a hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.9-1.29%). The confirmed prevalence of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings according to skin tests and in vitro sIgE levels was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.14-0.30%). Nearly all of the participants with systemic reactions were admitted to the emergency department, although only one tenth of them received adrenaline in the emergency room. 2.3% carried an adrenaline injector, whereas none of the patients received venom immunotherapy. The prevalence of Hymenoptera sting reactions in our geographical region is comparable with other European studies. There is a need to increase the awareness of adrenaline in the emergency management of insect sting anaphylaxis and venom immunotherapy in the prophylaxis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA TUMBUHAN LIAR DI SEKITAR PERTANAMAN PADI DI DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI (DAS CIANJUR, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaherwandi, S. Manuwoto, D. Buchori, P. Hidayat, dan L.B. Prasetyo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera Parasitoid Community Structure on Non-crops Vegetation Around Rice fields in Cianjur Watershed, West Java. Hymenoptera parasitoids have an important role in agroecosystem because of their ability in suppressing pest population. Their presence in the field is seen as the key to agricultural ecosystem. Their presence can be influenced by the availability of non-crop vegetation. Some adult Hymenoptera parasitoids require food in the form of pollen and nectar of wild flowers to ensure effective reproduction and longevity. The objective of this research was to study Hymenoptera parasitoid communities in non-crop vegetation around rice fields at Cianjur Watershed. Samplings were conducted at three different landscape, i.e. Nyalindung, Gasol and Selajambe West Java. Insects were sampled by two trapping techniques (farmcop and sweep net in two lines of transect for each landscape. A total of 257 species from 25 families of Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected in non-crop vegetation at Cianjur Watershed. Landscape structure, flowering vegetation, and pesticide application affected the species richness, diversity and evenness of Hymenoptera parasitoid in non-crop vegetation.

  18. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-05-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  19. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Hu

    Full Text Available Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior. In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring.

  20. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  1. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010 as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911 and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements.

  2. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oxidative stress markers in patients with hymenoptera venom allergy.

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    Patella, Vincenzo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Oricchio, Carmine; Saitta, Salvatore; Florio, Giovanni; Saija, Antonella; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs in many allergic and immunologic disorders as a result of the imbalance between the endogenous production of free reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or the reduction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and nitrosylated proteins (NPs) can be used as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Our objective was to examine the serum levels of AGEs, AOPPs, and NPs in patients with allergic reactions to hymenoptera venom before and after ultrarush venom immunotherapy (VIT). The study included two groups of patients: 30 patients allergic to yellow jacket or honey bee venom and treated by aqueous preparation of Vespula spp (26 patients) or Apis mellifera (four patients) VIT, and 30 healthy donors as controls. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of AGEs, AOPPs, and NPs at baseline (T1), at the end of the incremental phase of the VIT protocol (T2), and after 15 days (T3). Serum AOPP levels at T1 were significantly higher in comparison with controls (p = 0.001), whereas serum levels of NPs at T1 were significantly lower than those in controls (p venom allergy (HVA) is characterized by isolated episodes of reactions to stinging insect venom and is not included among chronic inflammatory diseases, an oxidative stress status occurs in patients suffering from this kind of allergy. Furthermore, VIT does not modify serum levels of these oxidative stress biomarkers.

  4. Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

    2014-09-01

    The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as α-cadinol, δ-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. © The Author(s) 2012.

  5. Whole genome sequencing of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 gives novel insights into Francisella evolution and pathogenecity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Settu; Sharma, Animesh; Kongshaug, Heidi; Nilsen, Frank; Jonassen, Inge

    2012-11-06

    Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human. Recently Francisella species have been reported to cause mortality in aquaculture species like Atlantic cod and tilapia. We have completed the sequencing and draft assembly of the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalisToba04 strain isolated from farmed Tilapia. Compared to other available Francisella genomes, it is most similar to the genome of Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia, a free-living bacterium not virulent to human. The genome is rearranged compared to the available Francisella genomes even though we found no IS-elements in the genome. Nearly 16% percent of the predicted ORFs are pseudogenes. Computational pathway analysis indicates that a number of the metabolic pathways are disrupted due to pseudogenes. Comparing the novel genome with other available Francisella genomes, we found around 2.5% of unique genes present in Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 and a list of genes uniquely present in the human-pathogenic Francisella subspecies. Most of these genes might have transferred from bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analysis between human and fish pathogen also provide insights into genes responsible for pathogenecity. Our analysis of pseudogenes indicates that the evolution of Francisella subspecies's pseudogenes from Tilapia is old with large number of pseudogenes having more than one inactivating mutation. The fish pathogen has lost non-essential genes some time ago. Evolutionary analysis of the Francisella genomes, strongly suggests that human and fish pathogenic Francisella species have evolved independently from free-living metabolically competent Francisella species. These findings will contribute to understanding the evolution of Francisella species and pathogenesis.

  6. Whole genome sequencing of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 gives novel insights into Francisella evolution and pathogenecity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Settu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human. Recently Francisella species have been reported to cause mortality in aquaculture species like Atlantic cod and tilapia. We have completed the sequencing and draft assembly of the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalisToba04 strain isolated from farmed Tilapia. Compared to other available Francisella genomes, it is most similar to the genome of Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia, a free-living bacterium not virulent to human. Results The genome is rearranged compared to the available Francisella genomes even though we found no IS-elements in the genome. Nearly 16% percent of the predicted ORFs are pseudogenes. Computational pathway analysis indicates that a number of the metabolic pathways are disrupted due to pseudogenes. Comparing the novel genome with other available Francisella genomes, we found around 2.5% of unique genes present in Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 and a list of genes uniquely present in the human-pathogenic Francisella subspecies. Most of these genes might have transferred from bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analysis between human and fish pathogen also provide insights into genes responsible for pathogenecity. Our analysis of pseudogenes indicates that the evolution of Francisella subspecies’s pseudogenes from Tilapia is old with large number of pseudogenes having more than one inactivating mutation. Conclusions The fish pathogen has lost non-essential genes some time ago. Evolutionary analysis of the Francisella genomes, strongly suggests that human and fish pathogenic Francisella species have evolved independently from free-living metabolically competent Francisella species. These findings will contribute to understanding the evolution of Francisella species and pathogenesis.

  7. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  8. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  10. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-07-27

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis. Patients should carry an emergency kit containing an adrenaline autoinjector, H1 -antihistamines, and corticosteroids depending on the severity of their previous sting reaction(s). The only treatment to prevent further systemic sting reactions is venom immunotherapy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Venom Immunotherapy as part of the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy initiative. The guideline aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of venom immunotherapy, has been informed by a formal systematic review and meta-analysis and produced using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) approach. The process included representation from a range of stakeholders. Venom immunotherapy is indicated in venom allergic children and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations.

  12. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  13. Description and biological features of a new species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae

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    F. Nugnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus lindberginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, an egg par- asitoid of the leafhopper Lindbergina aurovittata (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, is described from Italy. It is included in the atomus group of Anagrus Haliday and compared with the allied known taxa. The parasitoid’s life cycle is characterized by a long larval diapause from spring to fall, which allows for synchronization with its leafhop- per host; other biological traits of A. lindberginae on the evergreen plant Quercus ilex are discussed.

  14. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  15. The genus Nipponopius Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae new for China, with description of a new species

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    Tong Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nipponopius glabricaudatus sp. n. from Shaanxi and Ningxia (NW China is described and illustrated (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae. A key to the species of Nipponopius Fischer, 1963, is added and for the first time the male is described and illustrated. The genus is reported for the second time from outside Japan and is new for China. The position of Nipponopius Fischer is discussed and it is accepted as a valid genus.

  16. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    MIROSLAV ANTOV; ANELIA STOJANOVA

    2015-01-01

    This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4...

  17. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  18. Side-effects of pesticides on the generalist endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alc?ntara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Zanuncio, Jos? Cola; Lacerda,Mabio Chrisley; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Fernandes, Fl?vio Lemes; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Sediyama,Carlos Sigueyuki

    2017-01-01

    New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20?g ai ha?1, respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emer...

  19. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  20. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

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    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  1. Hymenoptera “Parasitica” in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Eduardo Mitio Shimbori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A checklist composed of 105 species of parasitic Hymenoptera, which includes the non-aculeate Apocrita, recorded in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil, is presented. A new list, containing 153 genera obtained in recent surveys is also presented; out of these 131 are new records. The major knowledge gaps for these organisms in the State and the prospects for future studies for these organisms are discussed.

  2. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L.; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory rec...

  3. Simultaneous intradermal testing with hymenoptera venoms is safe and more efficient than sequential testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, B; Aberer, W; Bokanovic, D; Komericki, P; Sturm, G J

    2013-04-01

    According to current guidelines, skin testing for hymenoptera venom allergy should be performed in a stepwise manner, maintaining 15- to 20-min intervals between the injections of venom. Given the long-winded procedure of sequential skin testing, we retrospectively explored the safety of simultaneous intradermal testing. Four hundred and seventy-eight consecutive patients with a convincing history of an anaphylactic reaction after a hymenoptera sting were tested. All venom concentrations (0.02 ml of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μg/ml of honey bee and wasp venom) were administered simultaneously to the skin. Four hundred and seventy-two (98.7%) patients tolerated the simultaneous intradermal test without any side-effects. Only three subjects (0.6%) had a presumed allergic reaction during the test; another three reactions were considered vasovagal. Our skin test protocol with four simultaneously injected concentrations of two hymenoptera venoms is safe and permits the investigator to draw rapid conclusions about the individual's sensitization pattern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Hymenoptera venom proteins and peptides for diagnosis and treatment of venom allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich R

    2011-10-01

    Stings by insects of the order Hymenoptera cause systemic, sometimes life threatening allergic reactions in 1 - 5% of the population in Europe and North America. Responsible for these reactions is an IgE mediated sensitization to proteins of the venoms injected during the stings of social Hymenoptera species, mainly the honey bee (Apis mellifera), vespids like Vespula sp., Polistes sp. and ants, in southern US and central America Solenopsis invicta and in Australia Myrmecia pilosula. The venoms of these insects are composed of low molecular weight substances like biogenic amines, cytotoxic and neurotoxic peptides like melittin, apamin, MCD-peptide and mastoparan, and proteins, mostly enzymes like phospholipase A and hyaluronidase, which are major venom allergens. Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venoms has been shown to protect 80 to over 95% of patients with a history of systemic allergic sting reaction from further systemic reactions after re-stings. The procedure, safety and efficacy of this treatment and the immune mechanisms involved are discussed. Since ancient times honey bee venom has been used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease, especially arthritis. Anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom have been documented in animal experiments. Most clinical studies suggest an antiinflammatory effect as well, but are uncontrolled. The only few controlled studies could not confirm efficacy of treatment with bee venom so far.

  5. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-12

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  7. Las “Avispas Bandera” (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Serna Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del
    orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas.
    Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y Taxonomía de Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo
    capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución Geográfica de los Géneros de la Familia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores
    de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  8. Las hormigas Ecitoninae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de Morelos, México

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    Luis N Quiroz-Robledo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario de las hormigas ecitoninas del estado de Morelos, ubicado en la región centro-sur de la república mexicana. Los muestreos fueron realizados por medio de colectas directas y del uso de trampas de intercepción; ocasionalmente se capturaron también machos atraidos a la luz. Se encontraron 15 especies de hormigas ecitoninas: Labidus coecus (Latreille, 1802; L. praedator s. str. (Fr. Smith, 1858; Neivamyrmex agilis Borgmeier, 1953; N. cornutus (Watkins, 1975; N. fallax Borgmeier, 1953; N. graciellae (Mann, 1926; N. impudens (Mann, 1922; N. macropterus Borgmeier, 1953; N. melanocephalus (Emery, 1985; N. nigrescens (Cresson, 1872; N. opacithorax (Emery, 1894; N. pauxilus (Wheeler, 1903; N. sumichrasti (Norton, 1868; N. swainsoni (Shuckard, 1840 y Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax (Santschi, 1928. Doce de estos registros son nuevos para la entidad. Las especies más abundantes fueron L. coecus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens y N. esenbecki. Se proporciona también alguna información sobre la distribución de estas especies en el estado y las fechas de vuelo de los machos que fueron recolectados. Por último, se anexa una clave para la identificación de obreras y machos en la cual se incluye una especie adicional (N. fuscipennis, que no fue recolectada por nosotros pero ha sido informada por otro autor para la entidad.The Ecitoninae ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Morelos, México. To produce an inventory of the Ecitoninae ants from Morelos State (south central Mexico, we used direct capture and pit-fall traps. Occasionally, males were also collected near artificial light sources. Fifteen species were found: Labidus coecus, L. praedator s. str., Neivamyrmex agilis, N. cornutus, N. fallax, N. graciellae, N. impudens, N. macropterus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens, N. opacithorax, N. pauxilus, N. sumichrasti, N. swainsoni and Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax. Twelve of these species are new records for the state. The most

  9. SAFETY OF VENOMENHAL® VENOM IN MAINTENANCE HYMENOPTERA VENOM IMMUNOTHERAPY

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    Mitja Košnik

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Venomenhal® (V is a new brand ofHymenoptera venom allergen for diagnosis and immunotherapyof venom allergy. We studied the safety of switching thepatients treated with other brands of venom to V. Methods. We performed duplicate skin prick tests with V andALK Reless® (R venom extract (100 μg/ml in 68 patients (50males, 42 ± 15 years on maintenance immunotherapy withhoney bee (26 or wasp (42 venom. On two consecutive maintenanceinjection days 53 patients received in random ordereither 100 μg of R or V venom. Results. Weal diameter in skin prick tests (mean ± st.dev. were3.9 ± 1.1 mm (V and 4.1 ± 1.0 mm (R for bee venom (NSand 3.4 ± 1.0 mm (V and 3.9 ± 1.2 mm (R for wasp venom (p< 0.01. Local reaction 30 minutes after maintenance injectionwere 6.1 ± 1.7 cm (V and 5.4 ± 2.5 cm (R for bee venom(NS and 5.1 ± 1.8 cm (V and 6.1 ± 1.8 cm (R for wasp venom(p < 0.05.Late local reactions (LLR and tiredness (T on the day of injectionand 24 hours after injection were equally distributedamong both groups and were mild (LLR on the day of injection:38% of patients [V] vs. 43% [R]. LLR after 24 hours: 28%[V] vs. 28% [R]. T on the day of injection: 21% [V] vs. 23% [R].T after 24 hours: 0% [V] vs. 6% [R]. Conclusions. V was at least as safe as A. There were no adversereactions due to switching from one brand to another. Slightlybut significantly smaller weal in skin prick tests and immediatelocal reactions might be due to lesser potency or betterpurification of V wasp extract.

  10. Revision of the ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Brian E. Heterick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the purely Australian formicine ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is revised. This project involved integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy using one mitochondrial gene (COI and four nuclear genes (AA, H3, LR and Wg. Seven major clades were identified and are here designated as the M. aeneovirens, M. anderseni, M. biroi, M. fulvihirtus, M. ludius, M. majeri and M. potteri species-groups. Within these clades, smaller complexes of similar species were also identified and designated species-complexes. The M. ludius species-group was identified purely on molecular grounds, as the morphology of its members is indistinguishable from typical members of the M. biroi species-complex within the M. biroi species-group. Most species-complexes sampled were also found to be monophyletic. Sequencing generally supported monophyly in taxa sampled but some species of the M. fieldi complex and M. biroi were not monophyletic and the implications arising from this are discussed in this monograph. Based on morphology, ninety-three species are recognized, 73 described as new. A further new species (here called 'Species K' [TERC Collection] is noted in the taxonomic list, but is not described in this work. One species is removed from Melophorus: M. scipio Forel is here placed provisionally in Prolasius. Six species and five subspecies pass into synonymy. Of the full species, M. constans Santschi, M. iridescens (Emery and M. insularis Wheeler are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne, M. pillipes Santschi is synonymized under M. turneri Forel, M. marius Forel is synonymized under M. biroi Forel, and M. omniparens Forel is synonymized under M. wheeleri Forel. Of the subspecies, M. iridescens fraudatrix and M. iridescens froggatti Forel are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne, M. turneri aesopus Forel and M. turneri candidus Santschi are synonymized under M. turneri Forel and M. fieldi propinqua Viehmeyer is synonymized under M

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model

  12. Chemical skin defence in the Eastern fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an ultrastructural approach to the mechanism of poison gland rehabilitation after discharge

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    Sara Quagliata

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I serous glands in the skin of the Eastern yellow-bellied toad Bombina orientalis released their product massively after 10-3 M nor-adrenalin (NA stimulation, mimicking orthosympathetic control on poison emission in chemical skin defence. Features of cutaneous glands involved in this bulk discharge were observed under light and electron microscopes. Furthermore, restoration of depleted glands was followed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks, and compared with serous biosynthesis during larval gland development. Bulk discharge was caused by contraction of myoepithelial cells (mecs encircling the secretory units. Mec compression dramatically affected the secretory unit, but parts of this syncytial cytoplasm were saved from degeneration and cooperated in gland renewal with stem cells from the gland neck. These adenoblasts underwent proliferation and secretory cytodifferentiation, until merging with the syncytium. Cytoplasm that had resumed secretory activity showed the features typical of larval gland development: the endoplasmic reticulum (rer cisterns were aligned in close parallel arrangement and Golgi stacks released minute type I granules. Secretory rehabilitation led to increasing amounts of granule content. In the meantime, rough cisterns decreased in number and assumed the less ordered pattern described in control specimens. Data collected in the present study revealed that chemical skin defence in anurans is a multi-factorial mechanism involving specific activities: mechanical from mecs, biosynthetic from secretory syncytium and proliferative from intercalated stem cells.

  13. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  14. Fumigant Toxicity of Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and Valerian (Valeriana wallichii Essential Oils and Their Components, Including Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, against Japanese Termites (Reticulitermes speratus

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    Il-Kwon Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and valerian (Valeriana wallichii essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus. The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days, and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  15. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical characterization and sequence analysis of a xylanase produced by an exo-symbiotic bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis, Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Kim, Do Young; Park, Doo-Sang; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Ho-Yong

    2008-05-01

    An exo-symbiotic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing xylan was isolated from the gut of the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, and identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12. The xylanase (XylA( CspHY-12)) of this organism bound tightly to both DEAE and mono Q resins, and its molecular mass (M(r)) was about 39.0 kDa. The highest xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme was greatly suppressed by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+) ions but not by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Although XylA( CspHY-12) was capable of hydrolyzing various types of xylosic compounds, it could not decompose carboxymethyl cellulose or xylobiose. The xylA (CspHY-12 ) gene consisted of an 1,188 bp open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 42,925 Da. The domain structure of XylA( CspHY-12) was most similar to those of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanases. However its sequence identity with any of the enzymes in this family was below 52%. The results of this study suggest that the XylA( CspHY-12) is a new cellulase-free endo-beta-1,4-xylanase with some properties that are distinct from those of GH family 10.

  17. Using seemingly unnecessary illustrations to improve the diagnostic usefulness of descriptions in taxonomy–a case study on Perochaeta orientalis (Diptera, Sepsidae

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    Yuchen Ang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913 (Diptera, Sepsidae which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF SEASONAL CHANGES ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION OF THE CEDAR (Cedrus libani A. Rich. AND ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea Orientalis Lipsky WOOD SAMPLES

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    Muhammed Said Fidan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the wood’s combustion properties on the combustion duration are investigated towards the protection of the wood samples from the effects of outdoor by using various impregnation and high-level processes. For that purpose, in accordance with the given principles on the standard of combustion test ASTM–E 160-50 test samples from cedar (Cedrus libani A.Rich. and spruce (Picea orientalis L. are impregnated with tanalith-E and wolmanit-CB impregnation materials then water based and synthetic outdoor varnishes are applied as a high level process, afterwards seasonal effects on outdoor conditions are analysed. According to the obtained findings, first failure time for spruce wood samples the peak is 457 seconds in winter and the minimum is 257 seconds in fall, for cedar wood samples the top time is 479 seconds and the minimum time is 326 seconds in winter samples. In all combustion durations, top time at spruce wood samples is 2105 seconds at control examples and minimum time is 1143 seconds in summer samples. For cedar wood samples the top time confirmed is 2707 seconds in fall samples and minimum time is 1338 seconds in summer examples.

  19. EXAMINING OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN A ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link – FIR (Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana Spach. MIXED STAND IN ARTVINKAFKASOR FOREST DISTRICT

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    Ali Ömer Üçler

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, naturally regenerated succesfull oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L. Link and fir (Abies nordmanniana Spach. subsp. nordmanniana mixed stand which encompass 5.8 ha area was examined. For that, seedlings in the area were studied for their relationship between growth and age. In addition, the amount of seedlings reached to area after the cuttings with large shelterwood system were determined. The age and height of fir and oriental spruce seedlings in 24 sampling areas each covering 25 square meters are measured according to square method and sampling areas systematically distributed so that samples could represent the regeneration area. Evaluating gathered data, seedlings reached to the area orderly after 1975 preperation cutting. Measurements and counts showed that orieantal spruce hold rich seeds every 4 years, however, this differentiation is not evident for fir. Evaluating height growth depending on age, correlation coefficients are found 0.9993 for oriental spruce and 0.9973 for fir, therefore the seedlings of fir and oriental spruce realized similar growth during their regeneration stage

  20. Discovery of two bombinin peptides with antimicrobial and anticancer activities from the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang; Wang, Zhengming; Peng, Xin; Liu, Yao; Lin, Yangjun; Zhang, Zhe; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Wang, Ran; Kong, Dexin

    2018-01-01

    Amphibian skin secretions are known to contain numerous peptides with a large array of biological activities. Bombinins are a group of amphibian-derived peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities that have been only identified from the ancient toad species, Bombina. In this study, we described the identification and characterization of a novel bombinin precursor which encoded a bombinin-like peptide (BLP-7) and a novel bombinin H-type peptide (named as Bombinin H-BO) from the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. The primary structures of both mature peptides were determined by combinations of molecular cloning of peptide precursor-encoding cDNAs and mass spectrometry techniques. Secondary structure prediction revealed that both peptides had cationic amphipathic α-helical structural features. The synthetic replicate of BLP-7 displayed more potent antimicrobial activity than Bombinin H-BO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Also, in vitro antitumour assay showed that both peptides possessed obvious antiproliferative activity on three human hepatoma cells (Hep G2/SK-HEP-1/Huh7) at the non-toxic doses. These results indicate the peptide family of bombinins could be a potential source of drug candidates for anti-infection and anticancer therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Organization of the pallium in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. I: Morphology and axonal projection pattern of neurons revealed by intracellular biocytin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Laberge, Frédéric; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang

    2007-03-20

    The cytoarchitecture and axonal projection pattern of pallial areas was studied in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis by intracellular injection of biocytin into a total of 326 neurons forming 204 clusters. Five pallial regions were identified, differing in morphology and projection pattern of neurons. The rostral pallium receiving the bulk of dorsal thalamic afferents has reciprocal connections with all other pallial areas and projects to the septum, nucleus accumbens, and anterior dorsal striatum. The medial pallium projects bilaterally to the medial pallium, septum, nucleus accumbens, mediocentral amygdala, and hypothalamus and ipsilaterally to the rostral, dorsal, and lateral pallium. The ventral part of the medial pallium is distinguished by efferents to the eminentia thalami and the absence of contralateral projections. The dorsal pallium has only ipsilateral projections running to the rostral, medial, and lateral pallium; septum; nucleus accumbens; and eminentia thalami. The lateral pallium has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs and to the rostral, medial, dorsal, and ventral pallium. The ventral pallium including the striatopallial transition area (SPTA) has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs, rostral and lateral pallium, dorsal striatopallidum, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. The medial pallium can be tentatively homologized with the mammalian hippocampal formation, the dorsal pallium with allocortical areas, the lateral pallium rostrally with the piriform and caudally with the entorhinal cortex, the ventral pallium with the accessory olfactory amygdala. The rostral pallium, with its projections to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidum, resembles the mammalian frontal cortex. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F; Yokoyama, H; Shirakashi, S; Grabner, D; Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Sawada, Y; Murata, O

    2011-01-01

    Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis cultured in Japan. Numerous white cysts, up to 0.5mm in size, were found on and in the brain. Spores having typically five spore valves and five polar capsules resembled a five-petal cherry blossom in apical view and were conical shape with a round bottom in side view. Average spore size was 9.63 (8.5-10.3) μm in width and 7.50 (6.7-8.6) μm in length. The spore dimensions of K. prunusi overlapped with those of Kudoa yasunagai ex Sillago ciliata having five to six spore valves, but they were clearly distinct in spore shape, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences (0.3% and 1.7% differences, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA revealed that K. prunusi grouped with the brain-infecting multivalvulid species, K. yasunagai, K. chaetodoni, K. lethrini and K. neurophila, rather than five-valved Kudoa spp. Combined with morphological, molecular and biological differences, K. prunusi was proven to be a new species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geotropic sensitivity exhibited by single hornets: The influence of caste, age, light and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Rosenzweig, Eyal; Abir, Irit

    Hornet (Vespa orientalis, Hymenoptera: Vespinae) workers, queens and males, aged 0-24 hours (i.e. juveniles) and 24 hours and more (i.e. adults) were tested for their responses to changes in the direction of the gravitational force while placed on a flat surface gradually tilted between 0.5° and 180°. The tests were run on non-blind and blind hornets, at temperatures ranging between 18°C and 35°C, in daylight as well as in the dark. Up to 18 hours of age, negative phototaxis prevailed among the hornets, which displayed a clear preference for remaining in the dark regardless of the geotropic position. Between 18-24 hours of age, there was gradual appearance of a sensitivity to change in the geotropic position. Above 24 hr of age, the hornets became sensitive to changes in their declinations, with workers becoming sensitive at a 3-5° declination, queens at 4-5° and males at a declination of 8-19° from the horizontal. Hornet response takes the form of an upward climb, to the highest point of the test surface. Such response required a temperature exceeding 24.8-25°C for workers, 23.2°C for queens and 20.8-21°C for males.

  4. A keystone-like grain in hornet comb cells: its nature and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Riabinin, Ksenia; Kozhevnikov, Maria; van der Want, Hans; Stokroos, Ietse

    2003-01-01

    In the roof of cells built by the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis (Vespinae, Hymenoptera), there is one or more grains differing in their composition and shape from the surrounding structures. These grains have a diameter of 100-200 microm and protrude slightly from the roof inward. They contain primarily a large percentage of Ti but also Fe and occasionally Si. The mineral makeup in the grains is still uncertain, but it seems that the minerals belong to the group called perovskite. These grains in the hornet's comb may originate from the soil around the nest, that is, comprised of ceramic matter, but it is also possible that they are secreted from a gland within the frons plate of the hornet because the fungus-like secretion in this gland contains elements similar to those in the roof of the comb cells. We conjecture that the grain in question serves as a reference point for the hornets that build the cell walls in the direction of gravity. The cement whereby the building hornets conjoin the various building materials, whether organic (cellulose and the like) or inorganic (sand grains or tiny stones), is a saliva that is secreted from their oral gland, which upon release hardens into a polymeric glue. The ceramic grain embedded within this polymeric matrix is endowed with different physical properties and can therefore respond differently to the tension or pressure of the surrounding walls.

  5. TWO TYPES OF AUXILIARY CELL AMPULLAE IN GRATELOUPIA (HALYMENIACEAE, RHODOPHYTA), INCLUDING G. TAIWANENSIS SP. NOV. AND G. ORIENTALIS SP. NOV. FROM TAIWAN BASED ON rbcL GENE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND CYSTOCARP DEVELOPMENT(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Showe-Mei; Liang, Hong-Yiang; Hommersand, Max H

    2008-02-01

    Few species in the genus Grateloupia have been investigated in detail with respect to the development of the auxiliary cell ampullae before or after diploidization. In this study, we document the vegetative and reproductive structures of two new species of Grateloupia, G. taiwanensis S.-M. Lin et H.-Y. Liang sp. nov. and G. orientalis S.-M. Lin et H.-Y. Liang sp. nov., plus a third species, G. ramosissima Okamura, from Taiwan. Two distinct patterns are reported for the development of the auxiliary cell ampullae: (1) ampullae consisting of three orders of unbranched filaments that branch after diploidization of the auxiliary cell and form a pericarp together with the surrounding secondary medullary filaments (G. taiwanensis type), and (2) ampullae composed of only two orders of unbranched filaments in which only a few cells are incorporated into a basal fusion cell after diploization of the auxiliary cell and the pericarp consists almost entirely of secondary medullary filaments (G. orientalis type). G. orientalis is positioned in a large clade based on rbcL gene sequence analysis that includes the type species of Grateloupia C. Agardh 1822, G. filicina. G. taiwanensis clusters with a clade that includes the generitype of Phyllymenia J. Agardh 1848, Ph. belangeri from South Africa; that of Prionitis J. Agardh 1851, Pr. lanceolata from Pacific North America; and that of Pachymeniopsis Y. Yamada ex Kawab. 1954, Pa. lanceolata from Japan. A reexamination of the type species of the genera Grateloupia, Phyllymenia, Prionitis, and Pachymeniopsis is required to clarify the generic and interspecific relationships among the species presently placed in Grateloupia. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  7. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  8. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  9. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  10. Two New Species of Egg Parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) of Wood-Boring Beetle Pests from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhou Zhang; Dawei Huang; Tonghai Zhao; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A....

  11. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  12. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  13. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...

  14. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  15. Una especie nueva del género Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitoide de posturas de Chrysopidae (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. LOIÁCONO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Telenomus chrysoperlae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera que se comporta como parasitoide de huevos de Chrysoperla asoralis (Bank (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina. Se compara con las especies afines T. chrysopae Ashmead y T. tridentatus Johnson & Bin.

  16. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  17. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  18. Orientopius Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae new for Europe, with first notes on its biology and description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orientopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae is reported for the first time from Europe and the West Palaearctic region, its biology (parasitoids of Phytobia spp. is given for the first time and a new species (O. europaeus sp. n. is described from France and Bulgaria.

  19. The prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in adults: The results of a very crowded city in Euroasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Gelincik

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Hymenoptera sting reactions in our geographical region is comparable with other European studies. There is a need to increase the awareness of adrenaline in the emergency management of insect sting anaphylaxis and venom immunotherapy in the prophylaxis.

  20. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, M. B.; Cichocka-Jarosz, E.; Pumphrey, R.; Oude-Elberink, J. N.; Lange, J.; Jakob, T.; Bonadonna, P.; Fernandez, J.; Kosnik, M.; Helbling, A.; Mosbech, H.; Gawlik, R.; Niedoszytko, M.; Patella, V.; Pravettoni, V.; Rodrigues-Alves, R.; Sturm, G. J.; Rueff, F.

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest

  1. New species of Pambolus Haliday and Phaenocarpa Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Pambolinae, Alysiinae) from French Guyana, Suriname and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten new species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from French Guyana, Suriname and Panama are described and illustrated. Seven species of the genus Pambolus Haliday, 1836, (Pambolinae: P. pappi spec. nov., and P. rufus spec. nov. from French Guyana, P. granulatus spec. nov. from Suriname, P.

  2. Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorinae, with the description of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossem, van G.

    1990-01-01

    A revised key to the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is given. Three new genera are described: Pantomima gen. nov. (type-species: Pantomima festata spec. nov.), Fetialis gen. nov. (type.-species: Fetialis alacris spec. nov.), and Epitropus gen. nov.

  3. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  4. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Yefremova; Graciela González-Santarosa; Refugio Refugio Lomeli-Flores; Néstor Bautista-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  5. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is

  6. Abelhas e vespas solitárias em ninhos-armadilha na Reserva Biológica Guaribas (Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil Trap-nesting solitary bees and wasps (Hymenoptera in Guaribas Biological Reserve (Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Camillo Aguiar

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The trap-nesting bees of Guaribas Biological Reserve were studied during one year. Three areas with different vegetation types were sampled, open savanas, closed forest, and a mosaic of these two types. Twelve species of trap-nesting bees were observed, four of which are parasites. The most abundant species were Centris tarsata (Smith, 1879, C. analis (Fabricius, 1804, Tetrapedia diversipes KJug, 1810, and Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804. Nesting of Centris tarsata and Mesocheira bicolor occurred mainly during the dry season, while Centris analis and Tetrapedia diversipes did not show any seasonal preferences. Mesocheira bicolar occurred only in the nests of C. tarsata, parasitizing more than 50% of the nests and representing 23.2% of the individuais emerged in the host nests. The mosaic area yielded a greater abundance and diversity. Comparing the sampling methods of trap-nests and entomological nets, conducted simultaneously in the same area, in relation to diversity of trap nesting bees, it was observed a great similarity in terrns of composition and differences of abundance in species sampled. Some hypothesis are discussed to explain a reason for the greater diversity and abundance of the mosaic area in relation to the other areas.

  7. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

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    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  8. Protective effect and antioxidant role of sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzek, Huseyin; Celik, Ismail; Dogan, Abdulahad; Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Sweetgum oil (SO) obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis Mill (Hamamelidaceae) tree has been used in Turkish folk medicine for centuries as an antiulcerigenic. Some studies have reported the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of SO; however, its effect on hepatic and oxidative stress complications is still unexplored. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effect and the antioxidant role of SO against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. The experiment included control, CCl4, SO, and CCl4 + SO treatment groups. Control and SO group rats were fed a diet without CCl4. CCl4 and CCl4 + SO treatment groups received 0.5 mL/kg CCl4 diluted in olive oil (1:1 dilution) intraperitonally injection twice per week. The CCl4 + SO group also received 1000 mg/kg SO-supplemented feed for 50 d. Blood and tissue samples were used for the determination of hepatic damage serum biomarkers (HDSBs) levels, antioxidant defense system constituents (ADSCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. In addition, the liver was evaluated for histopathological changes. According to the results, the HDSBs levels of the CCl4 group were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with the control, whereas the HDSB levels of the CCl4 + SO group resulted in marked decreases (p < 0.05) compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the results showed that SO-supplemented diet restored the CCl4-induced MDA and ADS towards to control. Hepatoprotection of SO is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings in the CCl4 + SO group against degenerative changes in the CCl4 group. It was concluded that SO has a hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant capacity against CCl4 toxicity.

  9. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohar; Rana, Jai C; Singh, Badal; Kumar, Sandeep; Saxena, Deep R; Saxena, Ashok; Rizvi, Aqeel H; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis) and interspecific (L. ervoides) derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs) against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin.) Gord.). The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  10. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  11. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Morphology and axonal projection pattern of neurons in the telencephalon of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an anterograde, retrograde, and intracellular biocytin labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang; Laberge, Frédéric

    2004-10-04

    The connectivity and cytoarchitecture of telencephalic centers except dorsal and medial pallium were studied in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis by anterograde and retrograde biocytin labeling and intracellular biocytin injection (total of 148 intracellularly labeled neurons or neuron clusters). Our findings suggest the following telencephalic divisions: (1) a central amygdala-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the caudal midventral telencephalon, connected to visceral-autonomic centers; (2) a vomeronasal amygdala in the caudolateral ventral telencephalon receiving input from the accessory olfactory bulb and projecting mainly to the preoptic region/hypothalamus; (3) an olfactory amygdala in the caudal pole of the telencephalon lateral to the vomeronasal amygdala receiving input from the main olfactory bulb and projecting to the hypothalamus; (4) a medial amygdala receiving input from the anterior dorsal thalamus and projecting to the medial pallium, septum, and hypothalamus; (5) a ventromedial column formed by a nucleus accumbens and a ventral pallidum projecting to the central amygdala, hypothalamus, and posterior tubercle; (6) a lateral column constituting the dorsal striatum proper rostrally and the dorsal pallidum caudally, and a ventrolateral column constituting the ventral striatum. We conclude that the caudal mediolateral complex consisting of the extended central, vomeronasal, and olfactory amygdala of anurans represents the ancestral condition of the amygdaloid complex. During the evolution of the mammalian telencephalon this complex was shifted medially and involuted. The mammalian basolateral amygdala apparently is an evolutionary new structure, but the medial portion of the amygdalar complex of anurans reveals similarities in input and output with this structure and may serve similar functions.

  13. Revision of Therophilus s.s. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

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    Stephanie Stoelb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the limits of Therophilus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are redefined and restricted to a small proportion of the previously included species. Those species belonging to the world fauna are listed and the species from Thailand are revised. Forty-four species are assigned to the genus including 11 new species, i.e. T. anuchati, T. apichati, T. areeluckae, T. boonthami, T. chiangmaiensis, T. kwanuiae, T. songrami, T. sukpengae, T. wannai, T. wongchaii, T. wongwani. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to an electronic interactive key and to distribution maps are also included.

  14. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    Villa Lopera Antonio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  15. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  16. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  17. Estudos morfológicos e comportamentais do parasitoide Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago José de Souza Alves

    2013-01-01

    O controle biológico natural do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, no Brasil, é realizado principalmente por parasitoides. Entre eles, Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), um ectoparasitoide larval, constitui o principal agente biológico responsável pela redução natural das populações do bicudo no agroecossistema algodoeiro no Nordeste brasileiro. Embora possua importância na cotonicultura, são escassos os dados referentes à ação de parasitismo de B.vulgaris sobre Anthonomus grandis Boh. ...

  18. Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, new to Korea and the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer

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    Jongok Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is newly recognized from South Korea. The genus can be easily recognized from other genera in Scleroderminae by having the head wider than it is long, the antenna with 10 flagellomeres, the clypeus with short projected median lobe, and the metasomal tergite II longer than the combined length of remained tergites. Description and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of Pararhabdepyris paradoxus Gorbatovskii are provided. In addition, the present paper provides the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer of Scleroderminae from the world. A revised key to genera and species of South Korean Scleroderminae is also presented.

  19. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.

  20. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  1. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  2. Ciclo vital de Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae), polinizador de Ficus andicola (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento M. Carlos E.; Jansen G. Sergio

    2006-01-01

    La relación entre las plantas del género Ficus (Moraceae) y las avispas de la familia Agaonidae (Hymenoptera) ha
    cautivado a los científicos durante las últimas seis décadas, siendo los temas más comúnmente tratados
    aquellos que involucran co-evolución, mutualismo en la relación planta animal y el estudio de las proporciones
    de sexo en las poblaciones de avispas que emergen de los frutos de cada especie de Ficus. A pesar de esto, son pocos los estudios que tra...

  3. Care for patients with hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera venom challenge for therapeutic team

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriata-Kempska, Krystyna; Krzemińska, Sylwia; Bordzicz, Adriana; Arendarczyk, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Kuriata-Kempska Krystyna, Krzemińska Sylwia, Bordzicz Adriana, Arendarczyk Marta. Care for patients with hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera venom challenge for therapeutic team. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(9):558-565. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.999534 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4856 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2...

  4. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

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    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  5. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Giomar Nates Parra

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  6. Diversidad de Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea y otras familias de Hymenoptera obtenidas con trampas Malaise en el bosque tropical caducifolio de la región de Huatulco, Oaxaca, México Diversity of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea and other families of Hymenoptera obtained with Malaise traps in the tropical dry forest in the region of Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Velez Beatriz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de Encyrtidae y otras familias de Hymenoptera obtenidas en trampas Malaise en el bosque tropical caducifolio de Huatulco, Oaxaca, México, entre febrero del 2005 y enero del 2006. Las recolectas se llevaron a cabo durante 5 días de cada mes. La familia Encyrtidae estuvo representada por 2 subfamilias, 7 tribus, 9 géneros y 17 especies. La tribu con mayor número de géneros y especies fue Anagyrini, con 3 géneros y 3 especies, cada una de las tribus restantes presentaron 1 género y 1 especie. Metaphycus Mercet, 1917 y Rhytidothorx Ashmead, 1900 fueron los géneros con más especies; Ooencyrtus Ashmead, 1900 fue el género más abundante. El valor de riqueza obtenido con los métodos no paramétricos Jacknife 1 y Jacknife 2 fue de 31 y 45, respectivamente. La mayoría de las especies estuvo representada por un solo individuo. Encyrtidae no mostró aparente estacionalidad. Adicionalmente, se recolectaron otras 46 familias del orden Hymenoptera distribuidas en 2 subórdenes y 11 superfamilias. La superfamilia con mayor número de familias fue Chalcidoidea y la más abundante fue Vespoidea. Se registró un número mayor de familias durante la temporada de lluvias, siendo la abundancia muy similar para ambas temporadas, lluvias y secas.The results of the study of diversity of Encyrtidae and other families of Hymenoptera, obtained by Malaise traps in the tropical deciduous forest of Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, between February 2005 and January 2006, are presented. Collections were carried out during 5 days of every month. The family Encyrtidae was represented by 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 9 genera and 17 species. The tribe with the largest number of genera and species was Anagyrini, with 3 genera and 3 species; the remaining tribes were represented by 1 genus and 1 species, respectively. Metaphycus Mercet, 1917 and Rhytidothorx Ashmead, 1900 were the genera with more species; Ooencyrtus Ashmead, 1900 was the most abundant

  7. Differences in caste dimorphism among three hornet species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): forewing size, shape and allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrard, A; Villemant, C; Carpenter, J M; Baylac, M

    2012-07-01

    Caste shape dimorphism (CShD) has previously been studied in wasps through comparison of different body parts, originating from different imaginal discs. Using geometric morphometrics with a new protocol for measuring wings of pinned specimens from natural history collections, we tested CShD of three hornet species in an organ developed from a single imaginal disc: the forewing. Gaussian mixture models retrieved most castes and species levels, confirming that caste is an important component of wing variations in females of these hornets. Size and allometry - the influence of size on shape - contribution to wing dimorphism between castes was major, but failed to explain the entire shape dimorphism. This deviation from simple allometric scaling was not similar in the three species: in Vespa tropica, allometric directions in the shape space differed between castes, whereas in V. crabro and V. velutina, they were similar but a significant part of CShD resulted from lateral transpositions. These results clearly indicate that queens are not just enlarged workers. They also support that the different patterns of CShD may result from different developmental mechanisms. Finally, they highlight that even in a highly social group like hornets, there is still variation in caste dimorphism among species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  9. Ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors in hornets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Pertsis, [No Value; Skutelsky, E; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, H

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors (PER) in the cuticle of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). in the abdominal cuticle of adult hornets, the PERs are densely distributed throughout, but there are even more than 30 at the margins of the segments. These

  10. Ecological studies of some insects associated with Bedouin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two wadi systems in the southwestern part of the St Katherine Protectorate were surveyed for one year to record the seasonal abundance and food preference of the most common troublesome household pests in Bedouin villages, the oriental hornet Vespa orientalis and cockroaches (Blattodea). There was no significant ...

  11. Description of the first Neotropical species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Panama

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, from Panama is described. The new species induces galls on the stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae sect. Quercus. The diagnostic characteristics, distribution data, and biology of the new species are given. The new species is included in the existing key for the identification of the Nearctic species of Bassettia. The morphological diagnosis of Bassettia and the first record of this genus in the Neotropical region are noted.Se describe una nueva especie de Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, de Panamá. La nueva especie induce agallas en los tallos de Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae secc. Quercus. Se aportan los caracteres diagnósticos de la nueva especie, su distribución y su biología. La nueva especie es incluida en la clave de identificación de la especies de Bassettia del Neártico. Se amplían los datos diagnósticos morfológicos del género Bassettia así como se comenta el primer registro de este género en la región neotropical.

  12. Induction of Specific Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera Venoms Using Ultrarush Regimen in Children: Safety and Tolerance

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    Alice Köhli-Wiesner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective. Ultrarush induction for specific venom immunotherapy has been shown to be reliable and efficacious in adults. In this study its safety and tolerance in children was evaluated. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 102 ultrarush desensitizations carried out between 1997 and 2005 in 94 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Diagnosis and selection for immunotherapy were according to recommendations of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Systemic adverse reactions (SARs were described using the classification of H. L. Mueller. Results. All patients reached the cumulative dose of 111.1 μg hymenoptera venom within 210 minutes. Six patients (6% had allergic reactions grade I; 2 patients (2% grade II and 5 patients (5% grade III. Three patients (3% showed unclassified reactions. SARs did not occur in the 15 patients aged 4 to 8 years and they were significantly more frequent in girls (29% compared with boys (12% (=0.034, multivariant analysis and in bee venom extract treated patients (20% compared to those treated with wasp venom extract (8% (OR 0.33, 95% Cl 0.07–1.25. Conclusion. Initiation of specific immunotherapy by ultrarush regimen is safe and well tolerated in children and should be considered for treating children with allergy to hymenoptera venom.

  13. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

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    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  14. Effects of essential oils from Liquidambar orientalis Mill. leaves on growth performance, carcass and some organ traits, some blood metabolites and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altop, A; Erener, G; Duru, M E; Isik, K

    2018-02-01

    1. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of liquidambar essential oils (LEO) isolated from Turkish sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) leaves on growth performance, carcass, edible inner organs (EIO), gastrointestinal traits (gut), some blood metabolites and jejunum microbiota in broilers. 2. A total of 375 one-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 5 pens with 15 birds. The birds were fed on diets without antibiotics (CONT), with antibiotic (50 mg per kg, AB), with LEOs at 0.0405 (0.04LEO), 0.0811 (0.08LEO) or 0.1622 (0.16LEO) g/kg feed up to 42 d of age. The levels of LEOs included to diets were determined according to in vitro antimicrobial activity. 3. From d 1 to 42, the 0.08LEO treatment had higher live weight gain (LWG) compared to others. The 0.08LEO treatment increased feed intake (FI) compared to the CONT, AB and 0.04LEO. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of these birds was lower than those in the AB and 0.16LEO treatments. From 1 to 42 d of age for LWG, the effects were quadratic and cubic, while those for FI and FCR were cubic and quadratic, respectively. Birds that fed 0.08LEO and AB diets had higher and lower carcass weights (CW) than those that fed other diets. The effect of LEO levels was cubic on the CW. The 0.08LEO and 0.16LEO decreased abdominal fat (AF) weight compared to the AB. The blood cholesterol decreased by the 0.04LEO and 0.08LEO treatments compared to the CONT. For the blood cholesterol, the effects of LEO levels were cubic. The 0.08LEO treatments decreased Escherichia coli counts in jejunum compared to the CONT and 0.16LEO. 4. Feeding a diet with LEO at 0.0811 g/kg might increase the LWG, FI and weights of carcass and AF, whereas it might decrease blood cholesterol and E. coli counts without affecting blood high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, glucose, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase concentrations.

  15. Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

    2010-07-01

    In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction.

  16. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis

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    Hafiani Assia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state

  17. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil Novas espécies de Hymenoptera associadas a galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea)

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    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  18. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  19. The origins of species richness in the Hymenoptera: insights from a family-level supertree

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    Davis Robert B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, sawflies contains about eight percent of all described species, but no analytical studies have addressed the origins of this richness at family-level or above. To investigate which major subtaxa experienced significant shifts in diversification, we assembled a family-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera using supertree methods. We used sister-group species-richness comparisons to infer the phylogenetic position of shifts in diversification. Results The supertrees most supported by the underlying input trees are produced using matrix representation with compatibility (MRC (from an all-in and a compartmentalised analysis. Whilst relationships at the tips of the tree tend to be well supported, those along the backbone of the tree (e.g. between Parasitica superfamilies are generally not. Ten significant shifts in diversification (six positive and four negative are found common to both MRC supertrees. The Apocrita (wasps, ants, bees experienced a positive shift at their origin accounting for approximately 4,000 species. Within Apocrita other positive shifts include the Vespoidea (vespoid wasps/ants containing 24,000 spp., Anthophila + Sphecidae (bees/thread-waisted wasps; 22,000 spp., Bethylidae + Chrysididae (bethylid/cuckoo wasps; 5,200 spp., Dryinidae (dryinid wasps; 1,100 spp., and Proctotrupidae (proctotrupid wasps; 310 spp.. Four relatively species-poor families (Stenotritidae, Anaxyelidae, Blasticotomidae, Xyelidae have undergone negative shifts. There are some two-way shifts in diversification where sister taxa have undergone shifts in opposite directions. Conclusions Our results suggest that numerous phylogenetically distinctive radiations contribute to the richness of large clades. They also suggest that evolutionary events restricting the subsequent richness of large clades are common. Problematic phylogenetic issues in the Hymenoptera are identified, relating especially to

  20. Factors affecting success of galls of Aditrochus coihuensis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Factores que afectan el éxito de las agallas de Aditrochus coihuensis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Michael Nilsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls of Aditrochus coihuensis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were collected from their host tree, the southern beech Nothofagus dombeyi, near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, during the spring of 2007. Galls were carefully examined and classifi ed as successful or unsuccessful based on insect remains and emergence-hole diameter. Gall properties (diameter, wall thickness, chamber diameter, wall toughness were measured and compared between successful galls and unsuccessful (parasitized galls. Gall diameter and wall thickness were strongly correlated and thick walls seem to function as a protection against parasitoids. Parasitoids (Torymidae that were found within some galls had an ovipositor length shorter than wall thickness of fully developed galls. Most likely, parasitoids attack galls only during a limited time when the wall is thin enough. Wall toughness did not seem to infl uence gall success. In total 67% of the galls suffered from parasitoids. Inquilines (Curculionidae were found within some gall walls, with preference for larger galls and for those with thicker walls. Traces of potential bird or wasp predation were also found in a few specimens. Our present fi ndings contribute original descriptive information on these galls. Overall, our results lend further support on the potential importance of natural enemies on gall evolution.Agallas provocadas por Aditrochus coihuensis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae sobre su hospedero, Nothofagus dombeyi, fueron colectadas en la vecindad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, durante la primavera de 2007. Las mismas fueron examinadas y clasificadas como exitosas o no, sobre la base de restos de insectos dentro de ellas y el diámetro del agujero de emergencia. Distintas propiedades de las agallas (diámetro, grosor y dureza de la pared y diámetro de la cámara fueron medidas y comparadas como exitosas y no exitosas (parasitadas. El diámetro de las agallas tuvo una fuerte correlación con el grosor de

  1. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  2. The occurrence and evolution of nectar extraction apparatus among Hymenoptera ‘Symphyta'. Jervis, M. & Vilhelmsen, L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    We review feeding biology and mouthpart structure generally among adults of the basal hymenopteran, or ‘symphytan', lineages (sawflies, woodwasps, horntails and their relatives). These insects feed on a wide range of materials: floral and extrafloral nectar, pollen, plant (floral and leaf ) tissues......, plant (angiosperm) sap, the juice of ripe fruit, the spermatial fluid of rust fungi, sternorrhynchan bug honeydew, and insect tissues. Adults show feeding-related mouthpart specialization either for consuming pollen (the Xyelidae only) or for consuming ‘concealed' floral nectar (several families). Seven...... functional types of elongated proboscis or ‘concealed-nectar extraction apparatus (CNEA)' have previously been recognized among Hymenoptera. We identify an additional type, which appears to be unique among Hymenoptera and has probably evolved directly from unspecialized mouthparts (labiomaxillary complex...

  3. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  4. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  5. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  6. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  7. Faunističko istraživanje parazitskih osica (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) iz provincija Ilami i Kermanshah, zapadni Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahari, Hassan; Jussila, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    U radu je prikazano faunističko istraživanje parazitskih osica (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) iz nekih područja provincija Ilam i Kermanshah (zapadni Iran). Ukupno je sakupljeno i determinirano 19 vrsta osica iz 9 podporodica (Alomyinae, Cremastinae, Cryptinae, Diplazontinae, Ichneumoninae, Metopiinae, Pimplinae, Tersilochinae iTryphoninae). Dvije vrste, Probles (Microdiaparsis) microcephalus (Gravenhorst, 1829) i Tersilochus (Pectinolochus) striola (Thomson, 1889) prvi su put zabiljež...

  8. Species identification and genetic differentiation of European cavity-nesting wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae) inferred from DNA barcoding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turčinavičienė, Jurga; Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Budrienė, Anna; Budrys, Eduardas

    2016-01-01

    Solitary trap-nesting wasps are prospective bioindicators of anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems and one of the surrogate taxa for biodiversity assessments. The implementation of these studies is taxonomy-based and relies on accurate identification of species. The identification of larval stages of cavity-nesting Hymenoptera, collected using trap-nests, is complicated or impossible before the post-hibernation hatching of adults. DNA barcoding may allow the identification of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera species immediately after collection of the trap-nests, using larvae or dead specimens as sources of DNA. Using the standard barcoding sequence, we identified 33 wasp species from the families Vespidae, Pompilidae and Crabronidae, inhabiting trap-nests in Europe. Within-species and between-species genetic distances were estimated to evaluate the differences of intraspecific and interspecific genetic diversity. Genetic distances between related species indicated an obvious "barcoding gap". Neighbour-joining analysis revealed that groups corresponding to taxa of genus level are cohesive as well. COI barcode approach was confirmed as a valuable tool for taxonomy-based biodiversity studies of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera.

  9. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilò, M B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Rodrigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G J; Rueff, F

    2016-07-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. The aim was to report the scientific evidence on self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings, to inform healthcare staff about appropriate patient self-management of sting reactions, to propose indications for the prescription of an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), and to discuss other forms of medication. First-line treatment for Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Prescription of AAIs is mandatory in the case of venom-allergic patients who suffer from mast cell diseases or with an elevated baseline serum tryptase level and in untreated patients with a history of a systemic reaction involving at least two different organ systems. AAI prescription should also be considered in other specific situations before, during, and after stopping venom immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Age-dependent sting recurrence and outcome in immunotherapy-treated children with anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzke, A I; Eng, P A

    2013-08-01

    Data on outcome of insect venom immunotherapy in children are rare. We investigated the rate of sting recurrence and outcome of Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis in children of different age groups treated with immunotherapy. Data from children consecutively referred for anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom were collected using a standardized questionnaire. During mean follow-up of 7.7 years after commencement of immunotherapy, 45 of 83 children (56%) were re-stung 108 times by the insect they were allergic to. This corresponds to a rate of 0.23 stings per child and year of follow-up. The younger the subject, the higher was the prevalence of re-stings, with rates of 0.41 in children honey bee venom and 5.9% in the Vespula venom allergic group (P = ns). Younger boys with anaphylaxis to honey bee venom predominated in our cohort (P = 0.019). A majority of children with anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom (56%) in our cohort were re-stung, equally by honey bees or Vespula species. Younger children were more likely to be re-stung, but less likely to have a systemic reaction. Venom immunotherapy induces long-term protection in most children: 84.4% of subjects with anaphylaxis to honey bee and 94.1% of those to Vespula venom were completely protected at re-stings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. New species of the plesiomorphic genus Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae from South Africa

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    Simon van Noort

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae, Nixonia masneri sp. n. and Nixonia mcgregori sp. n. are described from South Africa and further records of Nixonia corrugata Johnson & Masner, Nixonia lamorali Johnson & Masner, Nixonia stygica Johnson & Masner are documented. Johnson and Masner’s 2006 identification key is modified to include the newly described species. Online interactive Lucid matrix and Lucid Phoenix dichotomous keys are available on WaspWeb at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm. Lucid data files in lif and sdd format are available at: doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.112.app.1.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.112.app.2.ik.

  12. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  13. Biological characteristics of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Oliveira H. N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of two populations of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae were collected from eggs of Euselasia apisaon (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae, a lepidopteran defoliator of Eucalyptus, in plantations in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study investigated the sex ratio, number of parasitoids per egg, and longevity of individuals of these two populations of T. maxacalii, when this parasitoid was reared receiving eggs of the factitious host Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in different periods after emergence, and with or without honey. Sex ratio of T. maxacalii varied from 0.44 to 0.60, and was affected by the interaction between populations, availability of food (honey, and length of time in which the parasitoid stayed without host eggs after their emergence. The population of T. maxacalii collected in São Paulo produced a larger number of individuals per egg of the host A. kuehniella and lived longer when fed.

  14. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  15. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  16. The fauna of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera of eastern Turkey with zoogeographical remarks and host data

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    Saliha Çoruh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic and sistematics studies on the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were reviwed occuring in eastern Turkey for over 20 years. In this study, 8 Acaenitinae, 16 Anomaloninae, 33 Banchinae, 26 Campopleginae, 1 Collyriinae, 23 Cremastinae, 29 Cryptinae, 9 Ctenopelmatinae, 1 Cylloceriinae, 6 Diplazontinae, 142 Ichneumoninae, 23 Mesochorinae, 30 Metopiinae, 15 Ophioninae, 2 Orthocentrinae, 2 Orthopelmatinae, 66 Pimplinae, 1 Stilbobinae, 13 Tersilochinae and 41 Tryphoninae species were recorded. So far, totally, 487 species with 186 genera and 20 subfamilies are recognized. With present knowledge, among them, Colpotrochia triclistor (Aubert, 1979, Exochus protuberans Kolarov & Çoruh, 2009 and Coelichneumon nigritor Riedel, Çoruh & Özbek, 2010 are endemic to Anatolia. The species composition, collected biogeographical regions, altitudinal distribution, seasonal dynamics, individual diversity and available host data of species in the region were reviewed.

  17. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  18. Identification of Venom Proteins of the Indigenous Endoparasitoid Chouioia cunea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Bei; Liu, Peixuan; Xu, Xiaorui; Zhang, Shun; Zheng, Yanan

    2017-10-01

    Chouioia cunea (Yang) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an indigenous pupal endoparasitoid that effectively attacks the exotic fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in China. In this novel association, the parasitoid's venom has played an important role in subduing the immune defense of the host although little is known about the composition and functions of the parasitoid's venom. We therefore first identified the parasitoid's major venom proteins using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Approximately 207 different proteins were identified from C. cunea's venom; among them 26 types widely existed in other endoparasitoids' venom, including calreticulin and arginine kinase, which inhibited the host immune system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cost of Production of Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) Grown in Natural and Alternative Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natalia F; Pomari-Fernandes, Aline; Lemes, Amanda A F; Vacari, Alessandra M; De Bortoli, Sergio A; de Freitas Bueno, Adeney

    2017-11-01

    The study of the technical and economic aspects of rearing natural enemies is essential for its effective use as a biological control agent in the field. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of production of the parasitoid, Telenomus remus (Nixon; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), reared in eggs of its natural host, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the alternative host, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The insects were reared in accordance with their respective methodologies of laboratory rearing. The cost of production of this biocontrol agent is US$ 0.0004 when reared with S. frugiperda eggs and US$ 0.0002 with C. cephalonica eggs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Additions to the Knowledge of the Genus Phimenes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solitary wasp genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae was reported to occur in Vietnam by van der Vecht (1959, represented by one taxon, Phimenes flavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann, which was synonymized under nominotypical Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849 by Kumar (2013. A note on gender of this genus is made in the text. One more species, Phimenes indosinensis (van der Vecht, 1959 is recorded in this study from Dak Lak in the southern and Son La in the northwestern parts of Vietnam for the first time. Detailed descriptions of the female and male of the latter are provided with figures. A key to the two species from Vietnam is also provided.

  1. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  2. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  3. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

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    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  4. Nesting sites characteristics of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Nelky Suriawanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae is eusocial insects that live together in a colony. This research was aimed to study the nesting site characteristics of stingless bees in the settlement areas at Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The nesting sites were observed by purposive sampling method from July 2015 to January 2016. Four species belong to genus Tetragonula were found, namely T. fuscobalteata, T. biroi, T. sapiens, and T. laeviceps. Two spesies, T. biroi and T. sapiens are the new record in Sulawesi island. The highest abundance of stingless bees colony was T. fuscobalteata (92.26%, followed by T. biroi (4.17%, T. sapiens (2.98%, and T. laeviceps (0.59%. Nesting sites of T. fuscobalteata were found in the stone, brick wall, wooden wall, bamboo, and iron cavities, T. biroi in the wooden wall, stone, and brick wall cavities, T. sapiens in stone cavities, while T. laeviceps in wooden walls.

  5. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells.

  6. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  7. Cellular in vitro assays in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Weber, J M; Jermann, T M; Krautheim, A; Tas, E; Ueberschlag, E V; Cammarata, M; Bircher, A J

    2008-01-01

    The current diagnostic procedures of anaphylactic reactions to hymenoptera stings include intradermal tests, venom-specific IgE (sIgE) and possibly sting challenge tests. Sometimes, the culprit insect remains unidentified. The usefulness of the cellular assays CAST-ELISA and Flow-CAST in the management of hymenoptera venom allergy was investigated. 134 patients with systemic reactions after a yellow jacket wasp and/or honey bee sting and 44 healthy controls underwent skin tests, as well as determination of sIgE (CAP-FEIA), leukocyte sulfidoleukotriene release (CAST-ELISA) and basophil CD63 expression (Flow-CAST) upon insect venom stimulation. The clinical diagnosis based on the history alone served as reference. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of all methods were compared. Concordance and correlations among methods were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of all in vitro tests were consistently high. The combination of all tests (skin tests, sIgE, combined cellular assays) yielded a positive predictive value of 100% for both venoms, if all 3 were positive, and a negative predictive value of 100%, if at least 1 test was positive. Relative specificities were considerably higher for the cellular assays (honey bee: CAST 91.1%, Flow-CAST 85.7%; yellow jacket wasp: CAST 98.4%, Flow-CAST 92.1%) and allow the detection of the culprit insect in patients with reactivity to both insects. The concordance between methods was good. There is no correlation between severity of clinical reaction and cellular assays. CAST-ELISA and Flow-CAST are valuable additional diagnostic tools for establishing the true culprit insect in patients with unclear clinical history or sensitization to both insects. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic.

  9. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  10. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Min

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders

  11. Fenología de los bracónidos (Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae del Pirineo andorrano

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    Falcó Garí, J. V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Phenology of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea at Andorra has been conducted/studied using a Malaise trap after a one-year cycle during 1993. A total of 1.892 specimens, representing 23 subfamilies and 79 genera were sampled. About 93.7% of the captures were koinobiont braconids, whereas 6.3% belonged to idiobiont braconids. The annual phenology has been characterized through the correlation between the evolution of the collected braconids and the weather (meteorological conditions. The maximum of the populations were registered between the two rain periods. In fact, the family Braconidae shows an abundance peak from middle of May to end of August, due to the xerothermic conditions of the andorran locality.



    La fenología de la familia Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea ha sido estudiada mediante una trampa Malaise en Andorra durante el año 1993. Han sido colectados 1.892 bracónidos (excepto Aphidiinae, pertenecientes a 23 subfamilias y 79 géneros. El 93,7% de los bracónidos capturados representa la estrategia biológica koinobionte frente al 6,3% de idiobiontes. La correlación de las capturas de los bracónidos con las condiciones meteorológicas ha permitido caracterizar la fenología anual de éstos. La evolución anual de las poblaciones alcanza sus máximos en el período comprendido entre las dos épocas de lluvias, pudiéndose señalar un único pico para la familia Braconidae, el cual transcurre desde mediados de mayo a finales de agosto, debido a las condiciones xerotérmicas de la localidad andorrana.

  12. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  13. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques

    1991-01-01

    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  14. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  15. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  16. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  17. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  18. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  19. Species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequence-tagged site markers for the parasitic wasp genus nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehuis, O.; Judson, A. K.; Werren, J. H.; Hunter, W. B.; Dang, P. M.; Dowd, S. E.; Grillenberger, B.; Beukeboom, L. W.; Gadau, J.

    Wasps of the genus Nasonia are important biological control agents of house flies and related filth flies, which are major vectors of human pathogens. Species of Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are not easily differentiated from one another by morphological characters, and molecular markers for

  20. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  1. A new species of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae from the southern Western Ghats, Karnataka, with a key to world species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae N. minuta sp. nov. is described from the southern Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Affinities of the new species with related species are discussed and a key to the world species of Netomocera is provided.

  2. Taxonomic and behavioral composition of an island fauna: A survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard (Dukes County, Massachusetts, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intensive survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard, the largest offshore island in Massachusetts, USA, was conducted mostly from 2010-2011 at over 60 sites across the island’s six towns. We document 181 bee species in 31 genera and six families, and historical record...

  3. First record of Platygaster luteipes Buhl (Hymenoptera Platygastridae) from leaf galls on black pepper along with first report of the species from India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjana, M.; Rajmohana, K.; Buhl, Peter Neerup

    2016-01-01

    Platygaster luteipes Buhl (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is reported for the first time from India. Several specimens of both sexes of the species were reared from the globular galls on mature leaves of black pepper. The hitherto undescribed male of the species is characterized and illustrated....

  4. Functional anatomy of the ovipositor clip in the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Thompson) (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae): a structure to grip escaping host larvae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Isidoro, N.; Bin, F.

    1998-01-01

    Observations on the host attack behaviour of the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera : Eucoilidae) led to the supposition that this wasp should possess a structure on its ovipositor by which it can hold a host larvae in a fixed position until the larva is paralyzed. The ovipositor was

  5. First host record of the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea along with the first description of a male from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gupta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Euthalia aconthea meridionalis Fruhstorfer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae is documented as the first host record for the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from Karnataka, India. The male of this species is recorded for the first time and described. Illustrations of both the female and male, and host details are given.

  6. Added sensitivity of component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated serum tryptase and/or mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, J B; Brockow, K; Darsow, U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component-resolved a...

  7. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  8. A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P

    2012-12-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.].

  9. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  10. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  11. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  12. A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran

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    Ghahari Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet, E. aurantii (Howard, E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard, E. citrina (Craw, E. elegans (Masi, E. elongata (Dozier, E. fasciata (Malenotti, E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker, E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, E. lutea (Masi, E. luteola Howard, E. mineoi Viggiani, E. perniciosi (Tower, and 4 Eretmocerus species (Eretmocerus cadabae Viggiani, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Eretmocerus nikolskajae Myartseva, Eretmocerus serius Silvestre were collected.

  13. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  14. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

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    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  15. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Characteristics of honey bee and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Z; Melhim, A; Weersink, A

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a farm-level, Canada-wide analysis of Canadian bee farms in 2006; this article is the first report to distinguish between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) farms and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms. Farms are characterized according to bee species, bee stocks, and whether the farm makes 50% or more of gross sales from bee-related activities. Farm characteristics, including bee stocks, gross sales, capital investments, land base, specialization, location, and operator demographics, are reported for the different farm types and sizes. Non-Apis bee farms are revealed to be a nontrivial part of the Canadian bee industry: 21.2% of Canadian bee farms have non-Apis bees and 16.6% have exclusively non-Apis bees. Important differences between honey bee farms and non-Apis bee farms also are found. These differences include the more land-intensive nature of non-Apis bee farms and the finding that non-Apis bee farms have greater diversity in terms of their primary commodity, even at higher bee stock levels.

  17. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production.

  18. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  19. Diapause and Cold Hardiness of the Almond Wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Two Independent Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohamadi, Fatemeh; Khajehali, Jahangir; Izadi, Hamzeh

    2016-08-01

    The almond wasp, Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a key pest of almond, is a univoltine pest diapausing as last instar larvae inside the damaged fruits for almost nine months in a year. In this study, changes in the amount of total simple sugars, lipid, protein, glycogen, trehalose, glucose, supercooling points (SCPs), and cold hardiness of the diapausing larvae were measured from October to March for first year diapause-destined and in August and September for second year diapause-destined larvae. Changes in glycogen content were reversely proportional to changes in total simple sugars and low molecular weight carbohydrates. These changes reflect the interconversion of glycogen to sugar alcohol in order to increase the insect cold tolerance. We found that cold hardiness and diapause of the last instar larvae of the almond wasp have evolved separately. Cold hardiness was highly associated with physiological changes (accumulation of cryoprotectants), but no physiological changes occurred in early diapause of first year diapause-destined and second year diapause-destined larvae. The almond wasp larvae were found to be a freeze-avoidant insect, as no larva survived after SCP determination and crystallization of its body fluids. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Multigenerational maternal inhibition of prepupal diapause in two Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Sergey Ya; Samartsev, Konstantin G

    2015-10-01

    It is known that in some insect species the incidence of diapause among the progeny of females that had undergone diapause is relatively low or zero even under strong diapause-inducing conditions. Moreover, the maternal inhibition, preventing the induction of a maladaptive diapause in spring, can persist over several generations. This multigenerational effect based on hypothetical 'interval timer' was thoroughly studied in Aphididae. We first described a similar phenomenon in Hymenoptera: laboratory experiments demonstrated that the proportion of diapausing progeny of Trichogramma females that had undergone diapause was practically zero independently of photoperiodic and temperature conditions used (day lengths of 12 and 18h and temperatures of 12-15°C). Then the ability to enter diapause recovered gradually and returned to the normal level over two (in Trichogramma telengai) or even five (in Trichogramma principium) generations. We conclude that the observed effect may be based on an interval timer similar to that in aphids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.