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Sample records for vesnarinone downregulates cxcr4

  1. Vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 expression via upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 2 in oral cancer cells

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    Uchida Daisuke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the establishment of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Chemotherapy is a powerful tool for the treatment of oral cancer, including oral SCC; however, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the expression of CXCR4 are unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of CXCR4 associated with the chemotherapeutic agents in oral cancer cells. Results The expression of CXCR4 was examined using 3 different chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and vesnarinone (3,4-dihydro-6-[4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-(1H-quinolinone in B88, a line of oral cancer cells that exhibits high levels of CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential. Of the 3 chemotherapeutic agents that we examined, only vesnarinone downregulated the expression of CXCR4 at the mRNA as well as the protein level. Vesnarinone significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, vesnarinone markedly inhibited 2.7-kb human CXCR4 promoter activity, and we identified the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, as a novel vesnarinone-responsive molecule, which was bound to the CXCR4 promoter at positions -300 to -167 relative to the transcription start site. The forced-expression of KLF2 led to the downregulation of CXCR4 mRNA and impaired CXCR4 promoter activity. The use of siRNA against KLF2 led to an upregulation of CXCR4 mRNA. Conclusion These Results indicate that vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 via the upregulation of KLF2 in oral cancer.

  2. Differential control of CXCR4 and CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Gag

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    Valiathan Rajeshwari R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery functions to sort cellular receptors into the lumen of the multivesicular body (MVB prior to lysosomal degradation. ESCRT components can also be recruited by enveloped viruses to sites of viral assembly where they have been proposed to mediate viral egress. For example, HIV-1 budding is dependent on Gag-mediated recruitment of the cellular ESCRTs-I, -III, AIP1/Alix and Vps4 proteins. Viral recruitment of ESCRT proteins could therefore impact on host cell processes such as receptor downregulation. Results Here we show that downregulation of the HIV-1 co-receptor, CXCR4, by its ligand SDF-1, is ESCRT-I dependent. Expression of HIV-1 Gag attenuated downregulation of CXCR4, resulting in accumulation of undegraded receptors within intracellular compartments. The effect of Gag was dependent on an ESCRT-I interacting motif within the C-terminal p6 region of Gag. In contrast, PMA-induced downregulation of the HIV-1 receptor CD4 was independent of ESCRT-I and Vps4; HIV-1 Gag had no effect on this process. Conclusion These results establish that the HIV-1 receptor, CD4, and co-receptor, CXCR4 are differentially regulated by ESCRT proteins. HIV-1 Gag selectively modulates protein sorting at the MVB, interfering with ESCRT-I dependent but not ESCRT-I independent processes.

  3. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL

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    Staller, Peter; Sulitkova, Jitka; Lisztwan, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Organ-specific metastasis is governed, in part, by interactions between chemokine receptors on cancer cells and matching chemokines in target organs. For example, malignant breast cancer cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and commonly metastasize to organs that are an abundant source...... regulates CXCR4 expression owing to its capacity to target hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for degradation under normoxic conditions. This process is suppressed under hypoxic conditions, resulting in HIF-dependent CXCR4 activation. An analysis of clear cell renal carcinoma that manifests mutation of the VHL...... gene in most cases revealed an association of strong CXCR4 expression with poor tumour-specific survival. These results suggest a mechanism for CXCR4 activation during tumour cell evolution and imply that VHL inactivation acquired by incipient tumour cells early in tumorigenesis confers not only...

  4. Inhibition of breast cancer metastasis with microRNA-302a by downregulation of CXCR4 expression.

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    Liang, Zhongxing; Bian, Xuehai; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2014-08-01

    Metastasis remains a main cause of mortality from breast cancer and an unresolved issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of miR-302a in the development of breast cancer metastasis mediated by CXCR4, a critical regulator of metastasis, and to identify miR-302a as an effective therapeutic agent for therapy and prevention of breast cancer metastasis. Our studies show that miR-302a expression levels were downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cells and tumor tissues. Additionally, the expression levels of miR-302a were inversely correlated with CXCR4 levels. More promisingly, miR-302a inhibited the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and reduced the expression of CXCR4. Our findings demonstrated that the repression of miR-302a levels contributes to breast cancer metastasis and restoration of miR-302a baseline expression inhibits the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. These data suggest that miR-302a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer metastasis.

  5. Down-Regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 Expression Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Glial TLR4 Activation in the Spinal Cord.

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    Li, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Zai-Li; Tan, Wen-Fei; Sun, Xi-Jia; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion. The effects of CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and TLR4 activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia were investigated by pretreatments with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and TLR4 antagonist (TAK-242) for 5 consecutive days before surgery. The results indicated that IR induced significant and sustained inflammatory pain, observed as decreases in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL), throughout the post-injury period. The increased levels of TLR4 and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL12, as well as its receptor, CXCR4, were closely correlated with the PWT and PWL trends. Double immunostaining further suggested that TLR4, which is mainly expressed on astrocytes and microglia, was closely co-localized with CXCL12 and CXCR4 in spinal dorsal horn. As expected, intrathecal pretreatment with the TLR4 antagonist, TAK-242 markedly ameliorated pain by inhibiting astrocytic and microglial activation, as shown by decreases in TLR4 immunoreactivity and the percentage of double-labeled cells. These protective effects were likely due in part to the reduced production of the downstream cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as for the recruitment of CXCL12 and CXCR4. Additionally, intrathecal pretreatment with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody and AMD3100 resulted in similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as those receiving TAK-242 pretreatment. These results suggest that

  6. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

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    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  7. Epigenetic Silencing of CXCR4 Promotes Loss of Cell Adhesion in Cervical Cancer

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    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of chemokine signaling pathways, recent reports have described the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. Interestingly, we found downregulation of CXCR4 at both transcript and protein level in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also found CXCR4 promoter hypermethylation in cervical cancer cell lines and primary biopsy samples. DNA hypomethylating drug 5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A treatments in cell lines reactivate both CXCR4 transcription and protein expression. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated that autocrine SDF-1α promotes the loss of cell adhesion while paracrine SDF-1α predominantly protects the normal cervical cells from loss of cell adhesion. Cervical cancer cell line C-33A having increased expression of CXCR4 after TSA treatment showed increased cell adhesion by paracrine source of SDF-1α in comparison to untreated C-33A. These findings demonstrate the first evidence that epigenetic silencing of CXCR4 makes the cells inefficient to respond to the paracrine source of SDF-1α leading to loss of cell adhesion, one of the key events in metastases and progression of the disease. Our results provide novel insight of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in tumor microenvironment which may be promising to further delineate molecular mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis.

  8. Vascular CXCR4 expression - a novel antiangiogenic target in gastric cancer?

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    Barbara Ingold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are prime candidates for novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies. We searched for differentially expressed GPCRs in node positive gastric carcinomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Differential expression of GPCRs in three node positive vs. three node negative intestinal type gastric carcinomas was analyzed by gene array technology. The candidate genes CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 were validated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in an independent set of 37 gastric carcinomas. Translation was studied by immunohistochemistry in 347 gastric carcinomas using tissue microarrays as well as in 61 matching lymph node metastases. Protein expression was correlated with clinicopathological patient characteristics and survival. 52 GPCRs and GPCR-related genes were up- or down-regulated in node positive gastric cancer, including CXCL12. Differential expression of CXCL12 was confirmed by RT-PCR and correlated with local tumour growth. CXCL12 immunopositivity was negatively associated with distant metastases and tumour grade. Only 17% of gastric carcinomas showed CXCR4 immunopositive tumour cells, which was associated with higher local tumour extent. 29% of gastric carcinomas showed CXCR4 positive tumour microvessels. Vascular CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with higher local tumour extent as well as higher UICC-stages. When expressing both, CXCL12 in tumour cells and CXCR4 in tumour microvessels, these tumours also were highly significantly associated with higher T- and UICC-stages. Three lymph node metastases revealed vascular CXCR4 expression while tumour cells completely lacked CXCR4 in all cases. The expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 had no impact on patient survival. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results substantiate the significance of GPCRs on the biology of gastric carcinomas and provide evidence that the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway might be a novel promising

  9. Inhibition of angiogenesis, fibrosis and thrombosis by tetramethylpyrazine: mechanisms contributing to the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

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    Xiaoxiao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP is one of the active ingredients extracted from the Chinese herb Chuanxiong, which has been used to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of TMP have not been fully elucidated. In a previous study we showed that TMP-mediated glioma suppression and neural protection involves the inhibition of CXCR4 expression. The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays a fundamental role in many physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we further investigated whether the regulation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway is also involved in the TMP-mediated inhibition of neovascularization or fibrosis and improvement of microcirculation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a scratch-wound assay, we demonstrated that TMP significantly suppressed the migration and tubule formation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304 in vitro. The expression of CXCR4 in ECV304 cells is notably down-regulated after TMP treatment. In addition, TMP significantly suppresses corneal neovascularization in a rat model of corneal alkali burn injury. The expression of CXCR4 on days 1, 3 and 7 post-injury was determined through RT-PCR analysis. Consistent with our hypotheses, the expression of CXCR4 in the rat cornea is significantly increased with alkali burn and dramatically down-regulated with TMP treatment. Moreover, TMP treatment significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis, while immunofluorescence shows a notably decreased amount of CXCR4-positive cells in the TMP-treated group. Furthermore, TMP significantly down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 in platelets, lymphocytes and red blood cells. Whole-blood viscosity and platelet aggregation in rats are significantly decreased by TMP treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that TMP exerts potent effects in inhibiting neovascularization, fibrosis and thrombosis under

  10. CXCR4 Ligands : The Next Big Hit?

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    Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Wester, Hans-Juergen

    2017-01-01

    The G protein-coupled protein receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an attractive target for cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it is overexpressed in many solid and hematologic cancers. Binding of its ligand, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), results in receptor internalization and

  11. Mapping the CXCR4 receptor on breast cancer cells.

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    Wang, Biran; Guo, Peng; Auguste, Debra T

    2015-07-01

    The CXCR4 receptor triggers cell migration and, in breast cancer, promotes metastasis. To date, the dynamic assembly of CXCR4 on the cell surface as a mediator of receptor binding is not well characterized. The objective of this work is to quantify the density, spatial organization, and magnitude of binding of the CXCR4 receptor on live metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells. We measured the Young's modulus, the CXCR4 surface density, and CXCR4 unbinding force on MBC cells by atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the CXCR4 density, spatial organization, and matrix stiffness are paramount to achieve strong binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MSH2 and CXCR4 involvement in malignant VIPoma

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    Müller Sven

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting tumors(VIPomas are rare endocrine tumors of the pancreas with an estimated incidence of 0.1 per million per year. The molecular mechanisms that mediate development of VIPomas are poorly investigated and require definition. Methods A genome- and gene expression analysis of specimens of a primary pancreatic VIPoma with hepatic metastases was performed. The primary tumor, the metastases, the corresponding healthy tissue of the liver, and the pancreas were compared with each other using oligonucleotide microarrays and loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Results The results revealed multiple LOH events and several differentially expressed genes. Our finding of LOH and downregulation was conspicuous in the microarray analysis for the mismatch repair gene MSH2 in the primary pancreatic VIPoma tumor, the hepatic metastasis but not in the corresponding healthy tissue. Further a strong overexpression of the chemokine CXCR4 was detected in the hepatic metastases compared to its pancreatic primary. With a review of the literature we describe the molecular insights of metastatic development in VIPoma. Conclusion In VIPoma, defects in the mismatch repair system especially in MSH2 may contribute to carcinogenesis, and increased CXCR4 may be associated with liver metastasis.

  13. CXCR4-specific Nanobodies as potential therapeutics for WHIM syndrome

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    de Wit, Raymond H; Heukers, Raimond; Brink, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    effective approach, we tested the potency and efficacy of CXCR4-specific Nanobodies on inhibiting CXCR4-WHIM mutants. Nanobodies(®) are therapeutic proteins based on the smallest functional fragments of heavy chain antibodies. They combine the advantages of small-molecule drugs and antibody......-based therapeutics due to their relative small size, high stability and high affinity. We compared the potential of monovalent and bivalent CXCR4-specific Nanobodies to inhibit CXCL12-induced CXCR4-WHIM-mediated signaling with the small molecule clinical candidate AMD3100. The CXCR4-targeting Nanobodies displace......WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disease, named after its main clinical manifestations: Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis. The disease is primarily caused by C-terminal truncation mutations of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Consequently, these CXCR4-WHIM...

  14. SLITs suppress tumor growth in vivo by silencing Sdf1/Cxcr4 within breast epithelium.

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    Marlow, Rebecca; Strickland, Phyllis; Lee, Ji Shin; Wu, Xinyan; Pebenito, Milana; Binnewies, Mikhail; Le, Elizabeth K; Moran, Angel; Macias, Hector; Cardiff, Robert D; Sukumar, Saraswati; Hinck, Lindsay

    2008-10-01

    The genes encoding Slits and their Robo receptors are silenced in many types of cancer, including breast, suggesting a role for this signaling pathway in suppressing tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanism underlying these tumor-suppressive effects has not been delineated. Here, we show that loss of Slits, or their Robo1 receptor, in murine mammary gland or human breast carcinoma cells results in coordinate up-regulation of the Sdf1 and Cxcr4 signaling axis, specifically within mammary epithelium. This is accompanied by hyperplastic changes in cells and desmoplastic alterations in the surrounding stroma. A similar inverse correlation between Slit and Cxcr4 expression is identified in human breast tumor tissues. Furthermore, we show in a xenograft model that Slit overexpression down-regulates CXCR4 and dominantly suppresses tumor growth. These studies classify Slits as negative regulators of Sdf1 and Cxcr4 and identify a molecular signature in hyperplastic breast lesions that signifies inappropriate up-regulation of key prometastatic genes.

  15. CXCR4-SDF-1 signalling, locomotion, chemotaxis and adhesion.

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    Kucia, Magda; Jankowski, Kacper; Reca, Ryan; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Bandura, Laura; Allendorf, Daniel J; Zhang, Jin; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2004-03-01

    Chemokines, small pro-inflammatory chemoattractant cytokines, that bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors present on plasma membranes of target cells are the major regulators of cell trafficking. In addition some chemokines have been reported to modulate cell survival and growth. Moreover, compelling evidence is accumulating that cancer cells may employ several mechanisms involving chemokine-chemokine receptor axes during their metastasis that also regulate the trafficking of normal cells. Of all the chemokines, stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), an alpha-chemokine that binds to G-protein-coupled CXCR4, plays an important and unique role in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell trafficking. First, SDF-1 regulates the trafficking of CXCR4+ haemato/lymphopoietic cells, their homing/retention in major haemato/lymphopoietic organs and accumulation of CXCR4+ immune cells in tissues affected by inflammation. Second, CXCR4 plays an essential role in the trafficking of other tissue/organ specific stem/progenitor cells expressing CXCR4 on their surface, e.g., during embryo/organogenesis and tissue/organ regeneration. Third, since CXCR4 is expressed on several tumour cells, these CXCR4 positive tumour cells may metastasize to the organs that secrete/express SDF-1 (e.g., bones, lymph nodes, lung and liver). SDF-1 exerts pleiotropic effects regulating processes essential to tumour metastasis such as locomotion of malignant cells, their chemoattraction and adhesion, as well as plays an important role in tumour vascularization. This implies that new therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis could have important applications in the clinic by modulating the trafficking of haemato/lymphopoietic cells and inhibiting the metastatic behaviour of tumour cells as well. In this review, we focus on a role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in regulating the metastatic behaviour of tumour cells and discuss the molecular mechanisms that are essential

  16. Targeting CXCR4 in HIV Cell-Entry Inhibition

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    Steen, Anne; Schwartz, T W; Rosenkilde, M M

    2010-01-01

    CXCR4 and CCR5 constitute the two major coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In the course of an HIV-infection, a coreceptor switch takes place in approximately half of the patients - from R5 HIV-1 (CCR5 utilizing) strains to X4 HIV-1 (CXCR4 utilizing) strains. Treatment of HIV......-infected individuals with CXCR4 antagonists delays the onset of AIDS by preventing the CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor switch. In addition to the endogenous CXCR4 and CCR5 ligands, other chemokines, for example the human herpesvirus 8 encoded CC-chemokine, vCCL2, and modifications hereof, have proven efficient HIV-1 cell...... no oral bioavailability. The hunt for orally active small-molecule CXCR4 antagonists led to the development of monocyclam-based compounds, and recently to the non-cyclam antagonist AMD070, which is orally active and currently in Phase II clinical trial as anti-HIV treatment. Current review provides...

  17. CXCR4 expression in feline mammary carcinoma cells: evidence of a proliferative role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

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    Ferrari Angelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumours frequently develop in female domestic cats being highly malignant in a large percentage of cases. Chemokines regulate many physiological and pathological processes including organogenesis, chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, as well as tumour progression and metastasization. In particular, the chemokine/receptor pair SDF-1/CXCR4 has been involved in the regulation of metastatic potential of neoplastic cells, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was the immunohistochemical defininition of the expression profile of CXCR4 in primary and metastatic feline mammary carcinomas and the evaluation of the role of SDF-1 in feline mammary tumour cell proliferation. Results A total of 45 mammary surgical samples, including 33 primary tumours (31 carcinomas and 2 adenomas, 6 metastases, and 4 normal mammary tissues were anlyzed. Tumor samples were collected from a total number of 26 animals, as in some cases concurrent occurrence of neoplasm in more than one mammary gland was observed. Tissues were processed for standard histological examination, and all lesions were classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. CXCR4 expression in neoplastic cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The level of CXCR4 immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively estimated as CXCR4 score evaluating both the number of positive cells and the intensity of staining. Six primary, fibroblast-free primary cultures were obtained from fresh feline mammary carcinomas and characterized by immunofluorescence for CXCR4 and malignant mammary cell marker expression. SDF-1-dependent in vitro proliferative effects were also assayed. CXCR4 expression was observed in 29 out of 31 malignant tissues with a higher CXCR4 score observed in 4 out of 6 metastatic lesions than in the respective primary tumours. In 2 benign lesions analyzed, only the single basaloid adenoma showed a mild positive immunostaining against CXCR4. Normal tissue did

  18. The role of SDF-1-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in biological behaviors of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

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    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Aijun; Tao, Changbo; Li, Xueyang; Jin, Peisheng, E-mail: jinps2006@163.com

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •SDF-1 pretreating increased the levels of CXCR4, CXCR7 in ADSCs. •SDF-1 improved cells paracrine migration and proliferation abilities. •CXCR4 and CXCR7 could function in ADSCs paracrine, migration and proliferation. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have reported that CXCR4 and CXCR7 play an essential, but differential role in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-inducing cell chemotaxis, viability and paracrine actions of BMSCs. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been suggested to be potential seed cells for clinical application instead of bone marrow derived stroma cell (BMSCs). However, the function of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 in ADSCs is not well understood. This study was designed to analyze the effect of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis on ADSCs biological behaviors in vitro. Using Flow cytometry and Western blot methods, we found for the first time that CXCR4/CXCR7 expression was increased after treatment with SDF-1 in ADSCs. SDF-1 promoted ADSCs paracrine, proliferation and migration abilities. CXCR4 or CXCR7 antibody suppressed ADSCs paracrine action induced by SDF-1. The migration of ADSCs can be abolished by CXCR4 antibody, while the proliferation of ADSCs was only downregulated by CXCR7 antibody. Our study indicated that the angiogenesis of ADSCs is, at least partly, mediated by SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis. However, only binding of SDF-1/CXCR7 was required for proliferation of ADSCs, and CXCR7 was required for migration of ADSCs induced by SDF-1. Our studies provide evidence that the activation of either axis may be helpful to improve the effectiveness of ADSCs-based stem cell therapy.

  19. Effects of combination therapy with vesnarinone, 5-FU and radiation on growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice

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    Takamura, Michio; Nio, Yoshinori; Minari, Yoshimitsu; Iguchi, Chikage; Sasaki, Susumu; Hirahara, Noriyuki; Tamura, Katsuhiro [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    We examined the combination effect of Vesnarinone (AZ, 5 mg/day), 5-FU (40 mg/kg) and radiation (RT, 8 Gy/body) for human pancreatic cancer lines which were subcutaneously xenografted in nude mice. AZ alone did not inhibit their growth, but a combination of AZ, 5-FU and RT showed a significant inhibition. Pathological study demonstrated that the ductal structure became more prominent in the poorly differentiated tumors after Vesnarinone treatment. In conclusion, vesnarinone may be a beneficial agent for the differentiation therapy of pancreatic cancer, especially in combination with 5-FU and/or RT. (author)

  20. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis.

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    Po-Yin Chu

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach.

  1. Suicide gene reveals the myocardial neovascularization role of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 (MSC(CXCR4)).

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    Liang, Jialiang; Huang, Wei; Yu, Xiyong; Ashraf, Atif; Wary, Kishore K; Xu, Meifeng; Millard, Ronald W; Ashraf, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that MSC(CXCR4) improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). This study was aimed to investigate the specific role of MSC(CXCR4) in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium using a suicide gene approach. MSCs were transduced with either lentivirus-null vector/GFP (MSC(Null) as control) or vector encoding for overexpressing CXCR4/GFP. The MSC derived-endothelial cell (EC) differentiation was assessed by a tube formation assay, Dil-ac-LDL uptake, EC marker expression, and VE-cadherin promoter activity assay. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. The suicide gene approach was under the control of VE-cadherin promoter. In vivo studies: Cell patches containing MSC(Null) or MSC(CXCR4) were transduced with suicide gene and implanted into the myocardium of MI rat. Rats received either ganciclovir (GCV) or vehicle after cell implantation. After one month, the cardiac functional changes and neovascularization were assessed by echocardiography, histological analysis, and micro-CT imaging. The expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was significantly higher in MSC(CXCR4) as compared to MSC(Null) under hypoxia. Additionally, MSC(CXCR4) enhanced new vessel formation and EC differentiation, as well as STAT3 phosphorylation under hypoxia. STAT3 participated in the transcription of VE-cadherin in MSC(CXCR4) under hypoxia, which was inhibited by WP1066 (a STAT3 inhibitor). In addition, GCV specifically induced death of ECs with suicide gene activation. In vivo studies: MSC(CXCR4) implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration, reduced infarct size, improved cardiac remodeling, and enhanced neovascularization in ischemic heart tissue. New vessels derived from MSC(CXCR4) were observed at the injured heart margins and communicated with native coronary arteries. However, the derived vessel networks were reduced by GCV, reversing improvement of cardiac function. The transplanted MSC(CXCR4) enhanced

  2. Suicide gene reveals the myocardial neovascularization role of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 (MSC(CXCR4.

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    Jialiang Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies indicated that MSC(CXCR4 improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. This study was aimed to investigate the specific role of MSC(CXCR4 in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium using a suicide gene approach. METHODS: MSCs were transduced with either lentivirus-null vector/GFP (MSC(Null as control or vector encoding for overexpressing CXCR4/GFP. The MSC derived-endothelial cell (EC differentiation was assessed by a tube formation assay, Dil-ac-LDL uptake, EC marker expression, and VE-cadherin promoter activity assay. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. The suicide gene approach was under the control of VE-cadherin promoter. In vivo studies: Cell patches containing MSC(Null or MSC(CXCR4 were transduced with suicide gene and implanted into the myocardium of MI rat. Rats received either ganciclovir (GCV or vehicle after cell implantation. After one month, the cardiac functional changes and neovascularization were assessed by echocardiography, histological analysis, and micro-CT imaging. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was significantly higher in MSC(CXCR4 as compared to MSC(Null under hypoxia. Additionally, MSC(CXCR4 enhanced new vessel formation and EC differentiation, as well as STAT3 phosphorylation under hypoxia. STAT3 participated in the transcription of VE-cadherin in MSC(CXCR4 under hypoxia, which was inhibited by WP1066 (a STAT3 inhibitor. In addition, GCV specifically induced death of ECs with suicide gene activation. In vivo studies: MSC(CXCR4 implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration, reduced infarct size, improved cardiac remodeling, and enhanced neovascularization in ischemic heart tissue. New vessels derived from MSC(CXCR4 were observed at the injured heart margins and communicated with native coronary arteries. However, the derived vessel networks were reduced by GCV, reversing improvement of cardiac function. CONCLUSION: The

  3. Discovery and Characterization of an Endogenous CXCR4 Antagonist

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    Onofrio Zirafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an effective and highly specific CXCR4 antagonist. The endogenous peptide, termed EPI-X4, is evolutionarily conserved and generated from the highly abundant albumin precursor by pH-regulated proteases. EPI-X4 forms an unusual lasso-like structure and antagonizes CXCL12-induced tumor cell migration, mobilizes stem cells, and suppresses inflammatory responses in mice. Furthermore, the peptide is abundant in the urine of patients with inflammatory kidney diseases and may serve as a biomarker. Our results identify EPI-X4 as a key regulator of CXCR4 signaling and introduce proteolysis of an abundant precursor protein as an alternative concept for chemokine receptor regulation.

  4. CXCR4+ granulocytes reflect fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease.

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    Carevic, Melanie; Singh, Anurag; Rieber, Nikolaus; Eickmeier, Olaf; Griese, Matthias; Hector, Andreas; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis airways are frequently colonised with fungi. However, the interaction of these fungi with immune cells and the clinical relevance in cystic fibrosis lung disease are incompletely understood.We characterised granulocytes in airway fluids and peripheral blood from cystic fibrosis patients with and without fungal colonisation, non-cystic fibrosis disease controls and healthy control subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally and correlated these findings with lung function parameters.Cystic fibrosis patients with chronic fungal colonisation by Aspergillus fumigatus were characterised by an accumulation of a distinct granulocyte subset, expressing the HIV coreceptor CXCR4. Percentages of airway CXCR4(+) granulocytes correlated with lung disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis.These studies demonstrate that chronic fungal colonisation with A. fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with CXCR4(+) airway granulocytes, which may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha activates basophils by means of CXCR4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jacobi, H H; Jing, C

    2000-01-01

    The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is predominantly expressed on inactivated naive T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is the only known ligand for CXCR4. To date, the CXCR4 expression and function o...

  6. Anti-HIV Effect of Liposomes Bearing CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CXCR4 and facilitates cell-type-specific targeting of nano-liposomes to PBMCs with high CXCR4 expression, but ... target cells. CXCR4 is a G-coupled heptahelical receptor that first drew attention as a major coreceptor for the entry of HIV(human immunodeficiency virus)[1]. .... the injection of N15P, the heart, kidney, spleen,.

  7. CXCR4 expression in prostate cancer progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dubrovska

    Full Text Available Tumor progenitor cells represent a population of drug-resistant cells that can survive conventional chemotherapy and lead to tumor relapse. However, little is known of the role of tumor progenitors in prostate cancer metastasis. The studies reported herein show that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, a key regulator of tumor dissemination, plays a role in the maintenance of prostate cancer stem-like cells. The CXCL4/CXCR12 pathway is activated in the CD44(+/CD133(+ prostate progenitor population and affects differentiation potential, cell adhesion, clonal growth and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, prostate tumor xenograft studies in mice showed that a combination of the CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100, which targets prostate cancer stem-like cells, and the conventional chemotherapeutic drug Taxotere, which targets the bulk tumor, is significantly more effective in eradicating tumors as compared to monotherapy.

  8. CXCR4 pathway associated with family history of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Han, Jiali; Widlund, Hans R; Correll, Mick; Wang, Yaoyu E; Quackenbush, John; Mihm, Martin C; Canales, Alvaro Laga; Wu, Shaowei; Golub, Todd; Hoshida, Yujin; Hunter, David J; Murphy, George; Kupper, Thomas S; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic predisposition plays a major role in the etiology of melanoma, but known genetic markers only account for a limited fraction of family-history-associated melanoma cases. Expression microarrays have offered the opportunity to identify further genomic profiles correlated with family history of melanoma. We aimed to distinguish mRNA expression signatures between melanoma cases with and without a family history of melanoma. Based on the Nurses' Health Study, family history was defined as having one or more first-degree family members diagnosed with melanoma. Melanoma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing pathology reports, and tumor blocks were collected by mail from across the USA. Genomic interrogation was accomplished through evaluating expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 78 primary cutaneous invasive melanoma cases, on either a 6K or whole-genome (24K) Illumina gene chip. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed for each batch to determine the differentially enriched pathways and key contributing genes. The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway was consistently up-regulated within cases of familial melanoma in both platforms. Leading edge analysis showed four genes from the CXCR4 pathway, including MAPK1, PLCG1, CRK, and PTK2, were among the core members that contributed to the enrichment of this pathway. There was no association between the enrichment of CXCR4 pathway and NRAS, BRAF mutation, or Breslow thickness of the primary melanoma cases. We found that the CXCR4 pathway might constitute a novel susceptibility pathway associated with family history of melanoma in first-degree relatives.

  9. Diversity and inter-connections in the CXCR4 chemokine receptor/ligand family: molecular perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas ePawig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 mediate the homing of progenitor cells in the bone marrow and their recruitment to sites of injury, as well as affect processes such as cell arrest, survival and angiogenesis. CXCL12 was long thought to be the sole CXCR4 ligand, but more recently the atypical chemokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF was identified as an alternative, non-cognate ligand for CXCR4 and shown to mediate chemotaxis and arrest of CXCR4-expressing T-cells. This has complicated the understanding of CXCR4-mediated signaling and associated biological processes. Compared to CXCL12/CXCR4-induced signaling, only few details are known on MIF/CXCR4-mediated signaling and it remains unclear to which extent MIF and CXCL12 reciprocally influence CXCR4 binding and signaling. Furthermore, the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3 (previously CXCR7 has added to the complexity of CXCR4 signaling due to its ability to bind CXCL12 and MIF, and evoke CXCL12- and MIF-triggered signaling independently of CXCR4. Also, extracellular ubiquitin (eUb and the viral protein gp120 (HIV have been reported as CXCR4 ligands, whereas viral chemokine vMIP-II (Herpesvirus and human beta-defensin 3 (HBD-3 have been identified as CXCR4 antagonists. This review will provide insight into the diversity and inter-connections in the CXCR4 receptor/ligand family. We will discuss signaling pathways initiated by binding of CXCL12 vs MIF to CXCR4, elaborate on how ACKR3 affects CXCR4 signaling and summarize biological functions of CXCR4 signaling mediated by CXCL12 or MIF. Also, we will discuss eUb and gp120 as alternative ligands for CXCR4, and describe vMIP-II and HBD-3 as antagonists for CXCR4. Detailed insight into biological effects of CXCR4 signaling und underlying mechanisms, including diversity of CXCR4 ligands and inter-connections with other (chemokine receptors, is clinically important, as the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 has been approved as stem cell mobilizer in

  10. Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells by dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC have therapeutic potentials in promoting tissue regeneration, but how these cells are modulated in vivo has been elusive. Here, we report that RBP-J, the critical transcription factor mediating Notch signaling, modulates EPC through CXCR4. In a mouse partial hepatectomy (PHx model, RBP-J deficient EPC showed attenuated capacities of homing and facilitating liver regeneration. In resting mice, the conditional deletion of RBP-J led to a decrease of BM EPC, with a concomitant increase of EPC in the peripheral blood. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of CXCR4 on EPC in BM, although CXCR4 expression on EPC in the circulation was up-regulated in the absence of RBP-J. PHx in RBP-J deficient mice induced stronger EPC mobilization. In vitro, RBP-J deficient EPC showed lowered capacities of adhering, migrating, and forming vessel-like structures in three-dimensional cultures. Over-expression of CXCR4 could at least rescue the defects in vessel formation by the RBP-J deficient EPC. These data suggested that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization and function, at least partially through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression. Our findings not only provide new insights into the regulation of EPC, but also have implications for clinical therapies using EPC in diseases.

  11. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces proliferation and invasion in human endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingping; Long, Ping; Huang, Yu; Sun, Fengyi; Wang, Zhenyan

    2016-01-01

    Since that we have previously found CXCL12/CXCR4, an important biological axis is highly transcribed in several cancer cells. We aim to investigate whether CXCL12/CXCR4 axis regulates critical processes in neoplastic transformation that affects endometrial cancer cell biology. The expression levels of CXCR4 were analyzed in human normal endometrial tissue, simple hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer cells by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum CXCL12 was measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. To study the biological function of CXCL12/CXCR4 in endometrial cancer, short interfering RNA silencing of CXCR4 was established to analyze the roles of CXCL12/CXCR4 in proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of Ishikawa cells in vitro. The expression level of CXCR4 in endometrial cancer tissue was higher as compared to atypical hyperplasia, simple hyperplasia and normal cycling endometrium cells. Ishikawa cells secreted CXCL12 spontaneously and continuously for 96 hrs in culture. The proliferation, migration and invasion of Ishikawa cells was significantly induced, and the apoptosis was significantly reduced by CXCL12 in combination with CXCR4. Moreover, CXCR4 silencing could significantly antagonize all these functions. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of endometrial cancer, indicating that CXCR4 could be the target for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  12. Interactions between CXCR4 and CXCL12 promote cell migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K S; Graef, A J; Breen, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Modiano, J F; Kim, J-H

    2017-06-01

    The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in cell locomotion and metastasis in many cancers. In this study, we hypothesized that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis promotes migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells. Transcriptomic analysis across 12 HSA cell lines and 58 HSA whole tumour tissues identified heterogeneous expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12, which was associated with cell movement. In vitro, CXCL12 promoted calcium mobilization, cell migration and invasion that were directly proportional to surface expression of CXCR4; furthermore, these responses proved sensitive to the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in HSA cell lines. These results indicate that CXCL12 potentiates migration and invasion of canine HSA cells through CXCR4 signalling. The direct relationship between these responses in HSA cells suggests that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis contributes to HSA progression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of cell-based assays for the identification and evaluation of competitive CXCR4 inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Van Hout

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is activated by its unique chemokine ligand CXCL12 and regulates many physiological and developmental processes such as hematopoietic cell trafficking. CXCR4 is also one of the main co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV entry. Dysfunction of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis contributes to several human pathologies, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, inhibition of CXCR4 activation is recognized as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this regard, numerous agents modifying CXCR4 activity have been evaluated in in vitro experimental studies and pre-clinical models. Here, we evaluated a CXCL12 competition binding assay for its potential as a valuable initial screen for functional and competitive CXCR4 inhibitors. In total, 11 structurally diverse compounds were included in a side-by-side comparison of in vitro CXCR4 cell-based assays, such as CXCL12 competition binding, CXCL12-induced calcium signaling, CXCR4 internalization, CXCL12-guided cell migration and CXCR4-specific HIV-1 replication experiments. Our data indicated that agents that inhibit CXCL12 binding, i.e. the anti-CXCR4 peptide analogs T22, T140 and TC14012 and the small molecule antagonists AMD3100, AMD3465, AMD11070 and IT1t showed inhibitory activity with consistent relative potencies in all further applied CXCR4-related assays. Accordingly, agents exerting no or very weak receptor binding (i.e., CTCE-9908, WZ811, Me6TREN and gambogic acid showed no or very poor anti-CXCR4 inhibitory activity. Thus, CXCL12 competition binding studies were proven to be highly valuable as an initial screening assay and indicative for the pharmacological and functional profile of competitive CXCR4 antagonists, which will help the design of new potent CXCR4 inhibitors.

  14. Mutations at the CXCR4 interaction sites for AMD3100 influence anti-CXCR4 antibody binding and HIV-1 entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; Vermeire, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 with its target is greatly influenced by specific aspartate residues in the receptor protein, including Asp(171) and Asp(262). We have now found that aspartate-to-asparagine substitutions at these positions differentially affect the binding of four...... different anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies as well as the infectivity of diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains and clinical isolates. Mutation of Asp(262) strongly decreased the coreceptor efficiency of CXCR4 for wild-type but not for AMD3100-resistant HIV-1 NL4.3. Thus, resistance...... of HIV-1 NL4.3 to AMD3100 is associated with a decreased dependence of the viral gp120 on Asp(262) of CXCR4, pointing to a different mode of interaction of wild-type versus AMD3100-resistant virus with CXCR4....

  15. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  16. Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Patricia A

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Background Chemokine SDF1α and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers including breast cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. We hypothesized that hypoxia would upregulate CXCR4 expression and lead to increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand SDF1α. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and 4T1 were subjected to 48 hrs of hypoxia or normoxia. Cell surface receptor expression was evaluated using flow cytometry. An extracellular matrix invasion assay and microporous migration assay was used to assess chemotactic response and metastatic ability. Results CXCR4 surface expression was significantly increased in the two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, following exposure to hypoxia. This upregulation of CXCR4 cell surface expression corresponded to a significant increase in migration and invasion in response to SDF1-α in vitro. The increase in metastatic potential of both the normoxic and the hypoxic treated breast cancer cell lines was attenuated by neutralization of CXCR4 with a CXCR4 neutralizing mAb, MAB172 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, showing the relationship between CXCR4 overexpression and increased chemotactic responsiveness. Conclusions CXCR4 expression can be modulated by the tissue microenvironment such as hypoxia. Upregulation of CXCR4 is associated with increased migratory and invasive potential and this effect can be abrogated by CXCR4 inhibition. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond H Paul

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokine SDF1α and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers including breast cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. We hypothesized that hypoxia would upregulate CXCR4 expression and lead to increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand SDF1α. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and 4T1 were subjected to 48 hrs of hypoxia or normoxia. Cell surface receptor expression was evaluated using flow cytometry. An extracellular matrix invasion assay and microporous migration assay was used to assess chemotactic response and metastatic ability. Results CXCR4 surface expression was significantly increased in the two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, following exposure to hypoxia. This upregulation of CXCR4 cell surface expression corresponded to a significant increase in migration and invasion in response to SDF1-α in vitro. The increase in metastatic potential of both the normoxic and the hypoxic treated breast cancer cell lines was attenuated by neutralization of CXCR4 with a CXCR4 neutralizing mAb, MAB172 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, showing the relationship between CXCR4 overexpression and increased chemotactic responsiveness. Conclusions CXCR4 expression can be modulated by the tissue microenvironment such as hypoxia. Upregulation of CXCR4 is associated with increased migratory and invasive potential and this effect can be abrogated by CXCR4 inhibition. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.

  18. An important role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in chronic skin inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Zgraggen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory angiogenesis and vascular remodeling play key roles in the chronic inflammatory skin disease psoriasis, but little is known about the molecular mediators of vascular activation. Based on the reported elevated mRNA levels of the angiogenic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 in psoriasis, we investigated the relevance of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in two experimental models of chronic psoriasis-like skin inflammation. The cutaneous expression of both SDF-1 and CXCR4 was upregulated in the inflamed skin of K14-VEGF-A transgenic mice and in imiquimod-induced skin inflammation, with expression of CXCR4 by blood vessels and macrophages. Treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 potently inhibited skin inflammation in both models, associated with reduced inflammatory angiogenesis and inflammatory cell accumulation, including dermal CD4+ cells and intraepidermal CD8+ T cells. Similar anti-inflammatory effects were seen after treatment with a neutralizing anti-SDF-1 antibody. In vitro, inhibition of CXCR4 blocked SDF-1-induced chemotaxis of CD11b+ splenocytes, in agreement with the reduced number of macrophages after in vivo CXCR4 blockade. Our results reveal an important role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in skin inflammation and inflammatory angiogenesis, and they indicate that inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

  19. Coexpression of EGFR and CXCR4 predicts poor prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanwen Wu

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and is involved in tumorigenesis and development. However, EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance. Recently, the cross-talk between EGFR and G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 has become increasingly recognized.In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and CXCR4 was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens from 131 patients with surgically resected PDAC. Subsequently, the associations between EGFR expression, CXCR4 expression, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression and clinicopathologic factors were assessed, and survival analyses were performed.In total, 64 (48.9% patients expressed EGFR, 68 (51.9% expressed CXCR4, and 33 (25.2% coexpressed EGFR and CXCR4. No significant association between EGFR and CXCR4 expression was observed (P = 0.938. EGFR expression significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.031, whereas CXCR4 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001. EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026, TNM stage (P = 0.048, and poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.004. By univariate survival analysis, both CXCR4 expression and EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression were significant prognostic factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Moreover, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression significantly increased the hazard ratio for both recurrence and death compared with EGFR or CXCR4 protein expression alone. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 2.33, P<0.001 and OS (HR = 2.48, P = 0.001.In conclusion, our data indicate that although EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression identified a subset of PDAC patients with more aggressive tumor characteristics and a significantly worse

  20. Development of CXCR4 modulators by virtual HTS of a novel amide-sulfamide compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Renren; Shi, Qi; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Han, Yiran; Feng, Amber; Liu, Shuangping; Oum, Yoonhyeun; Yun, C Chris; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2017-01-27

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign. Based on the designed parent framework, 30 prioritized amide-sulfamide structures were obtained after systemic filtering and docking screening. Twelve compounds were prepared from the top-30 list. Most synthesized compounds exhibited good to excellent binding affinity to CXCR4. Compounds Ig and Im demonstrated notable in vivo suppressive activity against xylene-induced mouse ear inflammation (with 56% and 54% inhibition). Western blot analyses revealed that Ig significantly blocked CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, Ig attenuated the amount of TNF-α secreted by pathogenic E. coli-infected macrophages. More importantly, Ig had no observable cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that FRESH virtual high throughput screening program of targeted chemical class could successfully find potent lead compounds, and the amide-sulfamide pharmacophore was a novel and effective framework blocking CXCR4 function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway in pancreatic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsumoto, Keiichi; Kume, Shoen

    2013-01-01

    for CXCL12 or CXCR4 genes showed lethality due to defects in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, myelopoiesis, lymphopoiesis and germ cell development [10-13]. Recently, we reported that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway has a crucial role in regional specification of the gut endoderm during early...

  2. Peptide-Functionalized Luminescent Iridium Complexes for Lifetime Imaging of CXCR4 Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, J.; Steunenberg, P.; Chin, P.T.K.; Oldenburg, J.; Jalink, K.; Velders, A.H.; Leeuwen, F.W.B. van

    2011-01-01

    The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is over-expressed in 23 types of cancer in which it plays a role in, among others, the metastatic spread. For this reason it is a potential biomarker for the field of diagnostic oncology. The antagonistic Ac-TZ14011 peptide, which binds to CXCR4, has been conjugated

  3. Role of CXCR4 and SDF-1 in mammary tumor metastasis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonuma, Toshina; Morimatsu, Masami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Uyama, Rina; Sasaki, Nobuo; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shizu; Yamamura, Hozumi; Syuto, Bunei

    2003-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12) promote metastasis of various cancers in humans. Since feline mammary tumors also metastasize to distant organs frequently, we used real-time quantitative PCR to examine the expression of feline CXCR4 (fCXCR4) in ten feline mammary tumor cell lines and seven feline mammary tumor tissues, and also the expression of feline SDF-1 (fSDF-1) in various organs. Cell lines derived from metastatic regions expressed more fCXCR4 than those derived from primary tumors. Mammary tumor tissues overexpressed more fCXCR4 than normal mammary tissues. Organs with high levels of fSDF-1 expression represent common sites of metastasis. Migration assays using the feline mammary tumor cell line NAC were also performed to test the activity of TN14003 and TC14012, antagonists of human CXCR4, to antagonize fCXCR4 expressed on NAC cells. TN14003 and TC14012 inhibited migration of NAC cells. We conclude that fCXCR4 may be a therapeutic target for feline mammary tumors.

  4. CXCR4 Inhibition with AMD3100 Sensitizes Prostate Cancer to Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domanska, Urszula M.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Nagengast, Wouter B.; Munnink, Thijs H. Oude; Kruizinga, Roeliene C.; Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Kliphuis, Nathalie M.; Huls, Gerwin; De Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Igle J.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.

    Several in vitro and in vivo models have revealed the key role of CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in tumor-stroma interactions. Stromal cells present in the tumor microenvironment express high levels of CXCL12 protein, directly stimulating proliferation and migration of CXCR4-expressing cancer cells. This

  5. CXCR4 inhibition with AMD3100 sensitizes prostate cancer to docetaxel chemotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domanska, U.M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Nagengast, W.B.; Oude Munnink, T.H.; Kruizinga, R.C.; Ananias, H.J.; Kliphuis, N.M.; Huls, G.A.; Vries, E.G. de; Jong, I.J. de; Walenkamp, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo models have revealed the key role of CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in tumor-stroma interactions. Stromal cells present in the tumor microenvironment express high levels of CXCL12 protein, directly stimulating proliferation and migration of CXCR4-expressing cancer cells. This

  6. CXCL14 Blockade of CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    PCa cell lines into a reconstituted extracellular matrix was inhibited when CXCR4 expression was decreased [8]. The work by Xing, et al confirmed and...concentrations within 13 secretory vesicles , but that once secreted from the cell the chemokines revert to monomers. CXCR4 and CXCR7 (also known as ACKR3

  7. The CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine ligand/receptor axis in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eDöring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play an important homeostatic function by mediating the homing of progenitor cells in the bone marrow and regulating their mobilization into peripheral tissues upon injury or stress. Although the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction has long been regarded as a monogamous relation, the identification of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MIF as an important second ligand for CXCR4, and of CXCR7 as an alternative receptor for CXCL12, has undermined this interpretation and has considerably complicated the understanding of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling and associated biological functions. This review aims to provide insight into the current concept of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in myocardial infarction and its underlying pathologies such as atherosclerosis and injury-induced vascular restenosis. It will discuss main findings from in vitro studies, animal experiments and large-scale genome-wide association studies. The importance of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in progenitor cell homing and mobilization will be addressed, as will be the function of CXCR4 in different cell types involved in atherosclerosis. Finally, a potential translation of current knowledge on CXCR4 into future therapeutical application will be discussed.

  8. Prognostic value of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in inoperable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Tehrany, Narges; Leu, Martin; Weber, Hanne Elisabeth; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Schliephake, Henning [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Goettingen (Germany); Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center Goettingen, Institute of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger Michael [University Medical Center Goettingen, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 can affect tumor growth, recurrence, and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that the CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression influences the prognosis of patients with inoperable head and neck cancer treated with definite radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pretreatment tumor tissue from 233 patients with known HPV/p16{sup INK4A} status was analyzed. CXCL12 and CXCR4 expressions were correlated with pretreatment parameters and survival data by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. CXCL12 was expressed in 43.3 % and CXCR4 in 66.1 % of the samples and both were correlated with HPV/p16{sup INK4A} positivity. A high CXCL12 expression was associated with increased overall survival (p = 0.036), while a high CXCR4 expression was associated with decreased metastasis-free survival (p = 0.034). A high CXCR4 expression could be regarded as a negative prognostic factor in head and neck cancer because it may foster metastatic spread. This may recommend CXCR4 as therapeutic target for combating head and neck cancer metastasis. (orig.) [German] Das Chemokin CXCL12 und sein Rezeptor CXCR4 beeinflussen Tumorwachstum, Auftreten von Rezidiven und Metastasierung. Es wurde die Hypothese geprueft, dass ein Zusammenhang der CXCL12- und CXCR4-Expression mit der Prognose von Patienten bestehe, die wegen eines inoperablen Kopf-Hals-Tumors eine primaere Radio- oder Radiochemotherapie erhielten. Dabei wurde auch der HPV-Status der Patienten beruecksichtigt. Formalinfixierte Proben aus unbehandelten Tumoren von 233 Patienten mit bekanntem HPV/p16{sup INK4A}-Status wurden ausgewertet. Die CXCL12- und CXCR4-Expression wurde mit klinischen Parametern und Ueberlebensdaten mittels uni- und multivariater Cox Regression analysiert. CXCL12 wurde von 43,3 %, CXCR4 von 66,1 % der Tumoren exprimiert, und beide Marker korrelierten mit einer HPV/p16{sup INK4A}-Expression. Eine hohe CXCL12-Expression war mit einem verbesserten

  9. RTN3 Regulates the Expression Level of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and is Required for Migration of Primordial Germ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CXCR4 is a crucial chemokine receptor that plays key roles in primordial germ cell (PGC homing. To further characterize the CXCR4-mediated migration of PGCs, we screened CXCR4-interacting proteins using yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified reticulon3 (RTN3, a member of the reticulon family, and considered an apoptotic signal transducer, as able to interact directly with CXCR4. Furthermore, we discovered that the mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCR4 could be regulated by RTN3. We also found that RTN3 altered CXCR4 translocation and localization. Moreover, increasing the signaling of either CXCR4b or RTN3 produced similar PGC mislocalization phenotypes in zebrafish. These results suggested that RTN3 modulates PGC migration through interaction with, and regulation of, CXCR4.

  10. CXCR4 Inhibition with AMD3100 Sensitizes Prostate Cancer to Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula M. Domanska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro and in vivo models have revealed the key role of CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in tumor-stroma interactions. Stromal cells present in the tumor microenvironment express high levels of CXCL12 protein, directly stimulating proliferation and migration of CXCR4-expressing cancer cells. This specific prosurvival influence of stromal cells on tumor cells is thought to protect them from cytotoxic chemotherapy and is postulated as a possible explanation for the minimal residual disease in hematological and solid cancers. Therefore, CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling is an attractive therapeutic target in cancer, as proven in preclinical leukemia mouse models, where CXCR4 inhibition sensitized cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy. This study investigates whether inhibition of CXCR4 with the specific inhibitor AMD3100 sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to docetaxel. We showed that both mouse and human stromal cell lines have a protective effect on PC3-luc cells by promoting their survival after chemotherapy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AMD3100 sensitizes PC3-luc cells to docetaxel. In a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of human prostate carcinoma, we showed that a combination of docetaxel and AMD3100 exerts increased antitumor effect compared with docetaxel alone. We concluded that CXCR4 inhibition chemosensitizes prostate cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. To explore the relevance of these findings, we analyzed CXCR4 expression levels in human prostate cancer samples. We found that cancer cells present in bone metastatic lesions express higher CXCR4 levels relative to the cells present in primary tumors and lymph node metastatic lesions. These findings underscore the potential of CXCR4 inhibitors as chemosensitizing agents.

  11. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited sign...82. Epub 2003 Jul 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-media...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  12. Molecular Imaging of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Derlin, Thorsten; Haghikia, Arash; Napp, L Christian; Wang, Yong; Ross, Tobias L; Schäfer, Andreas; Tillmanns, Jochen; Wester, Hans J; Wollert, Kai C; Bauersachs, Johann; Bengel, Frank M

    2015-12-01

    An assay for molecular imaging of myocardial CXCR4 expression was evaluated, in order to obtain mechanistic insights noninvasively based on quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has emerged as a therapeutic target after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), because of its role in inflammatory and progenitor cell recruitment. PET with the specific CXCR4 ligand, gallium-68 ((68)Ga)-pentixafor, was performed in mice (n = 53) and compared with ex vivo autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, and left ventricular flow cytometry. In addition, 12 patients were imaged at 2 to 8 days after AMI. In mice, (68)Ga-pentixafor identified regional CXCR4 upregulation in the infarct region, peaking at 3 days (infarct/remote [I/R] ratio 1.5 ± 0.2 at 3 days vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 at 7 days; p = 0.03), corresponding to a flow cytometry-based peak of CD45+ leukocytes and immunohistochemical detection of CD68+ macrophages and Ly6G+ granulocytes. Blockade with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 abolished the signal. No specific uptake was found in sham-operated or control animals. Long-term treatment with oral enalapril attenuated the CXCR4 signal (I/R 1.2 ± 0.2 at 3 days and 1.0 ± 0.0.1 at 7 days; p = 0.01 vs. untreated). Patients showed variable degrees of CXCR4 upregulation in the infarct region. No single clinical parameter allowed for prediction of CXCR4 signal strength. At multivariate analysis, a combination of infarct size and time after reperfusion predicted the CXCR4 infarct signal (rmultiple = 0.73; p = 0.03). Infarct signal in the myocardium was paralleled by elevated pentixafor uptake in bone marrow (r = 0.61; p = 0.04), which highlighted systemic interactions. Targeted PET imaging with (68)Ga-pentixafor identifies the global and regional CXCR4 expression pattern in myocardium and systemic organs. CXCR4 upregulation after AMI coincides with inflammatory cell infiltration, but shows interindividual variability in patients. This may have implications for

  13. Early upregulation of myocardial CXCR4 expression is critical for dimethyloxalylglycine-induced cardiac improvement in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Mari; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Shamhart, Patricia; Forudi, Farhad; Weber, Kristal; Chilian, William M; Penn, Marc S; Dong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1):CXCR4 is important in myocardial repair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that early upregulation of cardiomyocyte CXCR4 (CM-CXCR4) at a time of high myocardial SDF-1 expression could be a strategy to engage the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis and improve cardiac repair. The effects of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on CXCR4 expression was tested on H9c2 cells. In mice a myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in CM-CXCR4 null and wild-type controls. Mice were randomized to receive injection of DMOG (DMOG group) or saline (Saline group) into the border zone after MI. Protein and mRNA expression of CM-CXCR4 were quantified. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. During hypoxia, DMOG treatment increased CXCR4 expression of H9c2 cells by 29 and 42% at 15 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo DMOG treatment increased CM-CXCR4 expression at 15 h post-MI in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice. DMOG resulted in increased ejection fraction in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice 21 days after MI. Consistent with greater cardiomyocyte survival with DMOG treatment, we observed a significant increase in cardiac myosin-positive area within the infarct zone after DMOG treatment in control mice, but no increase in CM-CXCR4 null mice. Inhibition of cardiomyocyte death in MI through the stabilization of HIF-1α requires downstream CM-CXCR4 expression. These data suggest that engagement of the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis through the early upregulation of CM-CXCR4 is a strategy for improving cardiac repair after MI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The Role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Zhao, Jihe

    2013-01-01

    .... Recent advances in the field of cancer biology has pointed to the critical role that CXCR4 receptor and its ligand CXCL12 play in the metastasis of various types of cancer, including breast cancer...

  15. Immunohistochemical Expression of CXCR4 on Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Okuyama Kishima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance.

  16. SDF1 in the dorsal corticospinal tract promotes CXCR4+ cell migration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hosung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1 and its major signaling receptor, CXCR4, were initially described in the immune system; however, they are also expressed in the nervous system, including the spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, the blood brain barrier is compromised, opening the way for chemokine signaling between these two systems. These experiments clarified prior contradictory findings on normal expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 as well as examined the resulting spinal cord responses resulting from this signaling. Methods These experiments examined the expression and function of SDF1 and CXCR4 in the normal and injured adult mouse spinal cord primarily using CXCR4-EGFP and SDF1-EGFP transgenic reporter mice. Results In the uninjured spinal cord, SDF1 was expressed in the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST as well as the meninges, whereas CXCR4 was found only in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal. After spinal cord injury (SCI, the pattern of SDF1 expression did not change rostral to the lesion but it disappeared from the degenerating dCST caudally. By contrast, CXCR4 expression changed dramatically after SCI. In addition to the CXCR4+ cells in the ependymal layer, numerous CXCR4+ cells appeared in the peripheral white matter and in the dorsal white matter localized between the dorsal corticospinal tract and the gray matter rostral to the lesion site. The non-ependymal CXCR4+ cells were found to be NG2+ and CD11b+ macrophages that presumably infiltrated through the broken blood-brain barrier. One population of macrophages appeared to be migrating towards the dCST that contains SDF1 rostral to the injury but not towards the caudal dCST in which SDF1 is no longer present. A second population of the CXCR4+ macrophages was present near the SDF1-expressing meningeal cells. Conclusions These observations suggest that attraction of CXCR4+ macrophages is part of a programmed response to injury and that modulation of the

  17. The role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis and remodeling of cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lingyan Wang,1 Shaolei Guo,2 Nu Zhang,2 Yuqian Tao,3 Heng Zhang,1 Tiewei Qi,2 Feng Liang,2 Zhengsong Huang2 1Department of Neurosurgery ICU, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM involves the vasculogenesis of cerebral blood vessels and can cause severe intracranial hemorrhage. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, are believed to exert multiple physiological functions including angiogenesis. Thus, we investigated the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis of cerebral AVM.Methods: Brain AVM lesions from surgical resections were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGF-A, and HIF-1 by using immunohistochemical staining. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Further, in an animal study, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model rats were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1 and HIF-1. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was also used to detect its effects on cerebral vasculogenesis and SDF-1 expression.Results: Large amounts of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells were found in brain AVM lesion blood vessel walls, which also have higher SDF-1 expression. Cerebral AVM patients also had higher level of EPCs and SDF-1. In chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats, SDF-1, HIF-1, and CD45 expressions were elevated. The application of AMD3100 effectively suppressed angiogenesis and infiltration of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells in hypoperfusion rats compared to controls.Conclusion: The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the vasculogenesis and migration of inflammatory cells in cerebral AVM lesions, possibly via the recruitment of bone marrow EPCs. Keywords: cerebral arteriovenous malformation, SDF-1/CXCR4, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, endothelial progenitor cells

  18. Exploratory Studies on Development of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Antagonists Toward Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamura, Hirokazu; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Nomura, Wataru; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    Seven transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) families are important targets for drug discovery, and specific antagonists for GPCR can accelerate research in the field of medicinal chemistry. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a GPCR that possesses a unique ligand CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). The interaction between CXCL12 and CXCR4 is essential for the migration of progenitor cells during embryonic development of the cardiovascular, hemopoietic and central nervous systems, and also involved in several intractable disease processes, including HIV infection, cancer cell metastasis, progression of acute and chronic leukemias, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, CXCR4 may be an important therapeutic target in all of these diseases, and various CXCR4 antagonists have been proposed as potential drugs. Fourteen-mer peptides, T140 and its analogs, and downsized cyclic pentapeptides have been developed by us as potent CXCR4 antagonists. This article describes the development of a number of specific CXCR4 antagonists in our laboratory, including downsizing. PMID:19787093

  19. Reprogramming Medulloblastoma-Propagating Cells by a Combined Antagonism of Sonic Hedgehog and CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stacey A; Warrington, Nicole M; Taylor, Sara; Kfoury, Najla; Luo, Jingqin; Rubin, Joshua B

    2017-03-15

    The CXCR4 chemokine and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathways are well-validated therapeutic targets in cancer, including medulloblastoma. However, single-agent treatments with SHH or CXCR4 antagonists have not proven efficacious in clinical trials to date. Here, we discovered that dual inhibition of the SHH and CXCR4 pathways in a murine model of SHH-subtype medulloblastoma exerts potent antitumor effects. This therapeutic synergy resulted in the suppression of tumor-propagating cell function and correlated with increased histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation within the promoters of stem cell genes, resulting in their decreased expression. These results demonstrate that CXCR4 contributes to the epigenetic regulation of a tumor-propagating cell phenotype. Moreover, they provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate the combination of SHH and CXCR4 inhibitors in clinical trials for the treatment of medulloblastoma, as well as other cancers driven by SHH that coexpress high levels of CXCR4. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1416-26. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Chemokine receptor CCR5 and CXCR4 might influence virus replication during IBDV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Changbo; Wang, Qiuxia; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Yanhong; Ma, Jinyou; Kong, Xianghui; Liu, Xingyou

    2017-06-01

    Both CCR5 and CXCR4 are important chemokine receptors and take vital role in migration, development and distribution of T cells, however, whether they will influence the process of T cell infiltration into bursa of Fabricius during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection is unclear. In the current study, CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonists, Maraviroc and AMD3100, were administrated into chickens inoculated with IBDV, and the gene levels of IBDV VP2, CCR5, CXCR4 and related cytokines were determined by real-time PCR. The results showed that large number of T cells began to migrate into the bursae on Day 3 post infection with IBDV and the mRNA of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 began to increase on Day 1. Moreover, antagonist treatments have increased the VP2, CCR5 and CXCR4 gene transcriptions and influenced on the gene levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, TGF-β4, MHC-I and MDA5. In conclusion, the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 might influence virus replication during IBDV infection and further study would focus on the interaction between chemokine receptors and their ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro characterization and inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis in human uveal melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antecka Emilia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis may play a critical role in guiding CXCR4+ circulating malignant cells to organ specific locations that actively secrete its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1 such as bone, brain, liver, and lungs. We sought to characterize the presence of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in five uveal melanoma (UM cell lines in vitro. The ability of TN14003, a synthetic peptide inhibitor that targets the CXCR4 receptor complex, to inhibit this axis was also assessed. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed against CXCR4 to confirm expression of this chemokine receptor in all five UM cell lines. Flow cytometry was preformed to evaluate CXCR4 cell surface expression on all five UM cell lines. A proliferation assay was also used to test effects TN14003 would have on cellular proliferation. Inhibition of cellular migration by specifically inhibiting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis with TN14003 was also investigated. The binding efficacy of TN14003 to the CXCR4 receptor was assessed through flow cytometric methods. Results The CXCR4 receptor was present on all five UM cell lines. All five cell lines expressed different relative levels of surface CXCR4. TN14003 did not affect the proliferation of the five cell lines (p > 0.05. All cell lines migrated towards the chemokine CXCL12 at a level greater than the negative control (p Conclusion Interfering with the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, using TN14003 was shown to effectively down regulate UM cell migration in vitro. Knowing that UM expresses the CXCR4 receptor, these CXCR4+ cells may be less likely to colonize distant organs that secrete the CXCL12 ligand, if treated with an inhibitor that binds CXCR4. Further studies should be pursued in order to test TN14003 efficacy in vivo.

  2. CXCL12/CXCR4-Axis Dysfunctions: Markers of the Rare Immunodeficiency Disorder WHIM Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bachelerie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHIM syndrome features susceptibility to human Papillomavirus infection-induced warts and carcinomas, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, B and T-cell lymphopenia, and neutropenia associated with retention of senescent neutrophils in the bone marrow (i.e. myelokathexis. This rare disorder is mostly linked to inherited heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor with a unique ligand, the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1. Some individuals who have full clinical forms of the syndrome carry a wild type CXCR4 gene. In spite of this genetic heterogeneity, leukocytes from WHIM patients share in common dysfunctions of the CXCR4-mediated signaling pathway upon exposure to CXCL12. Dysfunctions are characterized by impaired desensitization and receptor internalization, which are associated with enhanced responses to the chemokine. Our increasing understanding of the mechanisms that account for the aberrant CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated responses is beginning to provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder. As a result we can expect to identify markers of the WHIM syndrome, as well as other disorders with WHIM-like features that are associated with dysfunctions of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis.

  3. Emerging targets in cancer management: role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Monica Cojoc,1 Claudia Peitzsch,1 Franziska Trautmann,1 Leo Polishchuk,2 Gennady D Telegeev,2 Anna Dubrovska11OncoRay National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany; 2Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, UkraineAbstract: The chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1 and its cell surface receptor CXCR4 were first identified as regulators of lymphocyte trafficking to the bone marrow. Soon after, the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis was proposed to regulate the trafficking of breast cancer cells to sites of metastasis. More recently, it was established that CXCR4 plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and dissemination in the majority of malignant diseases. The stem cell concept of cancer has revolutionized the understanding of tumorigenesis and cancer treatment. A growing body of evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells, referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs, plays a critical role in tumor initiation, metastatic colonization, and resistance to therapy. Although the signals generated by the metastatic niche that regulate CSCs are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests a key role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. In this review we focus on physiological functions of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling pathway and its role in cancer and CSCs, and we discuss the potential for targeting this pathway in cancer management.Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells, metastasis

  4. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationship, docking, and molecular dynamics studies of inhibitors for CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongqian; Du, Chunmiao; Feng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jingyu; Li, Youyong

    2015-02-01

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role as a co-receptor with CCR5 for HIV-1 anchoring to mammalian cell membrane and is implicated in cancer metastasis and inflammation. In the current work, we study the relationship of structure and activity of AMD11070 derivatives and other inhibitors of CXCR4 using HQSAR, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtain an HQSAR model (q(2) = 0.779), and the HQSAR result illustrates that AMD11070 shows a high antiretroviral activity. As HQSAR only provides 2D information, we perform docking and MD to study the interaction of It1t, AMD3100, and AMD3465 with CXCR4. Our results illustrate that the binding are affected by two crucial residues Asp97 and Glu288. The butyl amine moiety of AMD11070 contributes to its high antiretroviral activity. Without a butyl amine moiety, (2,7a-Dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-methyl-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinolin-8-yl)-amine (compound 5a) shows low antiretroviral activity. Our results provide structural details about the interactions between the inhibitors and CXCR4, which are useful for rational drug design of CXCR4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Thermal stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 receptors, CD4 and CXCR4, reconstituted in proteoliposomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A Zhukovsky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 into host cells involves the interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and receptors on the target cell. The HIV-1 receptors are CD4 and one of two chemokine receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4.We created proteoliposomes that contain CD4, the primary HIV-1 receptor, and one of the coreceptors, CXCR4. Antibodies against CD4 and CXCR4 specifically bound the proteoliposomes. CXCL12, the natural ligand for CXCR4, and the small-molecule CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, bound the proteoliposomes with affinities close to those associated with the binding of these molecules to cells expressing CXCR4 and CD4. The HIV-1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein bound tightly to proteoliposomes expressing only CD4 and, in the presence of soluble CD4, bound weakly to proteoliposomes expressing only CXCR4. The thermal stability of CD4 and CXCR4 inserted into liposomes was examined. Thermal denaturation of CXCR4 followed second-order kinetics, with an activation energy (E(a of 269 kJ/mol (64.3 kcal/mol and an inactivation temperature (T(i of 56°C. Thermal inactivation of CD4 exhibited a reaction order of 1.3, an E(a of 278 kJ/mol (66.5 kcal/mol, and a T(i of 52.2°C. The second-order denaturation kinetics of CXCR4 is unusual among G protein-coupled receptors, and may result from dimeric interactions between CXCR4 molecules.Our studies with proteoliposomes containing the native HIV-1 receptors allowed an examination of the binding of biologically important ligands and revealed the higher-order denaturation kinetics of these receptors. CD4/CXCR4-proteoliposomes may be useful for the study of virus-target cell interactions and for the identification of inhibitors.

  6. Discovery and computer aided potency optimization of a novel class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vinader

    Full Text Available Amongst the chemokine signalling axes involved in cancer, chemokine CXCL12 acting on chemokine receptor CXCR4 is particularly significant since it orchestrates migration of cancer cells in a tissue-specific metastatic process. High CXCR4 tumour expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung, brain, CNS, blood and breast cancers. We have identified a new class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists based on the use of computational modelling studies in concert with experimental determination of in vitro activity against CXCL12-induced intracellular calcium mobilisation, proliferation and chemotaxis. Molecular modelling proved to be a useful tool in rationalising our observed potencies, as well as informing the direction of the synthetic efforts aimed at producing more potent compounds.

  7. AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent...... and selective anti-HIV activity against CXCR4-using (X4) viruses and showed antiviral efficacy in X4 HIV-1-infected persons in a phase II clinical trial. However, AMD3100 lacks oral bioavailability due to its high overall positive charge. Initial structure-activity relationship studies with bicyclam analogues...... suggested that the bis-macrocyclic structure was a prerequisite for anti-HIV activity. Now, we report that the N-pyridinylmethylene cyclam AMD3465, which lacks the structural constraints mentioned above, fully conserves all the biological properties of AMD3100. Like AMD3100, AMD3465 blocked the cell surface...

  8. Co-transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Cxcr4 Gene-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Miao; Su, Guizhen; Zang, Yu; Yan, Zhiling; Cheng, Hai; Pan, Bin; Cao, Jiang; Wu, Qingyun; Zhao, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Kailin

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate for cellular therapies. Co-transplantation of MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) promotes successful engraftment and improves hematopoietic recovery. In this study, the effects of co-transplantation of HSCs and mouse bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs overexpressing CXCR4 (CXCR4-MSC) on CXCR4-MSC homing capacity and the reconstitution potential in lethally irradiated mice were evaluated. Recovery of donor-derived peripheral blood leukocytes and platelets was accelerated when CXCR4-MSCs were co-transplanted with BM cells. The frequency of c-kit(+)Sca(+)Lin(-) HSCs was higher in recipient BM following co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs compared with the EGFP-MSC control and the BMT only groups. Surprisingly, the rate of early engraftment of donor-derived BM cells in recipients co-transplanted with CXCR4-MSCs was slightly lower than in the absence of MSCs on day 7. Moreover, co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs regulated the balance of T helper cells subsets. Hematopoietic tissue reconstitution was evaluated by histopathological analysis of BM and spleen. Co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs was shown to promote the recovery of hematopoietic organs. These findings indicate that co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs promotes the early phase of hematopoietic recovery and sustained hematopoiesis.

  9. CXCR4-targeted Therapy Inhibits VEGF Expression and Chondrosarcoma Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Charbonneau, Cherie; Wei, Lei; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Terek, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is notable for its lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, propensity for developing lung metastases, and poor survival. Therefore, a better understanding of angiogenic and metastatic pathways is needed. Multiple pathways regulate angiogenesis and metastasis, including chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we investigated CHEMOKINE (C-X-C MOTIF) RECEPTOR 4 (CXCR4) signaling in chondrosarcoma and tested the hypotheses that CXCR4 inhibition suppresses tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. CXCR4 expression, analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot, was increased in human chondrosarcoma cell line JJ compared to normal chondrocytes, and was further increased in JJ by hypoxia (2% O2), VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A (VEGFA) (10ng/ml), and in xenograft tumors in nude mice. The CXCR4 ligand CHEMOKINE (C-X-C MOTIF) LIGAND 12 (CXCL12) (10 ng/ml) doubled secreted VEGFA, measured with ELISA, under hypoxic conditions and this conditioned media increased HUVEC tube formation. These effects were inhibited by CXCR4 siRNA or AMD3100 (5 μg/mL). In a xenograft mouse model, four weeks of AMD3100 treatment (1.25 mg/kg, ip, bid) inhibited tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. VEGFA content in tumor extracts was decreased (7.19 ± 0.52 ng/mL control vs. 3.96 ± 0.66 treatment) and bioimaging of angiogenesis was decreased by 56%. Tumor volumes averaged 4.44 ± 0.68 cm3 in control compared to 2.48 ± 0.61 cm3 in the treatment group. The number of lung metastatic nodules was 23 ± 9 in control compared to 10 ± 6 in the treatment group (N=8/group). Therefore, CXCR4 targeted therapy may be a treatment strategy for chondrosarcoma. PMID:23686836

  10. CXCR4-targeted therapy inhibits VEGF expression and chondrosarcoma angiogenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Charbonneau, Cherie; Wei, Lei; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Terek, Richard M

    2013-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma is notable for its lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, propensity for developing lung metastases, and poor survival. Therefore, a better understanding of angiogenic and metastatic pathways is needed. Multiple pathways regulate angiogenesis and metastasis, including chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we investigated chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling in chondrosarcoma and tested the hypotheses that CXCR4 inhibition suppresses tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. CXCR4 expression, analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot, was increased in human chondrosarcoma cell line JJ compared with normal chondrocytes and was further increased in JJ by hypoxia (2% O2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA; 10 ng/mL), and in xenograft tumors in nude mice. The CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 (10 ng/mL) doubled secreted VEGFA, measured with ELISA, under hypoxic conditions and this conditioned media increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation. These effects were inhibited by CXCR4 siRNA or AMD3100 (5 μg/mL). In a xenograft mouse model, four weeks of AMD3100 treatment (1.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice daily) inhibited tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. VEGFA content in tumor extracts was decreased (7.19 ± 0.52 ng/mL control vs. 3.96 ± 0.66 treatment) and bioimaging of angiogenesis was decreased by 56%. Tumor volumes averaged 4.44 ± 0.68 cm(3) in control compared with 2.48 ± 0.61 cm(3) in the treatment group. The number of lung metastatic nodules was 23 ± 9 in control compared with 10 ± 6 in the treatment group (N = 8/group). Therefore, CXCR4-targeted therapy may be a treatment strategy for chondrosarcoma.

  11. Overexpression of HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 Is Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and assesses the association of their expression with clinicopathological indicators. HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 protein expression in 129 PTCs, 61 nodular hyperplasia, and 118 normal thyroid tissue specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The protein expression levels of these three molecules were upregulated in PTCs. High protein expression of HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM (P<0.001. Furthermore, HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 protein expression was correlated with one another. Concomitant high expression of these molecules had stronger correlation with LNM than did each alone (P=0.032 for HIF-2α/TWIST, P<0.001 for HIF-2α/CXCR4, P=0.018 for TWIST/CXCR4, and P<0.001 for HIF-2α/TWIST/CXCR4. Additionally, HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 mRNA expression were assessed in 30 PTCs, 10 nodular hyperplasia, and 10 normal thyroid tissue specimens using real-time RT-PCR. TWIST and CXCR4 mRNA expression levels were up-regulated in PTCs, and high mRNA expression of TWIST and CXCR4 was significantly correlated with LNM (P=0.005 and P=0.010, resp.. These results demonstrated that the evaluation of HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 expression in PTC may be useful in predicting the risk of LNM.

  12. Induction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression by transforming growth factor-β1 in human basal cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Sheen, Yi-Shuan; Cha, Shih-Ting; Hu, Yeh-Fang; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Min-Wei; Kuo, Min-Liang; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2013-11-01

    Higher CXCR4 expression enhances basal cell carcinoma (BCC) invasion and angiogenesis. The underlying mechanism of increased CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC is still not well understood. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC. We used qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometric analyses to examine different CXCR4 levels among the clinical samples, co-cultured BCC cells and BCC cells treated with recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the correlation between TGF-β1 and CXCR4 expressions. The signal transduction pathway and transcriptional regulation were confirmed by treatments with chemical inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, or short interfering RNAs, as well as luciferase reporter activity. Invasive BCC has higher TGF-β1 and CTGF levels compared to non-invasive BCC. Non-contact dermal fibroblasts co-culture with human BCC cells also increases the expression of CXCR4 in BCC cells. Treatment with recombinant human TGF-β1, but not CTGF, enhanced the CXCR4 levels in time- and dose-dependent manners. The protein level and surface expression of CXCR4 in human BCC cells was increased by TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 was intensely expressed in the surrounding fibroblasts of invasive BCC and was positively correlated with the CXCR4 expression of BCC cells. The transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 by TGF-β1 is mediated by its binding to the TGF-β receptor II and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-ETS-1 pathway. TGF-β1 induces upregulation of CXCR4 in human BCC cells by phosphorylation of ERK1/2-ETS-1 pathway. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, synthesis, and functionalization of dimeric peptides targeting chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmer, O.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Schumacher, U.; Marinelli, L.; Cosconati, S.; Gourni, E.; Wester, H.J.; Kessler, H.

    2011-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a critical regulator of inflammation and immune surveillance, and it is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. On the basis of the observation that several of the known antagonists remarkably share a C(2) symmetry element, we constructed

  14. [Polymorphism of CXCR4 coding region of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Chinese Han people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-xu; Wang, Fu-sheng; Hong, Wei-guo; Wang, Bo; Jin, Lei; Lei, Zhou-yun; Hou, Jing

    2003-06-01

    To study the polymorphism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor CXCR4 in Chinese Han ethnic group for AIDS prevention and treatment. Totally 48 individuals were enrolled into the study. CXCR4 (cDNA No-AF147204) was cloned by PCR amplification using 2 pairs of primers, then sequenced using sequencing primers. The results of the same sequencing primers were analyzed by DNAstar software to find and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. Totally 7 SNPs were found in the coding region of CXCR4, among them 3 were synonymous mutation (C-->T at loci 129, 426 and 968), 3 were missense mutation (C-->T at locus 38, A-->T at locus 90, and A-->C at locus 712) and 1 was stop mutation (C-->T at 106, which converted the codon for glutamic acid into stop codon). The polymorphism of CXCR4 coding region in Chinese Han is probably different from that of the other ethnic groups. Six of the 7 SNPs were discovered for the first time. Their influences on AIDS progression are worthy of studying.

  15. ِIncreased expression of T- cell- surface CXCR4 in asthmatic children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    ِIncreased expression of T- cell- surface CXCR4 in asthmatic children. INTRODUCTION. Chemokines are a group of cytokines that ... cytokine responses 3. One of the typical aspects of airway inflammation is the infiltration of Th2 cells and ..... Mast cells can amplify airway reactivity and features of chronic inflammation in an ...

  16. Difference in CXCR4 expression between sporadic and VHL-related hemangioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Roeliene C; van Marion, Denise M S; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; de Groot, Jan C; Hoving, Eelco W; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Derks, Rosalie P H; Cornelissen, Chantal; van der Luijt, Rob B; Links, Thera P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system hemangioblastomas occur sporadically and in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease due to a VHL germline mutation. This mutation leads to enhanced transcription of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), its ligand (CXCL12) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). We

  17. Role of VEGFA, CXCR4 and VHL mutation in tumour behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Roeliene

    2014-01-01

    De ziekte van Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) is een zeldzaam kankersyndroom. Patiënten met deze ziekte krijgen zowel goedaardige als kwaadaardige tumoren in verschillende organen. VHL-patiënten hebben een niet goed werkend VHL-eiwit waardoor er meer CXCR4, een chemokine receptor, en VEGFA, een

  18. Reprogramming antitumor immunity against chemoresistant ovarian cancer by a CXCR4 antagonist-armed viral oncotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin P Komorowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy owing to late detection, intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance, and remarkable heterogeneity. Here, we explored approaches to inhibit metastatic growth of murine and human ovarian tumor variants resistant to paclitaxel and carboplatin by oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing a CXCR4 antagonist to target the CXCL12 chemokine/CXCR4 receptor signaling axis alone or in combination with doxorubicin. The resistant variants exhibited augmented expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 and CXCR4 along with elevated Akt and ERK1/2 activation and displayed an increased susceptibility to viral infection compared with the parental counterparts. The infected cultures were more sensitive to doxorubicin-mediated killing both in vitro and in tumor-challenged mice. Mechanistically, the combination treatment increased apoptosis and phagocytosis of tumor material by dendritic cells associated with induction of antitumor immunity. Targeting syngeneic tumors with this regimen increased intratumoral infiltration of antitumor CD8+ T cells. This was further enhanced by reducing the immunosuppressive network by the virally-delivered CXCR4 antagonist, which augmented antitumor immune responses and led to tumor-free survival. Our results define novel strategies for treatment of drug-resistant ovarian cancer that increase immunogenic cell death and reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, culminating in antitumor immune responses that control metastatic tumor growth.

  19. Targeting CXCR4 with [68Ga]Pentixafor: a suitable theranostic approach in pleural mesothelioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Kircher, Stefan; Schirbel, Andreas; Rosenwald, Andreas; Kropf, Saskia; Pelzer, Theo; Walles, Thorsten; Buck, Andreas K; Weber, Wolfgang A; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Herrmann, Ken; Lückerath, Katharina

    2017-11-14

    C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a key factor for tumor growth and metastasis in several types of human cancer. This study investigated the feasibility of CXCR4-directed imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using [68Ga]Pentixafor in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Six patients with pleural mesothelioma underwent [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET/CT. 2'-[18F]fluoro-2'-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG)-PET/CT (4/6 patients) and immunohistochemistry obtained from biopsy or surgery (all) served as standards of reference. Additionally, 9 surgical mesothelioma samples were available for histological work-up. Whereas [18F]FDG-PET depicted active lesions in all patients, [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET/CT recorded physiologic tracer distribution and none of the 6 patients presented [68Ga]Pentixafor-positive lesions. This finding paralleled results of immunohistochemistry which also could not identify relevant CXCR4 surface expression in the samples analyzed. In contrast to past reports, our data suggest widely absence of CXCR4 expression in pleural mesothelioma. Hence, robust cell surface expression should be confirmed prior to targeting this chemokine receptor for diagnosis and/or therapy.

  20. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Casanova, Isolda; Cedano, Juan; Corchero, José Luis; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing. Results Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusion Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. PMID:22923991

  1. Celastrol attenuates pain and cartilage damage via SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling pathway in osteoarthritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Ha, Chengzhi; Lin, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Yuanhe; Gong, Mingzhi

    2018-01-01

    Celastrol has attracted wide interests for its anticancer and anti-inflammation properties, and studies have demonstrated that celastrol negatively modulates the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) signalling. We aim in this study to investigate the effects of celastrol in osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We established a monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat OA model and evaluated the joint pain and cartilage damage with or without celastrol treatments. We further assessed the alterations of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway and cartilage-specific genes, at both mRNA and protein levels. Celastrol significantly attenuated the joint pain and cartilage damage induced by MIA in OA rats and suppressed the upregulation of SDF-1/CXCR4 and associated genes caused by MIA injections. Furthermore, MIA induced a decrease in cartilage-specific genes which was also prevented by celastrol treatments. Celastrol ameliorate OA in vivo as evidenced by the attenuated joint pain and less cartilage damage in OA rats given celastrol treatments, an effect mediated via suppression of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Human immature Langerhans cells restrict CXCR4-using HIV-1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Mesman, Annelies W.; van Teijlingen, Nienke H.; Sprokholt, Joris K.; van der Vlist, Michiel; Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual transmission is the main route of HIV-1 infection and the CCR5-using (R5) HIV-1 is predominantly transmitted, even though CXCR4-using (X4) HIV-1 is often abundant in chronic HIV-1 patients. The mechanisms underlying this tropism selection are unclear. Mucosal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the

  3. Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 (cyclo(-Arg(1)-Arg(2)-2-Nal(3)-Gly(4)-D-Tyr(5)-), 2; 2-Nal = 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine) represents an excellent starting point for development of novel drug-like ligands with therapeutic potential in HIV, cancer, stem-cell mobilization, inflammation, and a...

  4. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  5. Anti-HIV Effect of Liposomes Bearing CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate lymphatic system targeting and inhibitory ability of N15P nano-liposomal preparation (naLipo-N15P) of CXCR4 receptor antagonist in HIV infection. Methods: Chemotactic and chemotaxic inhibition activity assays were used to analyze the biological activity of naLipo-N15P. The anti-HIV potential of ...

  6. Increased expression of T- cell- surface CXCR4 in asthmatic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Signals delivered through the chemokine receptor CXCR4 upon interaction with its ligand, SDF-1 α/β result in the most efficacious chemoattraction of T lymphocytes to the asthmatic airways with the resultant lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Objective: The extensive pharmacological and ...

  7. CXCR4 and CXCR7 play distinct roles in cardiac lineage specification and pharmacologic β-adrenergic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine K. Ceholski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CXCR4 and CXCR7 are prominent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs for chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12. This study demonstrates that CXCR4 and CXCR7 induce differential effects during cardiac lineage differentiation and β-adrenergic response in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs. Using lentiviral vectors to ablate CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 expression, hiPSC-CMs were tested for phenotypic and functional properties due to gene knockdown. Gene expression and flow cytometry confirmed the pluripotent and cardiomyocyte phenotype of undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSCs, respectively. Although reduction of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression resulted in a delayed cardiac phenotype, only knockdown of CXCR4 delayed the spontaneous beating of hiPSC-CMs. Knockdown of CXCR4 and CXCR7 differentially altered calcium transients and β-adrenergic response in hiPSC-CMs. In engineered cardiac tissues, depletion of CXCR4 or CXCR7 had opposing effects on developed force and chronotropic response to β-agonists. This work demonstrates distinct roles for the SDF-1/CXCR4 or CXCR7 network in hiPSC-derived ventricular cardiomyocyte specification, maturation and function.

  8. Ectopic cerebellar cell migration causes maldevelopment of Purkinje cells and abnormal motor behaviour in Cxcr4 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice.

  9. Relevance of P-glycoprotein on CXCR4(+) B cells to organ manifestation in highly active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kawabe, Akio; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-07-11

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated B cells is associated with active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. CXCR4 is associated with migration of B cells. This study was designed to elucidate the relevance of P-gp expression on CXCR4(+) B cells to clinical manifestations in refractory RA. CD19(+) B cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. P-gp was highly expressed especially on CXCR4(+)CD19(+) B cells in RA. The proportion of P-gp-expressing CXCR4(+) B cells correlated with disease activity, estimated by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and showed marked expansion in RA patients with high SDAI and extra-articular involvement. In highly active RA, massive infiltration of P-gp(+)CXCR4(+)CD19(+) B cells was noted in CXCL12-expressing inflammatory lesions of RA synovitis and RA-associated interstitial pneumonitis. In RA patient with active extra-articular involvement, intracellular dexamethasone level (IDL) in lymphocytes diminished with expansion of P-gp(+)CXCR4(+) CD19(+) B cells. Adalimumab reduced P-gp(+)CXCR4(+) CD19(+) B cells, increased IDL in lymphocytes, and improved the clinical manifestation and allowed tapering of concomitant medications. Expansion of P-gp(+)CXCR4(+) B cells seems to be associated with drug resistance, disease activity and progressive destructive arthritis with extra-articular involvement in RA.

  10. In Vivo Tracking of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4-Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration by Optical Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Kalimuthu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CXCR4, the stromal cell-derived factor-1 receptor, plays an important role in the migration of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells to injured and inflamed areas. Noninvasive cell tracking methods could be useful for monitoring cell fate. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an intravenous infusion of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs overexpressing CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 to home to the tumor, by optical imaging. We constructed a retroviral vector containing CXCR with dual reporter genes, eGFP and Fluc2, under the control of an EF1α promoter (pBABE-EF1α-CXCR4-eGFP-IRES-Fluc2. We also developed an eGFP-Fluc2 construct in the Retro-X retroviral vector (Retro-X-eGFP-Fluc2. MSCs were transduced with retroviruses to generate CXCR4-overexpressing MSCs (MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2 and MSCs (MSC/Fluc2. CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and it was higher in MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2 than in naive MSCs. eGFP expression was confirmed by confocal microscopy. The transfected MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2 cells showed higher migratory capacity than naive MSCs observed in Transwell migration assay. The in vivo migration of CXCR4-overexpressing MSCs to MDAMB231/Rluc tumor model by BLI imaging was also confirmed. Intravenous delivery of genetically modified MSCs overexpressing CXCR4 with a Fluc2 reporter gene may be a useful, noninvasive BLI imaging tool for tracking cell fate.

  11. Effect of chemokine receptor CXCR4 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Charles A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CXCR4 is the receptor for chemokine CXCL12 and reportedly plays an important role in systemic vascular repair and remodeling, but the role of CXCR4 in development of pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling has not been fully understood. Methods In this study we investigated the role of CXCR4 in the development of pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling by using a CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 and by electroporation of CXCR4 shRNA into bone marrow cells and then transplantation of the bone marrow cells into rats. Results We found that the CXCR4 inhibitor significantly decreased chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in rats and, most importantly, we found that the rats that were transplanted with the bone marrow cells electroporated with CXCR4 shRNA had significantly lower mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP, ratio of right ventricular weight to left ventricular plus septal weight (RV/(LV+S and wall thickness of pulmonary artery induced by chronic hypoxia as compared with control rats. Conclusions The hypothesis that CXCR4 is critical in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats has been demonstrated. The present study not only has shown an inhibitory effect caused by systemic inhibition of CXCR4 activity on pulmonary hypertension, but more importantly also has revealed that specific inhibition of the CXCR4 in bone marrow cells can reduce pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling via decreasing bone marrow derived cell recruitment to the lung in hypoxia. This study suggests a novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting bone marrow derived cell recruitment.

  12. CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in the dental stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohama-Tamaki, Tamaki; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Shibata, Shunichi; Obara, Nobuko; Irie, Kazuharu; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi; Nagasawa, Takashi; Aoki, Kazunari; Caliari, Steven R; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-12-01

    Dental stem cells are located at the proximal ends of rodent incisors. These stem cells reside in the dental epithelial stem cell niche, termed the apical bud. We focused on identifying critical features of a chemotactic signal in the niche. Here, we report that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in dental stem cell niche cells. We report cells in the apical bud express CXCR4 mRNA at high levels while expression is restricted in the basal epithelium (BE) and transit-amplifying (TA) cell regions. Furthermore, the CXCL12 ligand is present in mesenchymal cells adjacent to the apical bud. We then performed gain- and loss-of-function analyses to better elucidate the role of CXCR4 and CXCL12. CXCR4-deficient mice contain epithelial cell aggregates, while cell proliferation in mutant incisors was also significantly reduced. We demonstrate in vitro that dental epithelial cells migrate toward sources of CXCL12, whereas knocking down CXCR4 impaired motility and resulted in formation of dense cell colonies. These results suggest that CXCR4 expression may be critical for activation of enamel progenitor cell division and that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling may control movement of epithelial progenitors from the dental stem cell niche.

  13. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  14. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7 regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Haege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  15. Evaluation of N-[C-11]Methyl-AMD3465 as a PET Tracer for Imaging of CXCR4 Receptor Expression in a C6 Glioma Tumor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartimath, S. V.; van Waarde, A.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; de Vries, E. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. CXCR4 receptors are expressed by many cancer types and provide a potential target for treatment. Noninvasive detection of CXCR4 may aid diagnosis and improve therapy selection. It has been

  16. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Oral Biosciences and BK21 Program, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  17. DJ-1 protein regulates CD3+ T cell migration via overexpression of CXCR4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Hyo; Won, Kyung Jong; Lee, Kang Pa; Lee, Dong Hyun; Yu, Suyeol; Lee, Dong-Youb; Seo, Eun-Hye; Kang, Hyun; Park, Eun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Bokyung

    2014-08-01

    DJ-1-a multifunctional protein responding to oxidative stress-is a possible regulator of the inflammatory response that plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor, chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), have been implicated in the recruitment of inflammatory cells during atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that DJ-1 protein might participate in CD3+ T cell functions in response to SDF-1 and contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. SDF-1 stimulated migration in mouse CD3+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. SDF-1 also elevated the phosphorylation level of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in CD3+ T cells. These SDF-1-induced responses were greater in CD3+ T cells from DJ-1 gene knockout (DJ-1(-/-)) mice than in those from wild type (DJ-1(+/+)) mice and were abolished by treatment with WZ811 and PD98059, inhibitors of CXCR4 and ERK1/2, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed that expression of the CXCR4 receptor was greater in CD3+ T cells from DJ-1(-/-) mice than in those from the controls. Moreover, expression of the CD3 protein was observed in the neointimal plaque from carotid artery-ligated mice and was stronger in DJ-1(-/-) mice compared with controls. The CD3+ T cell subsets, Th1 and Th17, showed increased production of interferon-γ and interleukin-17 in DJ-1(-/-) compared with DJ-1(+/+) mice. DJ-1 protein is involved in the SDF-1-induced CD3+ T cell migration via overexpression of the CXCR4 receptor, and that DJ-1 acts as an inhibitory regulator in vascular remodeling such as neointima formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of ERG and CXCR4 in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    culture medium was supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% peni -cillin and streptomycin. R1881 was purchased from NEN Life Sciences (Waltham, MA...Akt1 in DU145 resulted in increased CXCR4 expression, as well as increased proliferation and cell cycle progression. Subcutaneous injection of...intratibial implantation 1x105 cells were injected per bone; for each cell line, 8-10 mice were used. Histomorphometric analyses were performed to

  19. Mobilization of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Using Inhibitors of CXCR4 and VLA-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Michael P.; Ansstas, George; DiPersio, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) that are capable of homing to the bone marrow cavity and regenerating durable trilineage hematopoiesis in a timely fashion. Stem cells harvested from peripheral blood are the most commonly used graft source in HSCT. While granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most frequently used agent for stem cell mobilization, the use of G-CSF alone results in suboptimal stem cell yields in a significant proportion of patients. Both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the integrin α4β1 (VLA-4) play important roles in the homing and retention of HSPCs within the bone marrow microenvironment. Preclinical and/or clinical studies have shown that targeted disruption of the interaction of CXCR4 or VLA-4 with their ligands results in the rapid and reversible mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the peripheral circulation and is synergistic when combined with G-CSF. In this review we discuss the development of small molecule CXCR4 and VLA-4 inhibitors and how they may improve the utility and convenience of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:21886173

  20. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princen, Katrien; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    - or CXCR4-transfected cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and monocytes/macrophages. AMD3451 also inhibited R5, R5/X4, and X4 HIV-1 primary clinical isolates in PBMCs (IC(50), 1.8 to 7.3 microM). A PCR-based viral entry assay revealed that AMD3451 blocks R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection...... not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4...... but not that induced by CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7. The CXCL12- and CCL3-induced chemotaxis was also dose-dependently inhibited by AMD3451. Furthermore, AMD3451 inhibited CXCL12- and CCL3L1-induced endocytosis in CXCR4- and CCR5-transfected cells. AMD3451, in contrast to the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, did...

  1. CXCL12, CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Maderna, Emanuela; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Gaviani, Paola; Canazza, Alessandra; Milanesi, Ida; Silvani, Antonio; DiMeco, Francesco; Carbone, Antonino; Pollo, Bianca

    2009-09-01

    Brain metastases occur in about 25% of patients who die of cancer. The most common sources of brain metastases in adults are lung, breast, kidney, colorectal cancer and melanoma. The chemokine/receptor system CXCL12/CXCR4 plays a key role in multiple biological functions; among these, homing of neoplastic cells from the primary site to the target and metastasis progression. Recently, an alternative CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 has been discovered. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 by immunohistochemistry in 56 patients with metastatic brain disease from different non-CNS primary tumors and evaluate their prognostic relevance as well as that of other patient/treatment-related features on patient survival. CXCL12 showed an expression in tumor cells and in tumor vessels; CXCR7 was expressed by tumor and endothelial cells (both within the tumor and in the adjacent brain tissue), while CXCR4 showed a positivity in all samples with a nuclear pattern. Among the investigated immunohistochemical parameters, only CXCL12 expression in tumor endothelial cells showed a statistically significant correlation with shorter survival (p = 0.04 log-rank), perhaps identifying more aggressive tumors. Thus, this is the first study evaluating at the same time the expression of CXCL12 and its two receptors in a cohort of brain metastases.

  2. Inactivation of HIV-1 chemokine co-receptor CXCR-4 by a novel intrakine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J D; Bai, X; Yang, A G; Cong, Y; Chen, S Y

    1997-10-01

    CXC-chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4/fusin, a newly discovered co-receptor for T-cell line (T)-tropic HIV-1 virus, plays a critical role in T-tropic virus fusion and entry into permissive cells. The occurrence of T-tropic HIV viruses is associated with CD4-positive cell decline and progression to AIDS, suggesting that the T-tropic HIV-1 contributes to AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel strategy to inactivate CXCR-4 by targeting a modified CXC-chemokine to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to block the surface expression of newly synthesized CXCR-4. The genetically modified lymphocytes expressing this intracellular chemokine, termed "intrakine", are immune to T-tropic virus infection and appear to retain normal biological features. Thus, this genetic intrakine strategy is uniquely targeted at the conserved cellular receptor for the prevention of HIV-1 entry and may be developed into an effective treatment for HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  3. An update on small molecules targeting CXCR4 as starting points for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Fedora; Giancotti, Gilda; Ioele, Giuseppina; Occhiuzzi, Maria A; Garofalo, Antonio

    2017-10-20

    CXCR4 (C-X-C Chemokine Receptor type 4) and its natural ligand SDF-1α (Stromal-Derived-Factor-1α) are involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes including cancer spread and progression. Over the past few years, numerous CXCR4 antagonists have been identified and currently are in different development stages as potential agents for the treatment of several diseases involving the CXCR4/SDF-1α axis. Herein, we focus on small molecules reported in literature between 2013 and 2017, claimed as CXCR4 antagonists and potentially useful in the treatment of cancer and other diseases where this receptor is involved. Most of the compounds resulted from a chemical optimization of previously identified molecules and some of them could represent suitable candidates for the development of advanced anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of CXCR4 and CXCR7 for reduction of cell proliferation and invasion in human endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ping; Sun, Fengyi; Ma, Yingying; Huang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most common malignant cancers in female reproductive tract, endometrial cancer accounts for 20-30 % of the most frequent gynecological malignancy, which is originated from endometrial epithelial. The molecular mechanisms for the generation of endometrial cancer are up to now unclear, hindering the development of corresponding therapy. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were receptors of CXCL12 chemokine ligand, which could regulate critical procedures of neoplastic transformation, including proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of the cells. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cancer, as well as in Ishikawa and HEC-1-A cell line, were analyzed by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. In order to explore the biological function of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in endometrial tumor, small interference RNAs of CXCR4 and CXCR7 fragments were designed, synthesized, and transfected into Ishikawa and HEC-1-A by using Lipofectamine2000. The influence of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing CXCR4 and CXCR7 on the cell proliferation was investigated under CCK-8. The invasion assay was performed transwell, and cell apoptosis was tested by FCM. Higher mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 were investigated in endometrial adenocarcinomas. The expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be inhibited by RNA interference, reducing the cell proliferation, invasion in Ishikawa and HEC-1-A cells. In this study, we also observed that treated with CXCR4 and CXCR7 small interfering RNA (siRNA) arrested cells in S phase. CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 receptor ligand systems affect the invasion of endometrial carcinoma cell line into Ishikawa and HEC-1-A. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were silenced by RNAi, which can inhibit the invasion of Ishikawa and HEC-1-A cell lines. Hence, CXCR4 and CXCR7 are expected to become two target genes for the treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  5. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 elicits analgesic effect and restores the GlyRα3 expression against neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoming Liu, Hongjun Liu, Lihua Dai, Bingjie Ma, Ke Ma Pain Management Center, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: Chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 have been reported to play a critical role in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. Recently, some reports have implicated this chemokine signaling in the pathogenesis of many kinds of pain. However, its role in neuropathic pain (NP is still largely unclear. This study explored the distribution and function of CXCR4 in spinal cord (SC dorsal horn (DH in a rat L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL model. Methods: Rats received repeated intrathecal injection of CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Behavioral assessments were conducted using a traditional “up–down” method. The spinal CXCL12 contents were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression and distribution of CXCR4 in the SC were determined by immunoflurescence and Western blot. GlyRα3 expressions were also measured by Western blot or immunofluorescence. Results: SNL induced CXCL12–CXCR4 activation in the spinal DH. Intrathecal administration of AMD3100 alleviated the chronic NP against SNL (P<0.01. CXCR4 was colocalized with GlyRα3-positive neurons in the spinal DH at ratio >97%. Meanwhile, AMD3100 rescued the decrease of GlyRα3 expression (P<0.01 vs the SNL group on Day 14 and Day 21. Conclusion: CXCR4 antagonist can elicit analgesic effects and restore the inhibitory neurotransmission such as GlyRα3 against NP. Keywords: neuropathic pain, CXCL12, CXCR4, GlyRα3, L5 spinal nerve ligation

  6. Protective effects of mesenchymal stem cells with CXCR4 up-regulation in a rat renal transplantation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Cao

    Full Text Available The homing of mesenchymal stem cells to injured tissue, which is important for the correction of conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI and immunolesions, has been performed previously, but with poor efficiency. Substantial improvements in engraftment are required to derive clinical benefits from MSC transplantation. Chemokines are the most important factors that control cellular migration. Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 is up-regulated during tissue/organ ischemia damage, and its cognate receptor, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4, is involved in stem cell migration. The aim of our study was to investigate CXCR4 expression in MSCs and to validate both its role in mediating migration to transplanted kidneys and its immunoregulatory effects in renal protection. Specifically, the present study was designed to investigate the short-term tissue homing of MSCs carrying genetically modified CXCR4 in a rat renal transplantation model. We tested the hypothesis that MSCs with CXCR4 over-expression can more efficiently regulate immunological reactions. Lentiviral vectors were used to over-express CXCR4 or to introduce a short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA construct targeting endogenous CXCR4 in rat MSCs. MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. After cell sorting, recipient kidneys were regionally perfused; recipient animals were injected with transduced MSCs, native MSCs, or PBS via tail vein following renal transplantation; and the effects of MSC injection were observed.

  7. Disruption of CXCR4 signaling in pharyngeal neural crest cells causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escot, Sophie; Blavet, Cédrine; Faure, Emilie; Zaffran, Stéphane; Duband, Jean-Loup; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-02-15

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disease causing cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from defective development of neural crest cells (NCs) that colonize the pharyngeal arches and contribute to lower jaw, neck and heart tissues. Although TBX1 has been identified as the main gene accounting for the defects observed in human patients and mouse models, the molecular mechanisms underlying DGS etiology are poorly identified. The recent demonstrations that the SDF1/CXCR4 axis is implicated in NC chemotactic guidance and impaired in cortical interneurons of mouse DGS models prompted us to search for genetic interactions between Tbx1, Sdf1 (Cxcl12) and Cxcr4 in pharyngeal NCs and to investigate the effect of altering CXCR4 signaling on the ontogeny of their derivatives, which are affected in DGS. Here, we provide evidence that Cxcr4 and Sdf1 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal NC development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling causes misrouting of pharyngeal NCs in chick and dramatic morphological alterations in the mandibular skeleton, thymus and cranial sensory ganglia. Our results therefore support the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in DGS etiology. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Minimalist hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model for CXCR4 applied to a small-library of marine natural products led to the identification of phidianidine a as a new CXCR4 ligand exhibiting antagonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Rosa Maria; Gatti, Monica; Carbone, Marianna; Barbieri, Federica; Felicità, Vera; Gavagnin, Margherita; Florio, Tullio; Amodeo, Pietro

    2013-12-20

    Here, we present a minimal hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model (PM) for CXCR4, a chemokine receptor deeply involved in several pathologies, such as HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer development/progression, and metastasization. This model, considerably simpler than those thus far proposed for this receptor, has been used to search for new CXCR4 inhibitors in a small marine natural product library available at ICB-CNR Institute (Pozzuoli, NA, Italy), since natural products, with their naturally selected chemical and functional diversity, represent a rich source of bioactive scaffolds; computational approaches allow searching for new scaffolds with a minimal waste of possibly precious natural product samples; and our "stripped-down" model substantially increases the probabilities of identifying potential hits even in small-sized libraries. This search, also validated by a systematic virtual screening of the same library, has led to the identification of a new CXCR4 ligand, phidianidine A (PHIA). Docking studies supported PHIA activity and suggested its possible binding modes to CXCR4. Using the CXCR4-expressing/CXCR7-negative GH4C1 cell line we show that PHIA inhibits CXCL12-induced DNA synthesis, cell migration, and ERK1/2 activation. The specificity of these effects was confirmed by the lack of PHIA activity in GH4C1 cells, in which siRNA highly reduces CXCR4 expression and the lack of cytoxicity of PHIA was also verified. Thus, PHIA represents a promising lead for a new family of CXCR4 modulators with wide margins of improvement in potency and specificity offered by the small and very simple underlying PM.

  9. Involvement of the CXCR7/CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the malignant progression of human neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Liberman

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is a typical childhood and heterogeneous neoplasm for which efficient targeted therapies for high-risk tumors are not yet identified. The chemokine CXCL12, and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 have been involved in tumor progression and dissemination. While CXCR4 expression is associated to undifferentiated tumors and poor prognosis, the role of CXCR7, the recently identified second CXCL12 receptor, has not yet been elucidated in NB. In this report, CXCR7 and CXCL12 expressions were evaluated using a tissue micro-array including 156 primary and 56 metastatic NB tissues. CXCL12 was found to be highly associated to NB vascular and stromal structures. In contrast to CXCR4, CXCR7 expression was low in undifferentiated tumors, while its expression was stronger in matured tissues and specifically associated to differentiated neural tumor cells. As determined by RT-PCR, CXCR7 expression was mainly detected in N-and S-type NB cell lines, and was slightly induced upon NB cell differentiation in vitro. The relative roles of the two CXCL12 receptors were further assessed by overexpressing CXCR7 or CXCR4 receptor alone, or in combination, in the IGR-NB8 and the SH-SY5Y NB cell lines. In vitro functional analyses indicated that, in response to their common ligand, both receptors induced activation of ERK1/2 cascade, but not Akt pathway. CXCR7 strongly reduced in vitro growth, in contrast to CXCR4, and impaired CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis. Subcutaneous implantation of CXCR7-expressing NB cells showed that CXCR7 also significantly reduced in vivo growth. Moreover, CXCR7 affected CXCR4-mediated orthotopic growth in a CXCL12-producing environment. In such model, CXCR7, in association with CXCR4, did not induce NB cell metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, the CXCR7 and CXCR4 receptors revealed specific expression patterns and distinct functional roles in NB. Our data suggest that CXCR7 elicits anti-tumorigenic functions, and may act as a

  10. CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy induces high response rates in extramedullary relapsed Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Schirbel, Andreas; Hänscheid, Heribert; Lückerath, Katharina; Schottelius, Margret; Kircher, Malte; Werner, Rudolf A; Schreder, Martin; Samnick, Samuel; Kropf, Saskia; Knop, Stefan; Buck, Andreas K; Einsele, Hermann; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Kortüm, K Martin

    2017-01-01

    C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a key factor for tumor growth and metastasis in several types of human cancer. We have recently reported promising first-in-man experience with CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy (ERT) in multiple myeloma (MM). Eight heavily pretreated MM patients underwent a total of 10 ERT cycles (7 patients with 1 cycle and a single patient with 3 cycles). ERT was administered in combination with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support. End points were occurrence and timing of adverse events, progression-free and overall survival. ERT was overall well tolerated without any unexpected acute adverse events or changes in vital signs. With absorbed tumor doses >30-70 Gy in intra- or extramedullary lesions, significant anti-myeloma activity was observed with 1 patient achieving complete remission and 5/8 partial remission. Directly after ERT major infectious complications were seen in one patient who died from sepsis 22 days after ERT, another patient with high tumor burden experienced lethal tumor lysis syndrome. Median progression-free survival was 54 days (range, 13-175), median overall survival was 223 days (range, 13-313). During follow-up (6 patients available), one patient died from infectious complications, 2/8 from disease progression, the remaining 3/8 patients are still alive. CXCR4-directed ERT was well-tolerated and exerted anti-myeloma activity even at very advanced stage MM with presence of extramedullary disease. Further assessment of this novel treatment option is highly warranted.

  11. Expression of mRNA of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in feline mammary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, S; Nakadai, T; Furuoka, H; Oomachi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Omata, Y; Koyama, T; Hondo, E; Uzuka, Y; Sarashina, T; Ducusin, R J T; Shida, T; Dorf, M E

    2002-12-14

    The expression of mRNA of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in 65 surgically resected mammary adenocarcinomas from cats was investigated by in situ hybridisation. No expression of the receptor's mRNA was detectable in the mammary tissue of healthy cats, but it was expressed in areas adjacent to necrosis, surrounding blood vessels and cells infiltrating the lymphatics of 47 (72.3 per cent) of the 65 samples. There was a significant relationship between lymphatic infiltration by neoplastic cells and the expression of the receptor's mRNA (P < 0.005), but there was no significant relationship between its expression and the one-year survival of the cats.

  12. Proinflammatory CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 Signaling Axis Drives Myc-Induced Prostate Cancer in Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Achinto; Ahn, Songyeon; Blando, Jorge; Su, Fei; Kolonin, Mikhail G; DiGiovanni, John

    2017-09-15

    Obesity is a prognostic risk factor in the progression of prostate cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. In this study, we provide preclinical proof of concept for the role of a proinflammatory CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling axis in an obesity-driven mouse model of myc-induced prostate cancer. Analysis of the stromal vascular fraction from periprostatic white adipose tissue from obese HiMyc mice at 6 months of age revealed a dramatic increase in mRNAs encoding various chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and angiogenesis mediators, with CXCL12 among the most significantly upregulated genes. Immunofluorescence staining of ventral prostate tissue from obese HiMyc mice revealed high levels of CXCL12 in the stromal compartment as well as high staining for CXCR4 and CXCR7 in the epithelial compartment of tumors. Prostate cancer cell lines derived from HiMyc tumors (HMVP2 and derivative cell lines) displayed increased protein expression of both CXCR4 and CXCR7 compared with protein lysates from a nontumorigenic prostate epithelial cell line (NMVP cells). CXCL12 treatment stimulated migration and invasion of HMVP2 cells but not NMVP cells. These effects of CXCL12 on HMVP2 cells were inhibited by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 as well as knockdown of either CXCR4 or CXCR7. CXCL12 treatment also produced rapid activation of STAT3, NFκB, and MAPK signaling in HMVP2 cells, which was again attenuated by either AMD3100 or knockdown of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Collectively, these data suggest that CXCL12 secreted by stromal cells activates invasiveness of prostate cancer cells and may play a role in driving tumor progression in obesity. Targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis could lead to novel approaches for offsetting the effects of obesity on prostate cancer progression. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5158-68. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. SDF1-CXCR4 Signaling Maintains Central Post-Stroke Pain through Mediation of Glial-Neuronal Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Central post-stroke pain (CPSP is an intractable central neuropathic pain that has been poorly studied mechanistically. Here we showed that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1 or CXCL12, a member of the CXC chemokine family, and its receptor CXCR4 played a key role in the development and maintenance of thalamic hemorrhagic CPSP through hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α mediated microglial-astrocytic-neuronal interactions. First, both intra-thalamic collagenase (ITC and SDF1 injections could induce CPSP that was blockable and reversible by intra-thalamic administration of both AMD3100 (a selective CXCR4 antagonist and inhibitors of microglial or astrocytic activation. Second, long-term increased-expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 that was accompanied by activations of both microglia and astrocytes following ITC could be blocked by both AMD-3100 and YC-1, a selective inhibitor of HIF-1α. AMD-3100 could also inhibit release of proinflammatory mediators (TNFα, IL1β and IL-6. Increased-expression of HIF-1α, SDF1, CXCR4, Iba1 and GFAP proteins could be induced by both ITC and intra-thalamic CoCl2, an inducer of HIF-1α that was blockable by both HIF-1α inhibition and CXCR4 antagonism. Finally, inhibition of HIF-1α was only effective in prevention, but not in treatment of ITC-induced CPSP. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that in the initial process of thalamic hemorrhagic state HIF-1α up-regulated SDF1-CXCR4 signaling, while in the late process SDF1-CXCR4 signaling-mediated positive feedback plays more important role in glial-glial and glial-neuronal interactions and might be a novel promising molecular target for treatment of CPSP in clinic.

  14. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM. The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all p<0.01. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (p<0.01. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  15. V3-independent competitive resistance of a dual-X4 HIV-1 to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Maeda

    Full Text Available A CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 was isolated from a dual-X4 HIV-1 in vitro. The resistant variant displayed competitive resistance to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, indicating that the resistant variant had a higher affinity for CXCR4 than that of the wild-type HIV-1. Amino acid sequence analyses revealed that the resistant variant harbored amino acid substitutions in the V2, C2, and C4 regions, but no remarkable changes in the V3 loop. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the changes in the C2 and C4 regions were principally involved in the reduced sensitivity to AMD3100. Furthermore, the change in the C4 region was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, and profoundly enhanced the entry efficiency of the virus. Therefore, it is likely that the resistant variant acquired the higher affinity for CD4/CXCR4 by the changes in non-V3 regions. Taken together, a CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 can evolve using a non-V3 pathway.

  16. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a key receptor for chicken primordial germ cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hyo; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kim, Si Won; Park, Joonghoon; Park, Tae Sub

    2017-12-15

    In mammals, germ cells originate outside of the developing gonads and follow a unique migration pattern through the embryonic tissue toward the genital ridges. Many studies have attempted to identify critical receptors and factors involved in germ cell migration. However, relatively few reports exist on germ cell receptors and chemokines that are involved in germ cell migration in avian species. In the present study, we investigated the specific migratory function of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). We induced loss-of-function via a frameshift mutation in the CXCR4 gene in chicken PGCs using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing. The migratory capacity of CXCR4 knockout PGCs was significantly reduced in vivo after transplantation into recipient embryos. However, CXCR4-expressing somatic cell lines, such as chicken DT40 and DF1, failed to migrate into the developing gonads, suggesting that another key factor(s) is necessary for targeting and settlement of PGCs into the genital ridges. In conclusion, we show that CXCR4 plays a critical role in the migration of chicken germ cells.

  17. The Serum Concentrations of Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Specific Receptor CXCR4 in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent investigations have suggested that upregulated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as chemokines, may be associated with development of many malignancies, including esophageal cancer (EC. Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. Material and Methods. The present study included 79 subjects: 49 patients with EC and 30 healthy volunteers. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of all proteins tested and the survival of EC patients were assessed. Results. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 were significantly higher, while those of its receptor CXCR4 were significantly lower in EC patients compared to healthy controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CXCR4 were the highest among all analyzed proteins and increased for combined analysis with classical tumor markers and CRP levels. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum CXCR4 may improve the diagnosis of EC patients, especially in combination with classical tumor markers.

  18. Stromal Derived Factor-1/CXCR4 Axis Involved in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Recruitment to Injured Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai Xiao Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs mobilization and migration to the liver was poorly understood. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 participates in BMSCs homing and migration into injury organs. We try to investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in BMSCs migration towards injured liver. The expression of CXCR4 in BMSCs at mRNA level and protein level was confirmed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. The SDF-1 or liver lysates induced BMSCs migration was detected by transwell inserts. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, and anti-CXCR4 antibody were used to inhibit the migration. The Sprague-Dawley rat liver injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. The concentration of SDF-1 increased as modeling time extended, which was determined by ELISA method. The Dir-labeled BMSCs were injected into the liver of the rats through portal vein. The cell migration in the liver was tracked by in vivo imaging system and the fluorescent intensity was measured. In vivo, BMSCs migrated into injured liver which was partially blocked by AMD3100 or anti-CXCR4 antibody. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the migration of BMSCs was regulated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling which involved in BMSCs recruitment to injured liver.

  19. Determination of the binding mode for the cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 using a dual approach of ligand modifications and receptor mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Mungalpara, J; Steen, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cyclopentapeptide FC131 (cyclo(-L-Arg(1) -L-Arg(2) -L-2-Nal(3) -Gly(4) -D-Tyr(5) -)) is an antagonist at the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4, which plays a role in human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer and stem cell recruitment. Binding modes for FC131 in CXCR4...... activation) of FC131 and three analogues were performed on wild-type CXCR4 and 25 receptor mutants. Computational modelling was used to rationalize the experimental data. KEY RESULTS: The Arg(2) and 2-Nal(3) side chains of FC131 interact with residues in TM-3 (His(113) , Asp(171) ) and TM-5 (hydrophobic......-bond in CXCR4 crystal structures and mutation of either residue to Ala abolishes CXCR4 activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Ligand modification, receptor mutagenesis and computational modelling approaches were used to identify the binding mode of FC131 in CXCR4, which was in agreement with binding modes...

  20. Interleukin-3 enhances the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells by regulating expression of CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhanpurkar-Naik, Amruta; Mhaske, Suhas T; Pote, Satish T; Singh, Kanupriya; Wani, Mohan R

    2017-07-14

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an important source for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. MSCs have shown promising results for repair of damaged tissues in various degenerative diseases in animal models and also in human clinical trials. However, little is known about the factors that could enhance the migration and tissue-specific engraftment of exogenously infused MSCs for successful regenerative cell therapy. Previously, we have reported that interleukin-3 (IL-3) prevents bone and cartilage damage in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also, IL-3 promotes the differentiation of human MSCs into functional osteoblasts and increases their in-vivo bone regenerative potential in immunocompromised mice. However, the role of IL-3 in migration of MSCs is not yet known. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-3 in migration of human MSCs under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. MSCs isolated from human bone marrow, adipose and gingival tissues were used for in-vitro cell migration, motility and wound healing assays in the presence or absence of IL-3. The effect of IL-3 preconditioning on expression of chemokine receptors and integrins was examined by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The in-vivo migration of IL-3-preconditioned MSCs was investigated using a subcutaneous matrigel-releasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) model in immunocompromised mice. We observed that human MSCs isolated from all three sources express IL-3 receptor-α (IL-3Rα) both at gene and protein levels. IL-3 significantly enhances in-vitro migration, motility and wound healing abilities of MSCs. Moreover, IL-3 preconditioning upregulates expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) on MSCs, which leads to increased migration of cells towards SDF-1α. Furthermore, CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 decreases the migration of IL-3-treated MSCs towards SDF-1α. Importantly, IL-3 also induces in-vivo migration of MSCs towards

  1. The HIV coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are differentially expressed and regulated on human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleul, Conrad C.; Wu, Lijun; Hoxie, James A.; Springer, Timothy A.; Mackay, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 function as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells. During the early stages of HIV infection, viral isolates tend to use CCR5 for viral entry, while later isolates tend to use CXCR4. The pattern of expression of these chemokine receptors on T cell subsets and their regulation has important implications for AIDS pathogenesis and lymphocyte recirculation. A mAb to CXCR4, 12G5, showed partial inhibition of chemotaxis and calcium influx induced by SDF-1, the natural ligand of CXCR4. 12G5 stained predominantly the naive, unactivated CD26low CD45RA+ CD45R0− T lymphocyte subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast, a mAb specific for CCR5, 5C7, stained CD26high CD45RAlow CD45R0+ T lymphocytes, a subset thought to represent previously activated/memory cells. CXCR4 expression was rapidly up-regulated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during phytohemagglutinin stimulation and interleukin 2 priming, and responsiveness to SDF-1 increased simultaneously. CCR5 expression, however, showed only a gradual increase over 12 days of culture with interleukin 2, while T cell activation with phytohemagglutinin was ineffective. Taken together, the data suggest distinct functions for the two receptors and their ligands in the migration of lymphocyte subsets through lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Furthermore, the largely reciprocal expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 among peripheral blood T cells implies distinct susceptibility of T cell subsets to viral entry by T cell line-tropic versus macrophage-tropic strains during the course of HIV infection. PMID:9050881

  2. CXCR4 signaling in macrophages contributes to periodontal mechanical hypersensitivity in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hidekazu; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Kamio, Noriaki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Sugano, Naoyuki; Sato, Shuichi; Iwata, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease accompanied by alveolar bone loss and progressive inflammation without pain. However, the potential contributors eliminating pain associated with gingival inflammation are unknown. Results we examined the involvement of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) on the mechanical sensitivity of inflamed periodontal tissue, using a mouse model of periodontitis established by the ligation of the tooth cervix of a maxillary second molar and inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Infiltration of inflammatory cells into gingival tissue was not observed following the inoculation. Under light anesthesia, the mechanical head withdrawal threshold (MHWT) on the buccal gingiva was measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. No significant changes in MHWT were observed in the mice with P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis during the experimental period. Continuous administration of CXCR4 neutralizing antibody to the gingival tissue significantly decreased MHWT and increased the number of gingival CXCR4 immunoreactive macrophages in the periodontitis group. Nitric oxide metabolites in the gingival tissue were significantly increased after the inoculation of P. gingivalis and were reduced by gingival CXCR4 neutralization. Gingival L-arginine administration induced gingival mechanical allodynia in naive animals. Moreover, the decrease in MHWT after treatment with P. gingivalis and CXCR4 neutralization was partially reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the gingival tissue. Nuclear factor-kappa B was expressed in infiltrating macrophages after inoculation of P. gingivalis and administration of the nuclear factor-kappa B activator betulinic acid induced gingival mechanical allodynia in naive mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that CXCR4 signaling inhibits nitric oxide release from infiltrating macrophages and is involved in modulation of the mechanical sensitivity in the periodontal tissue

  3. Crosstalk between chemokine receptor CXCR4 and cannabinoid receptor CB2 in modulating breast cancer growth and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd W Nasser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors CB(1 and CB(2 and have been reported to possess anti-tumorigenic activity in various cancers. However, the mechanisms through which cannabinoids modulate tumor growth are not well known. In this study, we report that a synthetic non-psychoactive cannabinoid that specifically binds to cannabinoid receptor CB(2 may modulate breast tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting signaling of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12. This signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating breast cancer progression and metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed high expression of both CB(2 and CXCR4 receptors in breast cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. We further found that CB(2-specific agonist JWH-015 inhibits the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis and wound healing of MCF7 overexpressing CXCR4 (MCF7/CXCR4, highly metastatic clone of MDA-MB-231 (SCP2 and NT 2.5 cells (derived from MMTV-neu by using chemotactic and wound healing assays. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms using various biochemical techniques and confocal microscopy revealed that JWH-015 treatment inhibited CXCL12-induced P44/P42 ERK activation, cytoskeletal focal adhesion and stress fiber formation, which play a critical role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. In addition, we have shown that JWH-015 significantly inhibits orthotopic tumor growth in syngenic mice in vivo using NT 2.5 cells. Furthermore, our studies have revealed that JWH-015 significantly inhibits phosphorylation of CXCR4 and its downstream signaling in vivo in orthotopic and spontaneous breast cancer MMTV-PyMT mouse model systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides novel insights into the crosstalk between CB(2 and CXCR4/CXCL12-signaling pathways in the modulation of breast tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, these studies indicate that CB(2 receptors could be used for developing

  4. Over-expression of CXCR4, a stemness enhancer, in human blastocysts by low level laser irradiation

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    Mohammad Hossein Tahmasbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells has been shown recently. The low level laser irradiation (LLLI is being used currently in a wide variety of clinical cases as a therapeutic tool for wound healing, relieving pain and destroying tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI mimicking low level laser therapy (LLLT on the expression level of CXCR4 gene a few hours after irradiation on human blastocysts. After the development of human embryos to the first grade blastocyst stage, they were irradiated with a low power Ga-Al-As laser at a continuous wavelength of 650 nm and a power output of 30 mW. The total RNA of the irradiated blastocysts and control groups were isolated in groups of 1x2 J/cm2, 2x2 J/cm2, 1x4 J/cm2 and 2x4 J/cm2 LLLI. Specific Real-Time PCR primers were designed to amplify all the two CXCR4 isoforms yet identified. RNA amplifications were done for all the groups. We showed for the first time that LLLI makes the human blastocysts to increase the expression level of CXCR4 a few hours after irradiation. Moreover, it was shown that two irradiation doses with one day interval can cause a significant increase in CXCR4 expression level in human blastocysts. This study revealed that LLLI could be a proliferation motivator for embryonic cell divisions through enhanced over-expression of CXCR4 level.

  5. Targeting CXCR4 by a selective peptide antagonist modulates tumor microenvironment and microglia reactivity in a human glioblastoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Laura; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cecchetti, Serena; Ricci, Alessandro; Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese; Manni, Isabella; Pollo, Bianca; Scala, Stefania; Carpinelli, Giulia; Minghetti, Luisa

    2016-03-25

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway regulates tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and the tumor-microenvironment cross-talk in several solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and fatal brain cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of peptide R, a new specific CXCR4 antagonist that we recently developed by a ligand-based approach, in an in vitro and in vivo model of GBM. The well-characterized CXCR4 antagonist Plerixafor was also included in the study. The effects of peptide R on CXCR4 expression, cell survival and migration were assessed on the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG exposed to CXCL12, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and transwell chamber migration assay. Peptide R was then tested in vivo, by using U87MG intracranial xenografts in CD1 nude mice. Peptide R was administered for 23 days since cell implantation and tumor volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4.7 T. Glioma associated microglia/macrophage (GAMs) polarization (anti-tumor M1 versus pro-tumor M2 phenotypes) and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We found that peptide R impairs the metabolic activity and cell proliferation of human U87MG cells and stably reduces CXCR4 expression and cell migration in response to CXCL12 in vitro. In the orthotopic U87MG model, peptide R reduced tumor cellularity, promoted M1 features of GAMs and astrogliosis, and hindered intra-tumor vasculature. Our findings suggest that targeting CXCR4 by peptide R might represent a novel therapeutic approach against GBM, and contribute to the rationale to further explore in more complex pre-clinical settings the therapeutic potential of peptide R, alone or in combination with standard therapies of GBM.

  6. DC - SIGNR by influencing the lncRNA HNRNPKP2 upregulates the expression of CXCR4 in gastric cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qianshi; Zhang, Mengyang; Yuan, Menglang; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yinan; Lin, Fang; Na, Heya; Ren, Shuangyi; Zuo, Yunfei

    2017-04-13

    Profiling evidences of selectin demonstrate that they play an crucial role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, DC-SIGNR as a family member of selectin participates in gastric cancer liver metastasis remains unknown. The serum level of DC-SIGNR was evaluated in gastric cancer patients by ELISA. Manipulation DC-SIGNR expression in BGC823 and SGC7901 cell lines was mediated by lentivirus. Investigation the biological effects of DC-SIGNR were verified by MTT, wounding and transwell in vitro and experiments on animals to confirm gastric cancer liver metastasis by IVIS. Insights of the mechanism were employed microarray and bioinformatic analysis. Further to confirm the results were conducted by qRT-PCR, western blot and by flow cytometry. DC-SIGNR serum level was significantly increased in gastric cancer patients compared with healthy group. Additionally, DC-SIGNR level was associated with an advanced pathological stage in gastric cancer patients. DC-SIGNR knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro and suppressed the liver metastasis in vivo. While, DC-SIGNR overexpression promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In mechanism, HNRNPKP2 as a lncRNA was upregulated after DC-SIGNR knockdown. Importantly, STAT5A promoted HNRNPKP2 expression after knockdown DC-SIGNR. Furthermore after HNRNPKP2 depletion, the downstream target gene CXCR4 was downregulated. DC-SIGNR promoted gastric cancer liver metastasis mediated with HNRNPKP2 which expression was regulated by STAT5A. And HNRNPKP2 decreased the expression of downstream target gene CXCR4. These findings indicated potential therapeutic candidates for gastric cancer liver metastasis.

  7. [⁹⁹mTc]O₂-AMD3100 as a SPECT tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V; Domanska, Urszula M; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Rudi A J O, Dierckx; de Vries, Erik F J

    2013-05-01

    CXCR4 plays an important role in HIV infection, tumor progression, neurogenesis, and inflammation. In-vivo imaging of CXCR4 could provide more insight in the role of this receptor in health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate [(99m)Tc]O₂-AMD3100 as a potential SPECT tracer for imaging of CXCR4. AMD3100 was labelled with [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate. A cysteine challenge assay was performed to test the tracer stability. Heterologous and homologous receptor binding assay and internalization assay were performed in CXCR4 expressing Jurkat-T cells. Ex vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice at 30, 60, and 120 min after tracer injection. Tumor uptake of the tracer was determined by microSPECT imaging in nude mice xenografted with human PC-3 prostate tumor. Specificity of tracer uptake was determined by blocking studies using an excess of unlabelled AMD3100. AMD3100 was labelled with technetium-99m with a radiochemical yield of >98%. The tracer was stable in PBS and mouse plasma for at least 6h at 37 °C. Heterologous and homologous binding assays with AMD3100 showed IC50 values of 240 ± 10 μM, and 92 ± 5 μM for [(125)I]SDF-1α and [(99m)Tc]O₂-AMD3100 respectively, with negligible receptor internalisation. The tracer showed high uptake in liver, lungs, spleen, thymus, intestine and bone. Blocking dose of AMD3100.8HCl (20mg/kg) decreased the uptake in these organs (ptracer showed 1.7 times less tumor uptake as compared to control animals (p<0.05). [(99m)Tc]O2-AMD3100 is readily labelled, is stable in plasma and displays a favourable binding affinity for the CXCR4 receptors. [(99m)Tc O₂-AMD3100 shows specific binding in organs with high CXCR4 expression and in CXCR4 positive tumors. These results justify further evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical as a potential biomarker for the non-invasive imaging of CXCR4 receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of an (18)F-labeled pyrimidine-pyridine amine for targeting CXCR4 receptors in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Shindo, Masahiro; Zhang, Hanwen; Edwards, Kimberly J; Serganova, Inna; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore; Lewis, Jason S; Blasberg, Ronald G

    2016-10-01

    Chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4, fusin, CD184) is expressed on several tissues involved in immune regulation and is upregulated in many diseases including malignant gliomas. A radiolabeled small molecule that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier can aid in identifying CXCR4-expressing gliomas and monitoring CXCR4-targeted therapy. In the current work, we have synthesized and evaluated an [(18)F]-labeled small molecule based on a pyrimidine-pyridine amine for its ability to target CXCR4. The nonradioactive standards and the nitro precursor used in this study were prepared using established methods. An HPLC method was developed to separate the nitro-precursor from the nonradioactive standard and radioactive product. The nitro-precursor was radiolabeled with (18)F under inert, anhydrous conditions using the [(18)F]-kryptofix 2.2.2 complex to form the desired N-(4-(((6-[(18)F]fluoropyridin-2-yl)amino)methyl)benzyl)pyrimidin-2-amine ([(18)F]-3). The purified radiolabeled compound was used in serum stability, partition coefficient, cellular uptake, and in vivo cancer targeting studies. [(18)F]-3 was synthesized in 4-10% decay-corrected yield (to start of synthesis). [(18)F]-3 (tR ≈ 27 min) was separated from the precursor (tR ≈ 30 min) using a pentafluorophenyl column with an isocratic solvent system. [(18)F]-3 displayed acceptable serum stability over 2 h. The amount of [(18)F]-3 bound to the plasma proteins was determined to be > 97%. The partition coefficient (LogD7.4) is 1.4 ± 0.5. Competitive in vitro inhibition indicated 3 does not inhibit uptake of (67)Ga-pentixafor. Cell culture media incubation and ex vivo urine analysis indicate rapid metabolism of [(18)F]-3 into hydrophilic metabolites. Thus, in vitro uptake of [(18)F]-3 in CXCR4 overexpressing U87 cells (U87 CXCR4) and U87 WT indicated no specific binding. In vivo studies in mice bearing U87 CXCR4 and U87 WT tumors on the left and right shoulders were carried out using [(18)F]-3 and (68)Ga-pentixafor on

  9. Transfusion of CXCR4-primed endothelial progenitor cells reduces cerebral ischemic damage and promotes repair in db/db diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 axis in brain and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and explored the efficacy of CXCR4 primed EPCs in treating ischemic stroke in diabetes. The db/db diabetic and db/+ mice were used in this study. Levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were measured. Brain SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression were quantified at basal and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. In in vitro study, EPCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying null (Ad-null or CXCR4 (Ad-CXCR4 followed with high glucose (HG treatment for 4 days. For pathway block experiments, cells were pre-incubated with PI3K inhibitor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor for two hours. The CXCR4 expression, function and apoptosis of EPCs were determined. The p-Akt/Akt and p-eNOS/eNOS expression in EPCs were also measured. In in vivo study, EPCs transfected with Ad-null or Ad-CXCR4 were infused into mice via tail vein. On day 2 and 7, the cerebral blood flow, neurologic deficit score, infarct volume, cerebral microvascular density, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were determined. We found: 1 The levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were decreased in db/db mice; 2 The basal level of SDF-1α and MCAO-induced up-regulation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis were reduced in the brain of db/db mice; 3 Ad-CXCR4 transfection increased CXCR4 expression in EPCs and enhanced EPC colonic forming capacity; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection prevented EPCs from HG-induced dysfunction (migration and tube formation and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection enhanced the efficacy of EPC infusion in attenuating infarct volume and promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Our data suggest that Ad-CXCR4 primed EPCs have better therapeutic effects for ischemia stroke in diabetes than unmodified EPCs do.

  10. Expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C is correlated with lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ming Ming; Shang, Bin; Wang, Zhou; Chen, Gang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the correlations between CXCR4 and VEGF-C expression and lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor specimens, lymph nodes, and normal lung tissues were obtained from 110 NSCLC patients who underwent complete resection. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were conducted to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA expression were observed in 78 (70.9%) and 64 (58.2%) lung cancer tissues, while CXCR4 and VEGF-C protein expression were observed in 76 (69.9%) and 58 (52.7%) lung cancer tissues, respectively. The expression rates of CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA in metastatic lymph nodes were 84.8% and 66.7%, which were higher than that in non-metastatic lymph nodes (27.3% and 18.2%), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive expressions of CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Furthermore, combined expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C showed a much higher odds ratio than CXCR4 or VEGF-C expression alone. CXCR4 and VEGF-C were highly expressed in lung cancer tissues and metastatic lymph nodes. CXCR4 and VEGF-C expression levels were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. CXCR4 and VEGF-C might synergically promote lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer and might be a clinical predictor of lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Expression of CXCR4 and VEGF‐C is correlated with lymph node metastasis in non‐small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ming Ming; Shang, Bin; Wang, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the correlations between CXCR4 and VEGF‐C expression and lymph node metastasis in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Tumor specimens, lymph nodes, and normal lung tissues were obtained from 110 NSCLC patients who underwent complete resection. Quantitative reverse transcription‐PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were conducted to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of CXCR4 and VEGF‐C. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Results CXCR4 and VEGF‐C mRNA expression were observed in 78 (70.9%) and 64 (58.2%) lung cancer tissues, while CXCR4 and VEGF‐C protein expression were observed in 76 (69.9%) and 58 (52.7%) lung cancer tissues, respectively. The expression rates of CXCR4 and VEGF‐C mRNA in metastatic lymph nodes were 84.8% and 66.7%, which were higher than that in non‐metastatic lymph nodes (27.3% and 18.2%), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive expressions of CXCR4 and VEGF‐C mRNA were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Furthermore, combined expression of CXCR4 and VEGF‐C showed a much higher odds ratio than CXCR4 or VEGF‐C expression alone. Conclusions CXCR4 and VEGF‐C were highly expressed in lung cancer tissues and metastatic lymph nodes. CXCR4 and VEGF‐C expression levels were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. CXCR4 and VEGF‐C might synergically promote lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer and might be a clinical predictor of lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients. PMID:28925100

  12. Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4(+) T lymphocytes in trans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, Thijs; Thomas, Adri A. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) preferentially utilizes the CCR5 coreceptor for target cell entry in the acute phase of infection, while later in disease progression the virus switches to the CXCR4 coreceptor in approximately 50% of patients. In response to IHV-I the adaptive immune

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of scaffold-based tripeptidomimetic antagonists for CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie; Berg, Erik A

    2014-01-01

    antagonists. Starting by dissecting the cyclopentapeptide structure and reintroducing cyclic constraints in a stepwise manner, we here report a novel class of scaffold-based tripeptidomimetic CXCR4 antagonists based on the d-Arg-Arg-2-Nal motif. Biological testing of the prototype compounds showed...

  14. Identification of hepatic niche harboring human acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Kato

    Full Text Available In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients, the bone marrow niche is widely known to be an important element of treatment response and relapse. Furthermore, a characteristic liver pathology observed in ALL patients implies that the hepatic microenvironment provides an extramedullary niche for leukemic cells. However, it remains unclear whether the liver actually provides a specific niche. The mechanism underlying this pathology is also poorly understood. Here, to answer these questions, we reconstituted the histopathology of leukemic liver by using patients-derived primary ALL cells into NOD/SCID/Yc (null mice. The liver pathology in this model was similar to that observed in the patients. By using this model, we clearly demonstrated that bile duct epithelial cells form a hepatic niche that supports infiltration and proliferation of ALL cells in the liver. Furthermore, we showed that functions of the niche are maintained by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, proposing a novel therapeutic approach targeting the extramedullary niche by inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the liver dissemination of leukemia is not due to nonselective infiltration, but rather systematic invasion and proliferation of leukemic cells in hepatic niche. Although the contribution of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is reported in some cancer cells or leukemic niches such as bone marrow, we demonstrated that this axis works even in the extramedullary niche of leukemic cells. Our findings form the basis for therapeutic approaches that target the extramedullary niche by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  15. Combined Wnt/β-Catenin, Met, and CXCL12/CXCR4 Signals Characterize Basal Breast Cancer and Predict Disease Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane D. Holland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis for patients with estrogen-receptor (ER-negative basal breast cancer is poor, and chemotherapy is currently the best therapeutic option. We have generated a compound-mutant mouse model combining the activation of β-catenin and HGF (Wnt-Met signaling, which produced rapidly growing basal mammary gland tumors. We identified the chemokine system CXCL12/CXCR4 as a crucial driver of Wnt-Met tumors, given that compound-mutant mice also deficient in the CXCR4 gene were tumor resistant. Wnt-Met activation rapidly expanded a population of cancer-propagating cells, in which the two signaling systems control different functions, self-renewal and differentiation. Molecular therapy targeting Wnt, Met, and CXCR4 in mice significantly delayed tumor development. The expression of a Wnt-Met 322 gene signature was found to be predictive of poor survival of human patients with ER-negative breast cancers. Thus, targeting CXCR4 and its upstream activators, Wnt and Met, might provide an efficient strategy for breast cancer treatment.

  16. Patients with active tuberculosis have increased expression of HIV coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 on CD4(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffermans, N. P.; Speelman, P.; Verbon, A.; Veenstra, J.; Jie, C.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 was found to be elevated on CD4(+) T cells (1) in blood samples obtained from patients with tuberculosis and (2) in blood samples obtained from healthy subjects and stimulated with mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in vitro.

  17. Mimicking protein-protein interactions through peptide-peptide interactions: HIV-1 gp120 and CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGross

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently designed a soluble synthetic peptide that functionally mimics the HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, which is a chemokine receptor that belongs to the family of seven-transmembrane GPCRs. This CXCR4 mimetic peptide, termed CX4-M1, presents the three extracellular loops (ECLs of the receptor. In binding assays involving recombinant proteins, as well as in cellular infection assays, CX4-M1 was found to selectively recognize gp120 from HIV-1 strains that use CXCR4 for cell entry (X4 tropic HIV-1. Furthermore, anti-HIV-1 antibodies modulate this interaction in a molecular mechanism related to that of their impact on the gp120-CXCR4 interaction. We could now show that the selectivity of CX4-M1 pertains not only to gp120 from X4 tropic HIV-1, but also to synthetic peptides presenting the V3 loops of these gp120 proteins. The V3 loop is thought to be an essential part of the coreceptor binding site of gp120 that contacts the second ECL of the coreceptor. We were able to experimentally confirm this notion in binding assays using substitution analogs of CX4-M1 and the V3 loop peptides, respectively, as well as in cellular infection assays. These results indicate that interactions of the HIV-1 Env with coreceptors can be mimicked by synthetic peptides, which may be useful to explore these interactions at the molecular level in more detail.

  18. Dysregulated CXCR4 expression promotes lymphoma cell survival and independently predicts disease progression in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Xu-Monette, Z.Y.; Deng, L.; Shen, Q.; Manyam, G.C.; Martinez-Lopez, A.; Zhang, L.; Montes-Moreno, S.; Visco, C.; Tzankov, A.; Yin, L.; Dybkaer, K.; Chiu, A.; Orazi, A.; Zu, Y.; Bhagat, G.; Richards, K.L.; Hsi, E.D.; Choi, W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Huh, J.; Ponzoni, M.; Ferreri, A.J.; Zhao, X.; Moller, M.B.; Farnen, J.P.; Winter, J.N.; Piris, M.A.; Pham, L.; Young, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an essential role in tumor cell dissemination and disease progression. However, the significance of CXCR4 overexpression in de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. In 743 patients with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma

  19. Thalidomide suppresses Up-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 on CD4+ T cells in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffermans, N. P.; Verbon, A.; Olszyna, D. P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Speelman, P.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Concurrent infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the expression of HIV coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Thalidomide has beneficial effects in a number of HIV-associated diseases. The effect of thalidomide on CXCR4 and CCR5 expression on CD4+ T cells was

  20. Clinical significance of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Zhen; Shen, Jian-Kang; Zhao, Shu-Qing; Li, Jun-Min

    2017-09-27

    To assess the relevance of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), levels of protein expression were measured in 56 DLBCL patients who had received rituximab-based therapy. Of these, 34 were positive for CXCR4 expression (60.7%) and 31 for mTOR (55.4%). CXCR4 expression was positively correlated with mTOR expression (r = 0.602; p = .000). CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (p = .009), high IPI score (p = .030) and non-GCB subtype (p = .006). Furthermore, the expression levels of CXCR4 and mTOR were negatively correlated with the chance of remission (p < .05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients positive for CXCR4 and mTOR expression. The combination therapy with CXCR4 inhibitor WZ811 and mTOR inhibitor everolimus showed syncergistic effect in DLBCL cell lines. These results suggest that the expression of CXCR4 and mTOR may be suitable as biomarkers of the prognosis of DLBCL and for development of new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Isolation of Stem-Like Cancer Cells in Primary Endometrial Cancer Using Cell Surface Markers CD133 and CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common familiar gynecologic malignant tumor identified in the female reproductive system and has been increasing yearly. In this study, we will identify the surface markers and stem cell markers related with cancer stem cells (CSCs of EC. Tissue samples were obtained from endometrial cancer patients during surgical procedures. Single cells were isolated from the tissues for culturing, transfection into nude mice, and histopathology analysis. RT-PCR demonstrated that the cultured cells strongly expressed stemness-related genes, such as c-Myc, Sox-2, Nanog, Oct 4A, ABCG2, BMI-1, CK-18, Nestin and β-actin. The expression of surface markers CD24, CD133, CD47, CD29, CD44, CXCR4, SSEA3 and SSEA4, CD24, and CD133 and chemokine markers such as CXCR4 were measured by flow cytometry. Then the double percentage of CD133+CXCR4+ cells constituted 7.2% and 9.3% in EC cells originated from two different patients, respectively. The CD133+CXCR4+ primary endometrial cancer cells grew faster, exhibited high expression of mRNA of stemness-related genes, produced more spheres, and had higher clonogenic ability than other subpopulations. They are also more resistant to anti-cancer drugs than other subpopulations. These findings indicate that CD133+CXCR4+ cells may possess some characteristics of CSCs in primary endometrial cancer. These cell surface markers may be useful for the development of drugs against CSC molecular targets or as a predictive marker for poor prognosis in primary endometrial cancer.

  2. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by Estrogen in HER2 Overexpressing, Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Surojeet; Schiff, Rachel; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor, and HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, strongly correlates with the aggressive and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. We studied estrogen regulation of CXCR4 in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing HER2 (MCF7-HER2). Although estrogen evoked no change in CXCR4 mRNA levels, CXCR4 protein was significantly up-regulated after estrogen treatment of these cells, whereas estrogen had no effect on CXCR4 protein level in parental MCF7 cells that are low in HER2. Use of the CXCR4 specific inhibitor, AMD 3100, indicated that this increase in CXCR4 protein was partially responsible for the increase in estrogen-induced migration of these cells. The estrogen-induced increase in CXCR4 protein in MCF-7-HER2 cells was abrogated by the antiestrogen ICI 182780 and by gefitinib (Iressa; a phosphotyrosine kinase inhibitor), indicating an ER-mediated effect and confirming involvement of receptor tyrosine kinases, respectively. Using specific pathway inhibitors, we show that the estrogen-induced increase in CXCR4 involves PI3K/AKT, MAPK and mTOR pathways. PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways are known to result in the phosphorylation and functional inactivation of tuberin (TSC2) of tuberous sclerosis complex thereby negating its inhibitory effects on mTOR, which in turn stimulates the translational machinery. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of tuberin elevated the level of CXCR4 protein in MCF7-HER2 cells and also nullified further estrogen up-regulation of CXCR4. This study suggests a pivotal role of PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways, via tuberin, in post-transcriptional control of CXCR4, initiated through estrogen-stimulated crosstalk between ER and HER2. Thus, post-transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 by estrogens acting through ER via kinase pathways may play a critical role in determining the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. PMID:18807177

  3. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  4. Intranasal Oncolytic Virotherapy with CXCR4-Enhanced Stem Cells Extends Survival in Mouse Model of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mahua; Yu, Dou; Kanojia, Deepak; Li, Gina; Sukhanova, Madina; Spencer, Drew A; Pituch, Katatzyna C; Zhang, Lingjiao; Han, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Aboody, Karen S; Lesniak, Maciej S; Balyasnikova, Irina V

    2016-09-13

    The challenges to effective drug delivery to brain tumors are twofold: (1) there is a lack of non-invasive methods of local delivery and (2) the blood-brain barrier limits systemic delivery. Intranasal delivery of therapeutics to the brain overcomes both challenges. In mouse model of malignant glioma, we observed that a small fraction of intranasally delivered neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to the brain tumor site. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxic preconditioning or overexpression of CXCR4 significantly enhances the tumor-targeting ability of NSCs, but without altering their phenotype only in genetically modified NSCs. Modified NSCs deliver oncolytic virus to glioma more efficiently and extend survival of experimental animals in the context of radiotherapy. Our findings indicate that intranasal delivery of stem cell-based therapeutics could be optimized for future clinical applications, and allow for safe and repeated administration of biological therapies to brain tumors and other CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HuR-targeted nanotherapy in combination with AMD3100 suppresses CXCR4 expression, cell growth, migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, R; Panneerselvam, J; Chen, A; Zhao, Y D; Munshi, A; Ramesh, R

    2015-12-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor has an important role in cancer cell metastasis. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, has limited efficacy in controlling metastasis. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, regulates CXCR4 in cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether targeting HuR using a siRNA-based nanoparticle plus AMD3100 would suppress CXCR4 and inhibit lung cancer metastasis. We treated human H1299 lung cancer cells with HuR-specific siRNA contained in a folate-targeted lipid nanoparticle (HuR-FNP) plus AMD3100, and compared this with AMD3100 alone, HuR-FNP alone and no treatment. HuR-FNP plus AMD3100 treatment produced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced cell viability above and beyond the effects of AMD3100 alone. HuR and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression levels were markedly reduced in all treatment groups. Phosphorylated (p) AKT(S473) protein was also reduced. P27 protein expression increased with HuR-FNP and combination treatment. Promoter-based reporter studies showed that the combination inhibited CXCR4 promoter activity more than did either treatment alone. Cell migration and invasion was significantly reduced with all treatments; the combination provided the most inhibition. Reduced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 expression was associated with reduced invasion in all treatment groups. Thus, we found that combined HuR and CXCR4 targeting effectively controlled lung cancer metastasis.

  6. Inhibition of the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 axis by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 suppresses the migration of cultured cells from ATL patients and murine lymphoblastoid cells from HTLV-I Tax transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Orba, Yasuko; Kimura, Takashi; Iha, Hidekatsu; Ogata, Masao; Tsuji, Takahiro; Ainai, Akira; Sata, Tetsutaro; Okamoto, Takashi; Hall, William W; Sawa, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2009-10-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a T-cell malignancy caused by human T lymphotropic virus type I, and presents as an aggressive leukemia with characteristic widespread leukemic cell infiltration into visceral organs and skin. The molecular mechanisms associated with leukemic cell infiltration are poorly understood. We have used mouse models of ATL to investigate the role of chemokines in this process. Transfer of splenic lymphomatous cells from transgenic to SCID mice reproduces a leukemia and lymphoma that is histologically identical to human disease. It could be shown that lymphomatous cells exhibit specific chemotactic activity in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Lymphomatous cells exhibited surface expression of CXCR4, the specific receptor of SDF-1alpha. AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was found to inhibit both SDF-1alpha-induced migration and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. Investigation of cultured cells from human ATL patients revealed identical findings. Using the SCID mouse model, it could be demonstrated that AMD3100 inhibited infiltration of lymphomatous cells into liver and lung tissues in vivo. These results demonstrate the involvement of the SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 interaction as one mechanism of leukemic cell migration and this may provide a novel target as part of combination therapy for ATL.

  7. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer requires PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 for distinct cellular responses 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Clift, Ian C.; Miamen, Alexander G.; Bamidele, Adebowale O.; Qian, Nan-Xin; Humphreys, Troy D.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals in T lymphocytes by forming a heterodimer with the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). CXCR4 and TCR functions are consequently highly cross-regulated, affecting T cell immune activation, cytokine secretion, and T cell migration. The CXCR4-TCR heterodimer stimulates T cell migration and activation of the ERK MAP kinase and downstream AP-1-dependent cytokine transcription in response to SDF-1, the sole chemokine ligand of CXCR4. These responses require Gi-type G proteins as well as TCR ITAM domains and the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, thus indicating that the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer signals to integrate GPCR-associated and TCR-associated signaling molecules in response to SDF-1. Yet, the phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes responsible for coupling the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer to distinct downstream cellular responses are incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that PLC activity is required for SDF-1 to induce ERK activation, migration, and CXCR4 endocytosis in human T cells. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer uses PLC-β3 to activate the Ras-ERK pathway and increase intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, while PLC-γ1 is dispensable for these outcomes. In contrast, PLC-γ1, but not PLC-β3, is required for SDF-1-mediated migration, via a mechanism independent of LAT. These results increase understanding of the signaling mechanisms employed by the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer, characterize new roles for PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 in T cells, and suggest that multiple PLCs may also be activated downstream of other chemokine receptors in order to distinctly regulate migration versus other signaling functions. PMID:21705626

  8. The expression of CXCR4 is induced by the luteinizing hormone surge and mediated by progesterone receptors in human preovulatory granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Park, Ji Yeon; Wilson, Kalin; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    The chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in the ovulatory process in various animal models. However, little is known about the expression and regulation of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their functions during the ovulatory period in the human ovary. In this study, we characterized the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in preovulatory follicles collected before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and at defined hours after hCG administration in women with the regular menstrual cycle. The levels of mRNA and protein for CXCR4 were increased in granulosa cells of late ovulatory follicles, whereas CXCL12 expression was constant in follicles throughout the ovulatory period. Both CXCR4 and CXCL12 were localized to a subset of leukocytes around and inside the vasculature of human preovulatory follicles. Using a human granulosa cell culture model, the regulatory mechanisms and functions of CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression were investigated. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated CXCR4 expression, whereas CXCL12 expression was not affected, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Both RU486 (progesterone receptor antagonist) and CoCl2 (HIFs activator) blocked the hCG-induced increase in CXCR4 expression, whereas AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) had no effect. The treatment with CXCL12 had no effect on granulosa cell viability but decreased hCG-stimulated CXCR4 expression. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and potential drug target in prostate cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Q

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qi Chen, Tie Zhong Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis and literature review to evaluate the association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa. A detailed literature search was made in Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed independently. Analysis of pooled data was performed using Review Manager 5.2. Odds ratio (OR with corresponding confidence intervals were calculated and summarized. The meta-analysis included a total of eleven studies and 630 patients. The rate of CXCR4 protein expression in PCa was significantly higher than in nonmalignant prostate tissues (OR =35.71, P<0.00001. The expression of CXCR4 protein was not significantly associated with Gleason score (P=0.73. However, the frequency of CXCR4 protein expression was significantly higher in T3–4 stage than in T1–2 stage of PCa (OR =2.35, P=0.001. The expression of CXCR4 protein was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node and bone metastasis of PCa: for lymph node metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 5.07 and P=0.0003, and for bone metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 7.03 and P=0.003. Cancer-specific survival of patients with PCa was significantly associated with CXCR4 protein expression, and the pooled Hazard ratio was 0.24 and P=0.002. In conclusion, the high expression of CXCR4 protein is a diagnostic biomarker of PCa, and it is significantly associated with T stages. The increased expression of CXCR4 protein is significantly associated with lymph nodes or bone metastasis, and CXCR4 is a poor prognosis predictor for

  10. The SDF1-CXCR4 Axis Functions through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    hormone-independent, endocrine therapy resistant and metastatic phenotype. Our preliminary evidence demonstrates that over expression of CXCR4 in... AER signal pathway, growth factor mediated signaling, and other kinase networks could be responsible for this resistance. It has been shown that...and PI3K/AKT have been implicated in development of endocrine therapy resistance in breast carcinoma. More recently, our lab became interested in

  11. CXCR4-gp120-IIIB interactions induce caspase-mediated apoptosis of prostate cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailesh; Bond, Vincent C; Powell, Michael; Singh, Udai P; Bumpers, Harvey L; Grizzle, William E; Lillard, James W

    2009-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been implicated in prostate cancer metastasis and this receptor also acts as a coreceptor for HIV-1 120-kDa glycoprotein variant IIIB (gp120-IIIB). The interaction between CXCR4 and gp120-IIIB has been shown to mediate apoptosis of both immune and endothelial cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of gp120-IIIB on hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Normal prostatic epithelial (PrEC) and prostate cancer cell lines were treated with gp120-IIIB with or without anti-CXCR4 antibody. Caspase expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and active caspase assays. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. gp120-IIIB treatment correlated with active caspase-3 and -9 expression and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells but not PrEC cells. This effect was significantly inhibited after CXCR4 blockade. PC3 and DU145 tumor-bearing mice received intraperitoneal injections of gp120-IIIB and controls received bovine serum albumin in PBS. PC3 and DU145 tumor sizes were measured over time and excised tumors were evaluated for CD44, CD34, lymphatic endothelial cell marker LYVE-1, active caspase-3, and active caspase-9 expression by immunohistochemistry. The tumor size in mice receiving gp120-IIIB was significantly smaller than compared with tumors in control mice. This regression was associated with significant decreases in CD44, CD34, and LYVE-1 and increases in active caspase-3 and -9 expression. These results suggest that gp120-IIIB induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and reduced tumor-associated lymphoendothelial cells.

  12. CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis Activation Mediates Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion through Non-Canonical EGFR/MEK/ERK Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Rodríguez-Nieves

    Full Text Available Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, an enlargement of the prostate common in aging in men, is associated with urinary voiding dysfunction manifest as Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS. Although inflammation and abnormal smooth muscle contractions are known to play key roles in the development of LUTS, tissue fibrosis may also be an important and previously unrecognized contributing factor. Tissue fibrosis arises from the unregulated differentiation of fibroblasts or other precursor cell types into myofibroblasts, which is usually accomplished by activation of the TGFβ/TGFβR axis. Previously we reported that the CXC-type chemokines, CXCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL12, which are up-regulated in the aging in the prostate, can drive this differentiation process as well in the absence of TGFβ. Based on this data we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms employed by CXCL12, and its receptor CXCR4, during prostate myofibroblast phenoconversion. The results of these studies suggest that CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated signaling events in prostate myofibroblast phenoconversion may proceed through non-canonical pathways that do not depend on TGFβ/TGFβR axis activation or Smad signaling. Here we report that CXCL12/CXCR4 axis activation promotes signaling through the EGFR and downstream MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways during myofibroblast phenoconversion, but not through TGFβ/TGFβR and downstream Smad signaling, in prostate fibroblasts undergoing myofibroblast phenoconversion. We document that EGFR transactivation is required for CXCL12-mediated signaling and expression of genes associate with myofibroblast phenoconversion (α-SMA, COL1a1. Our study successfully identified TGFβ/TGFβR-independent molecular mechanisms that promote CXCL12/CXCR4-induced myofibroblast phenoconversion. This information may be crucial for the development of novel therapies and potential biomarkers for prostatic fibrosis.

  13. The SDF-1-CXCR4 Axis Functions Through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for...Rapisarda A, Bernasconi S, Saccani S, Nebuloni M, Vago L, Mantovani A, Melillo G, Sica A. Regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by hypoxia. J...metastasis. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 18(11). 1240-1242. (2004). Smith, M.C., Luker, K.E., Garbow, J.R., Prior, J.L

  14. Influence of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate Antivirals on Gene Expression of Chemokine Receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, P.; Holý, Antonín; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/1470; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * HIV * CCR5 * CXCR4 * cytokine * RT-PCR Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2015

  15. Genetic characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in lagomorphs: comparison between the families Ochotonidae and Leporidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Carmo, C R; Müller, A; Thompson, G; van der Loo, W

    2008-04-01

    Chemokines receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind chemokines. Chemokines and their receptors are known to play a crucial role in the immune system and in pathogen entry. There is evidence that myxoma virus, the causative agent of myxomatosis, can use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to infect cells. This virus causes a benign disease in its natural host, Sylvilagus, but in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes a highly fatal and infectious disease known as myxomatosis. We have characterized the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in five genera of the order Lagomorpha, Ochotona (Ochotonidae), and Oryctolagus, Lepus, Bunolagus and Sylvilagus (Leporidae). In lagomorphs, the CXCR4 is highly conserved, with most of the protein diversity found at surface regions. Five amino acid replacements were observed, two in the intracellular loops, one in the transmembrane domain and two in the extracellular loops. Oryctolagus features unique amino acid changes at the intracellular domains, putting this genus apart of all other lagomorphs. Furthermore, in the 37 European rabbits analysed, which included healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinical symptoms of myxomatosis, 14 nucleotide substitutions were obtained but no amino acid differences were observed.

  16. Molecular mechanism of action of monocyclam versus bicyclam non-peptide antagonists in the CXCR4 chemokine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole; Hatse, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    AMD3465 is a novel, nonpeptide CXCR4 antagonist and a potent inhibitor of HIV cell entry in that one of the four-nitrogen cyclam rings of the symmetrical, prototype bicyclam antagonist AMD3100 has been replaced by a two-nitrogen N-pyridinylmethylene moiety. This substitution induced an 8-fold hig...... ensures the efficacious blocking of the receptor, in a similar manner can be replaced by chemical moieties allowing for, for example, oral bioavailability.......AMD3465 is a novel, nonpeptide CXCR4 antagonist and a potent inhibitor of HIV cell entry in that one of the four-nitrogen cyclam rings of the symmetrical, prototype bicyclam antagonist AMD3100 has been replaced by a two-nitrogen N-pyridinylmethylene moiety. This substitution induced an 8-fold...... ligand binding pocket of the CXCR4 receptor demonstrated that the single cyclam ring of AMD3465 binds in the pocket around AspIV:20 (Asp(171)), in analogy with AMD3100, whereas the N-pyridinylmethylene moiety mimics the other cyclam ring through interactions with the two acidic anchor-point residues...

  17. Risk of breast cancer with CXCR4-using HIV defined by V3 loop sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, James J; Swenson, Luke C; Napolitano, Laura A; Haddad, Mojgan; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Levine, Alexandra; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Seaberg, Eric C; Aouizerat, Bradley; Rabkin, Charles S; Harrigan, P Richard; Hessol, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the risk of female breast cancer associated with HIV-CXCR4 (X4) tropism as determined by various genotypic measures. A breast cancer case-control study, with pairwise comparisons of tropism determination methods, was conducted. From the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, one stored plasma specimen was selected from 25 HIV-infected cases near the breast cancer diagnosis date and 75 HIV-infected control women matched for age and calendar date. HIV-gp120 V3 sequences were derived by Sanger population sequencing (PS) and 454-pyro deep sequencing (DS). Sequencing-based HIV-X4 tropism was defined using the geno2pheno algorithm, with both high-stringency DS [false-positive rate (3.5) and 2% X4 cutoff], and lower stringency DS (false-positive rate, 5.75 and 15% X4 cutoff). Concordance of tropism results by PS, DS, and previously performed phenotyping was assessed with kappa (κ) statistics. Case-control comparisons used exact P values and conditional logistic regression. In 74 women (19 cases, 55 controls) with complete results, prevalence of HIV-X4 by PS was 5% in cases vs 29% in controls (P = 0.06; odds ratio, 0.14; confidence interval: 0.003 to 1.03). Smaller case-control prevalence differences were found with high-stringency DS (21% vs 36%, P = 0.32), lower stringency DS (16% vs 35%, P = 0.18), and phenotyping (11% vs 31%, P = 0.10). HIV-X4 tropism concordance was best between PS and lower stringency DS (93%, κ = 0.83). Other pairwise concordances were 82%-92% (κ = 0.56-0.81). Concordance was similar among cases and controls. HIV-X4 defined by population sequencing (PS) had good agreement with lower stringency DS and was significantly associated with lower odds of breast cancer.

  18. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET/CT for imaging of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in multiple myeloma - Comparison to [18F]FDG and laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Schreder, Martin; Schirbel, Andreas; Samnick, Samuel; Kortüm, Klaus Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Kropf, Saskia; Einsele, Herrmann; Buck, Andreas K; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Knop, Stefan; Lückerath, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a key factor for tumor growth and metastasis in several types of human cancer including multiple myeloma (MM). Proof-of-concept of CXCR4-directed radionuclide therapy in MM has recently been reported. This study assessed the diagnostic performance of the CXCR4-directed radiotracer [68Ga]Pentixafor in MM and a potential role for stratifying patients to CXCR4-directed therapies. Thirty-five patients with MM underwent [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET/CT for evaluation of eligibility for endoradiotherapy. In 19/35 cases, [18F]FDG-PET/CT for correlation was available. Scans were compared on a patient and on a lesion basis. Tracer uptake was correlated with standard clinical parameters of disease activity. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET detected CXCR4-positive disease in 23/35 subjects (66%). CXCR4-positivity at PET was independent from myeloma subtypes, cytogenetics or any serological parameters and turned out as a negative prognostic factor. In the 19 patients in whom a comparison to [18F]FDG was available, [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET detected more lesions in 4/19 (21%) subjects, [18F]FDG proved superior in 7/19 (37%). In the remaining 8/19 (42%) patients, both tracers detected an equal number of lesions. [18F]FDG-PET positivity correlated with [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET positivity (p=0.018). [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides further evidence that CXCR4 expression frequently occurs in advanced multiple myeloma, representing a negative prognostic factor and a potential target for myeloma specific treatment. However, selecting patients for CXCR4 directed therapies and prognostic stratification seem to be more relevant clinical applications for this novel imaging modality, rather than diagnostic imaging of myeloma.

  19. Nef-M1, a CXCR4 Peptide Antagonist, Enhances Apoptosis and Inhibits Primary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Harvey; Huang, Ming-Bo; Katkoori, Venkat; Manne, Upender; Bond, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    Results from studies with animal models suggest that, in many cancers, CXCR4 is an important therapeutic target and that CXCR4 antagonists may be promising treatments for primary cancers and for metastases. The Nef protein effectively competes with CXCR4's natural ligand, SDF-1α, and induces apoptosis. As described in this report, the Nef-M1 peptide (Nef protein amino acids 50 - 60) inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer (BC). Four BC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF 7, and DU4475) and primary human mammary epithelium (HME) cells were evaluated for their response to the Nef protein and to the Nef-M1 peptide. The presence of CXCR4 receptors in these cells was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemical analyses. The apoptotic effect of Nef-M1 was assessed by terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). WBs was used to assess caspase 3 activation. BC xenografts grown in SCID mice were evaluated for the presence of CXCR4 and for their metastatic potential. CXCR4 was presented in MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and DU 4475 BC cells but not in MDA-MB-468 BC or HME cells. Cells expressing CXCR4 and treated with Nef-M1 peptide or the Nef protein had higher rates of apoptosis than untreated cells. Caspase-3 activation increased in MDA-MB 231 cells treated with the Nef protein, the Nef 41 - 60 peptide, or Nef-M1. Nef-M1, administered to mice starting at the time of xenograft implantation, inhibited growth of primary tumors and metastatic spread. Untreated mice developed diffuse intraperitoneal metastases. We conclude that, in BCs, Nef-M1, through interaction with CXCR4, inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by causing apoptosis.

  20. Mutation of Asp(171) and Asp(262) of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 impairs its coreceptor function for human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry and abrogates the antagonistic activity of AMD3100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, S; Princen, K; Gerlach, L O

    2001-01-01

    by mutational analysis. We established a set of stably transfected U87.CD4 cell lines expressing different mutant forms of CXCR4 (i.e., CXCR4[WT], CXCR4[D171N], CXCR4[D262N], CXCR4[D171N,D262N], and CXCR4[H281A]), to compare the activity of the compound against mutated versus wild-type CXCR4. We found...... by substitution of Asp(171) and/or Asp(262) by neutral asparagine residue(s). Both aspartates, but most particularly Asp(262), also proved essential for the anti-HIV-1 activity of AMD3100 against the viruses NL4.3, IIIB, and HE. In contrast, substitution of His(281) by a neutral alanine potentiated...

  1. Enhanced Homing of CXCR-4 Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Acute Kidney Injury Tissues by Micro-Bubble-Mediated Ultrasound Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong; Zhang, Qian; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Wu, Shengzheng; Xu, Yali; Zou, Linru; Gan, Ling; Tan, Kaibin; Xia, Hongmei; Liu, Zheng; Gao, Yunhua

    2016-02-01

    Although the curative effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been recognized, their in vivo reparative capability is limited by the low levels of targeted homing and retention of intravenous injected cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays an important role in stem cell homing and retention through interaction with its specific functional receptor, CXCR4, which is presumably related to the poor homing in AKI therapy. However, most of the functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors are lost upon in vitro culturing. Ultrasound-targeted micro-bubble destruction (UTMD) has become one of the most promising strategies for the targeted delivery of drugs and genes. To improve BMSC homing to AKI kidneys, we isolated and cultured rat BMSCs to third passage and enhanced CXCR-4 transfection efficiency in vitro by applying UTMD and polyethylenimine. Transwell migration assay showed that the migration ability of CXCR4-modified BMSCs was nine-fold higher than controls. Then, mercuric chloride-induced AKI rats were injected with transfected BMSCs through their tail veins. We showed that enhanced homing and retention of BMSCs were observed in the CXCR-4 modified group compared with other groups at 1, 2 and 3 d post-treatment. Collectively, our data indicated that UTMD was an effective method to increase BMSCs' engraftment to AKI kidney tissues by increasing CXCR-4 expression. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction Improves the Migration and Homing of Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Myocardial Infarction by Upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wu, Shengzheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Tan, Kaibin; Xia, Hongmei; Zhuo, Lisha; Deng, Xiaojun; Gao, Yunhua; Xu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy shows considerable promise for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the inefficient migration and homing of MSCs after systemic infusion have limited their therapeutic applications. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has proven to be promising to improve the homing of MSCs to the ischemic myocardium, but the concrete mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that UTMD promotes MSC homing by upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4, and this study was aimed at exploring this potential mechanism. We analyzed SDF-1/CXCR4 expression after UTMD treatment in vitro and in vivo and counted the number of homing MSCs in MI areas. The in vitro results demonstrated that UTMD not only led to elevated secretion of SDF-1 but also resulted in an increased proportion of MSCs that expressed surface CXCR4. The in vivo findings show an increase in the number of homing MSCs and higher expression of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the UTMD combined with MSCs infusion group compared to other groups. In conclusion, UTMD can increase SDF-1 expression in the ischemic myocardium and upregulate the expression of surface CXCR4 on MSCs, which provides a molecular mechanism for the homing of MSCs assisted by UTMD via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  3. Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction Improves the Migration and Homing of Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Myocardial Infarction by Upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy shows considerable promise for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the inefficient migration and homing of MSCs after systemic infusion have limited their therapeutic applications. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD has proven to be promising to improve the homing of MSCs to the ischemic myocardium, but the concrete mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that UTMD promotes MSC homing by upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4, and this study was aimed at exploring this potential mechanism. We analyzed SDF-1/CXCR4 expression after UTMD treatment in vitro and in vivo and counted the number of homing MSCs in MI areas. The in vitro results demonstrated that UTMD not only led to elevated secretion of SDF-1 but also resulted in an increased proportion of MSCs that expressed surface CXCR4. The in vivo findings show an increase in the number of homing MSCs and higher expression of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the UTMD combined with MSCs infusion group compared to other groups. In conclusion, UTMD can increase SDF-1 expression in the ischemic myocardium and upregulate the expression of surface CXCR4 on MSCs, which provides a molecular mechanism for the homing of MSCs assisted by UTMD via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  4. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  5. The WHIM-like CXCR4(S338X) somatic mutation activates AKT and ERK, and promotes resistance to ibrutinib and other agents used in the treatment of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Hunter, Z R; Liu, X; Xu, L; Yang, G; Chen, J; Patterson, C J; Tsakmaklis, N; Kanan, S; Rodig, S; Castillo, J J; Treon, S P

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4(WHIM) somatic mutations are common Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM), and are associated with clinical resistance to ibrutinib. We engineered WM cells to express the most common WHIM (Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis), CXCR(S338X) mutation in WM. Following SDF-1a stimulation, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells exhibited decreased receptor internalization, enhanced and sustained AKT kinase (AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 cleavage, and decreased Annexin V staining versus CXCR4 wild-type (WT) cells. CXCR4(S338X)-related signaling and survival effects were blocked by the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed sustained AKT and ERK activation and decreased apoptotic changes versus CXCR4(WT) cells following ibrutinib treatment, findings which were also reversed by AMD3100. AKT or ERK antagonists restored ibrutinib-triggered apoptotic changes in SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells demonstrating their role in SDF-1a-mediated ibrutinib resistance. Enhanced bone marrow pAKT staining was also evident in CXCR4(WHIM) versus CXCR4(WT) WM patients, and remained active despite ibrutinib therapy in CXCR4(WHIM) patients. Last, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed varying levels of resistance to other WM relevant therapeutics, including bendamustine, fludarabine, bortezomib and idelalisib in the presence of SDF-1a. These studies demonstrate a functional role for CXCR4(WHIM) mutations, and provide a framework for investigation of CXCR4 inhibitors in WM.

  6. The association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and potential drug target in prostate cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Zhong, Tie

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis and literature review to evaluate the association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). A detailed literature search was made in Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed independently. Analysis of pooled data was performed using Review Manager 5.2. Odds ratio (OR) with corresponding confidence intervals were calculated and summarized. The meta-analysis included a total of eleven studies and 630 patients. The rate of CXCR4 protein expression in PCa was significantly higher than in nonmalignant prostate tissues (OR =35.71, PGleason score (P=0.73). However, the frequency of CXCR4 protein expression was significantly higher in T3-4 stage than in T1-2 stage of PCa (OR =2.35, P=0.001). The expression of CXCR4 protein was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node and bone metastasis of PCa: for lymph node metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 5.07 and P=0.0003, and for bone metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 7.03 and P=0.003. Cancer-specific survival of patients with PCa was significantly associated with CXCR4 protein expression, and the pooled Hazard ratio was 0.24 and P=0.002. In conclusion, the high expression of CXCR4 protein is a diagnostic biomarker of PCa, and it is significantly associated with T stages. The increased expression of CXCR4 protein is significantly associated with lymph nodes or bone metastasis, and CXCR4 is a poor prognosis predictor for patients with PCa. Taken together, our findings indicate that CXCR4 could be a target not only for the development of therapeutic intervention but also for the noninvasive monitoring of PCa progression.

  7. Evaluation of somatostatin, CXCR4 chemokine and endothelin A receptor expression in a large set of paragangliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemmerer, Daniel; Sänger, Jörg; Arsenic, Ruza; D’Haese, Jan G.; Neumann, Jens; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Wirtz, Ralph Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2017-01-01

    Paragangliomas are predominantly benign tumors, but in some cases invasive growth and also metastasis are observed. Given the limited number of nonsurgical treatment options, novel target structures for diagnostics and therapy of this tumor entity are urgently needed. In the present study, expression of all five somatostatin receptor (SST) subtypes, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and endothelin receptor type A (ETA) was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry in a total of 66 paraffin-embedded paraganglioma samples from 55 patients. The stainings were rated by means of the Immunoreactive Score and correlated to clinical data and to succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression. SST2A was by far the most prominent receptor in the paragangliomas investigated. It was present in 89% of the tumors at a high intensity, followed by SST5, SST3, SST1 and SST4, which were detected in 47%, 35%, 35% and 13% of the samples, respectively. SDHB positive tumors exhibited significantly higher SST2A and SST3 expression as compared to SDHB negative cases. There was no correlation between SST and Ki-67 expression or grading of the tumors and no difference in SST expression between primary tumors and metastases. Cell surface expression of CXCR4 and ETA was detected only in few samples. On tumor capillaries, however, exceptionally strong staining for these two receptors was noticed in the vast majority of the tumors. In conclusion, paragangliomas are well suited for SST2A-based diagnostics and treatment modalities. An indirect targeting of these highly vascularized tumors via CXCR4 or ETA may also represent a promising future strategy. PMID:29163802

  8. Inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signalling in Subchondral Bone Attenuates Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Dong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that SDF-1α is a catabolic factor that can infiltrate cartilage, decrease proteoglycan content, and increase MMP-13 activity. Inhibiting the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling pathway can attenuate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have also shown that SDF-1α enhances chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. These results appear to be contradictory. In the current study, we used a destabilisation OA animal model to investigate the effects of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling in the tibial subchondral bone and the OA pathological process. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA mice models were prepared by transecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT, or a sham surgery was performed, in a total of 30 mice. Mice were treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS or AMD3100 (an inhibitor of CXCR4 and sacrificed at 30 days post ACLT or sham surgery. Tibial subchondral bone status was quantified by micro-computed tomography (μCT. Knee-joint histology was analysed to examine the articular cartilage and joint degeneration. The levels of SDF-1α and collagen type I c-telopeptidefragments (CTX-I were quantified by ELISA. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs were used to clarify the effects of SDF-1α on osteoclast formation and activity in vivo. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from tibial subchondral bone post-ACLT, which was effectively prevented by AMD3100. AMD3100 could partially prevent bone loss and articular cartilage degeneration. Serum biomarkers revealed an increase in SDF-1α and bone resorption, which were also reduced by AMD3100. SDF-1α can promote osteoclast formation and the expression oftartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K (CK, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in osteoclasts by activating the MAPK pathway, including ERK and p38, but not JNK. In conclusion, inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4signalling was able to prevent trabecular bone loss and attenuated cartilage

  9. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor enhances the effect of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Linn; Laursen, Maria Bach; Schmitz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease with variable clinical outcome, accounting for at least 25-30 % of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Approximately one third of DLBCL patients are not cured by the currently used treatment regimen, R-CHOP. Hence, new treatment......, concomitantly or in sequence. The trypan blue exclusion method and MTS-based assays were used to evaluate cellular proliferation, whereas flow cytometry was used for assessment of apoptosis status and CXCR4 surface expression level. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess statistical significance...

  10. Synthesis of a novel tripeptidomimetic scaffold and biological evaluation for CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Markus; Nome, Lina Marie; Zachariassen, Zack G.

    2017-01-01

    We here report the preparation of a new 2,6,8-trisubstituted bicyclic tripeptidomimetic scaffold through TFA-mediated cyclization of a linear precursor containing three side chains. The introduction of a triphenylmethyl-protected thiol into carboxylic acid containing building blocks through sulfa...... the stereochemical outcome of the cyclization differently when the R1 side chain is positioned on C2 in the bicycles (present work) instead of C3 (previous work). Tripeptidomimetic compounds based on the new scaffold were synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic potency toward CXCR4, and one compound (45a...

  11. Critical involvement of the chemotactic axis CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha in the inflammatory component of allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, J A; Lloyd, C M; Peled, A; Delaney, T; Coyle, A J; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C

    2000-07-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/beta (SDF-1alpha/beta) is phylogenetically a primitive chemokine widely expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types. This expression is detectable in the absence of stimuli provided by bacterial or viral infections and allergic or autoimmune disorders. Based on these and other findings, SDF-1alpha has not been considered an inflammatory chemokine, but, rather, has been believed to be involved in certain homeostatic processes, such as leukocyte recirculation. SDF-1alpha is a potent chemoattractant for lymphocytes and monocytes that mediates its activity via the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Study of the role of SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 in vivo during inflammation has been limited by the fact that transgenic mice that have been made deficient in either molecule die early in life due to developmental defects. The present study was aimed at evaluating the functional relevance of the SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 axis during an inflammatory process. Neutralizing Abs to CXCR4 reduced lung eosinophilia (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and interstitium) by half, indicating that CXCR4-mediated signals contribute to lung inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway disease (AAD). This reduction in inflammation was accompanied by a significant decrease in airway hyper-responsiveness. SDF-1alpha neutralization resulted in similar reduction in both lung allergic inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness. Retroviral delivery of a CXCR4 cDNA to leukocytes resulted in greater inflammation when transduced mice were subjected to a mouse model of AAD. These results highlight that, although considered a noninflammatory axis, the involvement of CXCR4 and SDF-1alpha is critical during AAD, and this receptor and its ligand are potentially relevant in other inflammatory processes.

  12. Interstitial Fluid Flow Increases Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion through CXCR4/CXCL12 and MEK/ERK Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit D Shah

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form of liver cancer (~80%, and it is one of the few cancer types with rising incidence in the United States. This highly invasive cancer is very difficult to detect until its later stages, resulting in limited treatment options and low survival rates. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the mechanisms associated with the effects of biomechanical forces such as interstitial fluid flow (IFF on hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. We hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through chemokine-mediated autologous chemotaxis. Utilizing a 3D in vitro invasion assay, we demonstrated that interstitial fluid flow promoted invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that autologous chemotaxis influences this interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines via the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12 signaling axis. We also demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling affects interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion; however, this pathway was separate from CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of interstitial fluid flow in hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. Uncovering the mechanisms that control hepatocellular carcinoma invasion will aid in enhancing current liver cancer therapies and provide better treatment options for patients.

  13. CXCR4, CXCR7, and CXCL12 are associated with trophoblastic cells apoptosis and linked to pathophysiology of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder with sudden onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria, which is characterized by defective cytotrophoblast invasion, increased apoptosis in cytotrophoblast, and diminished syncytial differentiation. In this study, samples from 11 mild preeclamptic patients, 18 severe preeclamptic patients, and 21 normal pregnant women were collected. The expression level of CXCL12 and its two receptors (CXCR4 and CXCR7) in these samples and their relationship with apoptosis were investigated. Morphological change of trophoblast cells that was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a significant tendency of apoptosis in the preeclamptic placenta. Immunohistochemical staining showed that expression level of three proteins was significantly lower in severe preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas (P0.05). Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot showed that both mRNA and protein expression level of CXCR4, CXCR7, and CXCL12 of trophoblasts were lower in the severe preeclampsia group than that in the normal group (Papoptosis and may be linked to the occurrence and development of severe preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in endometrial cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Walentowicz-Sadlecka

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: One of the most important function of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptors, is regulating the process of metastasis formation. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 protein levels measured by immunohistochemistry with the clinicopathological features and the survival of endometrial cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 92 patients aged 37-84 (mean 65.1±9.5 were enrolled to our study between January 2000 and December 2007. After the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, all women underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, with bilateral salpingoophorectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. In all patients clinical stage (according to FIGO classification, histologic grade, myometrial invasion, lymph node and distant metastases were determined.Furthermore, the survival time was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses of SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 were performed on archive formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations (p0.05 between the proteins expression in the primary tumor cells and the clinicopathological features. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated a stepwise impairment of cancer overall survival (OS with increasing SDF-1 expression. CONCLUSION: The important role of SDF-1 as a predictor of negative clinicopathological characteristics of a tumor suggests that the expression of this stromal factor should be included in the panel of accessory pathomorphological tests and could be helpful in establishing a more accurate prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

  15. Expression of CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in Cervix of HIV-1 Heterosexually Infected Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Ramirez-Pineda, Antonio; Amaya-Garcia, Patricia Irene; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have demonstrated that receptor and co-receptor expression levels which may affect viral entry, promoting cervical HIV infection. The aim was to evaluate the expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4and DC-SIGN mRNA in a sample of heterosexually HIV infected Mexican women. Methods: We enrolled twenty-six HIV heterosexual infected women attending a local infectious diseases medical unit.RNA was isolated from the cervix and gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. Results: Expression rates for mRNA of CCR5 (median 1.82; range 0.003–2934) were higher than those observed for CXCR4 (0.79; 0.0061–3312) and DC-SIGN (0.33; 0.006–532) receptors (p < 0.05). A high correlation was found between the mRNA expression levels of these three receptors (rs = 0.52 to 0.85, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Levels of expression of the tested chemokine receptors in the cervix are different from each other and alsovary from woman to woman, and seem to support the suggestion that chemokine receptor expression in genital tissues may be playing a role in the HIV transmission. PMID:23115608

  16. Dual NAMPT and BTK Targeting Leads to Synergistic Killing of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Cells Regardless of MYD88 and CXCR4 Somatic Mutation Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Acharya, Chirag; Acharya, Prakrati; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Yang, Cao; Lovera, Davide; Soncini, Debora; Miglino, Maurizio; Fraternali-Orcioni, Giulio; Mastracci, Luca; Nencioni, Alessio; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Ballestrero, Alberto; Hideshima, Teru; Chauhan, Dharminder; Gobbi, Marco; Lemoli, Roberto M; Munshi, Nikhil; Treon, Steven P; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2016-12-15

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) regulates intracellular NAD+ pool and is highly expressed in a number of malignancies. FK866, a selective inhibitor of Nampt, depletes intracellular NAD+ levels, thereby blocking cellular metabolism and triggering sensitization to other drugs and cell death. Here we characterized the antitumor effects of Nampt inhibition in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. We investigated Nampt role in MW cells using both mRNA and protein expression analyses. We have also used loss-of-function approaches to investigate the growth and survival effects of Nampt on MW cells and further tested the anti-MW activity of dual Nampt and BTK inhibition in vitro and in vivo RESULTS: We found that Waldenström macroglobulinemia cells exhibit high levels of Nampt compared with normal B cells. Loss of function studies suggested a potential oncogenic role of Nampt in Waldenström macroglobulinemia cells, and BTK-inhibitor ibrutinib and FK866 resulted in a significant and synergistic anti-Waldenström macroglobulinemia cell death, regardless of MYD88 and CXCR4 mutational status. Cell death was associated with: (i) activation of caspase-3, PARP and downregulation of Mcl-1, (ii) enhanced intracellular ATP and NAD+ depletion, (iii) inhibition of NF-κB signaling, and (iv) inhibition of multiple prosurvival signaling pathways. In a murine xenograft Waldenström macroglobulinemia model, low-dose combination FK866 and ibrutinib is well tolerated, significantly inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs host survival. Our results show intracellular NAD+ level as crucial for proliferation and survival of Waldenström macroglobulinemia cells, and provides the mechanistic preclinical rationale for targeting Nampt, either alone or with Ibrutinib, to overcome drug resistance and improve patient outcome in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 6099-109. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Dual NAMPT and BTK Targeting Leads to Synergistic Killing of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Cells Regardless of MYD88 and CXCR4 Somatic Mutations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Acharya, Chirag; Acharya, Prakrati; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Yang, Guang; Lovera, Davide; Soncini, Debora; Miglino, Maurizio; Fraternali-Orcioni, Giulio; Mastracci, Luca; Nencioni, Alessio; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Hideshima, Teru; Chauhan, Dharminder; Gobbi, Marco; Lemoli, Roberto M.; Munshi, Nikhil; Treon, Steven P.; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) regulates intracellular NAD+ pool and is highly expressed in a number of malignancies. FK866, a selective inhibitor of Nampt, depletes intracellular NAD+ levels, thereby blocking cellular metabolism and triggering sensitization to other drugs and cell death. Here we characterized the anti-tumor effects of Nampt inhibition in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM). Experimental Design We investigated Nampt role in MW cells using both mRNA and protein expression analyses. We have also used loss-of-function approaches to investigate the growth and survival effects of Nampt on MW cells and further tested the anti-MW activity of dual Nampt and BTK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Results We found that WM cells exhibit high levels of Nampt compared with normal B cells. Loss of function studies suggested a potential oncogenic role of Nampt in WM cells, and BTK-inhibitor ibrutinib and FK866 resulted in a significant and synergistic anti-WM cell death, regardless of MYD88 and CXCR4 mutational status. Cell death was associated with: 1) activation of caspase-3, PARP and down-regulation of Mcl-1; 2) enhanced intracellular ATP and NAD+ depletion; 3) inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling; and 4) inhibition of multiple pro-survival signaling pathways. In a murine xenograft WM model, low-dose combination FK866 and Ibrutinib is well tolerated, significantly inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs host survival. Conclusions our results show intracellular NAD+ level as crucial for proliferation and survival of WM cells, and provides the mechanistic preclinical rationale for targeting Nampt, either alone or with Ibrutinib, to overcome drug resistance and improve patient outcome in WM. PMID:27287071

  18. Evaluation of N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 as a PET tracer for imaging of CXCR4 receptor expression in a C6 glioma tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, S V; van Waarde, A; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2014-11-03

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. CXCR4 receptors are expressed by many cancer types and provide a potential target for treatment. Noninvasive detection of CXCR4 may aid diagnosis and improve therapy selection. It has been demonstrated in preclinical studies that positron emission tomography (PET) with a radiolabeled small molecule could enable noninvasive monitoring of CXCR4 expression. Here, we prepared N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 as a new PET tracer for CXCR4. N-[(11)C]Methyl-AMD3465 was readily prepared by N-methylation with [(11)C]CH3OTf. The tracer was obtained in a 60 ± 2% yield (decay corrected), the purity of the tracer was >99%, and specific activity was 47 ± 14 GBq/μmol. Tracer stability was tested in vitro using liver microsomes and rat plasma; excellent stability was observed. The tracer was evaluated in rat C6 glioma and human PC-3 cell lines. In vitro cellular uptake of N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 was receptor mediated. The effect of transition metal ions (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)) on cellular binding was examined in C6 cells, and the presence of these ions increased the cellular binding of the tracer 9-, 7-, and 3-fold, respectively. Ex vivo biodistribution and PET imaging of N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 were performed in rats with C6 tumor xenografts. Both PET and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific accumulation of the tracer in the tumor (SUV 0.6 ± 0.2) and other CXCR4 expressing organs, such as lymph node (1.5 ± 0.2), liver (8.9 ± 1.0), bone marrow (1.0 ± 0.3), and spleen (1.0 ± 0.1). Tumor uptake was significantly reduced (66%, p tracer injection. Our data demonstrated that N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 is capable of detecting physiologic CXCR4 expression in tumors and other CXCR4 expressing tissues. These results warrant further evaluation of N-[(11)C]methyl-AMD3465 as a potential PET tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging.

  19. A meta-analysis for CXCR4 as a prognostic marker and potential drug target in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changyuan Zhang,1,* Jie Li,2,* Yi Han,3 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region People’s Hospital, Inner Mongolia; 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chest Hospital, 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Recent reports have shown that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4 is a candidate oncogene in several types of human tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the correlation between CXCR4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC remains controversial and has not been emphasized. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the association of CXCR4 expression with the incidence of NSCLC and clinicopathological characteristics by performing a meta-analysis.Methods: A detailed literature search was carried out for related research publications. Only articles in which CXCR4 expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining were included. Odds ratio (OR and hazard ratio (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and summarized.Results: Final analysis of 1,872 NSCLC patients from 19 eligible studies was performed. We observed that CXCR4 expression was significantly higher in NSCLC than in normal lung tissue, based on the pooled OR from ten studies, including 678 NSCLCs and 189 normal lung tissues (OR =16.66, 95% CI =6.94–40.02, P<0.00001. CXCR4 expression was also significantly associated with clinical stages, metastatic status, and overall survival (OS in NSCLC patients. In addition, CXCR4 mRNA high expression was found to correlate with worse OS of all NSCLC patients followed for 20 years, HR =1.24, P=0.0047.Conclusion: The present meta-analysis indicated that CXCR4 protein expression is associated with an increased risk and worse survival in NSCLC patients

  20. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The full-length nucleic acid sequence of channel catfish CXCR4 cDNA comprised of 1994 nucleotides, including an open reading frame, which appears to encode a putative peptide of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 40.1kDa. By comparison with the human counterpart, the channel catfish CXCR4 peptide can be divided into domains, including seven transmembrane domains, four cytoplasmic domains, and four extracellular domains. The CXCR4 transcript was detected in spleen, anterior kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill of all catfish examined in this study. Because four CXCL of channel catfish have been identified, the result provides valuable information for further exploring the channel catfish chemokine signalling pathways and their roles in immune responses to infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Reduced expression of CXCR4, a novel renal cancer stem cell marker, is associated with high-grade renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Arezoo; Abolhasani, Maryam; Zanjani, Leili Saeednejad; Asgari, Mojgan; Mehrazma, Mitra; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a population with tumour-initiating, self-renewal, and differentiation potential. This study aimed to evaluate the expression patterns and clinical significance of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) as a novel CSC marker in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The expression of CXCR4 was examined in 173 well-defined renal tumour tissues, including 106 (61.5 %) clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), 35 (20 %) papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCCs), and 32 (18.5 %) chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs), by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray. The association between expression of this marker and clinicopathologic parameters was then analysed. There was a significant difference in the expression levels of CXCR4 in the ccRCC samples compared to the ChRCC and pRCC samples (P renal carcinoma.

  2. Data on human neutrophil activation induced by pepducins with amino acid sequences derived from β2AR and CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Holdfeldt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described here is related to the research article titled (Gabl et al., 2016 [1]. Pepducins with peptide sequence derived from one of the intracellular domains of a given G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR can either activate or inhibit cell functions. Here we include data on human neutrophil function induced by pepducins derived from β2AR (ICL3-8 and CXCR4 (ATI-2341, respectively. ICL3-8 exerts neither direct activating effect on the NADPH-oxidase as measured by superoxide release nor inhibitory effect on FPR signaling. ATI-2341 dose-dependently triggers neutrophil activation and these cells were subsequently desensitized in their response to FPR2 specific agonists F2Pal10 and WKYMVM. Moreover, the ATI-2341 response is inhibited by PBP10 and the peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-betaNSpe6-NH2 (both are FPR2 specific inhibitors, but not to the FPR1 specific inhibitor cyclosporine H.

  3. Combination of Vessel-Targeting Agents and Fractionated Radiation Therapy: The Role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ying-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chi-Shiun, E-mail: cschiang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor.

  4. Chemokine receptor CCR7 expression predicts poor outcome in uveal melanoma and relates to liver metastasis whereas expression of CXCR4 is not of clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van den Bosch (Thomas); A.E. Koopmans (Anna); J. Vaarwater (Jolanda); M.M.P. van den Berg (Mike M P); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); R.M. Verdijk (Robert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To examine the prognostic relevance of expression of the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in uveal melanoma in nonmetastatic and metastatic patients with correlation to liver metastasis and overall survival. Methods. Primary uveal melanoma specimens from

  5. Stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) directed chemoattraction of transiently CXCR4 overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells into functionalized three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, S; Ryser, Martin; Gentsch, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    into deeper structures of 3D porous bone substitute scaffolds. Here we show that transient overexpression of CXCR4 in human BMSCs induced by mRNA transfection enhances stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-directed chemotactic capacity to invade internal compartments of porous 3D bone substitute...

  6. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship...

  7. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, stromal cell-derived factor-1, and CXCR4 in human limb muscle with acute and chronic ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, V. van; Seghers, L.; Vries, M.R. de; Kuiper, E.J.; Schlingemann, R.O.; Bajema, I.M.; Lindeman, J.H.N.; Delis-Diemen, P.M. van; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Bockel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been implicated in angiogenesis in ischemic tissues by recruitment of CXCR4-positive bone marrow-derived circulating cells with paracrine functions in preclinical models. Here, evidence for this

  8. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibition down- regulates CXCR4 expression and interferes with proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mercurio

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a crucial role in tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most aggressive glioma. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC, a catabolic enzyme of PC metabolism, is involved in several aspects of cancer biology and its inhibition down-modulates the expression of growth factor membrane receptors interfering with their signaling pathways. In the present work we investigated the possible interplay between CXCR4 and PC-PLC in GBM cells.Confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, western blot analyses, and the evaluation of migration and invasion potential were performed on U87MG cells after PC-PLC inhibition with the xanthate D609. The intracellular metabolome was investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy; lactate levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were analyzed by colorimetric assay.Our studies demonstrated that CXCR4 and PC-PLC co-localize and are associated on U87MG cell membrane. D609 reduced CXCR4 expression, cell proliferation and invasion, interfering with AKT and EGFR activation and expression. Metabolic analyses showed a decrease in intracellular lactate concentration together with a decrement in LDH activity.Our data suggest that inhibition of PC-PLC could represent a new molecular approach in glioma biology not only for its ability in modulating cell metabolism, glioma growth and motility, but also for its inhibitory effect on crucial molecules involved in cancer progression.

  9. Macrophage-derived HMGB1 as a Pain Mediator in the Early Stage of Acute Pancreatitis in Mice: Targeting RAGE and CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Yuhei; Tsubota, Maho; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Terada, Yuka; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Liu, Keyue; Nishibori, Masahiro; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2017-07-28

    Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activates the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and forms a heterocomplex with CXCL12 that strongly activates CXCR4, promoting inflammatory and pain signals. In the present study, we investigated the role of HMGB1 in pancreatic pain accompanying cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Abdominal referred hyperalgesia accompanying acute pancreatitis occurred within 1 h after 6 hourly injections of cerulein. The anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody or recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM), known to inactivate HMGB1, abolished the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, but not pancreatitis itself. Plasma or pancreatic HMGB1 levels did not change, but macrophage infiltration into the pancreas occurred 1 h after cerulein treatment. Minocycline, a macrophage/microglia inhibitor, ethyl pyruvate that inhibits HMGB1 release from macrophages, or liposomal clodronate that depletes macrophages prevented the referred hyperalgesia, but not pancreatitis. Antagonists of RAGE or CXCR4, but not TLR4, strongly suppressed the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, but not pancreatitis. Upregulation of RAGE, CXCR4 and CXCL12, but not TLR4, were detected in the pancreas 1 h after cerulein treatment. Our data suggest that HMGB1 regionally secreted by macrophages mediates pancreatic pain by targeting RAGE and CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in the early stage of acute pancreatitis.

  10. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ohtsuka

    Full Text Available Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K. Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt, GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt, and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  11. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis enhances cellular invasion in ovarian carcinoma cells via integrin β1 and β3 expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuecheng; Shi, Xiaoyan; Shu, Zhen; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Kan; Wei, Li; Song, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Xiaochang

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has showed that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 axis played important roles in cancer metastases, but the detailed function in ovarian cancer is still largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the location of CXCR4 and lipid rafts, a specialized structure on cell membrane, in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 cells by immunofluorescence. To analyze the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 and lipid rafts in tumor cell migration and invasion, Transwell assay and wound healing assay were also performed. Cytoflowmetry was carried out to determine the participation of integrins. Our data showed that CXCR4 and GM1 (marker of lipid rafts) were expressed in both ovarian cancer tissue and SKOV3 cells, and SDF-1 promoted the invasion and migration of SKOV3 cells, which was mediated by complete lipid rafts. Further studies uncovered that SDF-1 upregulated the expression of integrin β1 and β3, two molecules closely related with cancer metastasis. These results indicated that SDF-1 might promote the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer by regulating these two integrin molecules.

  12. Inhibition of signaling between human CXCR4 and zebrafish ligands by the small molecule IT1t impairs the formation of triple-negative breast cancer early metastases in a zebrafish xenograft model

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    Claudia Tulotta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a highly aggressive and recurrent type of breast carcinoma that is associated with poor patient prognosis. Because of the limited efficacy of current treatments, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. The CXCR4-CXCL12 chemokine signaling axis guides cell migration in physiological and pathological processes, including breast cancer metastasis. Although targeted therapies to inhibit the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis are under clinical experimentation, still no effective therapeutic approaches have been established to block CXCR4 in TNBC. To unravel the role of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in the formation of TNBC early metastases, we used the zebrafish xenograft model. Importantly, we demonstrate that cross-communication between the zebrafish and human ligands and receptors takes place and human tumor cells expressing CXCR4 initiate early metastatic events by sensing zebrafish cognate ligands at the metastatic site. Taking advantage of the conserved intercommunication between human tumor cells and the zebrafish host, we blocked TNBC early metastatic events by chemical and genetic inhibition of CXCR4 signaling. We used IT1t, a potent CXCR4 antagonist, and show for the first time its promising anti-tumor effects. In conclusion, we confirm the validity of the zebrafish as a xenotransplantation model and propose a pharmacological approach to target CXCR4 in TNBC.

  13. Influence of a dual-injection regimen, plerixafor, and CXCR4 on in-utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and engraftment using the sheep model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, A. Daisy; Varain, Nicole M.; Jeanblanc, Christine M.; Colon, Donna M.; Kim, Jaehyup; Zanjani, Esmail D.; Hematti, Peiman

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) following in-utero HSC transplantation (IUHSCT) remains a major obstacle for the prenatal correction of numerous hereditary disorders. HSCs express CXCR4 receptors that allow homing and engraftment in response to SDF1 ligand present in the bone marrow (BM) stromal niche. Plerixafor, a mobilization drug, works through the interruption of the CXCR4-SDF1 axis. Methods We used the fetal sheep large animal model to test our hypotheses that: a) by administering plerixafor in-utero before performing IUHSCT to release fetal HSCs and thus vacating recipient HSC niches, b) by using human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to immunomodulate and humanize the fetal BM niches, and c) by increasing the CXCR4+ fraction of CD34+ HSCs, we could improve engraftment. Human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and human bone marrow-derived MSCs were used for these studies. Results When MSCs were transplanted one week prior to CD34+ cells with plerixafor treatment, we observed 2.80% donor hematopoietic engraftment. Combination of this regimen with additional CD34+ cells at the time of MSC infusion increased engraftment levels to 8.77%. Next, increasing the fraction of CXCR4+ cells in the CD34+ population albeit transplanting at a late gestation age was not beneficial. Our results show engraftment of both lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Discussion Prior MSC and HSC cotransplantation followed by manipulation of the CXCR4-SDF1 axis in IUHSCT provides an innovative conceptual approach for conferring competitive advantage to donor HSCs. Our novel approach could provide a clinically relevant approach for enhancing engraftment early in the fetus. PMID:25108653

  14. Influence of a dual-injection regimen, plerixafor and CXCR4 on in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and engraftment with use of the sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, A Daisy; Varain, Nicole M; Jeanblanc, Christine M; Colon, Donna M; Kim, Jaehyup; Zanjani, Esmail D; Hematti, Peiman

    2014-09-01

    Inadequate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after in utero HSC transplantation (IUHSCT) remains a major obstacle for the prenatal correction of numerous hereditary disorders. HSCs express CXCR4 receptors that allow homing and engraftment in response to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) ligand present in the bone marrow stromal niche. Plerixafor, a mobilization drug, works through the interruption of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis. We used the fetal sheep large-animal model to test our hypotheses that (i) by administering plerixafor in utero before performing IUHSCT to release fetal HSCs and thus vacating recipient HSC niches, (ii) by using human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to immunomodulate and humanize the fetal BM niches and (iii) by increasing the CXCR4(+) fraction of CD34(+) HSCs, we could improve engraftment. Human cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells and human bone marrow-derived MSCs were used for these studies. When MSCs were transplanted 1 week before CD34(+) cells with plerixafor treatment, we observed 2.80% donor hematopoietic engraftment. Combination of this regimen with additional CD34(+) cells at the time of MSC infusion increased engraftment levels to 8.77%. Next, increasing the fraction of CXCR4(+) cells in the CD34(+) population albeit transplanting at a late gestation age was not beneficial. Our results show engraftment of both lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Prior MSC and HSC cotransplantation followed by manipulation of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis in IUHSCT provides an innovative conceptual approach for conferring competitive advantage to donor HSCs. Our novel approach could provide a clinically relevant approach for enhancing engraftment early in the fetus. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The genotypic false positive rate determined by V3 population sequencing can predict the burden of HIV-1 CXCR4-using species detected by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svicher, Valentina; Cento, Valeria; Rozera, Gabriella; Abbate, Isabella; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Armenia, Daniele; Fabeni, Lavinia; Bruselles, Alessandro; Latini, Alessandra; Palamara, Guido; Micheli, Valeria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2013-01-01

    The false-positive rate (FPR) is a percentage-score provided by Geno2Pheno-algorithm indicating the likelihood that a V3-sequence is falsely predicted as CXCR4-using. We evaluated the correlation between FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing and the burden of CXCR4-using variants detected by V3 ultra-deep sequencing (UDPS) and Enhanced-Sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA). 54 HIV-1 B-subtype infected-patients (all maraviroc-naïve), with viremia >10,000copies/ml, were analyzed. HIV-tropism was assessed by V3 population-sequencing, UDPS (considering variants with >0.5% prevalence), and ESTA. By UDPS, CCR5-using variants were detected in 53/54 patients, irrespective of FPR values, and their intra-patient prevalence progressively increased by increasing the FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing (rho = 0.75, p = 5.0e-8). Conversely, the intra-patient prevalence of CXCR4-using variants in the 54 patients analyzed progressively decreased by increasing the FPR (rho = -0.61; p = 9.3e-6). Indeed, no CXCR4-using variants were detected in 13/13 patients with FPR>60. They were present in 7/18 (38.8%) patients with FPR 20-60 (intra-patient prevalence range: 2.1%-18.4%), in 5/7 (71.4%) with FPR 10-20, in 4/6 (66.7%) with FPR 5-10, and in 10/10(100%) with FPRHIV-1 tropism determination. More sensitive methodologies (as UDPS) might be useful when V3 population-sequencing provides a FPR >20 (particularly in the range 20-60), allowing a more careful identification of patients harboring CXCR4-using variants.

  16. The genotypic false positive rate determined by V3 population sequencing can predict the burden of HIV-1 CXCR4-using species detected by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Svicher

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The false-positive rate (FPR is a percentage-score provided by Geno2Pheno-algorithm indicating the likelihood that a V3-sequence is falsely predicted as CXCR4-using. We evaluated the correlation between FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing and the burden of CXCR4-using variants detected by V3 ultra-deep sequencing (UDPS and Enhanced-Sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA. METHODS: 54 HIV-1 B-subtype infected-patients (all maraviroc-naïve, with viremia >10,000copies/ml, were analyzed. HIV-tropism was assessed by V3 population-sequencing, UDPS (considering variants with >0.5% prevalence, and ESTA. RESULTS: By UDPS, CCR5-using variants were detected in 53/54 patients, irrespective of FPR values, and their intra-patient prevalence progressively increased by increasing the FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing (rho = 0.75, p = 5.0e-8. Conversely, the intra-patient prevalence of CXCR4-using variants in the 54 patients analyzed progressively decreased by increasing the FPR (rho = -0.61; p = 9.3e-6. Indeed, no CXCR4-using variants were detected in 13/13 patients with FPR>60. They were present in 7/18 (38.8% patients with FPR 20-60 (intra-patient prevalence range: 2.1%-18.4%, in 5/7 (71.4% with FPR 10-20, in 4/6 (66.7% with FPR 5-10, and in 10/10(100% with FPR20 (particularly in the range 20-60, allowing a more careful identification of patients harboring CXCR4-using variants.

  17. The induction of CXCR4 expression in human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) by CoCr particles is regulated by the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynda, Andreas; Ren, Qiang; Buchhorn, Gottfried H; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2017-11-01

    Osteolysis which leads to aseptic loosening of implants is a fundamental problem in joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty) and the leading cause for implant failure and revision surgery. Metal (CoCr) particles separated from implants by wear cause osteolysis and the failure of orthopedic implants, but the molecular mechanism is not clear. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been shown to play a pivotal role in periprosthetic osteolysis. The aim of this study was to determine which signal transduction pathway (PLC-DAG-PKC or MAPK/ERK) induces CXCR4 expression in osteoblast-like cells (MG63) cells. MG63 and Jurkat cells were stimulated with different amounts of particles (10 7 , 10 6 , and 10 5 ) for different time periods (30 min to 24 h), in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors (chelerythrine for the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway and PD98059 for the MAPK/ERK pathway). The expression of CXCR4-specific mRNA was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PKC activity was measured by Western Blot using an antibody specific for PKC-related phosphorylation. Real-time PCR data showed that CXCR4 mRNA expression in MG63 cells induced by CoCr particles was significantly diminished by the PKC-specific inhibitor chelerythrine. This effect was not observed with the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD98059. The involvement of PKC was also confirmed by an intensified phosphorylation pattern after stimulation with CoCr particles. In Jurkat cells, none of the inhibitors exhibited any effect. The induction of CXCR4-specific mRNA expression in MG63 cells after stimulation with CoCr particles is regulated by the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway and not by the MAPK/ERK pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2326-2332, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Crosstalk between CXCR4/stromal derived factor-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathways regulates neutrophil retention in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Joseph M; Lenox, Christopher C; Weiss, Daniel J; Poynter, Matthew E; Suratt, Benjamin T

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil retention in and release from the bone marrow is a critical process that remains incompletely understood. Previous work has implicated the CXCR4/stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokine axis in the marrow retention of neutrophils, yet the adhesion pathways responsible for this retention are unknown. Because alpha(4)beta(1) integrin (VLA-4) and its ligand VCAM-1 play a central role in the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, and developing neutrophils in the marrow, we investigated whether this integrin might be involved in marrow neutrophil retention and release. In this study, we show that VLA-4 is expressed on murine marrow neutrophils and decreases with maturation, whereas blockade of this integrin leads to the release of marrow neutrophils. Marrow neutrophils adhere via VLA-4 to VCAM-1, which is expressed on marrow endothelium and stroma, and inhibition of VCAM-1 causes release of marrow neutrophils. Furthermore, SDF-1 (CXCL12) signaling through neutrophil CXCR4 augments VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 in vitro, an effect that is blocked by preincubation with pertussis toxin. In vivo blockade of both CXCR4 and alpha(4) causes synergistic release of marrow neutrophils, showing that cross-talk between CXCR4 and VLA-4 modulates marrow retention of these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the VLA-4/VCAM adhesion pathway is critical in the retention and maturation-controlled release of neutrophils from the marrow, while providing an important link between the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling axis and the adhesion events that govern this process.

  19. CXCR4 Antagonist TG-0054 Mobilizes Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Attenuates Inflammation, and Preserves Cardiac Systolic Function in a Porcine Model of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Jui, Hsiang-Yiang; Huang, Ying-Huey; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Wu, Yen-Wen; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Hsu, Ming-Chu; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Wu, Kenneth K; Lee, Chii-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) governs the sequestration and mobilization of bone marrow stem cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of TG-0054, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, in attenuating cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). In miniature pigs (minipigs), TG-0054 mobilized CD34(+)CXCR4(+), CD133(+)CXCR4(+), and CD271(+)CXCR4(+) cells into peripheral circulation. After isolation and expansion, TG-0054-mobilized CD271(+) cells were proved to be mesenchymal stem cells (designated CD271-MSCs) since they had trilineage differentiation potential, surface markers of MSCs, and immunosuppressive effects on allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. MI was induced in 22 minipigs using balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by intravenous injections of 2.85 mg/kg of TG-0054 or saline at 3 days and 7 days post-MI. Serial MRI analyses revealed that TG-0054 treatment prevented left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at 12 weeks after MI (change of LV ejection fraction from baseline, -1.0 ± 6.2% in the TG-0054 group versus -7.9 ± 5.8% in the controls). The preserved cardiac function was accompanied by a significant decrease in the myocardial expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at 7 days post-MI. Moreover, the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were persistently suppressed by the TG-0054 treatment. Infusion of TG-0054-mobilized CD271-MSCs reduced both myocardial and plasma cytokine levels in a pattern, which is temporally correlated with TG-0054 treatment. This study demonstrated that TG-0054 improves the impaired LV contractility following MI, at least in part, by mobilizing MSCs to attenuate the postinfarction inflammation. This insight may facilitate exploring novel stem cell-based therapy for treating post-MI heart failure.

  20. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

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    Mariangela Cavarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad viruses, was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow phenotype (n = 20, but R5(broad and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3 or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that R5(broad viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  1. Resistance to the CCR5 inhibitor 5P12-RANTES requires a difficult evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.

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    Rebecca Nedellec

    Full Text Available Viral resistance to small molecule allosteric inhibitors of CCR5 is well documented, and involves either selection of preexisting CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants or envelope sequence evolution to use inhibitor-bound CCR5 for entry. Resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors has been more difficult to demonstrate, although selection of CXCR4-using variants might be expected. We have compared the in vitro selection of HIV-1 CC1/85 variants resistant to either the small molecule inhibitor maraviroc (MVC or the macromolecular inhibitor 5P12-RANTES. High level resistance to MVC was conferred by the same envelope mutations as previously reported after 16-18 weeks of selection by increasing levels of MVC. The MVC-resistant mutants were fully sensitive to inhibition by 5P12-RANTES. By contrast, only transient and low level resistance to 5P12-RANTES was achieved in three sequential selection experiments, and each resulted in a subsequent collapse of virus replication. A fourth round of selection by 5P12-RANTES led, after 36 weeks, to a "resistant" variant that had switched from CCR5 to CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Envelope sequences diverged by 3.8% during selection of the 5P12-RANTES resistant, CXCR4-using variants, with unique and critical substitutions in the V3 region. A subset of viruses recovered from control cultures after 44 weeks of passage in the absence of inhibitors also evolved to use CXCR4, although with fewer and different envelope mutations. Control cultures contained both viruses that evolved to use CXCR4 by deleting four amino acids in V3, and others that maintained entry via CCR5. These results suggest that coreceptor switching may be the only route to resistance for compounds like 5P12-RANTES. This pathway requires more mutations and encounters more fitness obstacles than development of resistance to MVC, confirming the clinical observations that resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors very rarely involves coreceptor switching.

  2. Effects of cognate, non-cognate and synthetic CXCR4 and ACKR3 ligands on human lung endothelial cell barrier function.

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    You-Hong Cheng

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that chemokine CXCL12, the cognate agonist of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and ACKR3, reduces thrombin-mediated impairment of endothelial barrier function. A detailed characterization of the effects of CXCL12 on thrombin-mediated human lung endothelial hyperpermeability is lacking and structure-function correlations are not available. Furthermore, effects of other CXCR4/ACKR3 ligands on lung endothelial barrier function are unknown. Thus, we tested the effects of a panel of CXCR4/ACKR3 ligands (CXCL12, CXCL11, ubiquitin, AMD3100, TC14012 and compared the CXCR4/ACKR3 activities of CXCL12 variants (CXCL12α/β, CXCL12(3-68, CXCL121, CXCL122, CXCL12-S-S4V, CXCL12-R47E, CXCL12-K27A/R41A/R47A with their effects on human lung endothelial barrier function in permeability assays. CXCL12α enhanced human primary pulmonary artery endothelial cell (hPPAEC barrier function, whereas CXCL11, ubiquitin, AMD3100 and TC14012 were ineffective. Pre-treatment of hPPAEC with CXCL12α and ubiquitin reduced thrombin-mediated hyperpermeability. CXCL12α-treatment of hPPAEC after thrombin exposure reduced barrier function impairment by 70% (EC50 0.05-0.5nM, which could be antagonized with AMD3100; ubiquitin (0.03-3μM was ineffective. In a human lung microvascular endothelial cell line (HULEC5a, CXCL12α and ubiquitin post-treatment attenuated thrombin-induced hyperpermeability to a similar degree. CXCL12(3-68 was inefficient to activate CXCR4 in Presto-Tango β-arrestin2 recruitment assays; CXCL12-S-S4V, CXCL12-R47E and CXCL12-K27A/R41A/R47A showed significantly reduced potencies to activate CXCR4. While the potencies of all proteins in ACKR3 Presto-Tango assays were comparable, the efficacy of CXCL12(3-68 to activate ACKR3 was significantly reduced. The potencies to attenuate thrombin-mediated hPPAEC barrier function impairment were: CXCL12α/β, CXCL121, CXCL12-K27A/R41A/R47A > CXCL12-S-S4V, CXCL12-R47E > CXCL122 > CXCL12(3-68. Our findings

  3. Clinical Molecular Imaging of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Expression in Atherosclerotic Plaque using (68)Ga-Pentixafor PET: Correlation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Calcified Plaque Burden.

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    Weiberg, Desiree; Thackeray, James T; Daum, Guenter; Sohns, Jan M; Kropf, Saskia; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Ross, Tobias L; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-08-03

    The CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) represents a promising target for molecular imaging of different CXCR4+ cell types in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and arterial wall injury. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern, and clinical correlates of arterial wall accumulation of (68)Ga-Pentixafor, a specific CXCR4 ligand for positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Data of fifty-one patients who underwent (68)Ga-Pentixafor PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) for non-cardiovascular indications were retrospectively analyzed. Tracer accumulation in the vessel wall of major arteries was analyzed qualitatively and semiquantitatively by blood-pool-corrected target-to-background ratios (TBRs). Tracer uptake was compared with calcified plaque burden and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Focal arterial uptake of (68)Ga-Pentixafor was seen at 1411 sites in 51 (100%) of patients. (68)Ga-Pentixafor uptake was significantly associated with calcified plaque burden (P<0.0001) and cardiovascular risk factors including age (P<0.0001), arterial hypertension (P<0.0001), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.0005), history of smoking (P = 0.01), and prior cardiovascular events (P = 0.0004). Both the prevalence (P<0.0001) and signal intensity (P = 0.009) of (68)Ga-Pentixafor uptake increased as the number of risk factors increased. Conclusion:(68)Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT is suitable for non-invasive, highly specific PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in the atherosclerotic arterial wall. Arterial wall (68)Ga-Pentixafor uptake is significantly associated with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, and is linked to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. (68)Ga-Pentixafor signal is higher in patients with a high-risk profile, and may hold promise for identification of vulnerable plaque. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. The brain-penetrating CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, increases the antitumor effects of bevacizumab and sunitinib in preclinical models of human glioblastoma

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    Giovanni Luca Gravina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. It has been demonstrated that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapies control the invasive phenotype and that relapse occurs through the increased activity of CXCR4. We therefore hypothesized that combining bevacizumab or sunitinib with the novel CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, would have superior antitumor activity. Methods The effects of bevacizumab, sunitinib, and PRX177561 were tested alone or in combination in subcutaneous xenografts of U87MG, U251, and T98G cells as well as on intracranial xenografts of luciferase tagged U87MG cells injected in CD1-nu/nu mice. Animals were randomized to receive vehicle, bevacizumab (4 mg/kg iv every 4 days, sunitinib (40 mg/kg po qd, or PRX177561 (50 mg/kg po qd. Results The in vivo experiments demonstrated that bevacizumab and sunitinib increase the in vivo expression of CXCR4, SDF-1α, and TGFβ1. In addition, we demonstrate that the co-administration of the novel brain-penetrating CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, with bevacizumab or sunitinib inhibited tumor growth and reduced the inflammation. The combination of PRX177561 with bevacizumab resulted in a synergistic reduction of tumor growth with an increase of disease-free survival (DSF and overall survival (OS, whereas the combination of PRX177561 with sunitinib showed a mild additive effect. Conclusions The CXC4 antagonist PRX177561 may be a valid therapeutic complement to anti-angiogenic therapy, particularly when used in combination with VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors. Therefore, this compound deserves to be considered for future clinical evaluation.

  5. The evolutionary analysis of emerging low frequency HIV-1 CXCR4 using variants through time--an ultra-deep approach.

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    John Archer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale parallel pyrosequencing produces unprecedented quantities of sequence data. However, when generated from viral populations current mapping software is inadequate for dealing with the high levels of variation present, resulting in the potential for biased data loss. In order to apply the 454 Life Sciences' pyrosequencing system to the study of viral populations, we have developed software for the processing of highly variable sequence data. Here we demonstrate our software by analyzing two temporally sampled HIV-1 intra-patient datasets from a clinical study of maraviroc. This drug binds the CCR5 coreceptor, thus preventing HIV-1 infection of the cell. The objective is to determine viral tropism (CCR5 versus CXCR4 usage and track the evolution of minority CXCR4-using variants that may limit the response to a maraviroc-containing treatment regimen. Five time points (two prior to treatment were available from each patient. We first quantify the effects of divergence on initial read k-mer mapping and demonstrate the importance of utilizing population-specific template sequences in relation to the analysis of next-generation sequence data. Then, in conjunction with coreceptor prediction algorithms that infer HIV tropism, our software was used to quantify the viral population structure pre- and post-treatment. In both cases, low frequency CXCR4-using variants (2.5-15% were detected prior to treatment. Following phylogenetic inference, these variants were observed to exist as distinct lineages that were maintained through time. Our analysis, thus confirms the role of pre-existing CXCR4-using virus in the emergence of maraviroc-insensitive HIV. The software will have utility for the study of intra-host viral diversity and evolution of other fast evolving viruses, and is available from http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/segminator/.

  6. Non-migratory tumorigenic intrinsic cancer stem cells ensure breast cancer metastasis by generation of CXCR4(+) migrating cancer stem cells.

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    Mukherjee, S; Manna, A; Bhattacharjee, P; Mazumdar, M; Saha, S; Chakraborty, S; Guha, D; Adhikary, A; Jana, D; Gorain, M; Mukherjee, S A; Kundu, G C; Sarkar, D K; Das, T

    2016-09-15

    Although the role of metastatic cancer stem cells (mCSCs) in tumor progression has been well documented, our study reveals a hitherto unidentified role of tumorigenic intrinsic CSCs (iCSCs) in breast cancer metastasis. We show that unlike highly migratory mCSCs residing in the breast tumor disseminating/peripheral regions, iCSCs populate the inner mass of the tumor and are non-migratory. However iCSCs, via paracrine signaling, induce conversion of non-stem cancer cells to CSCs that (i) are identical to the previously reported mCSCs, and (ii) in contrast to iCSCs, express chemokine receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), which is crucial for their metastatic potential. These mCSCs also demonstrate high in vivo tumorigenicity. Physical non-participation of iCSCs in metastasis is further validated in vivo, where only mCSCs are found to exist in the metastatic sites, lymph nodes and bone marrow, whereas the primary tumor retains both iCSCs and mCSCs. However, iCSCs ensure metastasis since their presence is crucial for deliverance of highly metastatic CXCR4(+) mCSCs to the migrating fraction of cells. Cumulatively, these results unveil a novel role of iCSCs in breast cancer metastasis as parental regulators of CXCR4(+) mCSCs, and highlight the therapeutic requisite of targeting iCSCs, but not CXCR4(+) mCSCs, to restrain breast cancer metastasis from the root by inhibiting the generation of mCSCs from iCSCs. Considering the pivotal role of iCSCs in tumor metastasis, the possibility of metastasis to be a 'stem cell phenomena' is suggested.

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 Usage in a Cohort of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Subjects with Progressive HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.

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    Martin R Jakobsen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV is responsible for most HIV-1 cases worldwide. Although the pathogenesis of C-HIV is thought to predominantly involve CCR5-restricted (R5 strains, we do not have a firm understanding of how frequently CXCR4-using (X4 and R5X4 variants emerge in subjects with progressive C-HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular determinants of coreceptor switching by C-HIV variants. Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs (n = 300 cloned sequentially from plasma of 21 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve subjects who experienced progression from chronic to advanced stages of C-HIV infection, and show that CXCR4-using C-HIV variants emerged in only one individual. Mutagenesis studies and structural models suggest that the evolution of R5 to X4 variants in this subject principally involved acquisition of an "Ile-Gly" insertion in the gp120 V3 loop and replacement of the V3 "Gly-Pro-Gly" crown with a "Gly-Arg-Gly" motif, but that the accumulation of additional gp120 "scaffold" mutations was required for these V3 loop changes to confer functional effects. In this context, either of the V3 loop changes could confer possible transitional R5X4 phenotypes, but when present together they completely abolished CCR5 usage and conferred the X4 phenotype. Our results show that the emergence of CXCR4-using strains is rare in this cohort of untreated individuals with advanced C-HIV infection. In the subject where X4 variants did emerge, alterations in the gp120 V3 loop were necessary but not sufficient to confer CXCR4 usage.

  8. CXCL12 MODULATION OF CXCR4 AND CXCR7 ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA STEM-LIKE CELLS AND REGULATION OF THE TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT

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    Roberto eWurth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are crucial autocrine and paracrine players in tumor development. In particular, CXCL12, through its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, affects tumor progression by controlling cancer cell survival, proliferation and migration, and, indirectly, via angiogenesis or recruiting immune cells.Glioblastoma (GBM is the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumor in adults and despite current multimodal therapies it remains almost incurable. The aggressive and recurrent phenotype of GBM is ascribed to high growth rate, invasiveness to normal brain, marked angiogenesis, ability to escape the immune system and resistance to standard of care therapies. Tumor molecular and cellular heterogeneity severely hinders GBM therapeutic improvement. In particular, a subpopulation of chemo- and radio-therapy resistant tumorigenic cancer stem–like cells (CSCs is believed to be the main responsible for tumor cell dissemination to the brain.GBM cells display heterogeneous expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 that are overexpressed in CSCs, representing a molecular correlate for the invasive potential of GBM. The microenvironment contribution in GBM development is increasingly emphasized. An interplay exists between CSCs, differentiated GBM cells, and the microenvironment, mainly through secreted chemokines (e.g. CXCL12 causing recruitment of fibroblasts, endothelial, mesenchymal and inflammatory cells to the tumor, via specific receptors such as CXCR4.This review covers recent developments on the role of CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7 networks in GBM progression and the potential translational impact of their targeting. The biological and molecular understanding of the heterogeneous GBM cell behavior, phenotype and signaling is still limited. Progress in the identification of chemokine-dependent mechanisms that affect GBM cell survival, trafficking and chemo-attractive functions, opens new perspectives for development of more specific therapeutic approaches that include

  9. Rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors by AMD3100 and catecholamines is mediated by CXCR4-dependent SDF-1 release from bone marrow stromal cells

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    Kalinkovich, Alexander; Itkin, Tomer; Ludin, Aya; Kao, Wei-Ming; Battista, Michela; Tesio, Melania; Kollet, Orit; Cohen, Neta Netzer; Margalit, Raanan; Buss, Eike C.; Baleux, Francoise; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Larochelle, Andre; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Frenette, Paul S.; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state egress of hematopoietic progenitor cells can be rapidly amplified by mobilizing agents such as AMD3100, the mechanism, however, is poorly understood. We report that AMD3100 increased the homeostatic release of the chemokine SDF-1 to the circulation in mice and non-human primates. Neutralizing antibodies against CXCR4 or SDF-1 inhibited both steady-state and AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release and reduced egress of murine progenitor cells over mature leukocytes. Intra-bone injection of biotinylated SDF-1 also enhanced release of this chemokine and murine progenitor cell mobilization. AMD3100 directly induced SDF-1 release from CXCR4+ human bone marrow osteoblasts and endothelial cells and activated uPA in a CXCR4/JNK-dependent manner. Additionally, ROS inhibition reduced AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release, activation of circulating uPA and mobilization of progenitor cells. Norepinephrine treatment, mimicking acute stress, rapidly increased SDF-1 release and progenitor cell mobilization, while β2-adrenergic antagonist inhibited both steady-state and AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release and progenitor cell mobilization in mice. In conclusion, this study reveals that SDF-1 release from bone marrow stromal cells to the circulation emerges as a pivotal mechanism essential for steady state egress and rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, but not mature leukocytes. PMID:21494253

  10. Integrating MRI and Chemokine Receptor CXCR4-Targeted PET for Detection of Leukocyte Infiltration in Complicated Urinary Tract Infections After Kidney Transplantation.

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    Derlin, Thorsten; Gueler, Faikah; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Schmitz, Jessica; Hartung, Dagmar; Herrmann, Thomas R; Ross, Tobias L; Wacker, Frank; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Hiss, Marcus; Haller, Hermann; Bengel, Frank M; Hueper, Katja

    2017-11-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in immunosuppressed patients after kidney transplantation and may lead to allograft failure or urosepsis. Noninvasive detection of allograft involvement as well as localization of the primary site of infection are challenging. Therefore, we sought to determine whether molecularly targeted PET, combined with diffusion-weighted MRI, enables detection of leukocytes in renal allografts. Methods: Thirteen kidney transplant recipients with complicated UTIs underwent both PET with a specific CXCR4 ligand, 68 Ga-pentixafor, and diffusion-weighted MRI. The spatial distribution and intensity of CXCR4 upregulation in renal allografts as determined by SUVs on PET and diffusion restriction as determined by apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) on MRI were analyzed and compared with urinalysis, clinical chemistry and bacteriology, and biopsy, if available. Results: Combined PET/MRI detected acute allograft infection in 9 patients and lower UTI/nonurologic infections in the remaining 4 patients. Leukocyte infiltration was identified by areas of CXCR4 upregulation compared with unaffected parenchyma in PET (SUV mean , 4.6 vs. 3.7; P infection. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on glutamine and alters migratory profile of infected host bone marrow derived immune cells through SNAT2 and CXCR4 pathways.

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    I-Ping Lee

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, disseminates through its host inside infected immune cells. We hypothesize that parasite nutrient requirements lead to manipulation of migratory properties of the immune cell. We demonstrate that 1 T. gondii relies on glutamine for optimal infection, replication and viability, and 2 T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs display both "hypermotility" and "enhanced migration" to an elevated glutamine gradient in vitro. We show that glutamine uptake by the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2 is required for this enhanced migration. SNAT2 transport of glutamine is also a significant factor in the induction of migration by the small cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in uninfected DCs. Blocking both SNAT2 and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4; the unique receptor for SDF-1 blocks hypermotility and the enhanced migration in T. gondii-infected DCs. Changes in host cell protein expression following T. gondii infection may explain the altered migratory phenotype; we observed an increase of CD80 and unchanged protein level of CXCR4 in both T. gondii-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated DCs. However, unlike activated DCs, SNAT2 expression in the cytosol of infected cells was also unchanged. Thus, our results suggest an important role of glutamine transport via SNAT2 in immune cell migration and a possible interaction between SNAT2 and CXCR4, by which T. gondii manipulates host cell motility.

  12. Role of CXCR4-mediated bone marrow colonization in CNS infiltration by T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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    Jost, Tanja Rezzonico; Borga, Chiara; Radaelli, Enrico; Romagnani, Andrea; Perruzza, Lisa; Omodho, Lorna; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Biondi, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Thelen, Marcus; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Infiltration of the central nervous system is a severe trait of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 significantly ameliorates T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in murine models of the disease; however, signaling by CXC chemokine receptor 4 is important in limiting the divagation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells out of the perivascular space into the central nervous system parenchyma. Therefore, Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 potentially may untangle T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from retention outside the brain. Here, we show that leukemic lymphoblasts massively infiltrate cranial bone marrow, with diffusion to the meninges without invasion of the brain parenchyma, in mice that underwent xenotransplantation with human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells or that developed leukemia from transformed hematopoietic progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia neuropathology results from meningeal infiltration through CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated bone marrow colonization. Inhibition of leukemia engraftment in the bone marrow by pharmacologic CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonism significantly ameliorated neuropathologic aspects of the disease. Genetic deletion of CXCR4 in murine hematopoietic progenitors abrogated leukemogenesis induced by constitutively active Notch1, whereas lack of CCR6 and CCR7, which have been shown to be involved in T cell and leukemia extravasation into the central nervous system, respectively, did not influence T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development. We hypothesize that lymphoblastic meningeal infiltration as a result of bone marrow colonization is responsible for the degenerative alterations of the neuroparenchyma as well as the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Therefore, CXC chemokine receptor 4 may constitute a pharmacologic target for T cell acute lymphoblastic

  13. Osteoprotegerin regulates cancer cell migration through SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and promotes tumour development by increasing neovascularization.

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    Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Pereira, Jessica; Lokajczyk, Anna; Dizier, Blandine; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Heymann, Dominique; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported that OPG is involved in ischemic tissue neovascularization through the secretion of SDF-1 by pretreated-OPG endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). As the vascularization is one of the key factor influencing the tumour growth and cancer cell dissemination, we investigated whether OPG was able to modulate the invasion of human MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Cell motility was analysed in vitro by using Boyden chambers. Human GFP-labelled MMNG-HOS cells were inoculated in immunodeficient mice and the tumour nodules formed were then injected with OPG and/or FGF-2, AMD3100 or 0.9% NaCl (control group). Tumour growth was manually followed and angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, SDF-1 released by OPG-pretreated ECFCs markedly attracted both MNNG-HOS and DU145 cells and induced spontaneous migration of cancer cells. In vivo, tumour volumes were significantly increased in OPG-treated group compared to the control group and OPG potentiated the effect of FGF-2. Concomitantly, OPG alone or combined with FGF-2 increased the number of new vasculature compared to the control group. Interestingly AMD3100, an inhibitor of SDF-1, prevented the in vivo effects of OPG induced by SDF-1 This study provides experimental evidence that OPG promotes tumour development trough SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants followed by rapid disease progression in hemophiliac slow progressors.

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    Tsunefusa Hayashida

    Full Text Available The association between emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants (X4 variants and disease progression of HIV-1 infection has been reported. However, it is not known whether the emergence of X4 variants is the cause or result of HIV-1 disease progression. We tried to answer this question.HIV-1 env sequences around the V3 region were analyzed in serially stocked samples in order to determine whether X4 variants emerged before or after the fall in CD4+ T-cell count.The study subjects were five HIV-1-infected hemophiliac slow progressors. Deep sequencing around the HIV-1 env V3 region was conducted in duplicate. Tropism was predicted by geno2pheno [coreceptor] 2.5 with cutoff value of false positive ratio at <5%. When X4 variant was identified in the latest stocked sample before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, we checked viral genotype in previously stocked samples to determine the time of emergence of X4 variants.Emergence of X4 variants was noted in two of the five patients when their CD4+ T-cell counts were still high. The rate of decrease of CD4+ T-cell count or of rise of HIV-1 load accelerated significantly after the emergence of X4 variants in these two cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these X4 variants emerged from CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses with several amino acid changes in the V3 region.The emergence of X4 variants preceded HIV-1 disease progression in two hemophiliac slow progressors.

  15. Nef-M1, a peptide antagonist of CXCR4, inhibits tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon and breast cancers

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    Katkoori, Venkat R.; Basson, Marc D.; Bond, Vincent C.; Manne, Upender; Bumpers, Harvey L.

    2015-01-01

    The Nef-M1 peptide competes effectively with the natural ligand of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha, to induce apoptosis and inhibit growth in colon cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC). Its role in tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation, key steps involved in tumor growth and metastasis, are unknown. We evaluated the angioinhibitory effect of Nef-M1 peptide and examined its role in the inhibition of EMT in these cancers. Colon (HT29) and breast (MDA-MB231) cancer cells expressing CXCR4 were studied in vitro and in xenograft tumors propagated in severe combined immunodeficient mice. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with Nef-M1 or scrambled amino acid sequence of Nef-M1 (sNef-M1) peptide, a negative control, starting at the time of tumor implantation. Sections from tumors were evaluated for tumor angiogenesis, as measured by microvessel density (MVD) based on immunostaining of endothelial markers. In vitro tumor angiogenesis was assessed by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells with conditioned media from the tumor cell lines. A BC cell line (MDA-MB 468) which does not express CXCR4 was used to study the actions of Nef-M1 peptide. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses assessed the effect of Nef-M1 on tumor angiogenesis and EMT in both tumors and cancer cells. Metastatic lesions of CRC and BC expressed more CXCR4 than primary lesions. It was also found that tumors from mice treated with sNef-M1 had well established vascularity, while Nef-M1 treated tumors had very poor vascularization. Indeed, the mean MVD was lower in tumors from Nef-M1 treated mice than in sNef-M1 treated tumors. Nef-M1 treated tumor has poor morphology and loss of endothelial integrity. Although conditioned medium from CRC or BC cells supported HUVEC tube formation, the conditioned medium from Nef-M1 treated CRC or BC cells did not support tube formation. Western blot analyses revealed that Nef-M1

  16. Src homology 2-domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa is mandatory for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling, but dispensable for CXCR4-mediated LFA-1 activation, adhesion, and migration of T cells.

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    Horn, Jessica; Wang, Xiaoqian; Reichardt, Peter; Stradal, Theresia E; Warnecke, Nicole; Simeoni, Luca; Gunzer, Matthias; Yablonski, Deborah; Schraven, Burkhart; Kliche, Stefanie

    2009-11-01

    Engagement of the TCR or of chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 induces adhesion and migration of T cells via so-called inside-out signaling pathways. The molecular processes underlying inside-out signaling events are as yet not completely understood. In this study, we show that TCR- and CXCR4-mediated activation of integrins critically depends on the membrane recruitment of the adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein (ADAP)/Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein of 55 kDa (SKAP55)/Rap1-interacting adapter protein (RIAM)/Rap1 module. We further demonstrate that the Src homology 2 domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP76) is crucial for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling and T cell/APC interaction. Besides facilitating membrane recruitment of ADAP, SKAP55, and RIAM, SLP76 regulates TCR-mediated inside-out signaling by controlling the activation of Rap1 as well as Rac-mediated actin polymerization. Surprisingly, however, SLP76 is not mandatory for CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling. Indeed, both CXCR4-induced T cell adhesion and migration are not affected by loss of SLP76. Moreover, after CXCR4 stimulation, the ADAP/SKAP55/RIAM/Rap1 module is recruited to the plasma membrane independently of SLP76. Collectively, our data indicate a differential requirement for SLP76 in TCR- vs CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling pathways regulating T cell adhesion and migration.

  17. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling up-regulates survivin to regulate human sacral chondrosarcoma cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway.

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    Yang, Peng; Wang, Gang; Huo, Hongjun; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yuanhang

    2015-01-01

    Human sacral chondrosarcoma, the most common one of malignant tumors, has a potent capacity to invade locally and metastasize. Notably, CXCR4 and survivin are widely recommended as a candidate of the molecule-targeted therapy. However, the roles and associations of CXCR4 and survivin in sacral chondrosarcoma have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated CXCR4 and survivin expression in human sacral chondrosarcoma. Resected sacral chondrosarcoma specimens were available from 30 patients. In vitro human chondrosarcoma cell lines SW1353 was used. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RNA interference, and cell cycle analyses were conducted. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CXCR4 and survivin expressed in 83.3 and 86.7 % of sacral chondrosarcoma tissues, respectively, and both were closely associated with grade and recurrence (p treatment. However, the interference with MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway affected SDF-1-induced up-regulation of survivin. Besides survivin siRNA affected cell cycle progression and the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers: Snail and N-cadherin, when compared with those of non-transfection. In conclusion, the present study shows that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling up-regulates survivin via MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway, leading to cell cycle and EMT occurrence in human sacral chondrosarcoma. The antagonizing of CXCR4 and/or survivin might benefit patients with sacral chondrosarcoma.

  18. Lymph Node Stromal Cells Enhance Drug-Resistant Colon Cancer Cell Tumor Formation through SDF-1α/CXCR4 Paracrine Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Margolin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in America. Nearly two thirds of newly diagnosed CRC cases include lymph node (LN involvement, and LN metastasis is one of the strongest negative prognostic factors for CRC. It is thought that CRC tumors contain a small population of drug-resistant CRC tumor-initiating cells (Co-TICs that may be responsible for cancer recurrence. To evaluate the effects of the LN stromal cells on Co-TICs, we established a unique xenoplant model using CRC cells isolated by enzymatic digestion from consented patient specimens, HT-29 cells, HCA-7 cells, and LN stromal cell line HK cells. We found that HK cells and HK cell-conditioned media enhanced CRC tumor formation and tumor angiogenesis. Cells expressing CD133+ and the stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 were enriched in chemotherapeutic-resistant CRC cells. CD133+CXCR4+ Co-TICs isolated from patient specimens are more tumorigenic than unsorted tumor cells. Furthermore, the inhibitors specific to HK cell-derived SDF-1α reduced tumor formation and tumor angiogenesis. Our results have demonstrated a role for Co-TICs in tumor growth and defined the influence of LN stromal cells on Co-TICs. We have identified a major Co-TIC/LN microenvironment-specific mechanism for CRC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and established experimental platforms for both in vitro and in vivo testing, indicating that SDF-1α and its receptor, CXCR4, may be targets for clinical therapy.

  19. HIV-1 Tropism Dynamics and Phylogenetic Analysis from Longitudinal Ultra-Deep Sequencing Data of CCR5- and CXCR4-Using Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Mariano M.; Moretti, Franco A.; Laufer, Natalia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. The molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the CCR5 to CXCR4 switch are the focus of intense recent research. We studied the HIV-1 tropism dynamics in relation to coreceptor usage, the nature of quasispecies from ultra deep sequencing (UDPS) data and their phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, we characterized C2-V3-C3 sequences of HIV obtained from 19 patients followed up for 54 to 114 months using UDPS, with further genotyping and phylogenetic analysis for coreceptor usage. HIV quasispecies diversity and variability as well as HIV plasma viral load were measured longitudinally and their relationship with the HIV coreceptor usage was analyzed. The longitudinal UDPS data were submitted to phylogenetic analysis and sampling times and coreceptor usage were mapped onto the trees obtained. Results Although a temporal viral genetic structuring was evident, the persistence of several viral lineages evolving independently along the infection was statistically supported, indicating a complex scenario for the evolution of viral quasispecies. HIV X4-using variants were present in most of our patients, exhibiting a dissimilar inter- and intra-patient predominance as the component of quasispecies even on antiretroviral therapy. The viral populations from some of the patients studied displayed evidences of the evolution of X4 variants through fitness valleys, whereas for other patients the data favored a gradual mode of emergence. Conclusions CXCR4 usage can emerge independently, in multiple lineages, along the course of HIV infection. The mode of emergence, i.e. gradual or through fitness valleys seems to depend on both virus and patient factors. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that, besides becoming dominant after population-level switches, minor proportions of X4 viruses might exist along the infection, perhaps even at early stages of it. The fate of these minor

  20. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Wei [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wen, Ti [College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300036 (China); Gu, Tian-Xiang, E-mail: cmugtx@sina.com [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Li-Ling, Jesse [Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Medical Genetics, School of Life Science and Key Laboratory for Bio-resources and Eco-environment of the Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Tian-Jun; Lue, Feng [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1{sub {alpha}} (SDF-1{sub {alpha}}) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  1. The CXCR4–STAT3–IL-10 Pathway Controls the Immunoregulatory Function of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Is Modulated by Lenalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shaim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells possess regulatory functions comparable to those of normal B10 cells, a regulatory B cell subset that suppresses effector T-cell function through STAT3-mediated IL-10 production. However, the mechanisms governing IL-10 production by CLL cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12–CXCR4–STAT3 axis regulates IL-10 production by CLL cells and their ability to suppress T-cell effector function through an IL-10 mediated mechanism. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly impaired the ability of CLL cells to produce IL-10. Furthermore, experiments to assess the role of lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with direct antitumor effect as well as pleiotropic activity on the immune system, showed that this agent prevents a CXCL12-induced increase in p-S727-STAT3 and the IL-10 response by CLL cells. Lenalidomide also suppressed IL-10-induced Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation in healthy T cells, thus reversing CLL-induced T-cell dysfunction. We conclude that the capacity of CLL cells to produce IL-10 is mediated by the CXCL12–CXCR4–STAT3 pathway and likely contributes to immunodeficiency in patients. Lenalidomide appears to be able to reverse CLL-induced immunosuppression through including abrogation of the CXCL12–CXCR4–S727–STAT3-mediated IL-10 response by CLL cells and prevention of IL-10-induced phosphorylation of Y705-STAT3 in T cells.

  2. Frequent detection of CXCR4-using viruses among Brazilian blood donors with HIV-1 long-standing infection and unknown clinical stage: Analysis of massive parallel sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessôa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of viral tropism is critically important and highly recommended to guide therapy with the CCR5 antagonist, which does not inhibit the effect of X4-tropic viruses. Here, we report the prevalence of HIV-1×4 HIV strains in 84 proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing “MPS” data from well-defined non-recently infected first-time Brazilian blood donors. The MPS data covering the entire V3 region of the env gene was extracted from our recently generated HIV-1 genomes sequenced by a paired-end protocol (Illumina. Of the 84 MPS data samples, 63 (75% were derived from donors with long-standing infection and 21 (25% were lacking stage information. HIV‐1 tropism was inferred using Geno2pheno (g2p [454] algorithm (FPR=1%, 2.5%, and 3.75%. Among the 84 data samples for which tropism was defined by g2p2.5%, 13 (15.5% participants had detectable CXCR4-using viruses in their MPS reads. Mixed infections with R5 and X4 were observed in 11.9% of the study subjects and minority X4 viruses were detected in 7 (8.3% of participants. Nine of the 63 (14.3% subjects with LS infection were predicted by g2p 2.5% to harbor proviral CXCR4-using viruses. Our findings of a high proportion of blood donors (15.5% harboring CXCR4-using viruses in PBMCs may indicate that this phenomenon is common. These findings may have implications for clinical and therapeutic aspects and may benefit individuals who plan to receive CCR5 antagonists.

  3. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  4. HIV-1 tropism dynamics and phylogenetic analysis from longitudinal ultra-deep sequencing data of CCR5- and CXCR4-using variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Mariano M; Moretti, Franco A; Laufer, Natalia L; Jones, Leandro R; Quarleri, Jorge F

    2014-01-01

    Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. The molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the CCR5 to CXCR4 switch are the focus of intense recent research. We studied the HIV-1 tropism dynamics in relation to coreceptor usage, the nature of quasispecies from ultra deep sequencing (UDPS) data and their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we characterized C2-V3-C3 sequences of HIV obtained from 19 patients followed up for 54 to 114 months using UDPS, with further genotyping and phylogenetic analysis for coreceptor usage. HIV quasispecies diversity and variability as well as HIV plasma viral load were measured longitudinally and their relationship with the HIV coreceptor usage was analyzed. The longitudinal UDPS data were submitted to phylogenetic analysis and sampling times and coreceptor usage were mapped onto the trees obtained. Although a temporal viral genetic structuring was evident, the persistence of several viral lineages evolving independently along the infection was statistically supported, indicating a complex scenario for the evolution of viral quasispecies. HIV X4-using variants were present in most of our patients, exhibiting a dissimilar inter- and intra-patient predominance as the component of quasispecies even on antiretroviral therapy. The viral populations from some of the patients studied displayed evidences of the evolution of X4 variants through fitness valleys, whereas for other patients the data favored a gradual mode of emergence. CXCR4 usage can emerge independently, in multiple lineages, along the course of HIV infection. The mode of emergence, i.e. gradual or through fitness valleys seems to depend on both virus and patient factors. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that, besides becoming dominant after population-level switches, minor proportions of X4 viruses might exist along the infection, perhaps even at early stages of it. The fate of these minor variants might depend on both viral and host

  5. Innate Immunity Derived Factors as External Modulators of the CXCL12 - CXCR4 Axis and Their Role in Stem Cell Homing and Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Serwin, Karol; Schneider, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The ?-chemokine CXCL12 (stromal derived factor-1; SDF-1) and its corresponding G?I protein-coupled CXCR4 receptor axis play an important role in retention of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in bone marrow (BM) stem cell niches. CXCL12 has also been identified as a strong chemoattractant for HSPCs and implicated both in homing of HSPCs to BM after transplantation and in egress of these cells from BM into peripheral blood (PB). However, since CXCL12, as a peptide, is highly suscepti...

  6. Innate Immunity Derived Factors as External Modulators of the CXCL12 - CXCR4 Axis and Their Role in Stem Cell Homing and Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak, Karol Serwin, Gabriela Schneider

    2013-01-01

    The α-chemokine CXCL12 (stromal derived factor-1; SDF-1) and its corresponding GαI protein-coupled CXCR4 receptor axis play an important role in retention of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in bone marrow (BM) stem cell niches. CXCL12 has also been identified as a strong chemoattractant for HSPCs and implicated both in homing of HSPCs to BM after transplantation and in egress of these cells from BM into peripheral blood (PB). However, since CXCL12, as a peptide, is highl...

  7. Modest human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor function of CXCR3 is strongly enhanced by mimicking the CXCR4 ligand binding pocket in the CXCR3 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Huskens, Dana; Princen, Katrien

    2007-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 can exhibit weak coreceptor function for several human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 strains and clinical isolates. These viruses produced microscopically visible cytopathicity in U87.CD4.CXCR3 cell cultures, whereas untransfected (CXCR3-negative) U87...... at positions 300 and 304 of the CXCR3 receptor. This mutant receptor (CXCR3[K300A, S304E]) showed markedly enhanced HIV coreceptor function compared to the wild-type receptor (CXCR3[WT]). Moreover, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 exhibited antagonistic and anti-HIV activities in U87.CD4.CXCR3[K300A, S304E] cells...

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 Usage in a Cohort of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve Subjects with Progressive HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Cashin, Kieran; Roche, Michael

    2013-01-01

    -HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular determinants of coreceptor switching by C-HIV variants. Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) (n = 300) cloned sequentially from plasma of 21 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve subjects who experienced progression from......HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV) is responsible for most HIV-1 cases worldwide. Although the pathogenesis of C-HIV is thought to predominantly involve CCR5-restricted (R5) strains, we do not have a firm understanding of how frequently CXCR4-using (X4 and R5X4) variants emerge in subjects with progressive C...

  9. Detection of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutation in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin-Xin; Meng, Qi; Cai, Hao; He, Tian-Hua; Zhang, Cong-Li; Su, Wei; Sun, Jian; Li, Yue; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Li, Jian

    2017-06-01

    A broad spectrum of diseases are associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, including Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), various types of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), primary amyloidosis (AL), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); these are called IgM monoclonal gammopathy related diseases (IgM-RD). We investigated MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations in various IgM-RD. Patients with serum immunofixation electrophoresis confirmed IgM monoclonal gammopathy who had enough material for DNA extraction and presented between January 2008 and October 2016 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cohort. We performed real-time allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing to explore the presence of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations. One hundred and twelve patients (64 male and 48 female patients) were included in this retrospective study. The median age at diagnosis was 62 years (range, 30-84 years). In total, 64 patients (57.1%) carried the MYD88 L265P mutation and 14 patients (12.5%) carried the CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation. We identified the MYD88 L265P somatic variant in cases with WM (39/42), MGUS (8/18), NHL (14/41, including 4/13 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 1/8 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, 3/6 splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), 1/4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 2/3 nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), 1/2 mantle cell lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, and 1 B cell NHL that could not be classified), primary AL (2/2), and IgM-PN (1/1). The mutation was absent in five patients with Cryoglobulinemia, two with primary cold agglutinin disease and one with MM. The CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation was present in 10/42 patients with WM, 3/41 with NHL (1 DLBCL, 1 SMZL, and 1 NMZL), and 1/18 patients with IgM MGUS. Among the patients with NHL, those with the mutated MYD88 L265P genotype were younger and had lower level of IgG and IgA than the patients with the

  10. miR-146a controls CXCR4 expression in a pathway that involves PLZF and can be used to inhibit HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Maria Teresa; Olivetta, Eleonora; Sanchez, Massimo; Spinello, Isabella; Paolillo, Rosa; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio; Labbaye, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNA miR-146a and PLZF are reported as major players in the control of hematopoiesis, immune function and cancer. PLZF is described as a miR-146a repressor, whereas CXCR4 and TRAF6 were identified as miR-146a direct targets in different cell types. CXCR4 is a co-receptor of CD4 molecule that facilitates HIV-1 entry into T lymphocytes and myeloid cells, whereas TRAF6 is involved in immune response. Thus, the role of miR-146a in HIV-1 infection is currently being thoroughly investigated. In this study, we found that PLZF mediates suppression of miR-146a to control increases of CXCR4 and TRAF6 protein levels in human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We show that miR-146a upregulation by AMD3100 treatment or PLZF silencing, decreases CXCR4 protein expression and prevents HIV-1 infection of leukemic monocytic cell line and CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Our findings improve the prospects of developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent HIV-1 entry via CXCR4 by using the PLZF/miR-146a axis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 promotes mesenchymal stem cell mobilization in rats preconditioned with the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhen; Yu, Qin; Fu, Shan; Wang, Binsheng; Hu, Kaimin; Wang, Limengmeng; Hu, Yongxian; Xu, Yulin; Yu, Xiaohong; Huang, He

    2018-02-13

    Mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive strategy for cell therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that MSCs can be mobilized in circulating blood by short-term hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is essential for MSC mobilization. In the present study, the effect of the hypoxia mimicking agent CoCl2 was examined on MSC mobilization. The results indicated that the frequency of circulating MSCs increased slightly by administration of CoCl2. However, the mobilization efficiency was low. Considering the critical role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis in the regulation of MSC migration, the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 were investigated on MSC mobilization. The experiments were notably demonstrated in animals preconditioned with CoCl2. The frequency of colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-Fs) and the proportion of CD45-CD90+ cells did not significantly increase in the peripheral blood of rats treated with G-CSF and/or AMD3100 alone. The concomitant administration of G-CSF with CoCl2 could not stimulate the release of MSCs. However, AMD3100 dramatically increased MSC mobilization efficiency in rats pretreated with CoCl2. Furthermore, we identified and compared the multi-lineage differentiation capacities of MSCs derived from BM (BM-MSCs) and mobilized PB (PB-MSCs). The results indicated that PB-MSCs exhibited higher osteogenic potential and lower adipogenic differentiation compared with BM-MSCs. The findings may inform studies investigating mechanisms of the regulation of MSC mobilization and can aid the development of clinically useful therapeutic agents.

  12. Preferential infiltration of interleukin-4-producing CXCR4+ T cells in the lesional muscle but not skin of patients with dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, T; Ito, T; Ogawa, N; Suda, T; Tokura, Y; Hashizume, H

    2014-07-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are collectively termed autoimmune myopathy. To investigate the difference between muscle- and skin-infiltrating T cells and to address their role for myopathy, we characterized T cells that were directly expanded from the tissues. Enrolled into this study were 25 patients with DM and three patients with PM. Muscle and skin biopsied specimens were immersed in cRPMI medium supplemented with interleukin (IL)-2 and anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-conjugated microbeads. The expanded cells were subjected to flow cytometry to examine their phenotypes. We analysed the cytokine concentration in the culture supernatants from the expanded T cells and the frequencies of cytokine-bearing cells by intracellular staining. There was non-biased in-vitro expansion of tissue-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from the muscle and skin specimens. The majority of expanded T cells were chemokine receptor (CCR) type 7(-) CD45RO(+) effecter memory cells with various T cell receptor (TCR) Vβs. The skin-derived but not muscle-derived T cells expressed cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and CCR10 and secreted large amounts of IL-17A, suggesting that T helper type 17 (Th17) cells may have a crucial role in the development of skin lesions. Notably, the frequency of IL-4-producing chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4(+) Th2 cells was significantly higher in the muscle-derived cells and correlated inversely with the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12, a ligand for CXCR4, was expressed at a high level in the vascular endothelial cells between muscular fasciculi. Our study suggests that T cell populations in the muscle and skin are different, and the Th2 cell infiltrate in the muscle is associated with the low severity of myositis in DM. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Intra-articular injection of human meniscus stem/progenitor cells promotes meniscus regeneration and ameliorates osteoarthritis through stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4-mediated homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Weishan; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. In this study, we report a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of novel human meniscus stem/progenitor cells (hMeSPCs). We found that hMeSPCs displayed both mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and high expression levels of collagen II. In the rat meniscus injury model, hMeSPC transplantation not only led to more neo-tissue formation and better-defined shape but also resulted in more rounded cells and matured extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhanced the migration of hMeSPCs, whereas AMD3100 abolished the chemotactic effects of SDF-1 on hMeSPCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In an experimental OA model, transplantation of hMeSPCs effectively protected articular cartilage, as evidenced by reduced expression of OA markers such as collagen I, collagen X, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α but increased expression of collagen II. Our study demonstrated for the first time that intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs enhanced meniscus regeneration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our study highlights a new strategy of intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs for meniscus regeneration.

  15. Oxidized Lipids and Lysophosphatidylcholine Induce the Chemotaxis, Up-Regulate the Expression of CCR9 and CXCR4 and Abrogate the Release of IL-6 in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Johannes; Vego, Heidi; Maghazachi, Azzam A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids through regulation of chronic inflammation play key roles in the development of various diseases. Here, we report that a mixed population of human primary monocytes migrated towards LPC, as well as oxidized linoleic acid isoforms 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE and 13-R-HODE. Incubation with 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased expression of CXCR4, the receptor for SDF-1α/CXCL12, correlated with increased monocyte migration towards SDF-1α/CXCL12. Further, we report increased expression of CCR9, the receptor for TECK/CCL25, after stimulation with these lipids. Upon examining the migratory response towards TECK/CCL25, it was observed that an increase in CCR9 expression upon pre-treatment with 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased migration of monocytes expressing CCR9. Only LPC but not any other lipid examined increased the influx of intracellular Ca2+ in monocytes. Finally, 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE, or LPC inhibited the release of IL-6 from monocytes suggesting that these lipids may play important role in controlling inflammatory responses. PMID:25251539

  16. The maintenance of cisplatin- and paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia is suppressed by cannabinoid CB₂ receptor activation and independent of CXCR4 signaling in models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liting; Guindon, Josée; Vemuri, V Kiran; Thakur, Ganesh A; White, Fletcher A; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2012-09-22

    Chemotherapeutic agents produce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We previously showed that AM1710, a cannabilactone CB₂ agonist, produces antinociception without producing central nervous system (CNS)-associated side effects. The present study was conducted to examine the antinociceptive effect of AM1710 in rodent models of neuropathic pain evoked by diverse chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and paclitaxel). A secondary objective was to investigate the potential contribution of alpha-chemokine receptor (CXCR4) signaling to both chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and CB₂ agonist efficacy. AM1710 (0.1, 1 or 5 mg/kg i.p.) suppressed the maintenance of mechanical and cold allodynia in the cisplatin and paclitaxel models. Anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 were blocked by the CB₂ antagonist AM630 (3 mg/kg i.p.), but not the CB1 antagonist AM251 (3 mg/kg i.p.), consistent with a CB₂-mediated effect. By contrast, blockade of CXCR4 signaling with its receptor antagonist AMD3100 (10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to attenuate mechanical or cold hypersensitivity induced by either cisplatin or paclitaxel. Moreover, blockade of CXCR4 signaling failed to alter the anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 in the paclitaxel model, further suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Our results indicate that activation of cannabinoid CB₂ receptors by AM1710 suppresses both mechanical and cold allodynia in two distinct models of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. By contrast, CXCR4 signaling does not contribute to the maintenance of chemotherapy-induced established neuropathy or efficacy of AM1710. Our studies suggest that CB₂ receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of toxic neuropathies produced by cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. The maintenance of cisplatin- and paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia is suppressed by cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation and independent of CXCR4 signaling in models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Liting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapeutic agents produce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We previously showed that AM1710, a cannabilactone CB2 agonist, produces antinociception without producing central nervous system (CNS-associated side effects. The present study was conducted to examine the antinociceptive effect of AM1710 in rodent models of neuropathic pain evoked by diverse chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and paclitaxel. A secondary objective was to investigate the potential contribution of alpha-chemokine receptor (CXCR4 signaling to both chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and CB2 agonist efficacy. Results AM1710 (0.1, 1 or 5 mg/kg i.p. suppressed the maintenance of mechanical and cold allodynia in the cisplatin and paclitaxel models. Anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 were blocked by the CB2 antagonist AM630 (3 mg/kg i.p., but not the CB1 antagonist AM251 (3 mg/kg i.p., consistent with a CB2-mediated effect. By contrast, blockade of CXCR4 signaling with its receptor antagonist AMD3100 (10 mg/kg i.p. failed to attenuate mechanical or cold hypersensitivity induced by either cisplatin or paclitaxel. Moreover, blockade of CXCR4 signaling failed to alter the anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 in the paclitaxel model, further suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Conclusions Our results indicate that activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors by AM1710 suppresses both mechanical and cold allodynia in two distinct models of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. By contrast, CXCR4 signaling does not contribute to the maintenance of chemotherapy-induced established neuropathy or efficacy of AM1710. Our studies suggest that CB2 receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of toxic neuropathies produced by cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Transplanted hUCB-MSCs migrated to the damaged area by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling to promote functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Ning; Yi, Bo; Zhang, Xiaochong; Gao, Bing Bing; Zhang, Yesen; Xu, Ruxiang; Li, Xin; Dai, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Transplanted human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have exhibited considerable therapeutic potential for traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, how hUC-MSCs migrating to the injury region and the mechanism of hUC-MSCs promoting functional recovery after TBI are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was involved in the hUC-MSCs migration and the possible mechanisms that might be involved in the beneficial effect on functional recovery. In vitro experiments demonstrated that SDF-1 induces a concentration-dependent migration of hUC-MSCs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 significantly prevented the migration of hUC-MSCs in vitro. We found that the expression of SDF-1 increased significantly around the damaged area. Transplanted hUC-MSCs were localized to regions where SDF-1 was highly expressed. Additionally, our results showed that hUC-MSCs-treated animals showed significantly improved functional recovery compared with controls. In hUC-MSCs-transplanted group, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were decreased and BrdU-positive cells were significantly increased compared with control group, more of BrdU-positive cells co-localized with GFAP. These suggest that SDF-1 plays an important role in the migration of hUC-MSCs to the damaged area and hUC-MSCs are beneficial for functional recovery after TBI.

  19. Expression of Biomarkers CXCR4, IL11-RA, TFF1, MLF1P in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients with Bone Metastatic: a Diagnostic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosphiadi Irawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze expression of biomarkers CXCR4, IL11-RA, TFF1 and MLF1P, and clinicopathology in advanced breast cancer patients with bone metastatic. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study. Analysis was done against a total of 92 breast cancer patients, including 46 bone metastatic patients and 46 non-bone metastatic patients. Immunohistochemistry and microarray analysis was performed in 81 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE samples from 81 patients were used. Data were collected through medical records, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and microarray with nanoString nCounterTM. Results: this article is part one of a two stage reporting research results. In part one we got the results of the IHC analysis, IL11-RA with cut-off ≥103.5 showed OR 3.803 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.375-10.581, p=0.010, MLF1P with cut-off ≥83.0 OR 2.784 (95% CI, 1.009-7.681, p=0.048, and ER+ OR 7.640 (95 % CI, 2.599-22.459, p<0.000, were associated with bone metastastic incidences in advanced breast cancer, and were statistically significantly different. A combination of IL-11RA, MLF1P and ER+, showed an accuracy of approaching 80% to discriminate between bone metastatic and non bone metastatic in advanced breast cancer patients. Conclusion: IL11-RA, MLF1P, and ER+ were the determinants that were associated with increasing bone metastasis incidence.

  20. Chemokine co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channel confers acute neuroprotection to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 exposure.

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    Andrew J Shepherd

    Full Text Available Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND, a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120 has been suggested to be a critical factor inducing apoptotic cell death in neurons via the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, upon chronic exposure to the virus. Here we show that acute exposure of neurons to HIV-1 gp120 elicits a homeostatic response, which provides protection against non-apoptotic cell death, involving the major somatodendritic voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv channel Kv2.1 as the key mediator. The Kv2.1 channel has recently been shown to provide homeostatic control of neuronal excitability under conditions of seizures, ischemia and neuromodulation/neuroinflammation. Following acute exposure to gp120, cultured rat hippocampal neurons show rapid dephosphorylation of the Kv2.1 protein, which ultimately leads to changes in specific sub-cellular localization and voltage-dependent channel activation properties of Kv2.1. Such modifications in Kv2.1 are dependent on the activation of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, and subsequent activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. This leads to the overall suppression of neuronal excitability and provides neurons with a homeostatic protective mechanism. Specific blockade of calcineurin and Kv2.1 channel activity led to significant enhancement of non-apoptotic neuronal death upon acute gp120 treatment. These observations shed new light on the intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal resilience during the acute stages of neuro-HIV infections.

  1. Heparin Oligosaccharides Inhibit Chemokine (CXC Motif) Ligand 12 (CXCL12) Cardioprotection by Binding Orthogonal to the Dimerization Interface, Promoting Oligomerization, and Competing with the Chemokine (CXC Motif) Receptor 4 (CXCR4) N Terminus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarek, Joshua J.; Veldkamp, Christopher T.; Zhang, Fuming; Murray, Nathan J.; Kartz, Gabriella A.; Liang, Xinle; Su, Jidong; Baker, John E.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to interact with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is essential to the cell migration properties of chemokines, but association with soluble GAGs induces the oligomerization of most chemokines including CXCL12. Monomeric CXCL12, but not dimeric CXCL12, is cardioprotective in a number of experimental models of cardiac ischemia. We found that co-administration of heparin, a common treatment for myocardial infarction, abrogated the protective effect of CXCL12 in an ex vivo rat heart model for myocardial infarction. The interaction between CXCL12 and heparin oligosaccharides has previously been analyzed through mutagenesis, in vitro binding assays, and molecular modeling. However, complications from heparin-induced CXCL12 oligomerization and studies using very short oligosaccharides have led to inconsistent conclusions as to the residues involved, the orientation of the binding site, and whether it overlaps with the CXCR4 N-terminal site. We used a constitutively dimeric variant to simplify the NMR analysis of CXCL12-binding heparin oligosaccharides of varying length. Biophysical and mutagenic analyses reveal a CXCL12/heparin interaction surface that lies perpendicular to the dimer interface, does not involve the chemokine N terminus, and partially overlaps with the CXCR4-binding site. We further demonstrate that heparin-mediated enzymatic protection results from the promotion of dimerization rather than direct heparin binding to the CXCL12 N terminus. These results clarify the structural basis for GAG recognition by CXCL12 and lend insight into the development of CXCL12-based therapeutics. PMID:23148226

  2. Cryptic nature of a conserved, CD4-inducible V3 loop neutralization epitope in the native envelope glycoprotein oligomer of CCR5-restricted, but not CXCR4-using, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusso, Paolo; Earl, Patricia L; Sironi, Francesca; Santoro, Fabio; Ripamonti, Chiara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Longhi, Renato; Berger, Edward A; Burastero, Samuele E

    2005-06-01

    The external subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), gp120, contains conserved regions that mediate sequential interactions with two cellular receptor molecules, CD4 and a chemokine receptor, most commonly CCR5 or CXCR4. However, antibody accessibility to such regions is hindered by diverse protective mechanisms, including shielding by variable loops, conformational flexibility and extensive glycosylation. For the conserved neutralization epitopes hitherto described, antibody accessibility is reportedly unrelated to the viral coreceptor usage phenotype. Here, we characterize a novel, conserved gp120 neutralization epitope, recognized by a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), D19, which is differentially accessible in the native HIV-1 Env according to its coreceptor specificity. The D19 epitope is contained within the third variable (V3) domain of gp120 and is distinct from those recognized by other V3-specific MAbs. To study the reactivity of MAb D19 with the native oligomeric Env, we generated a panel of PM1 cells persistently infected with diverse primary HIV-1 strains. The D19 epitope was conserved in the majority (23/29; 79.3%) of the subtype-B strains tested, as well as in selected strains from other genetic subtypes. Strikingly, in CCR5-restricted (R5) isolates, the D19 epitope was invariably cryptic, although it could be exposed by addition of soluble CD4 (sCD4); epitope masking was dependent on the native oligomeric structure of Env, since it was not observed with the corresponding monomeric gp120 molecules. By contrast, in CXCR4-using strains (X4 and R5X4), the epitope was constitutively accessible. In accordance with these results, R5 isolates were resistant to neutralization by MAb D19, becoming sensitive only upon addition of sCD4, whereas CXCR4-using isolates were neutralized regardless of the presence of sCD4. Other V3 epitopes examined did not display a similar divergence in accessibility based on

  3. Association of rs1801157 single nucleotide polymorphism of CXCL12 gene in breast cancer in Pakistan and in-silico expression analysis of CXCL12–CXCR4 associated biological regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samra Khalid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12 has important implications in breast cancer (BC pathogenesis. It is selectively expressed on B and T lymphocytes and is involved in hematopoiesis, thymocyte trafficking, stem cell motility, neovascularization, and tumorigenesis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1801157 of CXCL12 gene has been found to be associated with higher risk of BC. Methods Our study focuses on the genotypic and allelic distribution of SNP (rs1801157; G/A in Pakistani population as well as its association with the clinico-pathological features. The association between rs1801157 genotypes (G/A and BC risks was assessed by a multivariate logistic regression (MLR analysis. Genotyping was performed in both healthy individuals and patients of BC using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Furthermore, in-silico approaches were adapted to investigate the association of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 with genes/proteins involved in BC signalling. Results Significant differences in allelic and genotypic distribution between BC patients and healthy individuals of genotype (G/G and (A/G (p  0.05 was assessed. In a MLR analysis, a number of variables including age, weight of an individual, affected lymph nodes, hormonal status (estrogen and progesterone receptor, alcohol consumption and family history associated with the GG genotype (GG:AA, odds ratio (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.06–1.60] were found to be independent risk factors for BC. Our in-vitro results suggest that genotype GG is possibly increasing the risk of BC in Pakistani cohorts. in-silico analysis finds that CXCL12–CXCR4 is associated with an increased expression of PDZK1, PI3k and Akt which lead the breast tumor towards metastasis. Conclusion Multiple targets such as CXCL12, CXCR4, PDZK1, PI3k and Akt can be inhibited in combined strategies to treat BC metastasis.

  4. Protocol of the PANCALYZE trial: a multicenter, prospective study investigating the tumor biomarkers CXCR4, SMAD4, SOX9 and IFIT3 in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma to predict the pattern of recurrence of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Felix C; Popp, Marie Christine; Zhao, Yue; Betzler, Christopher; Kropf, Siegfried; Garlipp, Benjamin; Benckert, Christoph; Kalinski, Thomas; Lippert, Hans; Bruns, Christiane J

    2017-03-29

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies today with an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies. Biomarker analysis helps to better understand tumor biology and might emerge as a tool to develop personalized therapies. The aim of the study is to investigate four promising biomarkers to predict the clinical course and particularly the pattern of tumor recurrence after surgical resection. Patients undergoing surgery for PDAC can be enrolled into the PANCALYZE trial. Biomarker expression of CXCR4, SMAD4, SOX9 and IFIT3 will be prospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry and verified by rt.-PCR from tumor and adjacent healthy pancreatic tissue of surgical specimen. Immunohistochemistry expression pattern of all four biomarkers will be combined into a single score. Beginning with the hospital stay clinical data from enrolled patients will be collected and followed. Different adjuvant chemotherapy protocols will be used to create subgroups. The combined biomarker expression score will be correlated with the further clinical course of the patients to test the hypothesis if CXCR4 positive, SMAD4 negative, SOX9 positive, IFIT3 positive tumors will predominantly develop metastatic spread. Pancreatic cancer is associated with different patterns of progression requiring personalized therapeutic strategies. Biomarker expression analysis might be a tool to predict the pattern of tumor recurrence and discriminate patients that develop systemic metastatic disease from those with tumors that rather develop local recurrence over time. This data might lead to personalized adjuvant treatment decisions as patients with tumors that stay localized might benefit from adjuvant local therapies like radiochemotherapy as compared to those with systemic recurrence who would benefit exclusively from chemotherapy. Moreover, the pattern of propagation might be a predefined characteristic of pancreatic cancer determined by the genetic signature of the

  5. Down-regulation of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2 releases GLI1 from the nuclear repressor complex to restore its transcriptional activity during mammary tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riku, Miho; Inaguma, Shingo; Ito, Hideaki; Tsunoda, Takumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Although breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are not fully understood. To identify key molecules involved, we screened publicly available microarray datasets for genes differentially expressed between breast cancers and normal mammary glands. We found that three of the genes predicted in this analysis were differentially expressed among human mammary tissues and cell lines. Of these genes, we focused on the role of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2, which is down-regulated in breast cancer cells. We found that TSHZ2 is a nuclear protein harboring a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and we confirmed its function as a C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-dependent transcriptional repressor. Through comprehensive screening, we identified TSHZ2-suppressing genes such as AEBP1 and CXCR4, which are conversely up-regulated by GLI1, the downstream transcription factor of Hedgehog signaling. We found that GLI1 forms a ternary complex with CtBP2 in the presence of TSHZ2 and that the transcriptional activity of GLI1 is suppressed by TSHZ2 in a CtBP-dependent manner. Indeed, knockdown of TSHZ2 increases the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 in TSHZ2-expressing immortalized mammary duct epithelium. Concordantly, immunohistochemical staining of mammary glands revealed that normal duct cells expresses GLI1 in the nucleus along with TSHZ2 and CtBP2, whereas invasive ductal carcinoma cells, which does not express TSHZ2, show the increase in the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 and in the cytoplasmic localization of GLI1. Thus, we propose that down-regulation of TSHZ2 is crucial for mammary tumorigenesis via the activation of GLI1. PMID:26744317

  6. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC Inhibitors Down-Regulate Endothelial Lineage Commitment of Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Maniu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB. Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR2 revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA, Trichostatin A (TSA, and Valproic acid (VPA. RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR2, CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment.

  7. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals deregulation of oxidative and antioxidative defence genes in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms. Potential implications of downregulation of Nrf2 for genomic instability and disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Carl Hasselbalch

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms - essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV, and myelofibrosis (MF (MPNs - have recently been shown to be associated with chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Using whole blood transcriptional profiling, we report that several oxidative stress and anti-oxidative stress genes are significantly deregulated in MPNs. Among the twenty most up- and downregulated genes, ATOX1, DEFB122, GPX8, PRDX2, PRDX6, PTGS1, and SEPP1 were progressively upregulated from ET over PV to PMF, whereas AKR1B1, CYBA, SIRT2, TTN, and UCP2 were progressively downregulated in ET, PV and PMF (all FDR <0.05. The gene Nrf2, encoding the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2 was significantly downregulated in all MPNs. Nrf2 has a key role in the regulation of the oxidative stress response and modulates both migration and retention of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in their niche. The patogenetic importance of Nrf2 depletion in the context of expansion of the hematopoietic progenitor pool in MPNs is discussed with particular focus upon the implications of concomitant downregulation of Nrf2 and CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization.

  8. CXCR4+ granulocytes reflect fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carevic, Melanie; Singh, Anurag; Rieber, Nikolaus; Eickmeier, Olaf; Griese, Matthias; Hector, Andreas; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    ... understood.We characterised granulocytes in airway fluids and peripheral blood from cystic fibrosis patients with and without fungal colonisation, non-cystic fibrosis disease controls and healthy control...

  9. Boswellic Acid Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Human Colorectal Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Model By Downregulating Inflammatory, Proliferative, Invasive, and Angiogenic Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek R.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Gelovani, Juri G.; Guha, Sushovan; Krishnan, Sunil; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous cancer therapeutics were originally identified from natural products used in traditional medicine. One such agent is acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), derived from the gum resin of the Boswellia serrata known as Salai guggal or Indian frankincense. Traditionally it has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat proinflammatory conditions. In the present report, we hypothesized that AKBA can affect the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in orthotopically-implanted tumors in nude mice. We found that the oral administration of AKBA (50-200 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the growth of CRC tumors in mice, resulting in decrease in tumor volumes than those seen in vehicle-treated mice without significant decreases in body weight. In addition, we observed that AKBA was highly effective in suppressing ascites and distant metastasis to the liver, lungs, and spleen in orthotopically-implanted tumors in nude mice. When examined for the mechanism, we found that markers of tumor proliferation index Ki-67 and the microvessel density CD31; were significantly downregulated by AKBA treatment. We also found that AKBA significantly suppressed NF-κB activation in the tumor tissue and expression of pro-inflammatory (COX2), tumor survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, IAP-1, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (ICAM-1, MMP-9) and angiogenic (CXCR4 and VEGF) biomarkers. When examined for serum and tissue levels of AKBA, a dose-dependent increase in the levels of the drug was detected, indicating its bioavailability. Thus, our findings suggest that this boswellic acid analogue can inhibit the growth and metastasis of human CRC in vivo through downregulation of cancer-associated biomarkers. PMID:21702037

  10. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptor downregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietz, E.I.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Chiu, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    Regional differences in downregulation of brain benzodiazepine receptors were studied using a quantitative autoradiographic method. Rats were given a 4-week flurazepam treatment known to cause tolerance and receptor downregulation. A second group of rats was given a similar treatment, but for only 1 week. A third group was given a single acute dose of diazepam to produce a brain benzodiazepine-like activity equivalent to that found after the chronic treatment. Areas studied included hippocampal formation, cerebral cortex, superior colliculus, substantia nigra, dorsal geniculate nucleus, lateral amygdala and lateral hypothalamus. There was a regional variation in the degree of downregulation after 1 week of flurazepam treatment, ranging from 12% to 25%. Extending the flurazepam treatment to 4 weeks caused little further downregulation in those areas studied, except for the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, which showed a 13% reduction in (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding after 1 week and a 40% reduction after 4 weeks of treatment. In a few areas, such as the lateral hypothalamus, no significant change in binding was found after 4 weeks. Acute diazepam treatment caused no change in binding. This latter finding as well as results obtained during the development of the methodology show that downregulation was not an artifact due to residual drug content of brain slices. The regional variations in degree and rate of downregulation suggest areas that may be most important for benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence and may be related to the varying time courses for tolerance to different benzodiazepine actions.

  11. CDK5 downregulation enhances synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andrés; Ramirez, Omar; Härtel, Steffen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bodaleo, Felipe; González-Billault, Christian; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2017-01-01

    CDK5 is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in the normal function of the adult brain and plays a role in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. However, its over-regulation has been associated with Tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive deficits. Our previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 targeting using shRNA-miR provides neuroprotection and prevents cognitive deficits. Dendritic spine morphogenesis and forms of long-term synaptic plasticity-such as long-term potentiation (LTP)-have been proposed as essential processes of neuroplasticity. However, whether CDK5 participates in these processes remains controversial and depends on the experimental model. Using wild-type mice that received injections of CDK5 shRNA-miR in CA1 showed an increased LTP and recovered the PPF in deficient LTP of APPswe/PS1Δ9 transgenic mice. On mature hippocampal neurons CDK5, shRNA-miR for 12 days induced increased dendritic protrusion morphogenesis, which was dependent on Rac activity. In addition, silencing of CDK5 increased BDNF expression, temporarily increased phosphorylation of CaMKII, ERK, and CREB; and facilitated calcium signaling in neurites. Together, our data suggest that CDK5 downregulation induces synaptic plasticity in mature neurons involving Ca 2+ signaling and BDNF/CREB activation.

  12. Wnt/beta-Catenin, Foxa2, and CXCR4 Axis Controls Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    al. Spiculated periosteal response induced by intraosseous injection of 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells resembles subset of bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. Prostate 2005; 65(4): 347-54. Appendice None

  13. Metal ion enhanced binding of AMD3100 to Asp262 in the CXCR4 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Lars Ole; Jakobsen, Janus S; Jensen, Kasper P

    2003-01-01

    of the bicyclam is dependent on both Asp(171) and Asp(262), the enhancing effect of the metal ion was selectively eliminated by substitution of Asp(262) located at the extracellular end of TM-VI. It is concluded that the increased binding affinity of the metal ion substituted AMD3100 is obtained through enhanced...... interaction of one of the cyclam ring systems with the carboxylate group of Asp(262). It is suggested that this occurs through a strong concomitant interaction of one of the oxygen's directly with the metal ion and the other oxygen to one of the nitrogens of the cyclam ring through a hydrogen bond....

  14. DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-4 REGULATION OF SDF-1/CXCR4 AXIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin eZhong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 is a ubiquitously expressed protease that regulates a diverse number of physiologic functions. As a dipeptidase it exerts its catalytic effects on proteins/peptides with proline, alanine or serine in the penultimate (P1 amino acid residue from the amino terminus. The evidence to date supports an important effect of DPP4 in catalytic cleavage of incretin peptides and this perhaps represents the main mechanism by which DPP4 inhibition improves glycemic control. DPP4 also plays an important role in the degradation of multiple chemokines of which such as stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12 is perhaps an increasingly recognized target, given its importance in processes such as hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and stem cell homing. In the current review, we will summarize the importance of DPP4-mediated enzymatic processing of cytokines/chemokines with an emphasis on SDF-1 and resultant implications for cardiovascular physiology and disease.

  15. Role of SDF1/CXCR4 Interaction in Experimental Hemiplegic Models with Neural Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Suzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused on neural cell transplantation because of its promising clinical applications. We have reported that embryonic stem (ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation significantly improved motor functions in a hemiplegic mouse model. It is important to understand the molecular mechanisms governing neural regeneration of the damaged motor cortex after the transplantation. Recent investigations disclosed that chemokines participated in the regulation of migration and maturation of neural cell grafts. In this review, we summarize the involvement of inflammatory chemokines including stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1 in neural regeneration after ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation in mouse stroke models.

  16. Targeting FPR1 and CXCR4 in cancer and the contribution of the tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors can be primarily resistant or could become resistant to therapy, due to the protective effect of their direct tumor environment, which is called the microenvironment. UMCG-researcher Jennifer Boer studied the interaction of glioblastoma (GBM) and prostate cancer cells with their tumor

  17. CXXL 14 Blockade of CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    in breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma , gastric cancer, colon cancer, mouse acute myeloid leukemia, and neuroendocrine tumors (19-26). However...were analyzed for CXCL14 protein expression . Immunocytochemical CXCL14 staining was almost exclusively restricted to the cytoplasm (data not shown...2012;135(3):725-35. 21. Wang W, Huang P, Zhang L, et al. Antitumor efficacy of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro

  18. The Role of SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Elevated expression of FOXM1 has been noted in both hepatocellular carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma (47). It has been indicated that FOXM1 is...plays important roles in tumori- genesis, progression of breast carcinoma , cell invasion, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy (10–15). Several...NM_004526.1, mitotin (MCM2) NC 2.1 4.0 NM_001237.1, cyclin A2 ( CCNA2 ) NC 1.8 4.0 AA648913, survivin (BIRC5) NC 1.5 2.4 AF033111.1, Siva-2 NC 1.7

  19. Chloroquine targets pancreatic cancer stem cells via inhibition of CXCR4 and hedgehog signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic, Anamaria; Sørensen, Morten Dræby; Trabulo, Sara Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the deadliest carcinomas and is characterized by highly tumorigenic and metastatic cancer stem cells (CSC). CSCs evade available therapies, which preferentially target highly proliferative and more differentiated progenies, leaving behind CSCs...... as a putative source for disease relapse. Thus, to identify potentially more effective treatment regimens, we screened established and new compounds for their ability to eliminate CSCs in primary pancreatic cancer (stem) cells in vitro and corresponding patient-derived pancreatic cancer tissue xenografts...... in vivo. Intriguingly, we found that in vitro treatment with the antimalarial agent chloroquine significantly decreased CSCs, translating into diminished in vivo tumorigenicity and invasiveness in a large panel of pancreatic cancers. In vivo treatment in combination with gemcitabine was capable of more...

  20. Separate enrichment analysis of pathways for up- and downregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guini; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Hongdong; Shen, Xiaopei; Guo, Zheng

    2014-03-06

    Two strategies are often adopted for enrichment analysis of pathways: the analysis of all differentially expressed (DE) genes together or the analysis of up- and downregulated genes separately. However, few studies have examined the rationales of these enrichment analysis strategies. Using both microarray and RNA-seq data, we show that gene pairs with functional links in pathways tended to have positively correlated expression levels, which could result in an imbalance between the up- and downregulated genes in particular pathways. We then show that the imbalance could greatly reduce the statistical power for finding disease-associated pathways through the analysis of all-DE genes. Further, using gene expression profiles from five types of tumours, we illustrate that the separate analysis of up- and downregulated genes could identify more pathways that are really pertinent to phenotypic difference. In conclusion, analysing up- and downregulated genes separately is more powerful than analysing all of the DE genes together.

  1. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klucharev, V.; Munneke, M.; Smidts, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial

  2. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, P G; Mollenhauer, J

    2004-01-01

    and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant......BACKGROUND: We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. METHODS: Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained...... expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal...

  3. Flavopiridol synergizes TRAIL cytotoxicity by downregulation of FLIPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandy, Tamer E; Ross, Douglas D; Gore, Steven D; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2007-08-01

    Flavopiridol is known to modulate the transcription of genes. We investigated the effect of flavopiridol pretreatment on TRAIL cytotoxicity and on the expression of FLIP(L) in different TRAIL-resistant cell lines, because FLIP expression is known to confer TRAIL-resistance. Apoptosis was assessed by PI staining and protein expression by Western blotting. RT-PCR was used for mRNA quantitation. siRNA gene silencing was used to knock down FLIP(L). Flavopiridol pretreatment synergized TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human myeloma and breast cancer cells. Flavopiridol treatment repressed the transcription of FLIP(L) and downregulated its expression in both myeloma and breast cancer cells. Silencing of FLIP(L) gene by siRNA sensitized myeloma cells to TRAIL. Flavopiridol treatment downregulated the expression of the proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family proteins (Bak, Bax and PUMA-alpha). The expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 members (Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L)) was not altered by flavopiridol treatment in myeloma cells. Our data indicate that flavopiridol synergizes TRAIL cytotoxicity by downregulation of FLIP(L) and this synergistic effect is Bcl-2 family independent.

  4. Emotion down-regulation diminishes cognitive control: a neurophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring.

  5. Spontaneous Physical Activity Downregulates Pax7 in Cancer Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that the muscle microenvironment plays a prominent role in cancer cachexia. We recently showed that NF-kB-induced Pax7 overexpression impairs the myogenic potential of muscle precursors in cachectic mice, suggesting that lowering Pax7 expression may be beneficial in cancer cachexia. We evaluated the muscle regenerative potential after acute injury in C26 colon carcinoma tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls. Our analyses confirmed that the delayed muscle regeneration observed in muscles form tumor-bearing mice was associated with a persistent local inflammation and Pax7 overexpression. Physical activity is known to exert positive effects on cachectic muscles. However, the mechanism by which a moderate voluntary exercise ameliorates muscle wasting is not fully elucidated. To verify if physical activity affects Pax7 expression, we hosted control and C26-bearing mice in wheel-equipped cages and we found that voluntary wheel running downregulated Pax7 expression in muscles from tumor-bearing mice. As expected, downregulation of Pax7 expression was associated with a rescue of muscle mass and fiber size. Our findings shed light on the molecular basis of the beneficial effect exerted by a moderate physical exercise on muscle stem cells in cancer cachexia. Furthermore, we propose voluntary exercise as a physiological tool to counteract the overexpression of Pax7 observed in cancer cachexia.

  6. Down-regulation of PERK enhances resistance to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oommen, Deepu, E-mail: oommen1978@gmail.com; Prise, Kevin M.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •PERK enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to ionizing radiation. •Down-regulation of PERK results in enhanced DNA repair. •Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is inhibited in PERK-down regulated cancer cells. -- Abstract: Although, ionizing radiation (IR) has been implicated to cause stress in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), how ER stress signaling and major ER stress sensors modulate cellular response to IR is unclear. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER transmembrane protein which initiates unfolded protein response (UPR) or ER stress signaling when ER homeostasis is disturbed. Here, we report that down-regulation of PERK resulted in increased clonogenic survival, enhanced DNA repair and reduced apoptosis in irradiated cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that PERK has a role in sensitizing cancer cells to IR.

  7. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  8. ZAG, a lipid mobilizing adipokine, is downregulated in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrades, M P; Martínez, J A; Moreno-Aliaga, M J

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the expression of Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently described adipokine, in obese and lean subjects. ZAG expression was determined by Real-time PCR analysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of eighteen young men, 9 lean (BMI = 23.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and 9 obese (34.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m2) with a similar habitual dietary intake of fat and physical activity, which were assessed by validated methods. Our data revealed that ZAG gene was downregulated (-70%; p ZAG gene expression and serum adiponectin (r = 0.89; p ZAG could be a promising therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome treatment.

  9. TCR down-regulation controls T cell homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Bodil L

    2009-01-01

    was caused by the combination of reduced thymic output, decreased T cell apoptosis, and increased transition of naive T cells to memory T cells. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that the CD3gammaLLAA mutation exerted a T cell intrinsic effect on T cell homeostasis that resulted...... in an increased transition of CD3gammaLLAA naive T cells to memory T cells and a survival advantage of CD3gammaLLAA T cells compared with wild-type T cells. The experimental observations were further supported by mathematical modeling of T cell homeostasis. Our study thus identifies an important role of CD3gamma......-mediated TCR down-regulation in T cell homeostasis....

  10. Endothelin-1 downregulates Mas receptor expression in human cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Zuocheng; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yong; Li, Yan; He, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. The Mas receptor is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)‑(1-7), which is now considered a critical component of the RAS and exerts cardioprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with ET-1 at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for varied time periods (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6 h) with or without the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, endothelin A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ123 and ETB receptor blocker BQ788, or different kinase inhibitors. ET-1 decreased the Mas mRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4.5 h, which was reflected in the dose-dependent downregulation of Mas promoter activity, Mas protein levels and Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), BQ123 (1 µM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) siRNA and inhibitor PD169316 (25 µM), completely eliminated the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET-1 downregulates Mas expression at the transcription level in human cardiomyocytes via the ETA receptor by a p38 MAPK‑dependent mechanism. This study provides novel insights into the function of ET-1 and the Ang‑(1-7)/Mas axis in cardiac pathophysiology.

  11. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  12. Downregulation of CXCL12 in mesenchymal stromal cells by TGFβ promotes breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P F; Huang, Y; Xu, C L; Lin, L Y; Han, Y Y; Sun, W H; Hu, G H; Rabson, A B; Wang, Y; Shi, Y F

    2017-02-09

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are one of major components of the tumour microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that MSC tumour residence and their close interactions with inflammatory factors are important factors that affect tumour progression. Among tumour-associated inflammatory factors, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is regarded as a key determinant of malignancy. By employing a lung metastasis model of a murine breast cancer, we show here that the prometastatic effect of MSCs was dependent on their response to TGFβ. Interestingly, we found that MSC-produced CXCL12, an important chemokine in tumour metastasis, was markedly inhibited by TGFβ. Furthermore, silencing of CXCL12 in TGFβ-unresponsive MSCs restored their ability to promote tumour metastasis. We found that 4T1 breast cancer cells expressed high levels of CXCR7, but not of CXCR4, both of which are CXCL12 receptors. In presence of CXCL12, CXCR7 expression on tumour cells was decreased. Indeed, when CXCR7 was silenced in breast cancer cells, their metastatic ability was inhibited. Therefore, our data demonstrated that sustained expression of CXCL12 by MSCs in the primary tumour site inhibits metastasis through reduction of CXCR7, while, in the presence of TGFβ, this CXCL12 effect of MSCs on tumour cells is relieved. Importantly, elevated CXCR7 and depressed CXCL12 expression levels were prominent features of clinical breast cancer lesions and were related significantly with poor survival. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of MSC effects on malignant cells through which crosstalk between MSCs and TGFβ regulates tumour metastasis.

  13. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lina Gallego-Giraldo; Yusuke Jikumaru; Yuji Kamiya; Yuhong Tang; Richard A. Dixon

    2011-01-01

    Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production...

  14. SIP1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma by promoter hypermethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oztas Emin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smad interacting protein-1 is a transcription factor that is implicated in transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling and a repressor of E-cadherin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase. It is also involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis. However, genetic and epigenetic alterations of SIP1 have not been fully elucidated in cancers. In this study, we investigated mutations and promoter hypermethylation of the SIP1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Methods SIP1 expression was analyzed in HCC cell lines and primary tumors in comparison to normal and non-tumor liver tissues by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mutation and deletion screening of the SIP1 gene were performed by direct sequencing in HCC-derived cells. Restoration of SIP1 expression was sought by treating HCC cell lines with the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-AzaC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA. SIP1 promoter methylation was analyzed by the combined bisulfite restriction analysis assay in in silico-predicted putative promoter and CpG island regions. Results We found that the expression of SIP1 was completely lost or reduced in five of 14 (36% HCC cell lines and 17 of 23 (74% primary HCC tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that SIP1 mRNA downregulation was associated with decreased expression of the SIP1 protein in HCC tissues (82.8%. No somatic mutation was observed in SIP1 exons in any of the 14 HCC cell lines. Combined treatment with DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors synergistically restored SIP1 expression in SIP1-negative cell lines. Analysis of three putative gene regulatory regions revealed tumor-specific methylation in more than half of the HCC cases. Conclusions Epigenetic mechanisms contribute significantly to the downregulation of SIP1 expression in HCC. This finding adds a new level of

  15. The role of the CXCL12 – CXCR4 chemokine ligand – receptor interaction in the metastasis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether chemokine ligand – receptor interactions are involved in the chemotaxis of prostate cancer to favoured metastatic sites. Initially, chemokine receptor mRNA expression, CXCR and CCR groups, was determined using conventional RT-PCR in cell lines derived from prostate cancer metastases, DU145, LNCaP and PC3, the primary prostate cancer cell line 1542 CPT3X and the normal prostate epithelial/ stromal cell lines 1542 NPTX, Pre 2.8 and S2.13. It ...

  16. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor enhances the effect of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Linn; Laursen, Maria Bach; Schmitz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease with variable clinical outcome, accounting for at least 25-30 % of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Approximately one third of DLBCL patients are not cured by the currently used treatment regimen, R-CHOP. Hence, new treatment...... the therapeutic effect of rituximab, the immunotherapeutic agent of R-CHOP; but this is yet to be confirmed for DLBCL. We, therefore, investigated the effect of plerixafor on DLBCL cellular response to rituximab. METHODS: In this in vitro study, human DLBCL cell lines were treated with rituximab and/or plerixafor....... RESULTS: We observed that simultaneous addition of plerixafor and rituximab resulted in a significant decrease in DLBCL cellular proliferation, compared to monotherapeutic response. The effect was dose-dependent, and concomitant administration was observed to be superior to sequential drug administration...

  17. The SDF1-CXCR4 Axis Functions through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Endocrinol. 2003 May;17(5):792-803. 7. Coser KR, Chesnes J, Hur J, Ray S, Isselbacher KJ, Shioda T. Global analysis of ligand sensitivity of estrogen...Duong, B.N., Melnik, L.I., Schief, L., Collins-Burow, B.M., Pace, D.K., McLachlan, J.A., Burow, M.E. Flavonoid Phytochemicals Regulate Activator

  18. CXCR4 Inhibition Ameliorates Severe Obliterative Pulmonary Hypertension and Accumulation of C-Kit+ Cells in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer I.; Alhussaini, Aysar A.; Kraskauskiene, Vita; Bogaard, Harm J.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Farkas, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Successful curative treatment of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with luminal obliteration will require a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying the development and progression of pulmonary vascular lesions. But the cells that obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension are incompletely characterized. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 will prevent the accumulation of c-kit+ cells and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We detected c-kit+­ cells expressing endothelial (von Willebrand Factor) or smooth muscle cell/myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin) markers in pulmonary arterial lesions of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. We found increased expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 in the lung tissue of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. In our prevention study, AMD3100, an inhibitor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, only moderately decreased pulmonary arterial obliteration and pulmonary hypertension in SU5416/chronic hypoxia animals. AMD3100 treatment reduced the number of proliferating c-kit+ α-smooth muscle actin+ cells and pulmonary arterial muscularization and did not affect c-kit+ von Willebrand Factor+ cell numbers. Both c-kit+ cell types expressed CXC chemokine receptor 4. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that in the SU5416/chronic hypoxia model of severe pulmonary hypertension, the CXC chemokine receptor 4-expressing c-kit+ α-smooth muscle actin+ cells contribute to pulmonary arterial muscularization. In contrast, vascular lumen obliteration by c-kit+ von Willebrand Factor+ cells is largely independent of CXC chemokine receptor 4. PMID:24587052

  19. The SDF1-CXCR4 Axis Functions through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Longo, N., Baleux, F., Muijen, G.N.P., Sanchez- Mateos , P., Arroyo, A.G., Teixido, J. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α Promotes Melanoma Call Invasion...Rhodes, Yun Zhu, Virgilio A. Salvo, Steven Elliott, Lori Guillot, Juan P. Fonseca, John A. McLachlan, Brian Barnett, Barbara S. Beckman, Tyler J...Lori M. Guillot, James W. Antoon, Patrice Penfornis, Syreeta L. Tilghman, V. Alberto Salvo, J. Pablo Fonseca, Michelle R. Lacey, John A. McLachlan

  20. CD70 is downregulated by interaction with CD27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Munitic, Ivana; Giardino Torchia, Maria Letizia; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2013-09-01

    Engagement of the receptor CD27 by CD70 affects the magnitude and quality of T cell responses in a variety of infection models, and exaggerated signaling via this pathway results in enhanced immune responses and autoimmunity. One means by which signaling is regulated is tight control of cell surface CD70, which is expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and B cells only upon activation. In this article, we show that a second level of regulation also is present. First, although undetectable on the cell surface by flow cytometry, immature DCs have a small pool of CD70 that continuously recycles from the plasma membrane. In addition, surface levels of CD70 on DCs and T cells were higher in mice deficient in CD27, or on DCs for which the interaction between CD70 and CD27 was precluded by blocking Abs. Binding of CD70 by its receptor resulted in downregulation of CD70 transcription and protein levels, suggesting that CD70-mediated "reverse signals" regulate its own levels. Therefore, the ability of CD70 to trigger costimulation is self-regulated when it binds its complementary receptor.

  1. Baicalein inhibits progression of gallbladder cancer cells by downregulating ZFX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has multiple pharmacological activities. However, the precise mechanisms of the anti-proliferation and anti-metastatic effects of baicalein on gallbladder cancer (GBC remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the anti-proliferation and anti-metastatic effects of baicalein and the related mechanism(s on GBC. In the present study, we found that treatment with baicalein induced a significant inhibitory effect on proliferation and promoted apoptosis in GBC-SD and SGC996 cells, two widely used gallbladder cancer cell lines. Additionally, treatment with baicalein inhibited the metastasis of GBC cells. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that baicalein inhibited GBC cell growth and metastasis via down-regulation of the expression level of Zinc finger protein X-linked (ZFX. In conclusion, our studies suggest that baicalein may be a potential phytochemical flavonoid for therapeutics of GBC and ZFX may serve as a molecular marker or predictive target for GBC.

  2. Down-Regulation of Angiopoietin-1 Expression in Menorrhagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Peter; Nijjar, Sarbjit; Shams, Munjiba; Morgan, Susan; Gupta, Janesh; Ahmed, Asif

    2002-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential component of endometrial repair and regeneration following menses. Perturbation of this process is associated with menorrhagia, a common gynecological disorder that results in excessive menstrual bleeding. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promotes vascular maturation via the Tie-2 receptor, while angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is its natural antagonist that destabilizes vessels and initiates neovascularization in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. To test the hypothesis that menorrhagia arises as a result of poor signal for vascular maturation, we have examined the expression of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 in endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle from 30 normal women and 28 patients with menorrhagia. Ribonuclease protection assay and Western blot analysis showed Ang-2 expression was consistently higher than Ang-1 in normal endometrium throughout the cycle. However, with menorrhagia Ang-1 mRNA and protein were not detected or down-regulated, while Ang-2 was observed at similar levels in both normal and menorrhagic endometrium resulting in a greater than a 50% decrease in the ratio of Ang-1 to Ang-2 protein. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies supported these findings and revealed cyclical changes in the expression of Ang-1 and Ang-2. These results suggest that the angiopoietin/Tie-2 system promotes vascular remodeling in endometrium and loss of normal Ang-1 expression may contribute to the excessive blood loss observed in menorrhagia. PMID:11891175

  3. Basophil depletion downregulates Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, William K; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Akao, Nobuaki; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D; Karasuyama, Hajime; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-12-01

    Granuloma formation around parasite eggs during schistosomal infection is considered to be controlled by Th2 cytokines. However, it is still controversial which cell populations are responsible for the host Th2 cytokine-dependent granuloma formation. Basophils have recently attracted attention because of their ability to produce large amounts of IL-4. Therefore, we investigated whether basophils play an essential role in the induction of granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Together with our previous observation that basophil numbers increased markedly in the spleen at 7 weeks postinfection, immunohistochemical staining using anti-mMCP8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) showed basophil infiltration in the granulomatous lesions formed around parasite eggs. To examine the roles of basophils more directly, we treated mice with anti-CD200R3 mAb to deplete basophils. Depletion of basophils resulted in a reduction of basophil number with concomitant downregulation of egg granuloma formation at 7 weeks postinfection. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction in the size of egg granulomas formed in basophil-depleted mice in the pulmonary granuloma model. Taken together, these findings indicated that basophils are essential for S. mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation, and this may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameliorating the pathology of schistosomiasis. © 2013.

  4. Two distinct pathways exist for down-regulation of the TCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, J P; Christensen, M D; Dietrich, J

    1998-01-01

    TCR down-regulation plays an important role in modulating T cell responses both during T cell development and in mature T cells. Down-regulation of the TCR is induced by engagement of the TCR by specific ligands and/or by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We report here that ligand- and PKC-i...

  5. Prothrombotic platelet phenotype in major depression: downregulation by antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Serra-Millas, Montserrat; Navarro, Victor; Rosa Hernandez, M; Villalta, Jaume; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Gasto, Cristobal; Escolar, Gines; Galan, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have been suggested as a link between major depression and cardiovascular risk. We investigated the existence of a prothrombotic condition in depressed patients and its possible modulation during treatment with a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Modifications in a series of biomarkers of platelet and coagulation activation were evaluated in blood from 19 patients with a major depression disorder (MDD) at the time of diagnosis, and at 8 and 24 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Response of blood aliquots recirculated through a thrombogenic surface was assessed in a thrombosis model. Results were compared with those of 20 healthy-matched controls. In comparison with controls, platelets from MDD patients showed elevated volumes (p<0.01), significantly enhanced aggregating response to arachidonic acid and augmented expression of GPIb, fibrinogen, factor V, and anionic phospholipids by flow cytometry (p<0.05). Clot firmness and procoagulant activity of platelet-associated tissue factor were also significantly elevated (p<0.05). Studies with circulating blood revealed increased fibrin formation in early diagnosed patients (71.1±9.5% vs. 45.8±5.3%; p<0.05 vs. controls). After 24 weeks of treatment with escitalopram, the majority of the alterations observed were normalized, except for a residual increased expression of GPIIbIIIa (p<0.05) and persistent alterations in thromboelatometic parameters. Despite the reduced number of followed-up patients our findings were consistent reaching statistical significance. Our results reveal a prothrombotic phenotype in MDD patients. While continuous treatment with an SSRI downregulated the majority of the biomarkers analyzed, alterations in viscoelastic parameters of clot formation remained unaffected by the antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation enhances cardiac function and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Zachary A.; Hsieh, Jo-Lin; Li, Andrew; Wang, William; Bhatt, Dhelni T.; Lee, Angela; Kim, Sae Yeon; Fan, David; Shah, Veevek; Siddiqui, Emaad; Ragam, Radhika; Park, Kristen; Ardeshna, Dev; Park, Kunwoo; Wu, Rachel; Parikh, Hardik; Parikh, Ayush; Lin, Yuh-Ru; Park, Yongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of Rpd3, a homologue of mammalian Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Once revealed that long-lived fruit flies exhibit limited cardiac decline, we investigated whether Rpd3 downregulation would improve stress resistance and/or lifespan when targeted in the heart. Contested against three different stressors (oxidation, starvation and heat), heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation significantly enhanced stress resistance in flies. However, these higher levels of resistance were not observed when Rpd3 downregulation was targeted in other tissues or when other long-lived flies were tested in the heart-specific manner. Interestingly, the expressions of anti-aging genes such as sod2, foxo and Thor, were systemically increased as a consequence of heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation. Showing higher resistance to oxidative stress, the heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation concurrently exhibited improved cardiac functions, demonstrating an increased heart rate, decreased heart failure and accelerated heart recovery. Conversely, Rpd3 upregulation in cardiac tissue reduced systemic resistance against heat stress with decreased heart function, also specifying phosphorylated Rpd3 levels as a significant modulator. Continual downregulation of Rpd3 throughout aging increased lifespan, implicating that Rpd3 deacetylase in the heart plays a significant role in cardiac function and longevity to systemically modulate the fly's response to the environment. PMID:26399365

  7. Itch is required for lateral line development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line.

  8. Mechanisms Down-Regulating Sprouty1, a Growth Inhibitor in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwabi-Addo, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    .... I have demonstrated that Sprouty1 is down-regulated in human prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of the present study is to characterize the molecular mechanisms regulating Sprouty1 expression in the human PCa. Results...

  9. Serum amyloid P down-regulates CCL-1 expression, and inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum amyloid P down-regulates CCL-1 expression, and inhibits Ras/MAPK signaling and development of breast cancer. Shuhong Ding, Hongzhi Li, Xiaohui Li, Wenwen Wang, Xiuling Du, Guoying Dong, Ping Zhang ...

  10. Oral Administration of N-Acetyl-D Glucosamine Polymer Particles Down-Regulates Airway Allergic Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shibata, Yoshimi

    2006-01-01

    ... (IL-12, IL-18 and TNFo) that down-regulate allergic immune responses. We also found that administration of chitin particles resulted in less likely induce the production of IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2...

  11. Effects of coumarate 3-hydroxylase down-regulation on lignin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Paul F. Schatz; Jane M. Marita; Sally A. Ralph; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Fang Chen; Richard A. Dixon

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to thenormally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units Stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by traditional degradative...

  12. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    González Nebauer, Sergio; Renau Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, Jose Luis; Molina Romero, Rosa Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has bee...

  13. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8alpha- dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K

    2011-10-15

    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the nonclassical MHCII-related molecule H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs), yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. In this study, we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α(-) DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α(+) DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR agonists. H2-M levels were slightly downmodulated in both CD8α(-) and CD8α(+) DCs. As a consequence, H2-M/H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α(-) but not for CD8α(+) DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as downregulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation supports the proposed roles of CD8α(-) DCs in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and of CD8α(+) DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide.

  14. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  15. High SINE RNA Expression Correlates with Post-Transcriptional Downregulation of BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs are non-autonomous retrotransposons that comprise a large fraction of the human genome. SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. Here, we show that downregulation of the mRNA of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is associated with increased transcription of SINEs and production of sense and antisense SINE small RNAs. We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes.

  16. Downregulation of the mitochondrial phosphatase PTPMT1 is sufficient to promote cancer cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M Niemi

    Full Text Available Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase localized to the Mitochondrion 1 (PTPMT1 is a dual specificity phosphatase exclusively localized to the mitochondria, and has recently been shown to be a critical component in the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway. The downregulation of PTPMT1 in pancreatic beta cells has been shown to increase cellular ATP levels and insulin production, however, the generalized role of PTPMT1 in cancer cells has not been characterized. Here we report that downregulation of PTPMT1 activity is sufficient to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Additionally, the silencing of PTPMT1 decreases cardiolipin levels in cancer cells, while selectively increasing ATP levels in glycolytic media. Additionally, sublethal downregulation of PTPMT1 synergizes with low doses of paclitaxel to promote cancer cell death. Our data suggest that inhibition of PTPMT1 causes a metabolic crisis in cancer cells that induces cell death, and may be a mechanism by which cancer cells can be sensitized to currently available therapies.

  17. Reappraisal but not suppression downregulates the experience of positive and negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The emotion regulation literature is growing exponentially, but there is limited understanding of the comparative strengths of emotion regulation strategies in downregulating positive emotional experiences. The present research made the first systematic investigation examining the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategies to downregulate positive and negative emotion within a single design. Two experiments with over 1,300 participants demonstrated that reappraisal successfully reduced the experience of negative and positive affect compared with suppression and control conditions. Suppression did not reduce the experience of either positive or negative emotion relative to the control condition. This finding provides evidence against the assumption that expressive suppression reduces the experience of positive emotion. This work speaks to an emerging literature on the benefits of downregulating positive emotion, showing that suppression is an appropriate strategy when one wishes to reduce positive emotion displays while maintaining the benefits of positive emotional experience. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Paroxetine prevented the down-regulation of astrocytic L-Glu transporters in neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Koki; Takaki, Junpei; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Sekino, Yuko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Sato, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular L-glutamate (L-Glu) concentration is elevated in neuroinflammation, thereby causing excitotoxicity. One of the mechanisms is down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated effects of various antidepressants on the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters in the in vitro neuroinflammation model. Among these antidepressants, only paroxetine was effective. We previously demonstrated that the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters was caused by L-Glu released from activated microglia. We here clarified that only paroxetine inhibited L-Glu release from microglia. This is the novel action of paroxetine, which may bring advantages on the therapy of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Paroxetine prevented the down-regulation of astrocytic L-Glu transporters in neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Fujimori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular L-glutamate (L-Glu concentration is elevated in neuroinflammation, thereby causing excitotoxicity. One of the mechanisms is down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated effects of various antidepressants on the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters in the in vitro neuroinflammation model. Among these antidepressants, only paroxetine was effective. We previously demonstrated that the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters was caused by L-Glu released from activated microglia. We here clarified that only paroxetine inhibited L-Glu release from microglia. This is the novel action of paroxetine, which may bring advantages on the therapy of neuroinflammation.

  20. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8α− DCs1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W.; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the non-classical MHCII-related molecule, H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs); yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. Here we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α− DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α+ DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR-agonists. H2-M levels were slightly down-modulated in both CD8α− and CD8α+ DCs. As a consequence, H2-M:H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α− but not CD8α+ DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC-specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as down regulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation support the proposed roles of CD8α− dendritic cells in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and CD8α+ DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide. PMID:21918198

  1. Downregulation of HIF-1a sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide (TMZ) treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun-Hai [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Ma, Zhi-Xiong [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo-Hao; Xu, Qing-Fu; Xiang, Yan [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Li, Ningning; Sidlauskas, Kastytis [Division of Neuropathology and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Eric Erquan [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Lv, Sheng-Qing, E-mail: lvsq0518@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of downregulation of HIF-1α gene on human U251 glioma cells and examine the consequent changes of TMZ induced effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Methods: U251 cell line stably expressing HIF-1α shRNA was acquired via lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein expression alterations of genes involved in our study were determined respectively by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and colony formation assay, cell invasion/migration capacity was determined by transwell invasion assay/wound healing assay, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: We successfully established a U251 cell line with highly efficient HIF-1α knockdown. HIF-1a downregulation sensitized U251 cells to TMZ treatment and enhanced the proliferation-inhibiting, invasion/migration-suppressing, apoptosis-inducing and differentiation-promoting effects exerted by TMZ. The related molecular mechanisms demonstrated that expression of O{sup 6}-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) and genes of Notch1 pathway were significantly upregulated by TMZ treatment. However, this upregulation was abrogated by HIF-1α knockdown. We further confirmed important regulatory roles of HIF-1α in the expression of MGMT and activation of Notch1 pathways. Conclusion: HIF-1α downregulation sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide treatment via inhibiting MGMT expression and Notch1 pathway activation. - Highlights: • TMZ caused more significant proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in U251 cells after downregulating HIF-1α. • Under TMZ treatment, HIF-1 downregulated U251 cells exhibited weaker mobility and more differentiated state. • TMZ caused MGMT over-expression and Notch1 pathway activation, which could be abrogated by HIF-1α downregulation.

  2. Requirements for chromatin reassembly during transcriptional downregulation of a heat shock gene in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Moesgaard; Christensen, Marianne Skovgaard; Bonven, Bjarne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Heat shock genes respond to moderate heat stress by a wave of transcription. The induction phase is accompanied by massive eviction of histones, which later reassemble with DNA during the ensuing phase of transcription downregulation. Here, we identify determinants of this reassembly throughout......, but not Asf1p, reassociation of H3 with DNA is compromised. However, despite a lasting open chromatin structure, transcription ceases normally in the spt6 mutant. Thus, transcriptional downregulation can be uncoupled from histone redepositioning and ongoing transcription is not required to prevent chromatin...

  3. Downregulation of miR-125b in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Rossing, Maria; Hother, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    cells were harvested from primary, cutaneous MM tumors by laser-capture microdissection, and microRNA expression profiles were obtained by the microarray technique. Results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We found that miR-125b was downregulated in the primary cutaneous...... melanomas that produced early metastases (T2, N1, M0) compared with the sentinel lymph node-negative (T2, N0, M0) melanomas. MiR-125b has earlier been found to be downregulated in other tumor types and in atypic naevi compared with the common acquired naevi. In conclusion, miR-125b may be involved...

  4. Thymoquinone inhibits the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of multiple myeloma cells and increases their susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badr

    Full Text Available In multiple myeloma (MM, malignant plasma cells reside in the bone marrow, where they accumulate in close contact with stromal cells. The mechanisms responsible for the chemotaxis of malignant plasma cells are still poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the chemotaxis of MDN and XG2 MM cell lines. Both cell lines strongly expressed CCR9, CXCR3 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors but only migrated toward CXCL12. Activation of CXCR4 by CXCL12 resulted in the association of CXCR4 with CD45 and activation of PLCβ3, AKT, RhoA, IκBα and ERK1/2. Using siRNA-silencing techniques, we showed CD45/CXCR4 association is essential for CXCL12-induced migration of MM cells. Thymoquinone (TQ, the major active component of the medicinal herb Nigella sativa Linn, has been described as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compound. TQ treatment strongly inhibited CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis in MM cell lines as well as primary cells isolated from MM patients, but not normal PBMCs. Moreover, TQ significantly down-regulated CXCR4 expression and CXCL12-mediated CXCR4/CD45 association in MM cells. Finally, TQ also induced the relocalization of cytoplasmic Fas/CD95 to the membrane of MM cells and increased CD95-mediated apoptosis by 80%. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potent anti-myeloma activity of TQ, providing a rationale for further clinical evaluation.

  5. Down-regulation of human cytomegalovirus UL138, a novel latency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fifteen putative targets of hcmv-miR-UL36 were identified using hybrid PCR, one being the HCMV UL138 gene that has previously been identified as a novel latency-associated determinant of HCMV infection. Down-regulation of UL138 expression by hcmv-miR-UL36 was validated using luciferase reporter assays and ...

  6. CDX2 downregulation is associated with poor differentiation and MMR deficiency in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Eiholm, S; Kirkeby, LT

    2015-01-01

    .05), and MMR-deficient tumors (passociated with recurrence risk.CONCLUSION:We found...... that CDX2 downregulation is associated with MMR deficiency, right-sided tumors, and poor differentiation at both the mRNA and protein level. Whether CDX2 plays an active role in tumor progression in MSI/MMR-deficient tumors remains to be elucidated...

  7. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes.

  8. Down-regulation of Notch-1 by γ-secretase inhibitor suppress the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated whether DAPT plays a role in the regulation of the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells through down-regulation of the Notch-1 activation. Here, we reported that DAPT treatment inhibited the PC cells proliferation and migration in dose- and time- dependent manner. The expression of Notch-1 ...

  9. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    induce several diseases associated with oxidative damage, an endemic fatal cardiomyopathy in Keshan, China (Yang. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of diabetic symptoms via endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin signalling proteins in diabetes-induced non-obese diabetic mice.

  10. Vascular Contraction and Preeclampsia Downregulation of the Angiotensin Receptor 1 by Hemopexin In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Winston W.; Henning, Rob H.; van Son, Willem J.; van Pampus, Maria; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Niezen-Koning, Klary E.; Borghuis, Theo; Jongman, Rianne M.; van Goor, Harry; Poelstra, Klaas; Navis, Gerjan; Faas, Marijke M.

    During normal pregnancy, in contrast to preeclampsia, plasma hemopexin activity is increased together with a decreased vascular angiotensin II receptor (AT1) expression. We now tested the hypothesis that hemopexin can downregulate the AT1 receptor in vitro. Analysis of human monocytes or endothelial

  11. SOX6 Downregulation Induces γ-Globin in Human β-Thalassemia Major Erythroid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF; α2γ2 is a potent genetic modifier of the severity of β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Differences in the levels of HbF that persist into adulthood affect the severity of sickle cell disease and the β-thalassemia syndromes. Sry type HMG box (SOX6 is a potent silencer of HbF. Here, we reactivated γ-globin expression by downregulating SOX6 to alleviate anemia in the β-thalassemia patients. Methods. SOX6 was downregulated by lentiviral RNAi (RNA interference in K562 cell line and an in vitro culture model of human erythropoiesis in which erythroblasts are derived from the normal donor mononuclear cells (MNC or β-thalassemia major MNC. The expression of γ-globin was analyzed by qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR and WB (western blot. Results. Our data showed that downregulation of SOX6 induces γ-globin production in K562 cell line and human erythrocytes from normal donors and β-thalassemia major donors, without altering erythroid maturation. Conclusions. This is the first report on γ-globin induction by downregulation of SOX6 in human erythroblasts derived from β-thalassemia major.

  12. microRNA-143 down-regulates Hexokinase 2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Jacobsen, Anders; Frankel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    and validated HK2 as a miR-143 target. Furthermore, our results indicate that miR-143 mediated down-regulation of HK2 affects glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. We hypothesize that loss of miR-143-mediated repression of HK2 can promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells, contributing to the shift towards...

  13. MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction regulates the actin cytoskeleton through the downregulation of WAVE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Ueno, M; Liu, D; Masuya, D; Nakano, J; Yokomise, H; Nakagawa, T; Miyake, M

    2006-10-19

    Motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) is involved in cell motility. We studied the change in the actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of actin-related protein (Arp) 2 and Arp3 and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family according to MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction into HT1080 cells. The frequency of cells with lamellipodia was significantly lower in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells than in control HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction affected the subcellular localization of Arp2 and Arp3 proteins. Furthermore, MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction induced a downregulation of WAVE2 expression (PMRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody inhibited downregulation of WAVE2 in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction. Furthermore, downregulation of WAVE2 by transfection of WAVE2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) mimicked the morphological effects of MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction and suppressed cell motility. However, transfection of each siRNA for Wnt1, Wnt2b1 or Wnt5a did not affect WAVE2 expression. Transfection of WAVE2-specific siRNA also did not affect expressions of these Wnts. These results indicate that MRP-1/CD9 regulates the actin cytoskeleton by downregulating of the WAVE2, through the Wnt-independent signal pathway.

  14. Tumor suppressor microRNAs are downregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome with spliceosome mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Garde, Christian; Nygaard, Mette Katrine

    2016-01-01

    ) were developed, and all detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, canonical miRNAs were downregulated in spliceosome mutated samples compared to wild-type (P = 0.002), and samples from spliceosome mutated patients clustered together in hierarchical cluster analyses. Among...

  15. Wind Speed Estimation and Wake model Re-calibration for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Kjølstad Poulsen, Niels; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the wind farm sizes have increased tremendously and with increasing installed capacity, the wind farms are requested to downregulate from their maximum possible power more frequently, especially in the offshore environment. Determination of the possible (or available) power is crucial not only because the reserve power has considerable market value but also for wind farm developers to be properly compensated for the loss during downregulation. While the available power calculation is straightforward for a single turbine, it gets rather complicated for the whole wind farm due to the change in the wake characteristics. In fact, the wake losses generated by the upstream turbine(s) decrease during downregulation and the downstream turbines therefore see more wind compared to the normal operation case. Currently, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the available power of a whole wind farm which is downregulated. Therefore, the PossPOW project aims to develop a verified and internationally accepted way to determine the possible power of a down-regulated offshore wind farm. The first phase of the project is to estimate the rotor effective wind speed. Since the nacelle anemometers are not readily available and are known to have reliability issues, the proposed method is to use power, pitch angle and rotational speed as inputs and combine it with a generic Cp model to estimate the wind speed. The performance of the model has been evaluated for both normal operation and downregulation periods using two different case studies: Horns Rev-I wind farm and NREL 5MW single turbine. During downregulation, the wake losses are not as severe and the velocity deficits at the downstream turbines are smaller as if also the wake is "downregulated". On the other hand, in order to calculate the available power, the wakes that would have been produced normally (if the turbines were not curtailed) are of importance, not the

  16. A new method for simultaneous gene deletion and down-regulation in Brucella melitensis Rev.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedinia, Ali Reza; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Soleimani, Masoud; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to integrate an antisense expression cassette in bacterial chromosome for providing a long-term expression down-regulation in a bid to develop a new approach for simultaneous deletion and down-regulation of target genes in bacterial system. Therefore, we were used this approach for simultaneous deletion of the perosamine synthetase (per) gene and down-regulation of the virB1 expression in Brucella melitensis Rev.1. The per gene, which is one of the LPS O-chain coding genes, was replaced by homologous recombination with an antisense virB1 expression cassette together with kanamycin resistance cassette (kan(R)). Deletion of the per gene was characterized by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. The expression of antisense virB1 cassette was confirmed by RT-PCR. Down-regulation of the virB1 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using virB1 specific primers relative to the groEL reference gene. The survival rate of mutant strain was evaluated by CFU count in the BALB/c mice. The virB1 mRNA expression was down-regulated on average 10-fold in mutant strain as compared to parental strain. The loss of per gene function and decrease of the virB1 mRNA expression resulted in reduced entry and survival of the mutant Rev.1 strain in BALB/c mice splenocytes. We propose that this method can be used for simultaneous regulation of multiple genes expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Tamoxifen and Fulvestrant Hybrids Showed Potency as Selective Estrogen Receptor Down-Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Takuji; Kato, Masashi; Fujisato, Takuma; Demizu, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideshi; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are an important target for the management of breast cancers. Selective estrogen receptor down-regulators (SERDs) block ER activity, as well as reduce ERα protein levels in cells, and therefore are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancers. In order to develop potent SERDs, we prepared tamoxifen and fulvestrant hybrids and evaluated their binding activity and down-regulation of ERα. We designed and synthesized tamoxifen derivatives, which had a 4,4,5,5,5- pentafluoropentyl group on the terminal alkyl chain. The oxidation state of the sulfur atom and alkyl length between the sulfur and nitrogen atoms were varied. Western blotting was performed to determine the ability to down-regulate ERα. Binding affinities of synthesized compounds were evaluated by a fluorescence polarization-based competitive binding assay. We successfully prepared nine compounds. Treatment with 11, 14, and 17 effectively reduced ERα protein levels in MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This reduction was inhibited by a proteasome inhibitor. The ability of 14 to down-regulate the ERα protein level was equal to fulvestrant. All compounds showed a largely equal affinity for ERα. As indicated by Western blots, the ERα degradation activity was observed only in the series of butyl linker derivatives, namely, 11, 14, and 17. These findings suggest that the specific length of the alkyl chain is an important factor in controlling the down-regulation of ER. These results provide useful information for designing promising SERD candidates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Cell Surface Downregulation of NK Cell Ligands by Patient-Derived HIV-1 Vpu and Nef Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaski, Johanna; Ahmad, Fareed; Tibroni, Nadine; Pujol, Francois M; Müller, Birthe; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Fackler, Oliver T

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 Vpu and Nef proteins downregulate cell surface levels of natural killer (NK) cell ligands but functional consequences of individual downregulation events are unclear. We tested how well-conserved NK cell ligand downregulation is among Vpu and Nef variants isolated from chronic HIV patients. Proviral vpu and nef sequences were amplified from 27 chronic HIV patients, subcloned, and tested for their ability to downregulate cell surface receptors. Cell surface downregulation of CD4, CD317/tetherin, and major histocompatibility complex class 1 that exert biological functions other than NK cell activation were well conserved among patient-derived Vpu and Nef variants. Among NK cell ligands, NK-T-B-antigen, poliovirus receptor, and UL16-binding protein were identified as main targets for Vpu and Nef, the downregulation of which by at least 1 viral protein was highly conserved. NK cell ligands displayed specific sensitivity to Vpu (NK-T-B-antigen) or Nef (poliovirus receptor), and downregulation of cell surface UL16-binding protein was identified as a novel and highly conserved activity of HIV-1 Vpu but not Nef. The conservation of downregulation of major NK cell ligands by either HIV-1 Vpu or Nef suggests an important pathophysiological role of this activity, which may impact the acute but not the chronic phase of HIV infection.

  19. Protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and PKC theta are the major PKC isotypes involved in TCR down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Nielsen, Martin W; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in regulation of TCR cell surface expression levels. However, eight different PKC isotypes are present in T cells, and to date the particular isotype(s) involved in TCR down-regulation remains to be identified. The aim...... of this study was to identify the PKC isotype(s) involved in TCR down-regulation and to elucidate the mechanism by which they induce TCR down-regulation. To accomplish this, we studied TCR down-regulation in the human T cell line Jurkat, in primary human T cells, or in the mouse T cell line DO11.10 in which we...... engaged TCR, whereas PKCalpha was involved in down-regulation of nonengaged TCR....

  20. CXC chemokine receptor 4 expression and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced chemotaxis in CD4+ T lymphocytes are regulated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    We report that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 can significantly up- or down-regulate CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression on CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively. Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte chemotaxis was also correspondingly regulated by IL-4 and IL......-10. IL-4 and IL-10 up- or down-regulated CXCR4 mRNA expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Scatchard analysis revealed a type of CXCR4 with affinity (Kd approximately 6.3 nM), and approximately 70....... The regulation of CXCR4 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes by IL-4 and IL-10 could be blocked by a selective inhibitor of protein kinase (staurosporine) or by a selective inhibitor of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (H-8), indicating that these cytokines regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes via both c...

  1. Ionizing radiation downregulates ASPM, a gene responsible for microcephaly in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Akira; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ogi, Hiroshi; Wang, Bing; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Kato, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Sentaro; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji

    2008-05-09

    Microcephaly is a malformation associated with in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors and can be induced in mice by fetal exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The pathogenesis of IR-induced microcephaly, however, has not been fully understood. Our analyses of high-coverage expression profiling (HiCEP) demonstrated that the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene (ASPM) was down-regulated in irradiated human diploid fibroblasts. ASPM was recently reported as the causative gene for MCPH-5, the most common type of congenital microcephaly in humans. Here, we show that the expression of the Aspm gene was significantly reduced by IR in various human and murine cells. Additionally, Aspm was found downregulated in the irradiated fetal mouse brain, particularly in the ventricular zones. A similar suppression was observed in the irradiated neurosphere cultures. This is the first report suggesting that the suppression of Aspm by IR could be the initial molecular target leading to the future microcephaly formation.

  2. Expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated in high-risk adenomas and colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anders; Vogel, Lotte K.; Lewinsky, Rikke H

    2007-01-01

    to examine NDRG2 mRNA expression in colon cancer. By examining affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as well as in healthy individuals, we aim to determine whether and at which stages NDRG2 down-regulation occurs during colonic carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using......BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that NDRG2 mRNA is down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers and cancer cell-lines. Although the function of NDRG2 is unknown, high NDRG2 expression correlates with improved prognosis in high-grade gliomas. The aim of this study has been......-regulation is a cause or consequence of the progression of colorectal adenomas to carcinoma....

  3. Down-regulation of S100C is associated with bladder cancer progression and poor survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Meldgaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to identify proteins down-regulated during bladder cancer progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By using comparative proteome analysis and measurement of mRNA, we found a significant down-regulation of S100C, a member of the S100 family of proteins, in T24 (grade 3......) as compared with RT4 (grade 1) bladder cancer cell lines. Moreover, quantification of the mRNA level revealed that decreased expression of the protein reflects a low level of transcription of the S100C gene. Based on this observation, we quantified the S100C mRNA expression level with real-time PCR in bladder...... (Ta). A negative correlation between S100C and histopathologic grade (P = 0.0003) was also observed. Furthermore, the papillary type showed higher expression of S100C than did the solid type of the tumor (P bladder...

  4. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The molecular determinants of thyroid follicular nodules are incompletely understood and assessment of malignancy is a diagnostic challenge. Since microRNA (miRNA) analyses could provide new leads to malignant progression, we characterized the global miRNA expression in follicular adenoma (FA......) and follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially...... expressed mRNAs demonstrated an enrichment of seed-sites among up-regulated transcripts encoding proteins implicated in thyroid tumourigenesis. This was substantiated by the demonstration that pre-miR-199b reduced proliferation when added to cultured follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. The down-regulated mi...

  5. Kanglaite attenuates UVB-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAN, SHI-JUN; XIAO, TING; CHEN, JOHN; GENG, SHI-LING; LI, CHANG-PING; XU, XUEGANG; HONG, YUXIAO; JI, CHAO; GUO, YING; WEI, HUACHEN; LIU, WEI; LI, DAPENG; CHEN, HONG-DUO

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin photoaging. Depending on the wavelength of UV, the epidermis is affected primarily by UVB. One major characteristic of photoaging is the dehydration of the skin. Membrane-inserted water channels (aquaporins) are involved in this process. In this study we demonstrated that UVB radiation induced aquaporin-3 (AQP3) down-regulation in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Kanglaite is a mixture consisting of extractions of Coix Seed, which is an effective anti-neoplastic agent and can inhibit the activities of protein kinase C and NF-κB. We demonstrated that Kanglaite inhibited UVB-induced AQP3 down-regulation of cultured human skin keratinocytes. Our findings provide a potential new agent for anti-photoaging. The related molecular mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. PMID:22211241

  6. Downregulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus following chronic unpredictable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew N; Patel, Sachin; Carrier, Erica J; Rademacher, David J; Ormerod, Brandi K; Hillard, Cecilia J; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2005-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning and flexibility are seen following both chronic stress and modulation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Here, we investigated whether alterations in eCB signaling might contribute to the cognitive impairments induced by chronic stress. Chronic stress impaired reversal learning and induced perseveratory behavior in the Morris water maze without significant effect on task acquisition. These cognitive impairments were reversed by exogenous cannabinoid administration, suggesting deficient eCB signaling underlies these phenomena. In line with this hypothesis, chronic stress downregulated CB1 receptor expression and significantly reduced the content of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol within the hippocampus. CB1 receptor density and 2-arachidonylglycerol content were unaffected in the limbic forebrain. These data suggest that stress-induced downregulation of hippocampal eCB signaling contributes to problems in behavioral flexibility and could play a role in the development of perseveratory and ruminatory behaviors in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. BDNF downregulates 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in hippocampal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V; Santini, M A; Marcussen, Anders Bue

    2009-01-01

    Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT(2A)) have been related to depression pathology. Specific 5-HT(2A) receptor changes seen in BDNF conditional mutant mice suggest that BDNF regulates the 5-HT(2A) receptor level. Here we show a direct effect of BDNF...... on 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice...... with reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT(2A), but not of 5-HT(1A), receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures...

  8. Targeting the Hsp90 C-terminal domain to induce allosteric inhibition and selective client downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Kourtney M; Petrov, Dino P; Vickman, Renee E; Crist, Scott A; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Ratliff, Tim L; Davisson, V Jo; Hazbun, Tony R

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of Hsp90 is desirable due to potential downregulation of oncogenic clients. Early generation inhibitors bind to the N-terminal domain (NTD) but C-terminal domain (CTD) inhibitors are a promising class because they do not induce a heat shock response. Here we present a new structural class of CTD binding molecules with a unique allosteric inhibition mechanism. A hit molecule, NSC145366, and structurally similar probes were assessed for inhibition of Hsp90 activities. A ligand-binding model was proposed indicating a novel Hsp90 CTD binding site. Client protein downregulation was also determined. NSC145366 interacts with the Hsp90 CTD and has anti-proliferative activity in tumor cell lines (GI50=0.2-1.9μM). NSC145366 increases Hsp90 oligomerization resulting in allosteric inhibition of NTD ATPase activity (IC50=119μM) but does not compete with NTD or CTD-ATP binding. Treatment of LNCaP prostate tumor cells resulted in selective client protein downregulation including AR and BRCA1 but without a heat shock response. Analogs had similar potencies in ATPase and chaperone activity assays and variable effects on oligomerization. In silico modeling predicted a binding site at the CTD dimer interface distinct from the nucleotide-binding site. A set of symmetrical scaffold molecules with bisphenol A cores induced allosteric inhibition of Hsp90. Experimental evidence and molecular modeling suggest that the binding site is independent of the CTD-ATP site and consistent with unique induction of allosteric effects. Allosteric inhibition of Hsp90 via a mechanism used by the NSC145366-based probes is a promising avenue for selective oncogenic client downregulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Vascular Contraction and Preeclampsia Downregulation of the Angiotensin Receptor 1 by Hemopexin In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Winston W.; Henning, Rob H.; Willem J van Son; Pampus, Maria; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Niezen-Koning, Klary E; Borghuis, Theo; Jongman, Rianne M.; van Goor, Harry; Poelstra, Klaas; Navis, Gerjan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2009-01-01

    During normal pregnancy, in contrast to preeclampsia, plasma hemopexin activity is increased together with a decreased vascular angiotensin II receptor (AT1) expression. We now tested the hypothesis that hemopexin can downregulate the AT1 receptor in vitro. Analysis of human monocytes or endothelial cells by flow cytometry showed decreased membrane density of AT1 exclusively after incubation with active hemopexin, whereas in supernatants of these cell cultures, AT1 molecules could be detected...

  10. A herbivorous mite down-regulates plant defence and produces web to exclude competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Sarmento

    Full Text Available Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.

  11. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi [Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo-Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel [Physiological Genomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Patrick, Steve M., E-mail: Stephan.Patrick@utoledo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo-Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  12. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, José Luis; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has been investigated in the Salustiana sweet orange. Soluble sugar and starch accumulation in leaves, induced by girdling experiments, did not induce down-regulation of the photosynthetic rate in the presence of sinks (fruits). The leaf-to-fruit ratio did not modulate photosynthesis but allocation of photoassimilates to the fruits. The lack of strong sink activity led to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and starch accumulation in leaves. However, photosynthesis down-regulation due to an excess of total soluble sugars or starch was discarded because photosynthesis and stomatal conductance reduction occurred prior to any significant accumulation of these carbohydrates. Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters suggested biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the expression of carbon metabolism-related genes was altered within 24 h when strong sinks were removed. Sucrose synthesis and export genes were inhibited, whereas the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was increased to cope with the excess of assimilates. In conclusion, changes in starch and soluble sugar turnover, but not sugar content per se, could provide the signal for photosynthesis regulation. In these conditions, non-stomatal limitations strongly inhibited the photosynthetic rate prior to any significant increase in carbohydrate levels.

  13. Downregulation of 14q32 microRNAs in primary human desmoplastic medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ribeiro Lucon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common pediatric cancers, likely originating from abnormal development of cerebellar progenitor neurons. MicroRNA (miRNA has been shown to play an important role in the development of the central nervous system. Microarray analysis was used to investigate miRNA expression in desmoplastic MB from patients diagnosed at a young age (1 or 2 years old. Normal fetal or newborn cerebellum was used as control. A total of 84 differentially expressed miRNAs (64 downregulated and 20 upregulated were found. Most downregulated miRNAs (32/64 were found to belong to the cluster of miRNAs at the 14q32 locus, suggesting that this miRNA locus is regulated as a module in MB. Possible mechanisms of 14q32 miRNAs downregulation were investigated by the analysis of publicly available gene expression data sets. First, expression of estrogen-related receptor γ (ESRRG, a reported positive transcriptional regulator of some 14q32 miRNAs, was found downregulated in desmoplastic MB. Second, expression of the parentally imprinted gene MEG3 was lower in MB in comparison to normal cerebellum, suggesting a possible epigenetic silencing of the 14q32 locus. miR-129-5p (11p11.2/7q32.1, miR-206 (6p12.2, and miR-323-3p (14q32.2, were chosen for functional studies in DAOY cells. Overexpression of miR-129-5p using mimics decreased DAOY proliferation. No effect was found with miR-206 or miR-323 mimics.

  14. Downregulation of ZNF132 in prostate cancer is associated with aberrant promoter hypermethylation and poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Opstrup; Borre, Michael; Mørck Mortensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    immunoreactivity was significantly associated with high Gleason score and advanced T stage in both PC patient cohorts. By univariate analysis, no/weak ZNF132 staining was a significant adverse predictor of PSA recurrence after RP (p = 0.024) and cancer-specific death following conservative treatment (p = 0......, our results show that downregulation of ZNF132 is associated with aggressive PC and furthermore identify ZNF132 as a new candidate methylation marker for PC....

  15. Celiac Disease Histopathology Recapitulates Hedgehog Downregulation, Consistent with Wound Healing Processes Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Senger

    Full Text Available In celiac disease (CD, intestinal epithelium damage occurs secondary to an immune insult and is characterized by blunting of the villi and crypt hyperplasia. Similarities between Hedgehog (Hh/BMP4 downregulation, as reported in a mouse model, and CD histopathology, suggest mechanistic involvement of Hh/BMP4/WNT pathways in proliferation and differentiation of immature epithelial cells in the context of human intestinal homeostasis and regeneration after damage. Herein we examined the nature of intestinal crypt hyperplasia and involvement of Hh/BMP4 in CD histopathology.Immunohistochemistry, qPCR and in situ hybridization were used to study a cohort of 24 healthy controls (HC and 24 patients with diagnosed acute celiac disease (A-CD intestinal biopsies. In A-CD we observed an increase in cells positive for Leucin-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, an epithelial stem cell specific marker and expansion of WNT responding compartment. Further, we observed alteration in number and distribution of mesenchymal cells, predicted to be part of the intestinal stem cells niche. At the molecular level we found downregulation of indian hedgehog (IHH and other components of the Hh pathway, but we did not observe a concurrent downregulation of BMP4. However, we observed upregulation of BMPs antagonists, gremlin 1 and gremlin 2.Our data suggest that acute CD histopathology partially recapitulates the phenotype reported in Hh knockdown models. Specifically, Hh/BMP4 paradigm appears to be decoupled in CD, as the expansion of the immature cell population does not occur consequent to downregulation of BMP4. Instead, we provide evidence that upregulation of BMP antagonists play a key role in intestinal crypt hyperplasia. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying CD histopathology and the limitations in the use of mouse models for celiac disease.

  16. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huimin, E-mail: huiminchen.jq@gmail.com [Department of Geratology, Liaoning Jinqiu Hospital, Shenyang 110015 (China); Ma, Feng [Institute of Immunology, Zhejiang University of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Xiaona; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Teng, Xiaochun, E-mail: tengxiaochun@126.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophage. •RXRα suppresses NF-κB activity and COX2 expression. •Increased PGE2 production due to downregulation of RXRα. -- Abstract: Increased systemic level of inflammatory cytokines leads to numerous age-related diseases. In senescent macrophages, elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production contributes to the suppression of T cell function with aging, which increases the susceptibility to infections. However, the regulation of these inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 with aging still remains unclear. We have verified that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production are higher in LPS-stimulated macrophages from old mice than that from young mice. Downregulation of RXRα, a nuclear receptor that can suppress NF-κB activity, mediates the elevation of COX2 expression and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages. We also have found less induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by RXRα agonist in senescent macrophages, which partially accounts for high risk of atherosclerosis in aged population. Systemic treatment with RXRα antagonist HX531 in young mice increases COX2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression in splenocytes. Our study not only has outlined a mechanism of elevated NF-κB activity and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages, but also provides RXRα as a potential therapeutic target for treating the age-related diseases.

  17. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects.

  18. Differential Downregulation of E-Cadherin and Desmoglein by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquella G. Chavez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of cell : cell junctions is a key event in cutaneous wound repair. In this study we report that activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor disrupts cel : cell adhesion, but with different kinetics and fates for the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein and for E-cadherin. Downregulation of desmoglein preceded that of E-cadherin in vivo and in an EGF-stimulated in vitro wound reepithelialization model. Dual immunofluorescence staining revealed that neither E-cadherin nor desmoglein-2 internalized with the EGF receptor, or with one another. In response to EGF, desmoglein-2 entered a recycling compartment based on predominant colocalization with the recycling marker Rab11. In contrast, E-cadherin downregulation was accompanied by cleavage of the extracellular domain. A broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor protected E-cadherin but not the desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein-2, from EGF-stimulated disruption. These findings demonstrate that although activation of the EGF receptor regulates adherens junction and desmosomal components, this stimulus downregulates associated cadherins through different mechanisms.

  19. Human Sgo1 downregulation leads to chromosomal instability in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, M; Shinmura, K; Mori, H; Yamada, H; Suzuki, M; Kitayama, Y; Igarashi, H; Nakamura, T; Suzuki, H; Watanabe, Y; Hishida, A; Ikuma, M; Sugimura, H

    2009-02-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is recognised as a hallmark of cancer and is caused by a spindle assembly checkpoint disorder or chromosome mis-segregation during mitosis. Although the recent identification of human shugoshin (hSgo1), an important player in proper chromosome segregation, has suggested the involvement of hSgo1 in colorectal tumourigenesis, little is known about how it is involved. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the status of hSgo1 in human colorectal cancer. Among the 46 colorectal cancer cases, hSgo1 mRNA expression was decreased in the tumour tissue in comparison with the corresponding normal tissue (p = 0.032). Human Sgo1-downregulated tumours (tumour to normal mucosa ratiocatastrophes were also noted in hSgo1 knockdown cells. These findings suggest that hSgo1-downregulated colorectal cancers have a clinicopathological character of CIN, and hSgo1 downregulation leads to CIN in colorectal cancer cells.

  20. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  1. Genetic defects in downregulation of IgE production and a new genetic classification of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kondo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic disorders, such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis, develop due to the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Atopy is characterized by enhanced IgE responses to environmental antigens. The production of IgE is upregulated by Th2 cytokines, in particular interleukin (IL-4, and downregulated by Th1 cytokines, in particular interferon (IFN-γ. In the present review, we present the genetic factors responsible for IgE production and genetic defects in the downregulation (brake of IgE production, especially in terms of IL-12 and IL-18 signaling, mutations of the IL-12 receptor β2 chain gene and mutations of the IL-18 receptor α chain gene in atopy. Moreover, we newly present a genetic classification of atopy. There are four categories of genes that control the expression of allergic disorders, which include: (i antigen recognition; (ii IgE production (downregulation=brake; and upregulation; (iii the production and release of mediators; and (iv events on target organs. In the near future, this genetic classification will facilitate the development of tailor-made treatment.

  2. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  3. Downregulation of surface sodium pumps by endocytosis during meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalzing, G.; Eckard, P.; Kroener, S.P.; Passow, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysik, Frankfurt (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    During meiotic maturation, plasma membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes completely lose the capacity to transport Na and K and to bind ouabain. To explore whether the downregulation might be due to an internalization of the sodium pump molecules, the intracellular binding of ouabain was determined. Selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane of mature oocytes (eggs) by digitonin almost failed to disclose ouabain binding sites. However, when the eggs were additionally treated with 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to permeabilize inner membranes, all sodium pumps present before maturation were recovered. Phosphorylation by (gamma-32P)ATP combined with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography showed that sodium pumps were greatly reduced in isolated plasma membranes of eggs. According to sucrose gradient fractionation, maturation induced a shift of sodium pumps from the plasma membrane fraction to membranes of lower buoyant density with a protein composition different from that of the plasma membrane. Endocytosed sodium pumps identified on the sucrose gradient from (3H)ouabain bound to the cell surface before maturation could be phosphorylated with inorganic (32P)phosphate. The findings suggest that downregulation of sodium pumps during maturation is brought about by translocation of surface sodium pumps to an intracellular compartment, presumably endosomes. This contrasts the mechanism of downregulation of Na-dependent cotransport systems, the activities of which are reduced as a consequence of a maturation-induced depolarization of the membrane without a removal of the corresponding transporter from the plasma membrane.

  4. Metabolic Reprogramming of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts by IDH3α Downregulation

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    Daoxiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs provide critical metabolites for tumor growth and undergo metabolic reprogramming to support glycolysis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this change remain unclear. Here, we report that TGF-β1- or PDGF-induced CAFs switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. We identify downregulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α (IDH3α as a marker for this switch. Furthermore, miR-424 downregulates IDH3α during CAF formation. Downregulation of IDH3α decreases the effective level of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG by reducing the ratio of α-KG to fumarate and succinate, resulting in PHD2 inhibition and HIF-1α protein stabilization. The accumulation of HIF-1α, in turn, promotes glycolysis by increasing the uptake of glucose, upregulating expression of glycolytic enzymes under normoxic conditions, and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating NDUFA4L2. CAFs from tumor samples exhibit low levels of IDH3α, and overexpression of IDH3α prevents transformation of fibroblasts into CAFs. Our studies reveal IDH3α to be a critical metabolic switch in CAFs.

  5. Pioglitazone promotes preadipocyte proliferation by downregulating p16{sup Ink4a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif U. [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ohmori, Koji, E-mail: komori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kamitori, Kazuyo; Hirata, Yuko [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Naoko; Noma, Takahisa [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kohno, Masakazu [Department of Cardiorenal Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Mechanisms for preadipocyte hyperplasia by pioglitazone, a PPAR{gamma} agonist, are shown. {yields} Pioglitazone promotes cell-cycle of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and increases their number. {yields} Pioglitazone downregulates a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16{sup Ink4a}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} transrepresses p16{sup Ink4a} gene in preadipocytes, which pioglitazone enhances. -- Abstract: Pioglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){gamma}, causes preadipocyte proliferation through a mechanism which still remains elusive. Here, to address the mechanism, we investigated the effects of PPAR{gamma} and pioglitazone on the kinetics of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially with p16{sup Ink4a} (p16) centered, by employing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Pioglitazone promoted preadipocyte proliferation by increasing S and G{sub 2}/M cell-cycle entry, which was accompanied by decreased p16 mRNA expression. PPAR{gamma} overexpression along with the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that PPAR{gamma} was crucial for the downregulation of p16 mRNA transcription, and that the action was augmented by pioglitazone. Thus, pioglitazone exerted cell-cycle dependent promoting effect on preadipocyte proliferation, of which mechanisms include p16-downregulation through PPAR{gamma}.

  6. Down-regulated miR-9 and miR-433 in human gastric carcinoma

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    Nie Na

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MircoRNAs(miRNAs are short, endogenously non-coding RNAs. The abnormal expression of miRNAs may be valuable for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Methods To screening the special miRNAs in gastric carcinoma, expression level of miRNAs in gastric carcinoma and normal gaster samples were detected by miRNA gene chip. Then, the expressions of miR-9 and miR-433 in gastric carcinoma tissue and SGC7901 cell line were validated by qRT-PCR. GRB2 and RAB34, targets of miR-433 and miR-9 respectively, were detected by Western blot. Results We found 19 miRNAs and 7 miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively. Compared with normal gaster samples, our data showed that miR-9 and miR-433 were down-regulated in gastric carcinoma. Meanwhile, we also found that miR-433 and miR-9 regulated the expression levels of GRB2 and RAB34 respectively. Conclusion Our data show miR-9 and miR-433 was down-regulated in gastric carcinoma. The targets of miR-433 and miR-9 were tumor-associated proteins GRB2 and RAB34 respectively. This result provided the related information of miRNAs in gastric carcinoma.

  7. Connexin 26 is Down-Regulated by KDM5B in the Progression of Bladder Cancer

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    Enqing Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Connexin 26 (Cx26 expression is down-regulated and KDM5B (H3K4 demethylase is up-regulated in the progression of bladder cancer, suggesting that Cx26 expression may be down-regulated by KDM5B in bladder cancer. To test the hypothesis, the HT1376 and T24 human bladder carcinoma cells were transfected with the plasmids pcDNA3.1-KDM5B, and caused the down-regulation of Cx26 expression. In contrast, the HT1376 and T24 cells transfected with the plasmids pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B1 and pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B2 caused the up-regulation of Cx26 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed that the immunohistochemical expression of KDM5B and Cx26 was inversely related in bladder carcinoma tissues but no relationship in benign tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that KDM5B represses Cx26 expression in the bladder cancer development. Thus, a negative value to Cx26 immunohistochemical expression and a positive value to KDM5B immunohistochemical expression could be an ancillary diagnosis of primary bladder malignancy.

  8. GPER blockers as Nox downregulators: A new drug class to target chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias R; Barton, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of chronic non-communicable diseases such as arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. Cardiovascular diseases are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and additional Nox isoforms among other sources. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) can mediate multiple salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. However, GPER also has constitutive activity, e.g. in the absence of specific agonists, that was recently shown to promote hypertension and aging-induced tissue damage by promoting Nox1-derived production of ROS. Furthermore, the small molecule GPER blocker (GRB) G36 reduces blood pressure and vascular ROS production by selectively down-regulating Nox1 expression. These unexpected findings revealed GRBs as first in class Nox downregulators capable to selectively reduce the increased expression and activity of Nox1 in disease conditions. Here, we will discuss the paradigm shift from selective GPER activation to ligand-independent, constitutive GPER signaling as a key regulator of Nox-derived oxidative stress, and the surprising identification of GRBs as the first Nox downregulators for the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Down-Regulation of TRPM8 in Pulmonary Arteries of Pulmonary Hypertensive Rats

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    Xiao-Ru Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by profound vascular remodeling and alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. Multiple transient receptor potential melastatin-related (TRPM subtypes have been identified in vascular tissue. However, the changes in the expression and function of TRPM channels in pulmonary hypertension have not been characterized in detail. Methods: We examined the expression of TRPM channels and characterized the functions of the altered TRPM channels in two widely used rat models of chronic hypoxia (CH- and monocrotaline (MCT-induced PH. Results: CH-exposed and MCT-treated rats developed severe PH and right ventricular hypertrophy, with a significant decrease in TRPM8 mRNA and protein expression in pulmonary arteries (PAs. The downregulation of TRPM8 was associated with significant reduction in menthol-induced cation-influx. Time-profiles showed that TRPM8 down-regulation occurred prior to the increase of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP and right ventricular mass index (RVMI in CH-exposed rats, but these changes were delayed in MCT-treated rats. The TRPM8 agonist menthol induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted PAs, and the vasorelaxing effects were significantly attenuated in PAs of both PH rat models, consistent with decreased TRPM8 expression. Conclusion: Downregulation of TRPM8 may contribute to the enhanced vasoreactivity in PH.

  10. DNA promoter and histone H3 methylation downregulate NGX6 in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhu, Xinjiang; Xu, Xiaoyang; Dai, Dongqiu

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated gene 6 (NGX6) is a novel candidate tumor metastasis suppressor gene. Our study was to determine whether DNA hypermethylation and histone modification at the NGX6 gene promoter play important roles in silencing NGX6 expression in gastric cancer. NGX6 expression was downregulated in all gastric cancer cells and 76.19 % tissues. In three GC cell lines, hypermethylated NGX6 loci were characterized by histone H3-K9 hypoacetylation and hypermethylation. Trichostatin A treatment could moderately increase H3-K9 acetylation at the silenced loci; however, it had no effect on DNA and H3-K9 methylation and minimal effects on NGX6 expression. In contrast, 5'aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment could rapidly decrease DNA and H3-K9 methylation at the silenced loci, leading to the reexpression of NGX6. Combined treatment with 5'aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A had synergistic effects on the reexpression of NGX6 at the hypermethylation loci. Our current study shows that NGX6 expression is downregulated in GC cancer cells and tissues due to NGX6 promoter methylation and H3-K9 methylation, but not H3-K9 acetylation. Our findings indicate that the downregulation of NGX6 expression contributes to the development and progression of gastric cancer. More studies are needed to determine the precise mechanism of NGX6 in the progression of gastric cancer.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of raloxifene derivatives as a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Takuji; Kato, Masashi; Fujisato, Takuma; Misawa, Takashi; Demizu, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideshi; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) play a major role in the growth of human breast cancer cells. A selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD) that acts as not only an inhibitor of ligand binding, but also induces the down-regulation of ER, would be useful for the treatment for ER-positive breast cancer. We previously reported that tamoxifen derivatives, which have a long alkyl chain, had the ability to down-regulate ERα. With the aim of expanding range of the currently available SERDs, we designed and synthesized raloxifene derivatives, which had various lengths of the long alkyl chains, and evaluated their SERD activities. All compounds were able to bind ERα, and RC10, which has a decyl group on the amine moiety of raloxifene, was shown to be the most potent compound. Our findings suggest that the ligand core was replaceable, and that the alkyl length was important for controlling SERD activity. Moreover, RC10 showed antagonistic activity and its potency was superior to that of 4,4'-(heptane-4,4-diyl)bis(2-methylphenol) (18), a competitive antagonist of ER without SERD activity. These results provide information that will be useful for the development of promising SERDs candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  13. Downregulation of membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases in the inflamed or injured central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millward Jason M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The family of MMPs includes 23 proteinases, including six membrane type-MMPs (MT-MMPs. Leukocyte infiltration is an integral part of the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation in the CNS, as occurs in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, as well as in the response to brain trauma and injury. We have previously shown that gene expression of the majority of MMPs was upregulated in the spinal cord of SJL mice with severe EAE induced by adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-reactive T cells, whereas four of the six MT-MMPs (MMP-15, 16, 17 and 24 were downregulated. The two remaining MT-MMPs (MMP-14 and 25 were upregulated in whole tissue. Methods We used in vivo models of CNS inflammation and injury to study expression of MT-MMP and cytokine mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. Expression was also assessed in microglia sorted from CNS by flow cytometry, and in primary microglia cultures following treatment with IFNγ. Results We now confirm the expression pattern of MT-MMPs in the B6 mouse, independent of effects of adjuvant. We further show expression of all the MT-MMPs, except MMP-24, in microglia. Microglia isolated from mice with severe EAE showed statistically significant downregulation of MMP-15, 17 and 25 and lack of increase in levels of other MT-MMPs. Downregulation of MT-MMPs was also apparent following CNS injury. The pattern of regulation of MT-MMPs in neuroinflammation showed no association with expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, or IFNγ. Conclusion CNS inflammation and injury leads to downregulation in expression of the majority of MT-MMPs. Microglia in EAE showed a general downregulation of MT-MMPs, and our findings suggest that MT-MMP levels may

  14. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimers Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Alricsson M (2012) Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurol Scand 125, 293-302. [19] Qu C, Mahmood A...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0582 TITLE: Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...COVERED 09/25/2012-09/24/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for

  15. Downregulation of DNA (cytosine-5-)methyltransferase is a late event in NGF-induced PC12 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J; Szyf, M

    1999-07-23

    DNA methylation patterns are a critical component of the epigenetic machinery that controls the expression of genetic programs in vertebrates. DNA methyltransferase gene (dnmt1) encodes the enzyme catalyzing the methylation of DNA during replication. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of dnmt1 is regulated with the developmental state of neuronal cells. We show that DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt1) activity is sharply reduced 4 days after induction of differentiation of PC12 cells with NGF. Similarly, the adult brain expresses reduced levels of Dnmt1 activity. We propose that the level of Dnmt1 is downregulated to adjust the activity of the DNA methyltransferase to a different role in mature post-mitotic neurons. Both the abundance of dnmt1 mRNA as well as the Dnmt1 polypeptide are downregulated. Downregulation of dnmt1 parallels other indicators of withdrawal from the cell cycle such as induction of p21, and downregulation of the S phase maker PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The temporal pattern of downregulation of dnmt1 in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced PC12 cells is different from myotube differentiation where downregulation of DNA methyltransferase and demethylation is an early event and was proposed to play a causal role in differentiation. We propose that NGF differentiation of PC12 cells represents a different paradigm of involvement of DNA methylation in terminal differentiation. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Don't Get Too Excited: Assessing Individual Differences in the Down-Regulation of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Christopher; Plaks, Jason E; Peterson, Jordan B

    2017-07-05

    A voluminous literature has documented the importance of emotion regulation for health and well-being. The studies in this literature, however, have generally focused on the down-regulation of negative affect. Few studies have examined the down-regulation of positive affect. In Study 1, we constructed a scale, the revised Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (r-RESE), which assesses both the down- and up-regulation of positive affect, in addition to the traditional down-regulation of negative affect. In Study 2, we conducted an extensive validation of the r-RESE scale, using a multimethod approach with informant ratings, to illustrate that the down-regulation of positive affect represents a process independent of each of the other forms of emotion regulation. In Study 3, we provided evidence that the ability to down-regulate positive emotions provides added predictive utility when predicting indexes of impulsivity and adjustment. Across the studies, we illustrate the potential importance of the down-regulation of positive emotions as a topic of study for the field of emotion regulation.

  17. Downregulation of (3H)Ro5-4864 binding sites after exposure to peripheral-type benzodiazepines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.D.; Wang, J.K.; Morgan, J.I.; Spector, S.

    1986-09-01

    Peripheral-type benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites undergo a rapid and pronounced downregulation after exposure to these compounds in vitro. Friend erythroleukemia cells were incubated with micromolar concentrations of BZD after which they were washed thoroughly and the binding of the specific peripheral-type BZD radioligand (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 was determined. Exposure to the peripheral-type BZD Ro7-3351 decreased the number of (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 binding sites from 324 to 41 fmol/10(6) cells with no change in affinity. Downregulation appears to require active cellular processes because it is blocked when exposure to BZD is at 4/sup 0/C rather than at 37/sup 0/C. Furthermore, whereas (/sup 3/H)Ro5-4864 binding is decreased substantially in membrane preparations made from downregulated cells, it is not altered when membrane preparations from control cells are exposed to BZD. The time course of downregulation is quite rapid, as it occurs within minutes. In contrast, the return of sites requires days and there is a close relationship between return of sites and growth of new cells. The ability of BZDs to downregulate correlates more closely with affinity for the peripheral-type site than with biological activity. The ability to undergo downregulation is characteristic of receptors and its occurrence suggests that peripheral-type BZD binding sites are functional receptors.

  18. Downregulation of SIRT1 signaling underlies hepatic autophagy impairment in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Cho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia leads to impaired glucose homeostasis and metabolic manifestations including hepatomegaly caused by increased glycogen and neutral fat accumulation. A recent report showed that G6Pase-α deficiency causes impairment in autophagy, a recycling process important for cellular metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism underlying defective autophagy is unclear. Here we show that in mice, liver-specific knockout of G6Pase-α (L-G6pc-/- leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 signaling that activates autophagy via deacetylation of autophagy-related (ATG proteins and forkhead box O (FoxO family of transcriptional factors which transactivate autophagy genes. Consistently, defective autophagy in G6Pase-α-deficient liver is characterized by attenuated expressions of autophagy components, increased acetylation of ATG5 and ATG7, decreased conjugation of ATG5 and ATG12, and reduced autophagic flux. We further show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency results in activation of carbohydrate response element-binding protein, a lipogenic transcription factor, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, a lipid regulator, and suppressed expression of PPAR-α, a master regulator of fatty acid β-oxidation, all contributing to hepatic steatosis and downregulation of SIRT1 expression. An adenovirus vector-mediated increase in hepatic SIRT1 expression corrects autophagy defects but does not rectify metabolic abnormalities associated with G6Pase-α deficiency. Importantly, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector-mediated restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression corrects metabolic abnormalities, restores SIRT1-FoxO signaling, and normalizes defective autophagy. Taken together, these data show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated down-regulation of SIRT1 signaling underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia.

  19. Tgf-beta downregulation of distinct chloride channels in cystic fibrosis-affected epithelia.

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    Hongtao Sun

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance (CaCC each play critical roles in maintaining normal hydration of epithelial surfaces including the airways and colon. TGF-beta is a genetic modifier of cystic fibrosis (CF, but how it influences the CF phenotype is not understood.We tested the hypothesis that TGF-beta potently downregulates chloride-channel function and expression in two CF-affected epithelia (T84 colonocytes and primary human airway epithelia compared with proteins known to be regulated by TGF-beta.TGF-beta reduced CaCC and CFTR-dependent chloride currents in both epithelia accompanied by reduced levels of TMEM16A and CFTR protein and transcripts. TGF-beta treatment disrupted normal regulation of airway-surface liquid volume in polarized primary human airway epithelia, and reversed F508del CFTR correction produced by VX-809. TGF-beta effects on the expression and activity of TMEM16A, wtCFTR and corrected F508del CFTR were seen at 10-fold lower concentrations relative to TGF-beta effects on e-cadherin (epithelial marker and vimentin (mesenchymal marker expression. TGF-beta downregulation of TMEM16A and CFTR expression were partially reversed by Smad3 and p38 MAPK inhibition, respectively.TGF-beta is sufficient to downregulate two critical chloride transporters in two CF-affected tissues that precedes expression changes of two distinct TGF-beta regulated proteins. Our results provide a plausible mechanism for CF-disease modification by TGF-beta through effects on CaCC.

  20. Antisense downregulation of SARS-CoV gene expression in Vero E6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi; Luo, Haifeng; Jia, Jie; Xiong, Jie; Yang, Dehua; Huang, Bing; Jin, Youxin

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). It is an enveloped, single-stranded, plus-sense RNA virus with a genome of approximately 30 kb. The structural proteins E, M and N of SARS-CoV play important roles during host cell entry and viral morphogenesis and release. Therefore, we have studied whether expression of these structural proteins can be down-regulated using an antisense technique. Vero E6 cells were transfected with plasmid constructs containing exons of the SARS-CoV structural protein E, M or N genes or their exons in frame with the reporter protein EGFP. The transfected cell cultures were treated with antisense phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (antisense PS-ODN, 20mer) or a control oligonucleotide by addition to the culture medium. Among a total of 26 antisense PS-ODNs targeting E, M and N genes, we obtained six antisense PS-ODNs which could sequence-specifically reduce target genes expression by over 90% at the concentration of 50 microM in the cell culture medium tested by RT-PCR. The antisense effect was further proved by down-regulating the expression of the fusion proteins containing the structural proteins E, M or N in frame with the reporter protein EGFP. In Vero E6 cells, the antisense effect was dependent on the concentrations of the antisense PS-ODNs in a range of 0-10 microM or 0-30 microM. The antisense PS-ODNs are effective in downregulation of SARS. The findings indicate that antisense knockdown of SARS could be a useful strategy for treatment of SARS, and could also be suitable for studies of the pathological function of SARS genes in a cellular model system.

  1. Downregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Three-Dimensional Matrix Enhances Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Adley, Brian P.; Kelly, David L.; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J.; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D.; Sharon Stack, M

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intra-peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hours of 3-dimensional collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time RT-PCR, multiple three-dimensional cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration, and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion-mimicking conditions (3-dimensional type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n=41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n=7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced, collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:19382180

  2. Downregulation of selective microRNAs in trigeminal ganglion neurons following inflammatory muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active regulation of gene expression in the nervous system plays an important role in the development and/or maintenance of inflammatory pain. MicroRNA (miRNA negatively regulates gene expression via posttranscriptional or transcriptional inhibition of specific genes. To explore the possible involvement of miRNA in gene regulation during inflammatory pain, we injected complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA unilaterally into the rat masseter muscle and quantified changes in neuron-specific mature miRNAs in the trigeminal ganglion (TG. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant, but differential, downregulation of mature miR-10a, -29a, -98, -99a, -124a, -134, and -183 in the ipsilateral mandibular division (V3 of the TG within 4 hr after CFA. In contrast, levels of tested miRNAs did not change significantly in the contralateral V3 or the ipsilateral ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the TG from inflamed rats, nor in the ipsilateral V3 of saline-injected animals. The downregulated miRNAs recovered differentially to a level equal to or higher than that in naive animals. Full recovery time varied with miRNA species but was at least 4 days. Expression and downregulation of some miRNAs were further confirmed by in situ hybridization of TG neurons that innervate the inflamed muscle. Although neurons of all sizes expressed these miRNAs, their signals varied between neurons. Our results indicate that miRNA species specific to neurons are quickly regulated following inflammatory muscle pain.

  3. Down-regulation of lipoxygenase gene reduces degradation of carotenoids of golden rice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Ali, Nusrat; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2015-07-01

    Down-regulation of lipoxygenase enzyme activity reduces degradation of carotenoids of bio-fortified rice seeds which would be an effective tool to reduce huge post-harvest and economic losses of bio-fortified rice seeds during storage. Bio-fortified provitamin A-enriched rice line (golden rice) expressing higher amounts of β-carotene in the rice endosperm provides vitamin A for human health. However, it is already reported that degradation of carotenoids during storage is a major problem. The gene responsible for degradation of carotenoids during storage has remained largely unexplored till now. In our previous study, it has been shown that r9-LOX1 gene is responsible for rice seed quality deterioration. In the present study, we attempted to investigate if r9-LOX1 gene has any role in degradation of carotenoids in rice seeds during storage. To establish our hypothesis, the endogenous lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of high-carotenoid golden indica rice seed was silenced by RNAi technology using aleurone layer and embryo-specific Oleosin-18 promoter. To check the storage stability, LOX enzyme down-regulated high-carotenoid T3 transgenic rice seeds were subjected to artificial aging treatment. The results obtained from biochemical assays (MDA, ROS) also indicated that after artificial aging, the deterioration of LOX-RNAi lines was considerably lower compared to β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice which had higher LOX activity in comparison to LOX-RNAi lines. Furthermore, it was also observed by HPLC analysis that down-regulation of LOX gene activity decreases co-oxidation of β-carotene in LOX-RNAi golden rice seeds as compared to the β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice, after artificial aging treatment. Therefore, our study substantially establishes and verifies that LOX is a key enzyme for catalyzing co-oxidation of β-carotene and has a significant role in deterioration of β-carotene levels in the carotenoid-enriched golden rice.

  4. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sora; Jeon, Ji-Sook; Kim, Su Bin; Hong, Young-Kwon; Ahn, Curie; Sung, Jung-Suk; Choi, Inho

    2016-02-27

    Although the prolonged use of rapamycin may cause unwanted side effects such as hyperlipidemia, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Prox1 is a transcription factor responsible for the development of several tissues including lymphatics and liver. There is growing evidences that Prox1 participates in metabolism in addition to embryogenesis. However, whether Prox1 is directly related to lipid metabolism is currently unknown. HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with rapamycin and total lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The effect of rapamycin on the expression of Prox1 was determined by western blotting. To investigate the role of Prox1 in triglycerides regulation, siRNA and overexpression system were employed. Rapamycin was injected into mice for 2 weeks and total lipids and proteins in liver were measured by thin layer chromatography and western blot analysis, respectively. Rapamycin up-regulated the amount of triglyceride and down-regulated the expression of Prox1 in HepG2 cells by reducing protein half-life but did not affect its transcript. The loss-of-function of Prox1 was coincident with the increase of triglycerides in HepG2 cells treated with rapamycin. The up-regulation of triglycerides by rapamycin in HepG2 cells reverted to normal levels by the compensation of Prox1 using the overexpression system. Rapamycin also down-regulated Prox1 expression but increased triglycerides in mouse liver. This study suggests that rapamycin can increase the amount of triglycerides by down-regulating Prox1 expression in hepatocytes, which means that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is important for the regulation of triglycerides by maintaining Prox1 expression.

  5. p38 MAPK Down-regulates Fibulin 3 Expression through Methylation of Gene Regulatory Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, María; Priego, Neibla; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Sequera, Celia; Gutiérrez-Uzquiza, Álvaro; Cerezo-Guisado, María Isabel; Ortiz-Rivero, Sara; Roncero, Cesáreo; Cuenda, Ana; Guerrero, Carmen; Porras, Almudena

    2015-01-01

    p38 MAPKs regulate migration and invasion. However, the mechanisms involved are only partially known. We had previously identified fibulin 3, which plays a role in migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, as a gene regulated by p38α. We have characterized in detail how p38 MAPK regulates fibulin 3 expression and its role. We describe here for the first time that p38α, p38γ, and p38δ down-regulate fibulin 3 expression. p38α has a stronger effect, and it does so through hypermethylation of CpG sites in the regulatory sequences of the gene. This would be mediated by the DNA methylase, DNMT3A, which is down-regulated in cells lacking p38α, but once re-introduced represses Fibulin 3 expression. p38α through HuR stabilizes dnmt3a mRNA leading to an increase in DNMT3A protein levels. Moreover, by knocking-down fibulin 3, we have found that Fibulin 3 inhibits migration and invasion in MEFs by mechanisms involving p38α/β inhibition. Hence, p38α pro-migratory/invasive effect might be, at least in part, mediated by fibulin 3 down-regulation in MEFs. In contrast, in HCT116 cells, Fibulin 3 promotes migration and invasion through a mechanism dependent on p38α and/or p38β activation. Furthermore, Fibulin 3 promotes in vitro and in vivo tumor growth of HCT116 cells through a mechanism dependent on p38α, which surprisingly acts as a potent inducer of tumor growth. At the same time, p38α limits fibulin 3 expression, which might represent a negative feed-back loop. PMID:25548290

  6. Downregulation of Choline Kinase-Alpha Enhances Autophagy in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Choline kinase-α (Chk-α and autophagy have gained much attention, as they relate to the drug-resistance of breast cancer. Here, we explored the potential connection between Chk-α and autophagy in the mechanisms driving to tamoxifen (TAM resistance, in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer cells (BCCs. Human BCC lines (MCF-7 and TAM-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/TAM cells were used. Chk-α expression and activity was suppressed by the transduction of shRNA (shChk-α with lentivirus and treatment with CK37, a Chk-α inhibitor. MCF-7/TAM cells had higher Chk-α expression and phosphocholine levels than MCF-7 cells. A specific downregulation of Chk-α by the transduction of shChk-α exhibited a significant decrease in phosphocholine levels in MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAM cells. The autophagy-related protein, cleaved microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 and autophagosome-like structures were significantly increased in shChk-α-transduced or CK37-treated MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAM cells. The downregulation of Chk-α attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, and mTOR in both MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAM cells. In MCF-7 cells, the downregulation of Chk-α resulted in an induction of autophagy, a decreased proliferation ability and an activation of caspase-3. In MCF-7/TAM cells, despite a significant decrease in proliferation ability and an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, the downregulation of Chk-α did not induced caspase-dependent cell death and further enhanced autophagy and G0/G1 phase arrest. An autophagy inhibitor, methyladenine (3-MA induced death and attenuated the level of elevated LC3 in MCF-7/TAM cells. Elucidating the interplay between choline metabolism and autophagy will provide unique opportunities to identify new therapeutic targets and develop novel treatment strategies that preferentially target TAM-resistance.

  7. Downregulation of miR-125b in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Rossing, Maria; Hother, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify microRNA species involved in the earliest metastatic event in cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM). Samples from 28 patients with MM [stage T2 (tumor), M0 (distant metastasis)] were grouped by the presence of micrometastasis in the sentinel lymph nodes (N0/N1). Melanoma...... melanomas that produced early metastases (T2, N1, M0) compared with the sentinel lymph node-negative (T2, N0, M0) melanomas. MiR-125b has earlier been found to be downregulated in other tumor types and in atypic naevi compared with the common acquired naevi. In conclusion, miR-125b may be involved...

  8. The effect of CD4 receptor downregulation and its downstream signaling molecules on HIV-1 latency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Chang [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Guk [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Tae-Young [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihwan [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Min; Lee, Joo-Shil [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang-Yun [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Soon [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Sun, E-mail: byeongsun@korea.kr [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} CD4 receptors were downregulated on the surface of HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} CD4 downstream signaling molecules were suppressed in HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} HIV-1 progeny can be reactivated by induction of T-cell activation signal molecules. {yields} H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were highly enriched in CD4 downstream signaling molecules. {yields} HIV-1 latency can be maintained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: HIV-1 can establish a latent infection in memory CD4 + T cells to evade the host immune response. CD4 molecules can act not only as the HIV-1 receptor for entry but also as the trigger in an intracellular signaling cascade for T-cell activation and proliferation via protein tyrosine kinases. Novel chronic HIV-1-infected A3.01-derived (NCHA) cells were used to examine the involvement of CD4 downstream signaling in HIV-1 latency. CD4 receptors in NCHA cells were dramatically downregulated on its surface but were slightly decreased in whole-cell lysates. The expression levels of CD4 downstream signaling molecules, including P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, LAT, and c-Jun, were sharply decreased in NCHA cells. The lowered histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac correlated with the downregulation of P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, and LAT in NCHA cells. AP-1 binding activity was also reduced in NCHA cells. LAT and c-Jun suppressed in NCHA cells were highly induced after PMA treatment. In epigenetic analysis, other signal transduction molecules which are associated with active and/or latent HIV-1 infection showed normal states in HIV-1 latently infected cells compared to A3.01 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 latent state is sustained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules via the downregulation of CD4 and the attenuated activity of transcription factor as AP-1. The HIV-1 latency model via T-cell deactivation may provide some clues for the development of the new

  9. Deubiquitylating enzyme USP2 counteracts Nedd4-2-mediated downregulation of KCNQ1 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Grunnet, Morten

    2012-01-01

    KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), together with its KCNE ß subunits, plays a pivotal role both in the repolarization of cardiac tissue and in water and salt transport across epithelial membranes. Nedd4/Nedd4-like (neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated 4) ubiquitin-protein ligases interact...... with the KCNQ1 potassium channel through a PY motif located in the C terminus of KCNQ1. This interaction induces ubiquitylation of KCNQ1, resulting in a reduced surface density of the channel. It was reported recently that the epithelial sodium channel is regulated by the reverse process...

  10. The role of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 signalling in the migration of neural stem cells towards a brain tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A. A. E.; Biber, K.; Lukovac, S.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Mooij, J. J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: It has been shown that neural stem cells (NSCs) migrate towards areas of brain injury or brain tumours and that NSCs have the capacity to track infiltrating tumour cells. The possible mechanism behind the migratory behaviour of NSCs is not yet completely understood. As chemokines are involved

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 expression is down-regulated in human clear cell renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Radic-Antolic, Margareta; Coric, Marijana; Zadro, Renata; Kastelan, Zeljko; Pasini, Josip; Bandic-Pavlovic, Daniela; Kes, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is altered in different tumors. We determined expression of BMP-7 in human clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC). Samples from cancer and corresponding healthy tissue were obtained from 20 patients who underwent nephrectomy for CCRC. Expression of BMP-7 mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of BMP-7 mRNA in cancer tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of BMP-7 in normal renal tissue, with almost complete loss of BMP-7 expression in malignant cells of 6 patients (30%). After 3 years of follow-up, 5 out of 6 patients with high BMP-7 mRNA expression were alive and disease-free, compared with 9 out of 14 patients with low BMP-7 mRNA expression. BMP-7 mRNA and protein expression were down-regulated in CCRC. Further prospective studies are needed to characterize the role of BMP-7 in human CCRC.

  12. Protamine sulfate down-regulates thrombin generation by inhibiting factor V activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Ainle, Fionnuala

    2009-08-20

    Protamine sulfate is a positively charged polypeptide widely used to reverse heparin-induced anticoagulation. Paradoxically, prospective randomized trials have shown that protamine administration for heparin neutralization is associated with increased bleeding, particularly after cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The molecular mechanism(s) through which protamine mediates this anticoagulant effect has not been defined. In vivo administration of pharmacologic doses of protamine to BALB\\/c mice significantly reduced plasma thrombin generation and prolonged tail-bleeding time (from 120 to 199 seconds). Similarly, in pooled normal human plasma, protamine caused significant dose-dependent prolongations of both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Protamine also markedly attenuated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation in human plasma, causing a significant decrease in endogenous thrombin potential (41% +\\/- 7%). As expected, low-dose protamine effectively reversed the anticoagulant activity of unfractionated heparin in plasma. However, elevated protamine concentrations were associated with progressive dose-dependent reduction in thrombin generation. To assess the mechanism by which protamine mediates down-regulation of thrombin generation, the effect of protamine on factor V activation was assessed. Protamine was found to significantly reduce the rate of factor V activation by both thrombin and factor Xa. Protamine mediates its anticoagulant activity in plasma by down-regulation of thrombin generation via a novel mechanism, specifically inhibition of factor V activation.

  13. Downregulation of Calcineurin Gene is Associated with Glucantime Resiatance in Leishmania Infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rafooian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentavalent antimonials are the first line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Unresponsiveness of Leishmania spp. to antimonial drugs is a serious problem in some endemic areas. Investigations on molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance are essential for monitoring and managing of the disease. Calcineu­rin is an essential protein phosphatase for number of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells and it has a mediated role in apoptosis. This study aimed to determine of biomarker(s in Glucantime® resiatance strain of L. infan­tum.Methods: We used cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP and real time-RT PCR assays to compare gene expression profiles at the mRNA levels in resistant and susceptible L. infantum field isolates.Results: The cDNA-AFLP results showed downlegulation of calcineurin in resis­tant isolate in comparison with susceptible one. Significant downregulation of calcineu­rin (0.42 fold (P<0.05 was found in resistant isolate compared to suscepti­ble one by Real time-RT PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of calcineurin implication in Glucantime® drug resistance of field (natural isolate of L. infantum. Downregulation of calcineurin could protect parasites from antimonial-induced apoptosis.

  14. Downregulation of Calcineurin Gene Is Associated with Glucantime(®) Resiatance in Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher Khadem Erfan, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Hajjaran, Homa; Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Mamishi, Setareh; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Pentavalent antimonials are the first line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Unresponsiveness of Leishmania spp. to antimonial drugs is a serious problem in some endemic areas. Investigations on molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance are essential for monitoring and managing of the disease. Cal-cineurin is an essential protein phosphatase for number of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells and it has a mediated role in apoptosis. This study aimed to determine of biomarker(s) in Glucantime(®) resiatance strain of L. infan-tum. We used cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real time-RT PCR assays to compare gene expression profiles at the mRNA levels in resistant and susceptible L. infantum field isolates. The cDNA-AFLP results showed downlegulation of calcineurin in resis-tant isolate in comparison with susceptible one. Significant downregulation of cal-cineurin (0.42 fold) (Presistant isolate compared to susceptible one by Real time-RT PCR. This is the first report of calcineurin implication in Glucantime(®) drug resistance of field (natural) isolate of L. infantum. Downregulation of calcineurin could protect parasites from antimonial-induced apoptosis.

  15. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Jorge [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Mendoza, Pablo [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Natalia [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Quest, Andrew F.G. [Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Torres, Vicente A., E-mail: vatorres@med.uchile.cl [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  16. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  17. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Troyano-Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK, a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression.

  18. Ovatodiolide Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells through SMURF2-Mediated Downregulation of Hsp27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan-Ta; Wang, Bing-Yen; Chi, Wan-Yu; Chang-Chien, Ju; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Tzeng, Yew-Min; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells involved in tumor initiation, resistance to therapy and metastasis. Targeting CSCs has been considered as the key for successful cancer therapy. Ovatodiolide (Ova) is a macrocyclic diterpenoid compound isolated from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze with anti-cancer activity. Here we used two human breast cancer cell lines (AS-B145 and BT-474) to examine the effect of Ova on breast CSCs. We first discovered that Ova displayed an anti-proliferation activity in these two breast cancer cells. Ova also inhibited the self-renewal capability of breast CSCs (BCSCs) which was determined by mammosphere assay. Ova dose-dependently downregulated the expression of stemness genes, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and Nanog, as well as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), but upregulated SMAD ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (SMURF2) in mammosphere cells derived from AS-B145 or BT-474. Overexpression of Hsp27 or knockdown of SMURF2 in AS-B145 cells diminished the therapeutic effect of ovatodiolide in the suppression of mammosphere formation. In summary, our data reveal that Ova displays an anti-CSC activity through SMURF2-mediated downregulation of Hsp27. Ova could be further developed as an anti-CSC agent in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27136586

  19. Ovatodiolide Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells through SMURF2-Mediated Downregulation of Hsp27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ta Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs are a subpopulation of cancer cells involved in tumor initiation, resistance to therapy and metastasis. Targeting CSCs has been considered as the key for successful cancer therapy. Ovatodiolide (Ova is a macrocyclic diterpenoid compound isolated from Anisomeles indica (L. Kuntze with anti-cancer activity. Here we used two human breast cancer cell lines (AS-B145 and BT-474 to examine the effect of Ova on breast CSCs. We first discovered that Ova displayed an anti-proliferation activity in these two breast cancer cells. Ova also inhibited the self-renewal capability of breast CSCs (BCSCs which was determined by mammosphere assay. Ova dose-dependently downregulated the expression of stemness genes, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4 and Nanog, as well as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27, but upregulated SMAD ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (SMURF2 in mammosphere cells derived from AS-B145 or BT-474. Overexpression of Hsp27 or knockdown of SMURF2 in AS-B145 cells diminished the therapeutic effect of ovatodiolide in the suppression of mammosphere formation. In summary, our data reveal that Ova displays an anti-CSC activity through SMURF2-mediated downregulation of Hsp27. Ova could be further developed as an anti-CSC agent in the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Obesity and p16INK4A Downregulation Activate Breast Adipocytes and Promote Their Protumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Amir, Mrad; Al-Mohanna, Falah; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Sayed, Adher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer development. However, the molecular basis of obesity-related breast carcinogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we have shown that obesity reduces the level of the tumor suppressor p16INK4A protein in breast adipocytes, which showed active features and strong procarcinogenic potential both in vitro and in orthotopic tumor xenografts compared to mature adipocytes from lean women. Furthermore, obesity triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast ductal epithelial cells. Interestingly, specific downregulation of p16INK4A increased the expression/secretion levels of various adipokines, including leptin, and activated breast adipocytes from lean women. Consequently, like breast adipocytes from obese women, p16-deficient adipocytes induced EMT in normal primary breast luminal cells in a leptin-dependent manner and enhanced tumor growth. Additionally, we have shown that p16INK4A negatively controls leptin at the mRNA level through microRNAs 141 and 146b-5p (miR-141 and miR-146b-5p), which bind the leptin mRNA at a specific sequence in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). These results show that obesity activates breast stromal adipocytes through p16 downregulation, which upregulates leptin and promotes procarcinogenic processes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Insulin Downregulates the Transcriptional Coregulator CITED2, an Inhibitor of Proangiogenic Function in Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuanchun; Lockhart, Samuel M; Rathjen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In patients with atherosclerotic complications of diabetes, impaired neovascularization of ischemic tissue in the myocardium and lower limb limits the ability of these tissues to compensate for poor perfusion. We identified 10 novel insulin-regulated genes, among them Adm, Cited2 and Ctgf, which ...... activity in vivo We conclude that vascular insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes contributes to the upregulation of CITED2 which impairs HIF signaling and endothelial pro-angiogenic function.......In patients with atherosclerotic complications of diabetes, impaired neovascularization of ischemic tissue in the myocardium and lower limb limits the ability of these tissues to compensate for poor perfusion. We identified 10 novel insulin-regulated genes, among them Adm, Cited2 and Ctgf, which...... were downregulated in endothelial cells by insulin through FoxO1. CITED2, which was downregulated by insulin by up to 54%, is an important negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and impaired HIF signaling is a key mechanism underlying the impairment of angiogenesis in diabetes. Consistent...

  2. Downregulation of SIRT2 Inhibits Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common neoplasms, and metastasis is the most important feature for HCC-related deaths. Mounting evidence implies the dynamic regulatory role of SIRT2, a histone deacetylase, in cancer cells. Unfortunately, the role of SIRT2 and the antitumor activity of its inhibition are not known in HCC. The present study aims to evaluate the biological function of SIRT2 in HCC and identify the target of SIRT2 as well as evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. We found that SIRT2 was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and this was correlated with reduced patient survival. Although CCK8 and colony-formation assays showed that SIRT2 inhibiton marginally promotes proliferation in HCC cell lines, SIRT2 knockdown decreased the invasion of HCC cells. We demonstrated that downregulation of SIRT2 could inhibit its downstream target phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and glutaminase, which is related to mitochondrial metabolism and the E-Cadherin pathway. These results demonstrate, for the first time that downregulation of SIRT2 decreases migration as well as invasion in human HCC cells, indicating that inhibiting SIRT2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for treating HCC.

  3. Down-regulation of MiR-127 facilitates hepatocyte proliferation during rat liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyong Pan

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR after partial hepatectomy (PH involves the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and microRNAs have been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in the regulation of these processes. To explore the role of miR-127 during LR, the expression patterns of miR-127 and its related proteins were investigated. MiR-127 was introduced into a rat liver cell line to examine its effects on the potential target genes Bcl6 and Setd8, and functional studies were undertaken. We discovered that miR-127 was down-regulated and inversely correlated with the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8 at 24 hours after PH, a time at which hypermethylation of the promoter region of the miR-127 gene was detected. Furthermore, in BRL-3A rat liver cells, we observed that overexpression of miR-127 significantly suppressed cell growth and directly inhibited the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8. The results suggest that down-regulation of miR-127 may be due to the rapid methylation of its promoter during the first 24 h after PH, and this event facilitates hepatocyte proliferation by releasing Bcl6 and Setd8. These findings support a miRNA-mediated negative regulation pattern in LR and implicate an anti-proliferative role for miR-127 in liver cells.

  4. A p53-inducible microRNA-34a downregulates Ras signaling by targeting IMPDH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Ryeon; Roe, Jae-Seok; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hwang, In-Young [National Research Laboratory for Metabolic Checkpoint, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Jung [National Research Laboratory for Chromatin Dynamics, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hong-Duk, E-mail: hdyoun@snu.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Metabolic Checkpoint, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 downregulates IMPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53-dependent miR-34a transactivation inhibits IMPDH transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-34a-mediated inhibition of IMPDH downregulates GTP-dependent Ras signal. -- Abstract: p53 is a well-known transcription factor that controls cell cycle arrest and cell death in response to a wide range of stresses. Moreover, p53 regulates glucose metabolism and its mutation results in the metabolic switch to the Warburg effect found in cancer cells. Nucleotide biosynthesis is also critical for cell proliferation and the cell division cycle. Nonetheless, little is known about whether p53 regulates nucleotide biosynthesis. Here we demonstrated that p53-inducible microRNA-34a (miR-34a) repressed inosine 5 Prime -monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a rate-limiting enzyme of de novo GTP biosynthesis. Treatment with anti-miR-34a inhibitor relieved the expression of IMPDH upon DNA damage. Ultimately, miR-34a-mediated inhibition of IMPDH resulted in repressed activation of the GTP-dependent Ras signaling pathway. In summary, we suggest that p53 has a novel function in regulating purine biosynthesis, aided by miR-34a-dependent IMPDH repression.

  5. Down-regulation of UBC9 increases the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Sufen; Qiu, Junyao; Wu, Zheng; Bai, Tao; Guo, Wuhua

    2017-07-25

    UBC9 is an E2-conjugating enzyme that is required for SUMOylation and has been implicated in regulating several critical cellular pathways. UBC9 is overexpressed in certain tumors, such as lung adenocarcinoma, ovarian carcinoma and melanoma, which implies that it has special clinical significance. However, the role of UBC9 in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) drug responsiveness is not clear. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological significance of UBC9 in HCC and investigated the mechanism of UBC9-mediated chemosensitivity to doxorubicin (DOX) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that relative to adjacent normal tissues, UBC9 was markedly overexpressed in HCC, which closely correlated with tumor size, tumor microsatellite formation, and tumor encapsulation. Our results also showed that down-regulation of UBC9 by shRNA reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and increased the expression of cleaved-Caspase3, which is a proapoptotic protein. These changes were associated with reduced apoptosis in response to DOX. Furthermore, we observed a mechanism involving modulation of the P38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Together, our results indicate that down-regulation of UBC9 sensitizes cells to anticancer drugs, is possibly associated with the regulation of ERK1/2 and P38 activation and interacts with the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Thus, knockdown of UBC9 may have a tumor suppressor effect and UBC9 could be a potential target for the treatment of HCC cancer.

  6. Tolerization with BLP down-regulates HMGB1 a critical mediator of sepsis-related lethality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tolerization with bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) affords a significant survival benefit in sepsis. Given that high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is a recognized mediator of sepsis-related lethality, we determined if tolerization with BLP leads to alterations in HMGB1. In vitro, BLP tolerization led to a reduction in HMGB1 gene transcription. This was mirrored at the protein level, as HMGB1 protein expression and release were reduced significantly in BLP-tolerized human THP-1 monocytic cells. BLP tolerance in vivo led to a highly significant, long-term survival benefit following challenge with lethal dose BLP in C57BL\\/6 mice. This was associated with an attenuation of HMGB1 release into the circulation, as evidenced by negligible serum HMGB1 levels in BLP-tolerized mice. Moreover, HMGB1 levels in peritoneal macrophages from BLP-tolerized mice were reduced significantly. Hence, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1 protein synthesis and release. The improved survival associated with BLP tolerance could thus be explained by a reduction in HMGB1, were the latter associated with lethality in BLP-related sepsis. In testing this hypothesis, it was noted that neutralization of HMGB1, using anti-HMGB1 antibodies, abrogated BLP-associated lethality almost completely. To conclude, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1, thus offering a novel means of targeting the latter. HMGB1 is also a mediator of lethality in BLP-related sepsis.

  7. Niacin Inhibits Vascular Inflammation via Downregulating Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jilong; Guo, Shoudong; Zhai, Lei; Yao, Shutong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Gu, Jue; Qin, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of niacin on vascular inflammatory lesions in vivo and in vitro as well as its lipid-regulating mechanism. In vivo study revealed that niacin downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in plasma, suppressed protein expression of CD68 and NF-κB p65 in arterial wall, and attenuated oxidative stress in guinea pigs that have been fed high fat diet. In vitro study further confirmed that niacin decreased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited NF-κB p65 and notch1 protein expression in oxLDL-stimulated HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, niacin attenuated oxLDL-induced apoptosis of HUVECs as well. In addition, niacin significantly lessened lipid deposition in arterial wall, increased HDL-C and apoA levels and decreased TG and non-HDL-C levels in plasma, and upregulated the mRNA amount of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase A1 in liver of guinea pigs. These data suggest for the first time that niacin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro via downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, niacin also modulates plasma lipid by upregulating the expression of factors involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:24991087

  8. Androgen Depletion Induces Senescence in Prostate Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of Skp2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Pernicová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the induction of senescence in cancer cells is a potent mechanism of tumor suppression, senescent cells remain metabolically active and may secrete a broad spectrum of factors that promote tumorigenicity in neighboring malignant cells. Here we show that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT, a widely used treatment for advanced prostate cancer, induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in prostate cancer epithelial cells, indicated by increases in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, heterochromatin protein 1β foci, and expression of cathepsin B and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Interestingly, ADT also induced high levels of vimentin expression in prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in human prostate tumors in vivo. The induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by androgen depletion was mediated, at least in part, by down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, whereas the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells was under separate control. These data demonstrate a previously unrecognized link between inhibition of androgen receptor signaling, down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, and the appearance of secretory, tumor-promoting senescent cells in prostate tumors. We propose that ADT may contribute to the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer through modulation of the tissue microenvironment by senescent cells.

  9. NOD2 Suppresses Colorectal Tumorigenesis via Downregulation of the TLR Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nashir Udden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although NOD2 is the major inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene, its role in colorectal tumorigenesis is poorly defined. Here, we show that Nod2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to experimental colorectal tumorigenesis independent of gut microbial dysbiosis. Interestingly, the expression of inflammatory genes and the activation of inflammatory pathways, including NF-κB, ERK, and STAT3 are significantly higher in Nod2−/− mouse colons during colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis, but not at homeostasis. Consistent with higher inflammation, there is greater proliferation of epithelial cells in hyperplastic regions of Nod2−/− colons. In vitro studies demonstrate that, while NOD2 activates the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in response to MDP, it inhibits TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB and MAPK. Notably, NOD2-mediated downregulation of NF-κB and MAPK is associated with the induction of IRF4. Taken together, NOD2 plays a critical role in the suppression of inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon via downregulation of the TLR signaling pathways.

  10. Hypoxia and Human Genome Stability: Downregulation of BRCA2 Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, it has been reported that hypoxia causes increased mutagenesis and alteration in DNA repair mechanisms. In 2005, an interesting study showed that hypoxia-induced decreases in BRCA1 expression and the consequent suppression of homologous recombination may lead to genetic instability. However, nothing is yet known about the involvement of BRCA2 in hypoxic conditions in breast cancer. Initially, a cell proliferation assay allowed us to hypothesize that hypoxia could negatively regulate the breast cancer cell growth in short term in vitro studies. Subsequently, we analyzed gene expression in breast cancer cell lines exposed to hypoxic condition by microarray analysis. Interestingly, genes involved in DNA damage repair pathways such as mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair were downregulated. In particular, we focused on the BRCA2 downregulation which was confirmed at mRNA and protein level. In addition, breast cancer cells were treated with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG, a cell-permeable inhibitor of both proline and asparaginyl hydroxylases able to induce HIF-1α stabilization in normoxia, providing results comparable to those previously described. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying genetic instability mediated by hypoxia and BRCA involvement in sporadic breast cancers.

  11. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia inhibits the growth of breast carcinoma and downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, GUIHUA; XU, DERONG; CHAI, QIN; TAN, XIAOLANG; ZHANG, YU; GU, NING; TANG, JINTIAN

    2014-01-01

    The application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in several animal models. However, the feasibility of using MFH in vivo to treat breast cancer is uncertain, and the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, it was observed that the intratumoral administration of MFH induced hyperthermia significantly in rats with Walker-265 breast carcinomas. The hyperthermia treatment with magnetic nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth in vivo and promoted the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, it was found that MFH treatment downregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissue, as observed by immunohistochemistry. MFH treatment also decreased the gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF receptor 1 and 2, and inhibited angiogenesis in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the application of MFH with nanoparticles is feasible for the treatment of breast carcinoma. The MFH-induced downregulation of angiogenesis may also contribute to the induction of an anti-tumor effect. PMID:24765139

  12. Significant Down-Regulation of “Biological Adhesion” Genes in Porcine Oocytes after IVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Budna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper maturation of the mammalian oocyte is a compound processes determining successful monospermic fertilization, however the number of fully mature porcine oocytes is still unsatisfactory. Since oocytes’ maturation and fertilization involve cellular adhesion and membranous contact, the aim was to investigate cell adhesion ontology group in porcine oocytes. The oocytes were collected from ovaries of 45 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts and subjected to two BCB tests. After the first test, only granulosa cell-free BCB+ oocytes were directly exposed to microarray assays and RT-qPCR (“before IVM” group, or first in vitro matured and then if classified as BCB+ passed to molecular analyses (“after IVM” group. As a result, we have discovered substantial down-regulation of genes involved in adhesion processes, such as: organization of actin cytoskeleton, migration, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival or angiogenesis in porcine oocytes after IVM, compared to oocytes analyzed before IVM. In conclusion, we found that biological adhesion may be recognized as the process involved in porcine oocytes’ successful IVM. Down-regulation of genes included in this ontology group in immature oocytes after IVM points to their unique function in oocyte’s achievement of fully mature stages. Thus, results indicated new molecular markers involved in porcine oocyte IVM, displaying essential roles in biological adhesion processes.

  13. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia inhibits the growth of breast carcinoma and downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Xu, Derong; Chai, Qin; Tan, Xiaolang; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Tang, Jintian

    2014-05-01

    The application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in several animal models. However, the feasibility of using MFH in vivo to treat breast cancer is uncertain, and the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, it was observed that the intratumoral administration of MFH induced hyperthermia significantly in rats with Walker-265 breast carcinomas. The hyperthermia treatment with magnetic nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth in vivo and promoted the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, it was found that MFH treatment downregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissue, as observed by immunohistochemistry. MFH treatment also decreased the gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF receptor 1 and 2, and inhibited angiogenesis in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the application of MFH with nanoparticles is feasible for the treatment of breast carcinoma. The MFH-induced downregulation of angiogenesis may also contribute to the induction of an anti-tumor effect.

  14. Developmental downregulation of LIS1 expression limits axonal extension and allows axon pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Kumamoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. Conversely, sustained LIS1 expression inhibited developmental axon pruning in the mammillary body. Thus, LIS1 regulation may coordinate the balance between axonal growth and pruning during maturation of neuronal circuits.

  15. Transformation of Astrocytes to a Neuroprotective Phenotype by Microglia via P2Y1 Receptor Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Shinozaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury. This change in astrocyte phenotype resulted from P2Y1 receptor downregulation, mediated by microglia-derived cytokines. In mice, astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor overexpression (Astro-P2Y1OE counteracted scar formation, while astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor knockdown (Astro-P2Y1KD facilitated scar formation, suggesting critical roles of P2Y1 receptors in the transformation. Astro-P2Y1OE and Astro-P2Y1KD mice showed increased and reduced neuronal damage, respectively. Altogether, our findings indicate that microglia-astrocyte interaction, involving a purinergic signal, is essential for the formation of neuroprotective astrocytes.

  16. Downregulation of NPM expression by Her-2 reduces resistance of gastric cancer to oxaliplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenni; Yue, Lu; Shen, Zan; Li, Yong; Sui, Aihua; Li, Tianjun; Tang, Qian; Yao, Ruyong; Sun, Yongning

    2017-04-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) are abnormally expressed in various types of human malignant tumors, including gastric cancer, and have been closely associated with cancer chemoresistance. However, their interaction and roles in oxaliplatin resistance are not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between NPM and Her-2 in gastric cancer cell lines and clinical samples, and further investigated their role in the resistance of gastric cancer to oxaliplatin. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that NPM and Her-2 expression were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer cells and clinical samples, and that their expression levels were strongly correlated. However, Her-2 expression was not affected by upregulation or downregulation of NPM expression in gastric cancer cells. Cell counting kit-8 assays demonstrated that the cell sensitivity to oxaliplatin decreased simultaneously with an increase in NPM expression. Furthermore, inhibition of Her-2 expression using trastuzumab significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to oxaliplatin, which occurred simultaneously with the downregulation of NPM. These results indicated that inhibition of NPM, as a Her-2 downstream signal, may be a novel strategy to overcome oxaliplatin-resistant gastric cancer, and that trastuzumab and oxaliplatin may exhibit a synergistic antitumor effect in Her-2-positive gastric cancer cells.

  17. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  18. Practicing psychotherapists are more skilled at downregulating negative emotions than other professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Sanchez, Xavier; Scheibe, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Laypeople and psychotherapists alike tend to assume that psychotherapists are more effective than the average population in regulating negative emotions. Being receptive to patients' distress and being able to downregulate negative emotions are important skills for psychotherapists to provide effective help and sustain their own well-being. We investigated whether psychotherapists react to negative material differently and downregulate emotions more effectively than individuals working in other, nontherapeutic, professions. Practicing psychotherapists (n = 21) and a control group of nontherapists (n = 18) were exposed to pictures designed to elicit negative emotions in varying intensities and were asked to rate their emotional response, first after viewing them naturally and then after choosing and applying one of two given regulation strategies (i.e., distraction and reappraisal). Both groups responded similarly in terms of emotional reactivity and strategy choices, but psychotherapists were more effective than nontherapists in reducing their emotional response after applying emotion regulation strategies. We suggest that psychotherapists' comparable emotional reactivity and more effective emotion regulation make them well prepared to provide effective help to patients and safeguard their own well-being. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M; Avante, M L; Tinucci-Costa, M; Carvalho, M; Cassali, G D; Linde, S D; Rogatto, S R; Laufer-Amorim, R

    2016-11-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples (n = 10), benign mammary tumors (n = 11), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 19), and metastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 11). Lower ATM transcript levels were detected in benign mammary tumors and carcinomas compared with normal mammary glands (P = .011). Similarly, lower ATM protein expression was observed in benign tumors (P = .0003), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (P ATM gene or protein levels were detected among benign tumors and nonmetastatic and metastatic mammary carcinomas (P > .05). The levels of ATM gene or protein expression were not significantly associated with clinical and pathological features or with survival. Similar to human breast cancer, the data in this study suggest that ATM gene and protein downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. TRIB3 downregulation enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Jung; Lin, Rong-Jaan; Wang, Hsin-Chiao; Yuan, Tein-Ming; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2017-05-15

    TRIB3, which is a pseudokinase known to regulate multiple pro-survival pathways, appears to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human tumors. However, its precise role in cancer is controversial, as TRIB3 protein levels have been associated with both good and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we investigated the significance of TRIB3 expression in the survival of gastric cancer cells exposed to anticancer drugs. We found that the tested anticancer drug, doxorubicin, induced cytotoxicity by decreasing TRIB3 transcription, which was followed by apoptotic cell death. Moreover, TRIB3 siRNA knockdown appeared to enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, concurrently with altering the expression of downstream apoptotic factors. Conversely, overexpression of TRIB3 significantly protected cells against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that downregulation of TRIB3 appears to promote cell death and enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, supporting the anti-apoptotic role of TRIB3. The inductions of three classes of MAPKs failed to affect doxorubicin-mediated TRIB3 downregulation, while TRIB3 overexpression did not affect doxorubicin-induced MAPK activation. In sum, our findings indicate that TRIB3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in doxorubicin-treated gastric cancer cell lines, perhaps indicating that the status of TRIB3 expression in response to anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, irinotecan or oxaliplatin, may reflect the efficiency for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron- and Hepcidin-Independent Downregulation of the Iron Exporter Ferroportin in Macrophages during Salmonella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Canonne-Hergaux

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Retention of iron in tissue macrophages via upregulation of hepcidin (HAMP and downregulation of the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN is thought to participate in the establishment of anemia of inflammation after infection. However, an upregulation of FPN has been proposed to limit macrophages iron access to intracellular pathogens. Therefore, we studied the iron homeostasis and in particular the regulation of FPN after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice presenting tissue macrophages with high iron (AcB61, basal iron (A/J and wild-type mice, or low iron (Hamp knock out, Hamp−/− levels. The presence of iron in AcB61 macrophages due to extravascular hemolysis and strong erythrophagocytosis activity favored the proliferation of Salmonella in the spleen and liver with a concomitant decrease of FPN protein expression. Despite systemic iron overload, no or slight increase in Salmonella burden was observed in Hamp−/− mice compared to controls. Importantly, FPN expression at both mRNA and protein levels was strongly decreased during Salmonella infection in Hamp−/− mice. The repression of Fpn mRNA was also observed in Salmonella-infected cultured macrophages. In addition, the downregulation of FPN was associated with decreased iron stores in both the liver and spleen in infected mice. Our findings show that during Salmonella infection, FPN is repressed through an iron and hepcidin-independent mechanism. Such regulation likely provides the cellular iron indispensable for the growth of Salmonella inside the macrophages.

  2. Munc18c in Adipose Tissue Is Downregulated in Obesity and Is Associated with Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escote, Xavier; Coin-Aragüez, Leticia; Fernandez-Garcia, Jose Carlos; El Bekay, Rajaa; Vendrell, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Munc18c is associated with glucose metabolism and could play a relevant role in obesity. However, little is known about the regulation of Munc18c expression. We analyzed Munc18c gene expression in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue and its relationship with obesity and insulin. Materials and Methods We evaluated 70 subjects distributed in 12 non-obese lean subjects, 23 overweight subjects, 12 obese subjects and 23 nondiabetic morbidly obese patients (11 with low insulin resistance and 12 with high insulin resistance). Results The lean, overweight and obese persons had a greater Munc18c gene expression in adipose tissue than the morbidly obese patients (pcultures showed that insulin produced a significant down-regulation of Munc18c gene expression (p = 0.048). This decrease was also obtained when explants were incubated with liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) agonist, either without (p = 0.038) or with insulin (p = 0.050). However, Munc18c gene expression was not affected when explants were incubated with insulin plus a sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) inhibitor (p = 0.504). Conclusions Munc18c gene expression in human adipose tissue is down-regulated in morbid obesity. Insulin may have an effect on the Munc18c expression, probably through LXRα and SREBP-1c. PMID:23700440

  3. Mycobacterium leprae downregulates the expression of PHEX in Schwann cells and osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R Boiça Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathy and bone deformities, lifelong sequelae of leprosy that persist after treatment, result in significant impairment to patients and compromise their social rehabilitation. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidase on the X chromosome (PHEX is a Zn-metalloendopeptidase, which is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts and many other cell types, such as Schwann cells, and has been implicated in phosphate metabolism and X-linked rickets. Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium leprae stimulation downregulates PHEX transcription and protein expression in a human schwannoma cell line (ST88-14 and human osteoblast lineage. Modulation of PHEX expression was observed to a lesser extent in cells stimulated with other species of mycobacteria, but was not observed in cultures treated with latex beads or with the facultative intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Direct downregulation of PHEX by M. leprae could be involved in the bone resorption observed in leprosy patients. This is the first report to describe PHEX modulation by an infectious agent.

  4. Downregulation of the endogenous opioid peptides in the dorsal striatum of human alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil eSarkisyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous opioid peptides dynorphins and enkephalins may be involved in brain-area specific synaptic adaptations relevant for different stages of an addiction cycle. We compared the levels of prodynorphin (PDYN and proenkephalin (PENK mRNAs (by qRT-PCR, and dynorphins and enkephalins (by radioimmunoassay in the caudate nucleus and putamen between alcoholics and control subjects. We also evaluated whether PDYN promoter variant rs1997794 associated with alcoholism affects PDYN expression. Postmortem specimens obtained from 24 alcoholics and 26 controls were included in final statistical analysis. PDYN mRNA and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, a marker of PENK were downregulated in the caudate of alcoholics, while PDYN mRNA and Leu-enkephalin-Arg, a marker of PDYN were decreased in the putamen of alcoholics carrying high risk rs1997794 C allele. Downregulation of opioid peptides in the dorsal striatum may contribute to development of alcoholism including changes in goal directed behavior and formation of a compulsive habit in alcoholics.

  5. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

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    Liu, Xiaoyou [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Dong, Changgui [Institute of Molecular Ecology and Evolution, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jiang, Zhengyao [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Wu, William K.K. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Matthew T.V. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Jie [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China); Sun, Xuyong, E-mail: sunxuyong0528@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China)

    2015-04-10

    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11.

  7. Disruption of Stromal-Derived Factor-1/Chemokine Receptor 4 by Simvastatin

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    A Jalili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The alpha chemokine, stromal-derived factor (SDF-1 is produced by bone marrow stromal cells and other cells, especially damaged tissues. SDF-1 receptor, a chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4, is expressed on inflammatory cells and that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays a critical role in migration of inflammatory cells. In cardiovascular diseases, SDF-1 is produced by endothelial cells and plaques and that SDF-1 chemoattracts monocytes to the endothelial cells resulting in a local inflammation. Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent, is a general drug for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its molecular mechanism has not yet been completely elucidated.Method: Herein, we investigated the role of simvastatin on the SDF- 1/CXCR4 axis by employing flow cytometry, RT-PCR, chemotaxis and adhesion assays. Results: Simvastatin (i downregulates CXCR4 expression on monocytic cell line (THP-1 and primary monocyte in a dose-dependent manner, (ii inhibits adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and (iii decreases SDF-1 production by endothelial cells. Moreover, preincubation with simvastatin significantly decreased the migration of THP-1 towards the SDF-1 gradient.Conclusion: All together our data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the binding of monocytes to endothelial cells through disrupting of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  8. Engagement of immune effector cells by trastuzumab induces HER2/ERBB2 downregulation in cancer cells through STAT1 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer for more than a decade. However, reports on the involvement of HER2 downregulation in trastuzumab’s mechanism of action are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate if the dependence of trastuzumab-mediated cancer cell HER2 downregulation on immune effector cells represents a novel mechanism of action for trastuzumab. Methods HER2 expression was evaluated by Western blotting, flow cytometry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cell lysates from co-cultures of multiple cancer cell lines with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence or absence of trastuzumab. The engagement of immune cells by trastuzumab through Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) was tested using three trastuzumab variants with compromised or no Fc (fragment crystallizable) functions and FcγRs blocking experiments. The engagement of immune cells by trastuzumab in HER2 downregulation was also evaluated in in vivo mouse xenograft tumor models. Results HER2 downregulation of cancer cells by trastuzumab occurred only when trastuzumab was actively engaged with immune cells and cancer cells, as demonstrated consistently in co-cultures of cancer cell lines with PBMCs and in vivo mouse xenograft tumor models. We further demonstrated that HER2 downregulation in cancer cells by immune-cell-engaged trastuzumab was at the transcriptional level, not through the HER2 degradation pathway. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in cancer cells by the increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in immune cells played an important role in downregulating HER2 in cancer cells upon engagement of immune cells by trastuzumab. Furthermore, HER2 downregulation in cancer cells induced by trastuzumab engagement of immune cells was correlated with the antibody’s antitumor efficacy in vivo. Conclusions This

  9. Down-regulation of the CD3-zeta chain in sentinel node biopsies from breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Jana; Bergkvist, Leif; Håkansson, Leif; Gustafsson, Bertil; Håkansson, Annika

    2002-07-01

    In several neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression has been shown to correlate with disease stage, progression, and outcome. As the prognosis for metastatic breast cancer is still pessimistic, additional strategies are being sought to improve survival. Local immunosuppression in sentinel node biopsies from 24 evaluable breast cancer patients was studied as a possible way of selecting patients for immunotherapy. Sentinel node biopsy was performed in 24 out of 25 women operated on for primary breast cancer (one was not evaluable). Specimens were snap-frozen and double-stained for the zeta-chain of the T-cell receptor. The degree of down-regulation of the zeta-chain was evaluated in three different lymph-node areas: primary follicles, secondary follicles, and paracortex. Down-regulation of varying degrees was noted in all 24 sentinel node biopsies. A high degree of down-regulation (more than 50% of T-cells not expressing zeta-chain) was seen in the primary follicles in six patients (25%), in the secondary follicles in 13 patients (72%), and in the paracortex in 19 patients (79%). Local down-regulation of an immune function parameter was seen in sentinel node biopsies from breast cancer patients. In addition to possible prognostic implications, the sentinel node might be an appropriate location for detecting early-stage immunological down-regulation, which might open a possibility of selecting patients who could benefit from immunotherapy.

  10. Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation by inducing cell cycle arrest in retinoblastoma

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    Zhang, Yiting; Wu, Dan; Xia, Fengjie; Xian, Hongyu; Zhu, Xinyue [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China); Cui, Hongjuan, E-mail: hcui@swu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Institute of Sericulture and Systems Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716 (China); Huang, Zhenping, E-mail: huangzhenping19633@163.com [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is a member of class II HDACs, which regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. Recently, HDAC9 has been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of HDAC9 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that HDAC9 was commonly expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and HDAC9 was overexpressed in prognostically poor retinoblastoma patients. Through knocking down HDAC9 in Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells, the expression level of HDAC9 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro. Further investigation indicated that knockdown HDAC9 could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. Western blot assay showed downregulation of HDAC9 could significantly decrease cyclin E2 and CDK2 expression. Lastly, xenograft study in nude mice showed that downregulation of HDAC9 inhibited tumor growth and development in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that HDAC9 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of retinoblastoma. - Highlights: • High expression of HDAC9 correlates with poor patient prognosis. • Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 suppresses tumor growth in nude mice.

  11. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Goel

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT, ammonium transporters (AMT, nitrate reductase (NR, nitrite reductase (NiR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, asparagines synthetase (ASN were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl, osmotic (250 mM Mannitol, cold (4°C and heat (42°C stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h, which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses.

  12. Downregulation of DcR3 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaojie Liang,* Yingchen Xu,* Guangming Li, Tuanjie Zhao, Feng Xia, Guanqun Li, Dongxin Zhang, Jixiang Wu Department of General Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3 has been recently described as an antiapoptosis and prometastasis factor since it can competitively bind to FasL, TL1A, and LIGHT, and it is highly expressed in many malignant tumors. Downregulation of DcR3 can promote tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit metastasis. A previous study demonstrated that reduction of DcR3 could induce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. However, whether such an effect is seen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains to be explored. This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity of HCC cells to TRAIL after silencing DcR3, and this was done by evaluating the expression of DcR3 in HCC cells and the effect on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis after downregulation of DcR3. Our data showed that DcR3 was highly expressed in HepG2, BEL-7402, Hep3B, Huh-7, MHCC97H, and SMCC7721 cell lines compared with normal liver cell line LO-2. Both HepG2 and BEL-7402 were tolerant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, and the tolerance was negatively correlated to the expression of DcR3. Silencing of DcR3 with shRNA and treatment with TRAIL induced obvious apoptosis in HepG2 and BEL-7402, with more cancer cells found in the G1 phase. SiDcR3 combined with TRAIL could induce activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9, raise the expression of the apoptotic protein Bax, and reduce the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-XL, IAP-2, and survivin. Caspase-8 inhibitor Ac-IETD-CHO significantly decreased the activation of caspase cascade, indicating that the extrinsic pathway may have a vital role in the apoptotic events induced by SiDcR3/TRAIL. Furthermore, our

  13. TCR down-regulation boosts T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and protection against poxvirus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Regner, Matthias; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne

    2011-01-01

    from the TCR. To determine whether TCR down-regulation affects the cytotoxicity of Tc cells, we studied TCR down-regulation-deficient CD3¿LLAA mice. We found that Tc cells from CD3¿LLAA mice have reduced cytotoxicity due to a specific deficiency in exocytosis of lytic granules. To determine whether......Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells play a key role in the defense against virus infections. Tc cells recognize infected cells via the T-cell receptor (TCR) and subsequently kill the target cells by one or more cytotoxic mechanisms. Induction of the cytotoxic mechanisms is finely tuned by the activation signals...... this defect was reflected in an increased susceptibility to virus infections, we studied the course of ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection. We found that the susceptibility to ECTV infection was significantly increased in CD3¿LLAA mice with a mortality rate almost as high as in granzyme B knock-out mice...

  14. Carbon nanoparticles downregulate expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in the heart during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanoparticles, with their high biocompatibility and low toxicity, have recently been considered for biomedical applications, including antiangiogenic therapy. Critical to normal development and tumor formation, angiogenesis is the process of forming capillary blood vessels from preexisting...... vessels. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diamond and graphite nanoparticles on the development of chicken embryos, as well as vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane and heart at the morphological and molecular level. Nanoparticles did not affect either body/heart weight or serum...... indices of the embryos' health. However, vascularization of the heart and the density of branched vessels were significantly reduced after treatment with diamond nanoparticles and, to a lesser extent, graphite nanoparticles. Application of nanoparticles significantly downregulated gene and protein...

  15. Losartan treating podocyte injury induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Xianggeng; Hu-Bo; Yu, S Y; Yin-Lianghong; Meng-Yu; Wang-Boxun; Yang-Jinsheng; Lin-Jiahui; Huang-Dexu; Chen-Lanlan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecule mechanisms of podocyte injury and proteinuria and the protective effects of losartan. This study set up three groups: a control group; an Ang II group (Ang II 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma); and a losartan group (losartan 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma). We used RT-PCR assay to detect TRPC6 mRNA expression, and Western blot to detect TRPC6 protein expression. TRPC6 overexpression was the basic change of podocyte injury and proteinuria occurrence. Losartan can treat podocyte injury and proteinuria induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes. These findings maybe provide an ideal drug target for the diagnosis and treatment of acquired glomerular diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Downregulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PKR downregulation prevents neurodegeneration and β-amyloid production in a thiamine-deficient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton-Liger, F; Rebillat, A-S; Gourmaud, S; Paquet, C; Leguen, A; Dumurgier, J; Bernadelli, P; Taupin, V; Pradier, L; Rooney, T; Hugon, J

    2015-01-15

    Brain thiamine homeostasis has an important role in energy metabolism and displays reduced activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency (TD) induces regionally specific neuronal death in the animal and human brains associated with a mild chronic impairment of oxidative metabolism. These features make the TD model amenable to investigate the cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Once activated by various cellular stresses, including oxidative stress, PKR acts as a pro-apoptotic kinase and negatively controls the protein translation leading to an increase of BACE1 translation. In this study, we used a mouse TD model to assess the involvement of PKR in neuronal death and the molecular mechanisms of AD. Our results showed that the TD model activates the PKR-eIF2α pathway, increases the BACE1 expression levels of Aβ in specific thalamus nuclei and induces motor deficits and neurodegeneration. These effects are reversed by PKR downregulation (using a specific inhibitor or in PKR knockout mice).

  18. Nutlin-3 downregulates p53 phosphorylation on serine392 and induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinli; Liu, Jingli; Ren, Laifeng; Mao, Nan; Tan, Fang; Ding, Nana; Yang, Jing; Li, Mingyuan

    2014-04-01

    Drug-resistance and imbalance of apoptotic regulation limit chemotherapy clinical application for the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. The reactivation of p53 is an attractive therapeutic strategy in cancer with disrupted-p53 function. Nutlin-3, a MDM2 antagonist, has antitumor activity in various cancers. The post-translational modifications of p53 are a hot topic, but there are some controversy ideas about the function of phospho-Ser392-p53 protein in cancer cell lines in response to Nutlin-3. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Nutlin-3 and phospho-Ser392-p53 protein expression levels in SMMC-7721 (wild-type TP53) and HuH-7 cells (mutant TP53). We demonstrated that Nutlin-3 induced apoptosis through down-regulation phospho-Ser392-p53 in two HCC cells. The result suggests that inhibition of p53 phosphorylation on Ser392 presents an alternative for HCC chemotherapy.

  19. Lithium down-regulates histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and induces degradation of mutant huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Zheng, Shui-Di; Huang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Li-Chong; Yin, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Hai-Neng; Zhang, Kang-Jian; Gui, Jing-Hua; Chu, Liang; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2013-12-06

    Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer that has been clinically used to treat bipolar disorder for several decades. Recent studies have suggested that lithium possesses robust neuroprotective and anti-tumor properties. Thus far, a large number of lithium targets have been discovered. Here, we report for the first time that HDAC1 is a target of lithium. Lithium significantly down-regulated HDAC1 at the translational level by targeting HDAC1 mRNA. We also showed that depletion of HDAC1 is essential for the neuroprotective effects of lithium and for the lithium-mediated degradation of mutant huntingtin through the autophagic pathway. Our studies explain the multiple functions of lithium and reveal a novel mechanism for the function of lithium in neurodegeneration.

  20. Lithium Down-regulates Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and Induces Degradation of Mutant Huntingtin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Zheng, Shui-Di; Huang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Li-Chong; Yin, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Hai-Neng; Zhang, Kang-Jian; Gui, Jing-Hua; Chu, Liang; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer that has been clinically used to treat bipolar disorder for several decades. Recent studies have suggested that lithium possesses robust neuroprotective and anti-tumor properties. Thus far, a large number of lithium targets have been discovered. Here, we report for the first time that HDAC1 is a target of lithium. Lithium significantly down-regulated HDAC1 at the translational level by targeting HDAC1 mRNA. We also showed that depletion of HDAC1 is essential for the neuroprotective effects of lithium and for the lithium-mediated degradation of mutant huntingtin through the autophagic pathway. Our studies explain the multiple functions of lithium and reveal a novel mechanism for the function of lithium in neurodegeneration. PMID:24165128

  1. Acidosis-induced downregulation of hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 and ureagenesis from ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Sara M; Soria, Leandro R; Marrone, Julieta; Danielli, Mauro; Trumper, Laura; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that, during metabolic acidosis, the liver downregulates mitochondrial ammonia detoxification via ureagenesis, a bicarbonate-consuming process. Since we previously demonstrated that hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 channels (mtAQP8) facilitate the uptake of ammonia and its metabolism into urea, we studied whether mtAQP8 is involved in the liver adaptive response to acidosis. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were adapted to acidosis by exposing them to culture medium at pH 7.0 for 40 h. Control cells were exposed to pH 7.4. Hepatocytes exposed to acid medium showed a decrease in mtAQP8 protein expression (-30%, p acidosis also showed decreased protein expression of hepatic mtAQP8 (-50%, p acidosis, a mechanism that may contribute to decreased ureagenesis from ammonia in response to acidosis.

  2. Tumor suppressor microRNAs are downregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome with spliceosome mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Garde, Christian; Nygaard, Mette Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Spliceosome mutations are frequently observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, it is largely unknown how these mutations contribute to the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in most human cancers due to their role in post......) were developed, and all detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, canonical miRNAs were downregulated in spliceosome mutated samples compared to wild-type (P = 0.002), and samples from spliceosome mutated patients clustered together in hierarchical cluster analyses. Among...... transcriptional gene regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of spliceosome mutations on the expression of miRNAs in a cohort of 34 MDS patients. In total, the expression of 76 miRNAs, including mirtrons and splice site overlapping miRNAs, was accurately quantified using reverse transcriptase...

  3. PELP1 Suppression Inhibits Colorectal Cancer through c-Src Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1, a coregulator of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, is a potential protooncogene implicated in several human cancers, including sexual hormone-responsive or sexual hormone-nonresponsive cancers. However, the functions of PELP1 in colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, western blot and bioinformatics revealed that PELP1 expression was higher in several colorectal cancer cell lines than in immortalized normal colorectal epithelium. PELP1 silencing by short hairpin RNA promoted the senescence and inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion, and xenograft tumor formation of the CRC cell line HT-29. Moreover, PELP1 silencing was accompanied by c-Src downregulation. c-Src upregulation partly alleviated the damage in HT-29 malignant behavior induced by PELP1 RNA interference. In conclusion, PELP1 exhibits an oncogenic function in colorectal cancer through c-Src upregulation.

  4. Bacillus subtilis biofilm extends Caenorhabditis elegans longevity through downregulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Verónica; Ayala, Facundo Rodríguez; Cogliati, Sebastián; Bauman, Carlos; Costa, Juan Gabriel; Leñini, Cecilia; Grau, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria have been shown to affect host longevity, but the molecular mechanisms mediating such effects remain largely unclear. Here we show that formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms increases Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Biofilm-proficient B. subtilis colonizes the C. elegans gut and extends worm lifespan more than biofilm-deficient isogenic strains. Two molecules produced by B. subtilis — the quorum-sensing pentapeptide CSF and nitric oxide (NO) — are sufficient to extend C. elegans longevity. When B. subtilis is cultured under biofilm-supporting conditions, the synthesis of NO and CSF is increased in comparison with their production under planktonic growth conditions. We further show that the prolongevity effect of B. subtilis biofilms depends on the DAF-2/DAF-16/HSF-1 signalling axis and the downregulation of the insulin-like signalling (ILS) pathway. PMID:28134244

  5. miR-191 regulates mouse erythroblast enucleation by down-regulating Riok3 and Mxi1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingbo; Flygare, Johan; Wong, Piu; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-01-15

    Using RNA-seq technology, we found that the majority of microRNAs (miRNAs) present in CFU-E erythroid progenitors are down-regulated during terminal erythroid differentiation. Of the developmentally down-regulated miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of miR-191 blocks erythroid enucleation but has minor effects on proliferation and differentiation. We identified two erythroid-enriched and developmentally up-regulated genes, Riok3 and Mxi1, as direct targets of miR-191. Knockdown of either Riok3 or Mxi1 blocks enucleation, and either physiological overexpression of miR-191 or knockdown of Riok3 or Mxi1 blocks chromatin condensation. Thus, down-regulation of miR-191 is essential for erythroid chromatin condensation and enucleation by allowing up-regulation of Riok3 and Mxi1.

  6. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  7. Active RNA replication of hepatitis C virus downregulates CD81 expression.

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    Po-Yuan Ke

    Full Text Available So far how hepatitis C virus (HCV replication modulates subsequent virus growth and propagation still remains largely unknown. Here we determine the impact of HCV replication status on the consequential virus growth by comparing normal and high levels of HCV RNA expression. We first engineered a full-length, HCV genotype 2a JFH1 genome containing a blasticidin-resistant cassette inserted at amino acid residue of 420 in nonstructural (NS protein 5A, which allowed selection of human hepatoma Huh7 cells stably-expressing HCV. Short-term establishment of HCV stable cells attained a highly-replicating status, judged by higher expressions of viral RNA and protein as well as higher titer of viral infectivity as opposed to cells harboring the same genome without selection. Interestingly, maintenance of highly-replicating HCV stable cells led to decreased susceptibility to HCV pseudotyped particle (HCVpp infection and downregulated cell surface level of CD81, a critical HCV entry (coreceptor. The decreased CD81 cell surface expression occurred through reduced total expression and cytoplasmic retention of CD81 within an endoplasmic reticulum -associated compartment. Moreover, productive viral RNA replication in cells harboring a JFH1 subgenomic replicon containing a similar blasticidin resistance gene cassette in NS5A and in cells robustly replicating full-length infectious genome also reduced permissiveness to HCVpp infection through decreasing the surface expression of CD81. The downregulation of CD81 surface level in HCV RNA highly-replicating cells thus interfered with reinfection and led to attenuated viral amplification. These findings together indicate that the HCV RNA replication status plays a crucial determinant in HCV growth by modulating the expression and intracellular localization of CD81.

  8. Use of bacterially expressed dsRNA to downregulate Entamoeba histolytica gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Carlos F; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Perdomo, Doranda; Weber, Christian; Guillén, Nancy

    2009-12-23

    Modern RNA interference (RNAi) methodologies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide duplexes or episomally synthesized hairpin RNA are valuable tools for the analysis of gene function in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. However, these approaches still require time-consuming procedures including transfection and drug selection, or costly synthetic molecules. Here we report an efficient and handy alternative for E. histolytica gene down-regulation mediated by bacterial double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting parasite genes. The Escherichia coli strain HT115 which is unable to degrade dsRNA, was genetically engineered to produce high quantities of long dsRNA segments targeting the genes that encode E. histolytica beta-tubulin and virulence factor KERP1. Trophozoites cultured in vitro were directly fed with dsRNA-expressing bacteria or soaked with purified dsRNA. Both dsRNA delivery methods resulted in significant reduction of protein expression. In vitro host cell-parasite assays showed that efficient downregulation of kerp1 gene expression mediated by bacterial dsRNA resulted in significant reduction of parasite adhesion and lytic capabilities, thus supporting a major role for KERP1 in the pathogenic process. Furthermore, treatment of trophozoites cultured in microtiter plates, with a repertoire of eighty-five distinct bacterial dsRNA segments targeting E. histolytica genes with unknown function, led to the identification of three genes potentially involved in the growth of the parasite. Our results showed that the use of bacterial dsRNA is a powerful method for the study of gene function in E. histolytica. This dsRNA delivery method is also technically suitable for the study of a large number of genes, thus opening interesting perspectives for the identification of novel drug and vaccine targets.

  9. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Midorikawa

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  10. Downregulation of smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbo, Nathan; Taurin, Sebastien; Yau, Douglas M; Kregel, Steven; Mitchell, Richard; Dulin, Nickolai O

    2007-05-01

    Smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA) is a cytoskeletal protein characteristic to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and it serves to facilitate cell contraction and migration. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major mediator of septic shock secondary to infection, is known to directly affect VSMC. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of LPS on the expression levels of SMA in VSMC. This study was performed on cultured VSMC derived from human aorta, human coronary artery, or rat aorta. We show that SMA expression in VSMC, induced by endothelin-1 (ET1) or transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), is potently inhibited by a LPS. This parallels a decreased migration of VSMC after LPS treatment. Downregulation of SMA by LPS is not a result of altered signaling of ET1 or TGF-beta receptors, and it is not mediated by canonical (for LPS) mechanisms, such as production of prostaglandins or nitric oxide, or secretion of other endocrine factors. On a molecular level, downregulation of SMA expression by LPS occurs at the level of transcription, as both SMA mRNA levels and SMA promoter activity are inhibited by LPS. The SMA promoter is controlled largely by two major regulatory elements-CArG boxes activated by serum response factor (SRF), and TGF-beta control elements (TCE). LPS does not affect the activity of SRF, but it potently inhibits both basal and inducible TCE activation. We show for the first time that LPS attenuates SMA transcription and protein expression in VSMC likely through inhibition of a TCE element on the SMA promoter.

  11. Fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via downregulation of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Han; Bian, Yaqi; Shu, Zhaoma; Zhang, Linxia; Zhu, Jialei; Ding, Jianhua; Lu, Ming; Xiao, Ming; Hu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological diseases including stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In the present study, we addressed the molecular events in fluoxetine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute neuronal injury and inflammation-induced neuronal apoptosis. We showed that treatment of fluoxetine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) with twice injections at 1 h and 12 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) respectively alleviated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis in a mouse ischemic stroke model, accompanied by inhibiting interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Bax and p53 expression and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level. We next mimicked neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke with IL-1β in primary cultured cortical neurons and found that pretreatment with fluoxetine (1 μM) prevented IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis and upregulation of p53 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p53 overexpression in N2a cell line abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of fluoxetine, indicating that p53 downregulation is required for the protective role of fluoxetine in IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis. Fluoxetine downregulating p53 expression could be mimicked by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38, but blocked by anisomycin, a p38 activator. Collectively, our findings have revealed that fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via p38-p53 dependent pathway, which give us an insight into the potential of fluoxetine in terms of opening up novel therapeutic avenues for neurological diseases including stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Downregulation of MicroRNA-21 in Colonic CD3+ T Cells in UC Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yugo; Mazzurana, Luca; Forkel, Marianne; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Aoi, Mamiko; Schmidt, Peter T; Mjösberg, Jenny; Bresso, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    In active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), microRNA expression profiling consistently features disease-specific signatures, and microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be upregulated in the inflamed colon of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular sources of miR-21 expression in IBD tissues have not yet been identified. We sought to determine the expression levels of miR-21 and one of its downstream target genes, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in CD3 T cells isolated from the colonic mucosa of patients with active IBD, inactive IBD, and non-IBD controls. Colonic biopsies were treated with collagenase V. CD3 T cells were isolated using MACS CD3 positive selection. Total RNA was converted to cDNA. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with PCR primers for miR-21, SNORD95, PDCD4, and GAPDH. The expression of miR-21 was statistically significantly downregulated in CD3 T cells from patients with UC in remission as compared to active disease (P = 0.0193). miR-21 negatively regulates PDCD4 expression. As predicted, the mRNA level of PCDC4 in CD3 T cells was upregulated in UC and Crohn's disease in remission as compared to active disease (UC active versus UC remission: P = 0.0008, Crohn's disease active versus Crohn's disease remission: P = 0.0215) and in patients with UC in remission as compared to healthy controls (P = 0.0226). Although miR-21 expression is downregulated, PDCD4 is upregulated in CD3 T cells during the remission phase of UC. Our results indicate that miR-21 and related pathways in colonic T cells may play a role in limiting pathogenic T-cell responses and may constitute future target candidates to induce remission in UC.

  13. Downregulation of ASPP1 in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with hypermethylation, apoptotic activity and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Victor C Y; Lee, Lee; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Lu, Xin; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Wong, Esther S Y; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2011-04-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease encompasses a spectrum of trophoblastic lesions including true neoplasms such as choriocarcinomas and the potentially malignant hydatidiform moles, which may develop persistent disease requiring chemotherapy. ASPP1, a member of apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPPs), is a proapoptotic protein that can stimulate apoptosis through its interaction with p53. We evaluated the promoter methylation and expression profiles of ASPP1 in different trophoblastic tissues and its in vitro functional effect on two choriocarcinoma cell lines, namely JEG-3 and JAR. Significant downregulation of ASPP1 mRNA and protein levels was demonstrated in hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas, when compared with normal placentas by quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The ASPP1 mRNA level was significantly correlated with its hypermethylation status, evaluated with methylation-specific PCR, in placenta and gestational trophoblastic disease samples (P=0.024). Moreover, lower ASPP1 immunoreactivity was shown in hydatidiform moles that progressed to persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasms than in those that regressed (P=0.045). A significant correlation was also found between expression of ASPP1 and proliferative indices (assessed by Ki67 and MCM7), apoptotic activity (M30 CytoDeath antibody), p53 and caspase-8 immunoreactivities. An in vitro study showed that ectopic expression of ASPP1 could trigger apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as indicated by an increase in cleaved caspase-9 and Fas ligand protein expression. The latter suggests a hitherto unreported novel link between ASPP1 and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that downregulation of ASPP1 by hypermethylation may be involved in the pathogenesis and progress of gestational trophoblastic disease, probably through its effect on apoptosis.

  14. DAPK2 Downregulation Associates With Attenuated Adipocyte Autophagic Clearance in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Hedi; Reggio, Sophie; Alili, Rohia; Prado, Cecilia; Mutel, Sonia; Pini, Maria; Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Dugail, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has been linked to low-grade inflammation causing insulin resistance. Transcriptomic studies have identified death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2) among the most strongly downregulated adipose tissue genes in human obesity, but the role of this kinase is unknown. We show that mature adipocytes rather than the stromal vascular cells in adipose tissue mainly expressed DAPK2 and that DAPK2 mRNA in obese patients gradually recovered after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. DAPK2 mRNA is also downregulated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Adenoviral-mediated DAPK2 overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not affect lipid droplet size or cell viability but did increase autophagic clearance in nutrient-rich conditions, dependent on protein kinase activity. Conversely, DAPK2 inhibition in human preadipocytes by small interfering RNA decreased LC3-II accumulation rates with lysosome inhibitors. This led us to assess autophagic clearance in adipocytes freshly isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Severe reduction in autophagic flux was observed in obese adipocytes compared with control adipocytes, inversely correlated to fat cell lipids. After bariatric surgery, adipocyte autophagic clearance partially recovered proportional to the extent of fat cell size reduction. This study links adipocyte expression of an autophagy-regulating kinase, lysosome-mediated clearance and fat cell lipid accumulation; it demonstrates obesity-related attenuated autophagy in adipocytes, and identifies DAPK2 dependence in this regulation. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Lignin down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and klason lignin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-07-23

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure.

  16. Down-regulation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 during Hyperglycemia Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gang; Wai, Christine; White, Morris F; Clemmons, David R

    2017-02-03

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, but the mechanism by which hyperglycemia accelerates lesion development is not well defined. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signal through the scaffold protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). In diabetes, IRS-1 is down-regulated, and cells become resistant to insulin. Under these conditions, the IGF-I receptor signals through an alternate scaffold protein, SHPS-1, resulting in pathophysiologic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. These studies were undertaken to determine whether IRS-1 is functioning constitutively to maintain VSMCs in their differentiated state and, thereby, inhibit aberrant signaling. Here we show that deletion of IRS-1 expression in VSMCs in non-diabetic mice results in dedifferentiation, SHPS-1 activation, and aberrant signaling and that these changes parallel those that occur in response to hyperglycemia. The mice showed enhanced sensitivity to IGF-I stimulation of VSMC proliferation and a hyperproliferative response to vascular injury. KLF4, a transcription factor that induces VSMC dedifferentiation, was up-regulated in IRS-1-/- mice, and the differentiation inducer myocardin was undetectable. Importantly, these changes were replicated in wild-type mice during hyperglycemia. These findings illuminate a new function of IRS-1: that of maintaining cells in their normal, differentiated state. Because IRS-1 is down-regulated in states of insulin resistance that occur in response to metabolic stresses such as obesity and cytokine stimulation, the findings provide a mechanism for understanding how patients with metabolic stress and/or diabetes are predisposed to developing vascular complications. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Downregulation of polo-like kinase 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma associates with poor prognosis.

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    Lili Liu

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4, belonging to serine/threonine kinase family, is critical for centriole replication and cell cycle progression. PLK4 has been proposed as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, its expression and significance in HCC have not been well studied. In the present study, we found that PLK4 was markedly downregulated in both HCC cell lines and fresh cancer tissues, using quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot. Immunohistochemistry data also revealed that decreased expression of PLK4 was present in 72.4% (178/246 of HCC tissues, compared with the corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissues. Furthermore, PLK4 expression significantly correlated with clinicopathological parameters, including clinical stage (P=0.034, serum α-fetoprotein (AFP (P=0.019 and tumor size (P=0.032. Moreover, HCC patients with low PLK4 expression survived shorter than those with high PLK4 expression, as indicated by overall survival (P=0.002 and disease-free survival (P=0.012 assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. In addition, multivariate analysis suggested PLK4 as an independent predictor of overall survival (HR, 0.556; 95%CI, 0.376-0.822; P=0.003 and disease-free survival (HR, 0.547; 95%CI, 0.382-0.783; P=0.001. Collectively, our study demonstrated that PLK4 was remarkably downregulated in HCC and could be served as a potential prognostic marker for patients with this deadly disease.

  18. Hyperinsulinaemia down-regulates TLR4 expression in the mammalian heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody ede Laat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR are key regulators of innate immune and inflammatory responses and their activation is linked to impaired glucose metabolism during metabolic disease. Determination of whether TLR4 signalling can be activated in the heart by insulin may shed light on the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a process that is often complicated by obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of the current study was to determine if supraphysiological insulin concentrations alter the expression of TLR4, markers of TLR4 signalling and glucose transporters (GLUTs in the heart. First, the effect of insulin on TLR4 protein expression was investigated in vitro in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Secondly, protein expression of TLR4, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 and GLUTs (1, 4, 8, 12 were examined in the equine ventricular myocardium following a prolonged, euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Down-regulation of TLR4 in plasma membrane-rich fractions of rat cardiac myocytes was observed after incubation with a supraphysiologic concentration of insulin as well as in the equine myocardium after prolonged insulin infusion. Further, cardiac TLR4 expression was negatively correlated with serum insulin concentration. Markers of cardiac TLR4 signalling and GLUT expression were not affected by hyperinsulinaemia and concomitant TLR4 down-regulation. Since TLRs are major determinants of the inflammatory response, our findings suggest that insulin infusion exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in the hearts of non-obese individuals. Understanding the regulation of cardiac TLR4 signalling during metabolic dysfunction will facilitate improved management of cardiac sequelae to metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  19. Microbial symbionts in insects influence down-regulation of defense genes in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli L Barr

    Full Text Available Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae are root-feeding insects and significant pests to maize in North America and Europe. Little is known regarding how plants respond to insect attack of roots, thus complicating the selection for plant defense targets. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is the most successful species in its genus and is the only Diabrotica beetle harboring an almost species-wide Wolbachia infection. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera are infected with Wolbachia and the typical gut flora found in soil-living, phytophagous insects. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae cannot be reared aseptically and thus, it is not possible to observe the response of maize to effects of insect gut flora or other transient microbes. Because Wolbachia are heritable, it is possible to investigate whether Wolbachia infection affects the regulation of maize defenses. To answer if the success of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is the result of microbial infection, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera were treated with antibiotics to eliminate Wolbachia and a microarray experiment was performed. Direct comparisons made between the response of maize root tissue to the feeding of antibiotic treated and untreated Diabrotica virgifera virgifera show down-regulation of plant defenses in the untreated insects compared to the antibiotic treated and control treatments. Results were confirmed via QRT-PCR. Biological and behavioral assays indicate that microbes have integrated into Diabrotica virgifera virgifera physiology without inducing negative effects and that antibiotic treatment did not affect the behavior or biology of the insect. The expression data and suggest that the pressure of microbes, which are most likely Wolbachia, mediate the down-regulation of many maize defenses via their insect hosts. This is the first report of a potential link between a microbial symbiont of an insect and a silencing effect in the insect host plant. This is also the first expression

  20. RNAi-induced down-regulation of Mecp2 expression in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Bao, Xinhua; Wang, Hansen; Pan, Hong; Zhang, Yuzhi; Wu, Xiru

    2008-08-01

    The MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Rett Syndrome. A rat model with a down-regulated Mecp2 was established using a recombinant lentiviral vector expressing small hairpin RNA of the rat Mecp2 gene. Four recombinant vectors were constructed by inserting sequences of small hairpin RNA targeting the rat Mecp2 gene. To determine which vector resulted in optimal down-regulation, rat skin fibroblasts were transfected with four recombinant vectors, respectively. The recombinant vector mecp2-sh-1 decreased expression of Mecp2 mRNA and protein relative to the Control group. 12-24h after birth, neonatal rat pups were divided into three groups, Re-Lenti group (injected with recombinant lentiviral vector, mecp2-sh-1), Lenti group (injected with lentivirus containing no inserted sequences) and a non-injected Control group (Control group). Rats in the injection groups were given intraventricular injections. 7 days and 21 days following injection, no inflammation was observed in the rat brain in the two injected groups, whereas EGFP expression was readily detectable. Sensory-motor reflexes were transiently abnormal in Re-Lenti group, whereas no abnormality was observed in either Control group. Mecp2 mRNA was lower in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in the Re-Lenti group relative to the Lenti and Control groups. Although no typical RTT like symptoms were observed, the neonatal rats injected with recombinant lentivirus displayed some transient neurobehavioral abnormalities during early development. Bdnf mRNA expression decreased in the hippocampus, supporting the hypothesis that Bdnf may be a target gene of MeCP2 in the CNS.

  1. Cholesterol Down-Regulates BK Channels Stably Expressed in HEK 293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the major lipid components of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells and is involved in the regulation of a number of ion channels. The present study investigates how large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are regulated by membrane cholesterol in BK-HEK 293 cells expressing both the α-subunit hKCa1.1 and the auxiliary β1-subunit or in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit hKCa1.1 using approaches of electrophysiology, molecular biology, and immunocytochemistry. Membrane cholesterol was depleted in these cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), and enriched with cholesterol-saturated MβCD (MβCD-cholesterol) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that BK current density was decreased by cholesterol enrichment in BK-HEK 293 cells, with a reduced expression of KCa1.1 protein, but not the β1-subunit protein. This effect was fully countered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin or the lysosome function inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Interestingly, in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells, the current density was not affected by cholesterol enrichment, but directly decreased by MβCD, suggesting that the down-regulation of BK channels by cholesterol depends on the auxiliary β1-subunit. The reduced KCa1.1 channel protein expression was also observed in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells with cholesterol enrichment using MβCD-cholesterol or LDL. These results demonstrate the novel information that cholesterol down-regulates BK channels by reducing KCa1.1 protein expression via increasing the channel protein degradation, and the effect is dependent on the auxiliary β1-subunit. PMID:24260325

  2. Use of bacterially expressed dsRNA to downregulate Entamoeba histolytica gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Solis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern RNA interference (RNAi methodologies using small interfering RNA (siRNA oligonucleotide duplexes or episomally synthesized hairpin RNA are valuable tools for the analysis of gene function in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. However, these approaches still require time-consuming procedures including transfection and drug selection, or costly synthetic molecules. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report an efficient and handy alternative for E. histolytica gene down-regulation mediated by bacterial double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting parasite genes. The Escherichia coli strain HT115 which is unable to degrade dsRNA, was genetically engineered to produce high quantities of long dsRNA segments targeting the genes that encode E. histolytica beta-tubulin and virulence factor KERP1. Trophozoites cultured in vitro were directly fed with dsRNA-expressing bacteria or soaked with purified dsRNA. Both dsRNA delivery methods resulted in significant reduction of protein expression. In vitro host cell-parasite assays showed that efficient downregulation of kerp1 gene expression mediated by bacterial dsRNA resulted in significant reduction of parasite adhesion and lytic capabilities, thus supporting a major role for KERP1 in the pathogenic process. Furthermore, treatment of trophozoites cultured in microtiter plates, with a repertoire of eighty-five distinct bacterial dsRNA segments targeting E. histolytica genes with unknown function, led to the identification of three genes potentially involved in the growth of the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the use of bacterial dsRNA is a powerful method for the study of gene function in E. histolytica. This dsRNA delivery method is also technically suitable for the study of a large number of genes, thus opening interesting perspectives for the identification of novel drug and vaccine targets.

  3. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of MAT2B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaohua; Zhao, Yuan; Sun, Jingying; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal of skin cancers and its pathogenesis is complex and heterogeneous. The efficacy of conventional therapeutic regimens for melanoma remains limited. Thus, it is important to explore novel effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of melanoma. The MAT2B gene encodes for the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Recent studies have suggested that MAT2B may have functional roles other than modulating catalytic activity of MAT. In order to identify the roles of MAT2B in the tumorigenesis of malignant melanoma, we compared MAT2B expression profile in melanoma tissues with that in benign nevus samples. We employed lentivirus-mediated RNAi to downregulate the expression of MAT2B in malignant melanoma cell lines (A375 and Mel-RM), and investigated the effects of MAT2B on cell growth, colony-formation ability and apoptosis in vitro, as well as tumor growth of a xenograft model in vivo. The expression levels of BCL2 and XAF1 proteins, which were closely related to tumor cell apoptosis, were analyzed by western blot analysis. Our data showed that MAT2B was elevated in both primary and metastatic melanoma tissues compared with benign nevus samples. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of MAT2B suppressed cell growth, colony formation and induced apoptosis in A375 and Mel-RM cell lines in vitro, affected protein expression of BCL2 and XAF1, extended the transplanted tumor growth in vivo. These results indicated that MAT2B was critical in the proliferation of melanoma cells and tumorigenicity. It may be considered as a potential anti-melanoma therapeutic target.

  4. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Jin [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Ying [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Su, Ke [Department of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Liu, Min [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Peng-Chao [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wei, Lei [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Zhongliang, E-mail: biochem@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Fang, E-mail: fang-yang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  5. VILIP-1 downregulation in non-small cell lung carcinomas: mechanisms and prediction of survival.

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    Jian Fu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available VILIP-1, a member of the neuronal Ca++ sensor protein family, acts as a tumor suppressor gene in an experimental animal model by inhibiting cell proliferation, adhesion and invasiveness of squamous cell carcinoma cells. Western Blot analysis of human tumor cells showed that VILIP-1 expression was undetectable in several types of human tumor cells, including 11 out of 12 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cell lines. The down-regulation of VILIP-1 was due to loss of VILIP-1 mRNA transcripts. Rearrangements, large gene deletions or mutations were not found. Hypermethylation of the VILIP-1 promoter played an important role in gene silencing. In most VILIP-1-silent cells the VILIP-1 promoter was methylated. In vitro methylation of the VILIP-1 promoter reduced its activity in a promoter-reporter assay. Transcriptional activity of endogenous VILIP-1 promoter was recovered by treatment with 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-Aza-dC. Trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, potently induced VILIP-1 expression, indicating that histone deacetylation is an additional mechanism of VILIP-1 silencing. TSA increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in the region of the VILIP-1 promoter. Furthermore, statistical analysis of expression and promoter methylation (n = 150 primary NSCLC samples showed a significant relationship between promoter methylation and protein expression downregulation as well as between survival and decreased or absent VILIP-1 expression in lung cancer tissues (p<0.0001. VILIP-1 expression is silenced by promoter hypermethylation and histone deacetylation in aggressive NSCLC cell lines and primary tumors and its clinical evaluation could have a role as a predictor of short-term survival in lung cancer patients.

  6. Mediobasal hypothalamic and adenohypophyseal TRH-degrading enzyme (PPII) is down-regulated by zinc deficiency.

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    Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Alcántara-Alonso, Viridiana; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; Vargas, Miguel Angel; Morales-Mulia, Marcela; de Gortari, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus directs hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function, regulating thyrotropin release from adenohypophysis and thyroid hormones serum concentration. Pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII), a Zn-dependent metallopeptidase located in adenohypophysis and medial-basal-hypothalamus degrades TRH released from the median eminence and participates in HPT axis function by regulating TRH-induced thyrotropin release from adenohypophysis. It is unknown whether dietary Zn deficiency down-regulates PPII. Our aim was to compare adenohypohyseal and medial-basal-hypothalamic PPII activity and expression of adult rats fed a Zn-deficient diet (2ppm) throughout their lifespan (DD), prenatally (DC) or after weaning (CD) vs. that of animals fed a control diet (20ppm:CC). Female rats consumed a Zn-deficient or control diet from two weeks before gestation and up to the end of lactation. We analyzed adenohypophyseal and medial-basal-hypothalamic PPII activity of dams and male offspring when adults; its relation to median eminence TRH, serum thyrotropin, leptin and thyroid hormones concentration. Offspring ate the same diet as their dams (CC, DD) or were switched from dietary regime after weaning (CD, DC) and until 2.5 months of age. DD males showed decreased adenohypophyseal and medial-basal-hypothalamic PPII activity, along with high thyrotropin serum concentration. Post-weaning Zn-deficiency (CD) decreased PPII activity only in adenohypophysis and increased thyrotropin circulating levels. Zn-replenishment (DC) normalized PPII activity in both regions and serum thyrotropin concentration. Adenohypophyseal PPII activity decreased and prolactin levels increased in Zn-deficient dams. We concluded that long-term changes in dietary Zn down-regulate PPII activity independently of T3, increasing thyrotropin serum concentration, overall resembling sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Light-induced retinal degeneration causes a transient downregulation of melanopsin in the rat retina.

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    García-Ayuso, Diego; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Di Pierdomenico, Johnny; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Villegas Pérez, María P

    2017-08-01

    In this work we study the effects of an acute light-induced retinal degeneration on the population of melanopsin positive retinal ganglion cells (m+RGCs) and the expression of the melanopsin protein in the retina. The m+RGCs may be more resistant than other RGCs to lesion, but the effects of an acute light exposure in this population are unknown. Albino rats were exposed to white light (3000 lux) continuously for 48 h and processed 0, 3, 7 or 30 days after light exposure (ALE). Whole-mounted retinas were immunodetected with antibodies against melanopsin, Brn3a, and rhodopsin to study the populations of m+RGC, Brn3a+RGC and rods (which are the most abundant photoreceptors in the rat retina). Three days ALE there was substantial rod loss in an arciform area of the superior retina and with time this loss expanded in the form of rings all throughout the retina. Light exposure did not affect the number of Brn3a+RGCs but diminished the numbers of m+RGCs. Immediately ALE there was a significant decrease in the mean number of immunodetected m+RGCs that was more marked in the superior retina. Later, the number of m+RGCs increased progressively and reached normal values one month ALE. Western blot analysis showed that melanopsin expression down-regulates shortly ALE and recovers thereafter, in accordance with the anatomical data. This study demonstrates that there is a transient downregulation of melanopsin expression in the RGCs during the first month ALE. Further studies would be needed to clarify the long-term effect of light exposure on the m+RGC population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Downregulation of CD44 reduces doxorubicin resistance of CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells

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    Phuc PV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pham Van Phuc, Phan Lu Chinh Nhan, Truong Hai Nhung, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Vuong Gia Tue, Duong Thanh Thuy, Phan Kim NgocLaboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, VietnamBackground: Cells within breast cancer stem cell populations have been confirmed to have a CD44+CD24- phenotype. Strong expression of CD44 plays a critical role in numerous types of human cancers. CD44 is involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of cancer cells.Methods: In this study, we reduced CD44 expression in CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells and investigated their sensitivity to an antitumor drug. The CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells were isolated from breast tumors; CD44 expression was downregulated with siRNAs followed by treatment with different concentrations of the antitumor drug.Results: The proliferation of CD44 downregulated CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells was decreased after drug treatment. We noticed treated cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin, even at low doses, compared with the control groups.Conclusions: It would appear that expression of CD44 is integral among the CD44+CD24- cell population. Reducing the expression level of CD44, combined with doxorubicin treatment, yields promising results for eradicating breast cancer stem cells in vitro. This study opens a new direction in treating breast cancer through gene therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy.Keywords: antitumor drugs, breast cancer stem cells, CD44, CD44+CD24- cells, doxorubicin

  9. LncRNA ZNF503-AS1 promotes RPE differentiation by downregulating ZNF503 expression.

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    Chen, Xue; Jiang, Chao; Qin, Bing; Liu, Guohua; Ji, Jiangdong; Sun, Xiantao; Xu, Min; Ding, Sijia; Zhu, Meidong; Huang, Guofu; Yan, Biao; Zhao, Chen

    2017-09-07

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in various biological processes. Our previous work has revealed that dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Herein, we show roles of lncRNAs in RPE differentiation. We used microarray to identify lncRNA expression profiles in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived RPE cells. A total of 217 differentially expressed lncRNAs along with the differentiation were initially identified, among which 13 lncRNAs showed a consistent fold change of over 2. LncRNA ZNF503-AS1, located in the cytoplasm of RPE cells, was found consistently upregulated along with RPE differentiation, and downregulated in the RPE-choroid of AMD patients. In vitro study further suggested that ZNF503-AS1 insufficiency could inhibit RPE differentiation, and promote its proliferation and migration. As ZNF503-AS1 is transcribed from the antisense strand of the ZNF503 gene locus, we further revealed its regulatory role in ZNF503 expression. ZNF503-AS1 was reversely correlated with ZNF503 expression. Our results also suggested that ZNF503 could inhibit RPE differentiation, and promote its proliferation and migration. Thus, ZNF503-AS1 potentially promotes RPE differentiation through downregulation of ZNF503 expression. In addition, nuclear factor-κB was recognized as a potential upstream transcript factor for ZNF503-AS1, which might participate in promoting RPE differentiation by regulating the expression of ZNF503-AS1. Taken together, our study identifies a group of RPE differentiation relevant lncRNAs, and the potential role of ZNF503-AS1 in the pathology of atrophic AMD, which might help with the intervention of AMD patients.

  10. Munc18c in adipose tissue is downregulated in obesity and is associated with insulin.

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    Lourdes Garrido-Sanchez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Munc18c is associated with glucose metabolism and could play a relevant role in obesity. However, little is known about the regulation of Munc18c expression. We analyzed Munc18c gene expression in human visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissue and its relationship with obesity and insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 70 subjects distributed in 12 non-obese lean subjects, 23 overweight subjects, 12 obese subjects and 23 nondiabetic morbidly obese patient