WorldWideScience

Sample records for veslemoey high region

  1. The interaction region of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial view of the interaction region of colliding high energy protons (in terms of impact parameter) is considered. It is shown that the region of inelastic collisions has a very peculiar shape. It saturates for central collisions at an energy of 7 TeV. We speculate on the further evolution with energy, which is contrasted to the "black disk" picture.

  2. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  3. Asymptotically Honest Confidence Regions for High Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl

    While variable selection and oracle inequalities for the estimation and prediction error have received considerable attention in the literature on high-dimensional models, very little work has been done in the area of testing and construction of confidence bands in high-dimensional models. However...... of the asymptotic covariance matrix of an increasing number of parameters which is robust against conditional heteroskedasticity. To our knowledge we are the first to do so. Next, we show that our confidence bands are honest over sparse high-dimensional sub vectors of the parameter space and that they contract...... at the optimal rate. All our results are valid in high-dimensional models. Our simulations reveal that the desparsified conservative Lasso estimates the parameters much more precisely than the desparsified Lasso, has much better size properties and produces confidence bands with markedly superior coverage rates....

  4. High tech in the Öresund region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    This book discusses the development conditions in the high tech sector for both high tech manufacturing and services. A central issue in the book is the differences in externalities which exist between various industries in the high tech sector. In this connection the confusion of externalities...... related to different parts of the high tech sector will be addressed. The location of the high tech sector in the Öresund region will be analysed and the region will also be related to other high tech regions in Europe....

  5. High Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J.; Newman, A. J.; Musselman, K. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Xue, L.; Liu, C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Rasmussen, R.

    2016-12-01

    In order to appropriately plan future projects to build and maintain infrastructure (e.g., dams, dikes, highways, airports), a number of U.S. federal agencies seek to better understand how hydrologic regimes may shift across the country due to climate change. Building on the successful completion of a series of high-resolution WRF simulations over the Colorado River Headwaters and contiguous USA, our team is now extending these simulations over the challenging U.S. States of Alaska and Hawaii. In this presentation we summarize results from a newly completed 4-km resolution WRF simulation over Alaska spanning 2002-2016 at 4-km spatial resolution. Our aim is to gain insight into the thermodynamics that drive key precipitation processes, particularly the extremes that are most damaging to infrastructure.

  6. Rethinking of Critical Regionalism in High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Zahiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of height and density of newly high-rise cities, along with the force of globalization, have jeopardized the character of dwellings once entailing a regional flavor. The critical regionalism which serves as a resistant medium against placelessness and lack of identity in the International Style has focused more on mid-rise or low-rise solutions rather than providing direct high-rise resolutions. Additionally, high-rise endeavors are not compatible with critical regionalism theories. This has happened partly due to critical regionalism theories multi-facet character inherent in its dialectic structure. Thus, to remedy the inadvertency of texts in the discourse of architectural regionalism, the present study seeks rethinking of critical regionalism by focusing on the pathology of high-rise buildings in the issues pertaining to place and identity. Finally, the architectonic articulation to place-making and identity-giving is discussed.

  7. Improving Magnet Designs With High and Low Field Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A general scheme for increasing the difference in magnetic flux density between a high and a low magnetic field region by removing unnecessary magnet material is presented. This is important in, e.g., magnetic refrigeration where magnet arrays have to deliver high field regions in close proximity...... to low field regions. Also, a general way to replace magnet material with a high permeability soft magnetic material where appropriate is discussed. As an example, these schemes are applied to a two dimensional concentric Halbach cylinder design resulting in a reduction of the amount of magnet material...

  8. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  9. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker

    2013-01-01

    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular.

  10. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker

    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular.

  11. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  12. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  13. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large region of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium region" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient impact crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets, is rich in magnesium relative to their

  14. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  15. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for the European CORDEX region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmeyer, Christoph; Keller, Jan; Ohlwein, Christian; Wahl, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Weather Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations, renewable energy applications). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on two regional reanalyses for Europe and Germany. The European reanalysis COSMO-REA6 matches the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). Nested into COSMO-REA6 is COSMO-REA2, a convective-scale reanalysis with 2km resolution for Germany. COSMO-REA6 comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-Interim data. COSMO-REA2 also uses the nudging scheme complemented by a latent heat nudging of radar information. The reanalysis data set currently covers 17 years (1997-2013) for COSMO-REA6 and 4 years (2010-2013) for COSMO-REA2 with a very large set of output variables and a high temporal output step of hourly 3D-fields and quarter-hourly 2D-fields. The evaluation

  16. State switching in regions of high modal density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Performance of piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches has been studied extensively in the past decade. Originally analyzed with single-degree-of-freedom systems, these approaches have been extended to multi-mode vibration reduction. However, the accompanying analysis typically assumes well-separated modes, which is often not the case for plate structures. Because the semi-active approaches induce a shift in the structural resonance frequency (at least temporarily), targeting a specific mode for vibration reduction can actually lead to additional vibration in an adjacent mode. This paper presents an analysis using a simplified model of a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system with lightly-coupled masses to achieve two closely-spaced modes. This investigation is especially applicable to the resonance frequency detuning approach previously proposed to reduce vibrations caused by transient excitation in turbomachinery blades where regions of high modal density exist. More generally, this paper addresses these effects of stiffness state switches in frequency ranges containing regions of high modal density and subject to frequency sweep excitation. Of the approaches analyzed, synchronized switch damping on an inductor offers the greatest vibration reduction performance, whereas resonance frequency detuning and state switching each yield similar performance. Additionally, as the relative distance between resonance peaks decreases, the performance for the vibration reduction methods approaches that of a single-degree-of-freedom system; however, there are distances between these resonant peaks that diminish vibration reduction potential.

  17. How to map soil carbon stocks in highly urbanized regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems and the capacity for carbon sequestration is a widely accepted soil function. For land-use planning and decision making the regional analysis of SOC stocks and their spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention. Quite a few studies focus on mapping the carbon stocks in natural and agricultural areas using digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques. Although urban areas remain almost neglected. The urban environment provides a number of specific features and processes that influence soil formation and functioning: soil sealing, functional zoning and settlement history. This not only results in a considerable urban SOC (especially in the subsoil), but also results in a unique spatial variability of SOC stocks at short distance. In contrast to the often gradual changes in natural areas, urban soils may exhibit abrupt changes due to the anthropogenic influence. Thus implementation of standard DSM methodology will result in extremely high nuggets and correspondingly low prediction accuracy. Besides, traditional regression kriging, widely-used for the case when legacy data is lacking, is often based on the correlation between SOC and dominating soil forming factors (climate, relief, parent material and vegetation). Although in urban conditions, anthropogenic influence itself turns out to be a predominant soil-forming factor. The spatial heterogeneity of urban soil carbon stocks is further complicated by a specific profile distribution with possible second SOC maximum, referred to cultural layer. Importance of urban SOC as well as specifics of urban environment requires for a specific approach to map urban SOC as part of regional analysis. Moscow region with its variability of bioclimatic conditions and high urbanization level (10 % from the total area) was chosen as an interesting case study. Random soil sampling in different soil zones (4) and land

  18. Developing a high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher; Fox-Hughes, Paul; Su, Chun-Hsu; Jakob, Dörte; Kociuba, Greg; Eisenberg, Nathan; Steinle, Peter; Harris, Rebecca; Corney, Stuart; Love, Peter; Remenyi, Tomas; Chladil, Mark; Bally, John; Bindoff, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    A dynamically consistent, long-term atmospheric reanalysis can be used to support high-quality assessments of environmental risk and likelihood of extreme events. Most reanalyses are presently based on coarse-scale global systems that are not suitable for regional assessments in fire risk, water and natural resources, amongst others. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology is currently working to close this gap by producing a high-resolution reanalysis over the Australian and New Zealand region to construct a sequence of atmospheric conditions at sub-hourly intervals over the past 25 years from 1990. The Australia reanalysis consists of a convective-scale analysis nested within a 12 km regional-scale reanalysis, which is bounded by a coarse-scale ERA-Interim reanalysis that provides the required boundary and initial conditions. We use an unchanging atmospheric modelling suite based on the UERRA system used at the UK Met Office and the more recent version of the Bureau of Meteorology's operational numerical prediction model used in ACCESS-R (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator-Regional system). An advanced (4-dimensional variational) data assimilation scheme is used to optimally combine model physics with multiple observations from aircrafts, sondes, surface observations and satellites to create a best estimate of state of the atmosphere over a 6-hour moving window. This analysis is in turn used to drive a higher-resolution (1.5 km) downscaling model over selected subdomains within Australia, currently eastern New South Wales and Tasmania, with the capability to support this anywhere in the Australia-New Zealand domain. The temporal resolution of the gridded analysis fields for both the regional and higher-resolution subdomains are generally one hour, with many fields such as 10 m winds and 2 m temperatures available every 10 minutes. The reanalysis also produces many other variables that include wind, temperature, moisture, pressure, cloud cover

  19. Regional High Resolution Reanalysis Covered European North East Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: Global Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. This reanalysis covers the period from January 2002 to December 2009. In this presentation, the results obtained with this reanalysis system (1/12°) are compared to the GLORYS ones. A special focus will be made on the gain thanks to the higher resolution of the model and higher resolution of the SST assimilated in this reanalysis.

  20. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  1. Temporal changes in greenspace in a highly urbanized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Bibby, Peter R; Brindley, Paul; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2011-10-23

    The majority of the world's population now lives in towns and cities, and urban areas are expanding faster than any other land-use type. In response to this phenomenon, two opposing arguments have emerged: whether cities should 'sprawl' into the wider countryside, or 'densify' through the development of existing urban greenspace. However, these greenspaces are increasingly recognized as being central to the amelioration of urban living conditions, supporting biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision. Taking the highly urbanized region of England as a case study, we use data from a variety of sources to investigate the impact of national-level planning policy on temporal patterns in the extent of greenspace in cities. Between 1991 and 2006, greenspace showed a net increase in all but one of 13 cities. However, the majority of this gain occurred prior to 2001, and greenspace has subsequently declined in nine cities. Such a dramatic shift in land use coincides with policy reforms in 2000, which favoured densification. Here, we illustrate the dynamic and policy-responsive nature of urban land use, thereby highlighting the need for a detailed investigation of the trade-offs associated with different mechanisms of urban densification to optimize and secure the diverse benefits associated with greenspaces.

  2. Spatial economy: high-tech glossary or new regional economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "The Spatial Economy Cities, Regions and International Trade", by Masahisa Fujita, Paul Krugman and Anthony J. Venables, has been seen as the best synthesis of the so-called new economic geography. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to review the book; and second, to place it in the current debate on regional economics. The first part of the paper is a brief introduction that situates the book in the history of regional economics. In the second part, a description and analysis of the basic models, their variations and applications are presented. The debate on regional economics concerning the theory proposed in the book is in the third part. Two aspects are stressed: the criticisms on the core-periphery model and how it incorporates regional diversity The fourth topic is a critical assessment of the achievements and originality of the new economic geography analysis.

  3. Spatial economy: high-tech glossary or new regional economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Ruiz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Spatial Economy – Cities, Regions and International Trade, by Masahisa Fujita, Paul Krugman and Anthony J. Venables, has been seen as the best synthesis of the so-called new economic geography. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to review the book; and second, to place it in the current debate on regional economics. The first part of the paper is a brief introduction that situates the book in the history of regional economics. In the second part, a description and analysis of the basic models, their variations and applications are presented. The debate on regional economics concerning the theory proposed in the book is in the third part. Two aspects are stressed: the criticisms on the core-periphery model and how it incorporates regional diversity The fourth topic is a critical assessment of the achievements and originality of the new economic geography analysis...

  4. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1 kHz/cm**2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high- radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50 Hz/cm**2, compared to only 5 Hz/cm**2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100 V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve.

  5. The Regional-Matrix Approach to the Training of Highly Qualified Personnel for the Sustainable Development of the Mining Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernov, Evgeny; Nehoda, Evgenia

    2017-11-01

    The state, regional and industry approaches to the problem of personnel training for building an innovative knowledge economy at all levels that ensures sustainable development of the region are analyzed in the article using the cases of the Kemerovo region and the coal industry. A new regional-matrix approach to the training of highly qualified personnel is proposed, which allows to link the training systems with the regional economic matrix "natural resources - cognitive resources" developed by the author. A special feature of the new approach is the consideration of objective conditions and contradictions of regional systems of personnel training, which have formed as part of economic systems of regions differ-entiated in the matrix. The methodology of the research is based on the statement about the interconnectivity of general and local knowledge, from which the understanding of the need for a combination of regional, indus-try and state approaches to personnel training is derived. A new form of representing such a combination is the proposed approach, which is based on matrix analysis. The results of the research can be implemented in the practice of modernization of professional education of workers in the coal industry of the natural resources extractive region.

  6. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    this region. Igneous rocks tend to get younger towards the eastern part of the Bitlis suture and Kars plateau (e.g. Keskin, 2003), which is consistent...Pg and Sn. 15. SUBJECT TERMS variational analysis, adjoint method, Data assimilation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...latite with minor basalt) volcanic rocks (Berberian and King, 1981) suggesting the presence of extensive crustal melting. Sahand (ca. 3800 m) is

  7. A data portal for regional climatic trend analysis in a Peruvian High Andes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, M.; Acuña, D.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Salzmann, N.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of a Swiss-Peruvian climate change adaptation initiative (PACC), operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) are now accessible in a dedicated data portal. The data portal allows for example the comparison of data series or the interpolation of spatial fields as well as download of data in various data formats. It is thus a valuable tool supporting the process of data homogenisation and generation of a regional baseline climatology for a sound development of adequate climate change adaptation measures. The procedure to homogenize air-temperature and precipitation data series near Cusco city is outlined and followed by an exemplary trend analysis. Local air temperature trends are found to be in line with global mean trends.

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY TOURISTIC REGION OF ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the scale of tourism grows, the resource use threatens to become unsustainable. Withought environmental responsibility the levels of cheaper mass tourism will increase, forcing more “nature-based” tourism to move on to new destinations. This scenario is opposite to the “Croatian Tourism Development by 2010” strategy. With a favourable geographic position, almost at the heart of Europe, Istria has always represented a bridge connecting the Middle European continental area with the Mediterranean. This area is the most visited Croatian tourist region with 27% of all visitors and 35% of time spent in all of Croatia. The Croatian National Bank’s preliminary figures for 2007 show that international tourism generated 18.4% of Croatian GDP. For these reasons the Istrian tourism industry can not ignore environmental issues in its management and requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders (according to the Agenda 21 for tourism industry. Properly planned tourism development, combined with environmental protection, produces the concept of sustainable tourism. Environmentally sustainable form of tourism represents a step forward from "sea and sun" mass tourism developed at the coastal part of Istria. There are a myriad of definitions for Sustainable Tourism, including eco-tourism, green travel, environmentally and culturally responsible tourism, fair trade and ethical travel. Mentioned selective tourism forms are adopted as the concept of the present and future Istrian destination development.

  9. High resolution physical map of porcine chromosome 7 QTL region and comparative mapping of this region among vertebrate genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On porcine chromosome 7, the region surrounding the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC contains several Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL influencing many traits including growth, back fat thickness and carcass composition. Previous studies highlighted that a fragment of ~3.7 Mb is located within the Swine Leucocyte Antigen (SLA complex. Internal rearrangements of this fragment were suggested, and partial contigs had been built, but further characterization of this region and identification of all human chromosomal fragments orthologous to this porcine fragment had to be carried out. Results A whole physical map of the region was constructed by integrating Radiation Hybrid (RH mapping, BAC fingerprinting data of the INRA BAC library and anchoring BAC end sequences on the human genome. 17 genes and 2 reference microsatellites were ordered on the high resolution IMNpRH212000rad Radiation Hybrid panel. A 1000:1 framework map covering 550 cR12000 was established and a complete contig of the region was developed. New micro rearrangements were highlighted between the porcine and human genomes. A bovine RH map was also developed in this region by mapping 16 genes. Comparison of the organization of this region in pig, cattle, human, mouse, dog and chicken genomes revealed that 1 the translocation of the fragment described previously is observed only on the bovine and porcine genomes and 2 the new internal micro rearrangements are specific of the porcine genome. Conclusion We estimate that the region contains several rearrangements and covers 5.2 Mb of the porcine genome. The study of this complete BAC contig showed that human chromosomal fragments homologs of this heavily rearranged QTL region are all located in the region of HSA6 that surrounds the centromere. This work allows us to define a list of all candidate genes that could explain these QTL effects.

  10. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  11. Morphology and phenomenology of the high-latitude E and F regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained at high latitude observatories on the behavior of E and F region ionization are presented including a bibliography. Behavior of E and F region ionization during day and night for quiet and disturbed conditions in the auroral and polar regions is described. Daily, seasonal and sunspot variations are also outlined.

  12. Impacts of high resolution model downscaling in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Wolf, Judith

    2013-04-01

    With model development and cheaper computational resources ocean forecasts are becoming readily available, high resolution coastal forecasting is now a reality. This can only be achieved, however, by downscaling global or basin-scale products such as the MyOcean reanalyses and forecasts. These model products have resolution ranging from 1/16th - 1/4 degree, which are often insufficient for coastal scales, but can provide initialisation and boundary data. We present applications of downscaling the MyOcean products for use in shelf-seas and the nearshore. We will address the question 'Do coastal predictions improve with higher resolution modelling?' with a few focused examples, while also discussing what is meant by an improved result. Increasing resolution appears to be an obvious route for getting more accurate forecasts in operational coastal models. However, when models resolve finer scales, this may lead to the introduction of high-frequency variability which is not necessarily deterministic. Thus a flow may appear more realistic by generating eddies but the simple statistics like rms error and correlation may become less good because the model variability is not exactly in phase with the observations (Hoffman et al., 1995). By deciding on a specific process to simulate (rather than concentrating on reducing rms error) we can better assess the improvements gained by downscaling. In this work we will select two processes which are dominant in our case-study site: Liverpool Bay. Firstly we consider the magnitude and timing of a peak in tide-surge elevations, by separating out the event into timing (or displacement) and intensity (or amplitude) errors. The model can thus be evaluated on how well it predicts the timing and magnitude of the surge. The second important characteristic of Liverpool Bay is the position of the freshwater front. To evaluate model performance in this case, the location, sharpness, and temperature difference across the front will be

  13. Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region GLEB PANTELEEV International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska...climatological data in the Bering Strait (BS) region are synthesized with dynamical constraints of a numerical model. The optimal HFR placement...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  14. Exome sequencing generates high quality data in non-target regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is a cost efficient approach to selectively sequencing coding regions of human genome for detection of disease variants. A significant amount of DNA fragments from the capture process fall outside target regions, and sequence data for positions outside target regions have been mostly ignored after alignment. Result We performed whole exome sequencing on 22 subjects using Agilent SureSelect capture reagent and 6 subjects using Illumina TrueSeq capture reagent. We also downloaded sequencing data for 6 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 study. Using these data, we examined the quality of SNPs detected outside target regions by computing consistency rate with genotypes obtained from SNP chips or the Hapmap database, transition-transversion (Ti/Tv ratio, and percentage of SNPs inside dbSNP. For all three platforms, we obtained high-quality SNPs outside target regions, and some far from target regions. In our Agilent SureSelect data, we obtained 84,049 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 65,231 SNPs inside target regions (a 129% increase. For our Illumina TrueSeq data, we obtained 222,171 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 95,818 SNPs inside target regions (a 232% increase. For the data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we obtained 7,139 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 1,548 SNPs inside target regions (a 461% increase. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a significant amount of high quality genotypes outside target regions can be obtained from exome sequencing data. These data should not be ignored in genetic epidemiology studies.

  15. Research on and Application to BH-HTC High Density Cementing Slurry System on Tarim Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Song; Fei, Gao; Jianyong, He; Qixiang, Yang; Jiang, Yang; Xia, Liu

    2017-08-01

    A large section of salt bed is contented in Tarim region Piedmont which constructs complex geological conditions. For high-pressure gas well cementing difficulties from the region, high density cement slurry system has been researched through reasonable level of particle size distribution and second weighting up. The results of laboratory tests and field applications show that the high density cementing slurry system is available to Tarim region cementing because this system has a well performance in slurry stability, gas breakthrough control, fluidity, water loss, and strength.

  16. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  17. Preliminary results of an oilspill risk analysis for the Bombay High Region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Gouveia, A.D.; Sitaraman, R.

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Bombay High, Maharashtra, India. The likely paths of oilslicks, and locations of resources vulnerable to spilled...

  18. Erythrocyte membrane analysis for type II diabetes detection using Raman spectroscopy in high-wavenumber region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect lipid variation occurring in type II diabetic erythrocyte membrane (EM) without using exogenous reagents. In high-wavenumber (HW) region, significant Raman spectral differences between diabetic and normal EM are observed at 2850, 2873, 2885, 2935, and 2965 cm-1, which are mainly related to lipid in EM. Based on principal component analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of HW region for diabetes detection is 98.8%, which is much higher than that of low-wavenumber region (82.9%). The results suggest that EM HW Raman region has great promise for the reagent-free and non-invasive detection of type II diabetes.

  19. Region-of-Interest Selection for ATLAS High Level Trigger and Offline Software Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, AG; Brandt, S

    2003-01-01

    Among the many challenges presented by the future ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator are the high data taking rate and volume and the derivation of a rapid trigger decision within limited computing and networking resources. To address this challenge, within the High Level Trigger (HLT) system, a novel Region-of-Interest (RoI) mechanism is used which dramatically reduces the relevant fiducial volume necessary to be readout and processed to small regions guided by the hardware-based first level trigger.

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E

    2007-07-10

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.

  1. Highlighting High Performance: Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School; Upton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Blackstone Valley High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, and water conservation. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  3. Spatio-Spectral Method for Estimating Classified Regions with High Confidence using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyal, Anuj; Rajan, K. S., Dr

    2014-03-01

    In studies like change analysis, the availability of very high resolution (VHR)/high resolution (HR) imagery for a particular period and region is a challenge due to the sensor revisit times and high cost of acquisition. Therefore, most studies prefer lower resolution (LR) sensor imagery with frequent revisit times, in addition to their cost and computational advantages. Further, the classification techniques provide us a global estimate of the class accuracy, which limits its utility if the accuracy is low. In this work, we focus on the sub-classification problem of LR images and estimate regions of higher confidence than the global classification accuracy within its classified region. The spectrally classified data was mined into spatially clustered regions and further refined and processed using statistical measures to arrive at local high confidence regions (LHCRs), for every class. Rabi season MODIS data of January 2006 & 2007 was used for this study and the evaluation of LHCR was done using the APLULC 2005 classified data. For Jan-2007, the global class accuracies for water bodies (WB), forested regions (FR) and Kharif crops & barren lands (KB) were 89%, 71.7% and 71.23% respectively, while the respective LHCRs had accuracies of 96.67%, 89.4% and 80.9% covering an area of 46%, 29% and 14.5% of the initially classified areas. Though areas are reduced, LHCRs with higher accuracies help in extracting more representative class regions. Identification of such regions can facilitate in improving the classification time and processing for HR images when combined with the more frequently acquired LR imagery, isolate pure vs. mixed/impure pixels and as training samples locations for HR imagery.

  4. High speed PIV measurements in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anurag; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    The existence of long low speed regions in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers has been studied previously; most recently using spanwise arrays of hot-wires. Currently, we are using high speed PIV to characterize these low speed regions. Experiments were conducted in the logarithmic region of the turbulent boundary layer in a zero pressure gradient flow at friction Reynolds number Reτ=1160 with a streamwise-spanwise field of view of dimension 1.2δ. A high speed camera and laser were used to obtain velocity fields at repetition rates ranging from 250 Hz to 1000 Hz. Sets of these fields were used to compute ensemble averaged statistics. Also, sections of consecutive fields were stitched end-to-end to form longer vector fields. This allows us to test, in part, the validity of using Taylor's hypothesis in this flow. Within the field of view, low speed regions of up to 14δ in length have been observed. In general, these low speed regions meander and some go out of the field of view in the spanwise direction. An algorithm is being developed to identify these regions automatically from the PIV results and to characterize their length scales.

  5. High-expanding cortical regions in human development and evolution are related to higher intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Amlien, Inge; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Engvig, Andreas; Espeseth, Thomas; Reinvang, Ivar; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-01-01

    Cortical surface area has tremendously expanded during human evolution, and similar patterns of cortical expansion have been observed during childhood development. An intriguing hypothesis is that the high-expanding cortical regions also show the strongest correlations with intellectual function in humans. However, we do not know how the regional distribution of correlations between intellectual function and cortical area maps onto expansion in development and evolution. Here, in a sample of 1048 participants, we show that regions in which cortical area correlates with visuospatial reasoning abilities are generally high expanding in both development and evolution. Several regions in the frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate, showed high expansion in both development and evolution. The area of these regions was related to intellectual functions in humans. Low-expanding areas were not related to cognitive scores. These findings suggest that cortical regions involved in higher intellectual functions have expanded the most during development and evolution. The radial unit hypothesis provides a common framework for interpretation of the findings in the context of evolution and prenatal development, while additional cellular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, dendritic arborization, and intracortical myelination, likely impact area expansion in later childhood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  7. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.

  8. Augmenting Chinese hamster genome assembly by identifying regions of high confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Sharma, Mohit; Johnson, Kathryn C; Mudge, Joann; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Onsongo, Getiria; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Jacob, Nitya M; Le, Huong; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines are the dominant industrial workhorses for therapeutic recombinant protein production. The availability of genome sequence of Chinese hamster and CHO cells will spur further genome and RNA sequencing of producing cell lines. However, the mammalian genomes assembled using shot-gun sequencing data still contain regions of uncertain quality due to assembly errors. Identifying high confidence regions in the assembled genome will facilitate its use for cell engineering and genome engineering. We assembled two independent drafts of Chinese hamster genome by de novo assembly from shotgun sequencing reads and by re-scaffolding and gap-filling the draft genome from NCBI for improved scaffold lengths and gap fractions. We then used the two independent assemblies to identify high confidence regions using two different approaches. First, the two independent assemblies were compared at the sequence level to identify their consensus regions as "high confidence regions" which accounts for at least 78 % of the assembled genome. Further, a genome wide comparison of the Chinese hamster scaffolds with mouse chromosomes revealed scaffolds with large blocks of collinearity, which were also compiled as high-quality scaffolds. Genome scale collinearity was complemented with EST based synteny which also revealed conserved gene order compared to mouse. As cell line sequencing becomes more commonly practiced, the approaches reported here are useful for assessing the quality of assembly and potentially facilitate the engineering of cell lines. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cardiovascular mortality associated with low and high temperatures: determinants of inter-region vulnerability in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunfeng; Li, Lianfa; Wang, Jinfeng; Huang, Jixia; Lu, Shijun

    2015-05-27

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in 26 regions in the south and west of China from 2008 to 2011, and to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to such inter-region variation in the temperature effect. A separate Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) was fitted to estimate percent changes in cardiovascular mortality at low and high temperatures on a daily basis for each region. The model used the smooth functions to model the nonlinear effects of temperature and humidity and to control for the seasonal factor using the calendar time variable. Given variation in the magnitude of the temperature effect on cardiovascular mortality, we employed a Bayesian network (BN) to identify potential region-specific socioeconomic and demographic factors that may explain the variation. In most regions, an increasing trend in high or low temperature was associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality, with variation in the magnitude of the temperature effects across regions. Three factors, including per capita years of education (as an indicator of economic status), percentage of the population over 65 years of age and percentage of women had direct impact on cold-related cardiovascular mortality. Number of hospital beds (as an indicator of the availability of medical resources), percentage of population engaged in industrial occupations, and percentage of women showed direct impact on heat-related cardiovascular mortality. Due to the socioeconomic and demographic inequalities between regions, the development of customized prevention and adaptation programs to address the low/high temperatures in vulnerable regions should be prioritized.

  10. The Identification of Technology Platforms and Innovation Areas with High Regional Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Urbančíková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the process of identification of the technological platforms and innovation areas with high regional impact. The aim is to discover future fields of technological innovation which are having a high qualitative and quantitative demand of high potentials. The research has been undertaken within project Innovative Development of European Areas by fostering transnational Knowledge Development – IDEA/ 2CE1175P1 funded by Central Europe Programme. The aim of IDEA project is the development of an adequate strategy which enables the small and medium sized enterprises in the regions of Central Europe to face the increasing demand of high potentials with tested methods and instruments. The target group of IDEA project are so called “high potentials” in the engineering and scientific sector where future-oriented technologies are one of the main sources of innovation.

  11. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

  12. High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis in China: Evaluation of 1 Year Period Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Shuyu; Xu, Jianjun; Tang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Globally, reanalysis data sets are widely used in assessing climate change, validating numerical models, and understanding the interactions between the components of a climate system. However, due to the relatively coarse resolution, most global reanalysis data sets are not suitable to apply at the local and regional scales directly with the inadequate descriptions of mesoscale systems and climatic extreme incidents such as mesoscale convective systems, squall lines, tropical cyclones, regional droughts, and heat waves. In this study, by using a data assimilation system of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation, and a mesoscale atmospheric model of Weather Research and Forecast model, we build a regional reanalysis system. This is preliminary and the first experimental attempt to construct a high-resolution reanalysis for China main land. Four regional test bed data sets are generated for year 2013 via three widely used methods (classical dynamical downscaling, spectral nudging, and data assimilation) and a hybrid method with data assimilation coupled with spectral nudging. Temperature at 2 m, precipitation, and upper level atmospheric variables are evaluated by comparing against observations for one-year-long tests. It can be concluded that the regional reanalysis with assimilation and nudging methods can better produce the atmospheric variables from surface to upper levels, and regional extreme events such as heat waves, than the classical dynamical downscaling. Compared to the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, the hybrid nudging method performs slightly better in reproducing upper level temperature and low-level moisture over China, which improves regional reanalysis data quality.

  13. Regional respiratory time constants during lung recruitment in high-frequency oscillatory ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the regional respiratory time constants of lung volume changes during stepwise lung recruitment before and after surfactant treatment in high-frequency oscillatory ventilated preterm infants. A stepwise oxygenation-guided recruitment procedure was performed before and after surfactant

  14. High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3'untranslated regions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 5. High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3' untranslated regions among geographical isolates of Cardamom mosaic virus from south India. T Jacob T Jebasingh M N Venugopal R Usha. Articles Volume 28 Issue 5 September 2003 pp 589-595 ...

  15. Performance of precision mobile drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile drip irrigation (MDI) technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, info...

  16. Extreme precipitation and climate gradients in Patagonia revealed by high-resolution regional atmospheric climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Wessem, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413533085; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; van Meijgaard, E.; van Ulft, L.H.; Schaefer, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses output of a high-resolution (5.5 km) regional atmospheric climate model to describe the present-day (1979–2012) climate of Patagonia, with a particular focus on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Patagonian ice fields. Through a comparison with available in situ observations, it

  17. Receiver Function Imaging of Upper Mantle Discontinuities Beneath the Oregon High Lava Plains and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, K. C.; Fouch, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Northwestern United States has experienced wide-spread tectonomagmatism from the late Cenozoic to present-day, the reasons for which are likely linked to complex interactions between subduction zone processes near the edge of a Precambrian craton, possible hotspot effects, and mantle flow within the asthenosphere. The goal of this study is to examine upper mantle seismic velocity discontinuities beneath this region to investigate the connection between these geodynamic processes. We present results from analysis of Ps receiver functions using stations from the High Lava Plains temporary broadband seismic experiment, the USArray Transportable Array (TA), and other regional broadband stations for a total of over 108 stations in the region. We compute receiver functions at individual stations using an iterative deconvolution approach, and generate common conversion point (CCP) stacks using moveout corrections defined by the Tectonic North America (TNA) shear wave velocity model. Results from our imaging show that conversions from the 410 km discontinuity have narrow, high amplitude peaks across most of the region, with local complexity in peaks for some areas. Conversely, most conversions near the 660 km discontinuity exhibit peaks that are broad and less well-defined. Estimates in transition zone thickness show local variability, with notable areas of thickening in northeastern Oregon into Idaho and thinning under the coastal regions. The complexity in upper mantle discontinuity structure in this region is likely due to a combination of strong variations in isotropic and anisotropic seismic wavespeeds. The local complexities of the 410 km discontinuity correlate well with seismic wavespeed anomalies imaged by regional P-wave tomography. The source of the variations in the 660 km discontinuity are less apparent, but we note that seismic anisotropy is strong and regionally homogenous across much of the region, perhaps producing backazimuthal variations in

  18. Error characteristics of high resolution regional climate models over the Alpine area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suklitsch, Martin; Gobiet, Andreas; Truhetz, Heimo; Khurshid Awan, Nauman [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change and Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria); Goettel, Holger [German Emissions Trading Authority at the Federal Environment Agency, Berlin (Germany); Jacob, Daniela [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    This study describes typical error ranges of high resolution regional climate models operated over complex orography and investigates the scale-dependence of these error ranges. The results are valid primarily for the European Alpine region, but to some extent they can also be transferred to other orographically complex regions of the world. We investigate the model errors by evaluating a set of 62 one-year hindcast experiments for the year 1999 with four different regional climate models. The analysis is conducted for the parameters mean sea level pressure, air temperature (mean, minimum and maximum) and precipitation (mean, frequency and intensity), both as an area average over the whole modeled domain (the ''Greater Alpine Region'', GAR) and in six subregions. The subregional seasonal error ranges, defined as the interval between the 2.5th percentile and the 97.5th percentile, lie between -3.2 and +2.0 K for temperature and between -2.0 and +3.1 mm/day (-45.7 and +94.7%) for precipitation, respectively. While the temperature error ranges are hardly broadened at smaller scales, the precipitation error ranges increase by 28%. These results demonstrate that high resolution RCMs are applicable in relatively small scale climate impact studies with a comparable quality as on well investigated larger scales as far as temperature is concerned. For precipitation, which is a much more demanding parameter, the quality is moderately degraded on smaller scales. (orig.)

  19. Detection of genomic variation by selection of a 9 mb DNA region and high throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb and 7 (1.1 Mb from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872. We have optimized a method of genomic selection for high throughput sequencing. Microarray-based selection and sequencing resulted in 260-fold enrichment, with 41% of reads mapping to the target region. 83% of SNPs in the targeted region had at least 4-fold sequence coverage and 54% at least 15-fold. When assaying HapMap SNPs in NA12872, our sequence genotypes are 91.3% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 4-fold, and 97.9% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 15-fold. About 81% of the SNPs recovered with both thresholds are listed in dbSNP. We observed that regions with low sequence coverage occur in close proximity to low-complexity DNA. Validation experiments using Sanger sequencing were performed for 46 SNPs with 15-20 fold coverage, with a confirmation rate of 96%, suggesting that DNA selection provides an accurate and cost-effective method for identifying rare genomic variants.

  20. Complexity in the high latitude HF radar spectral width boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN radars are sensitive to the collective Doppler characteristics of decametre-scale irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. The radars routinely observe a distinct transition from large spectral width (>100 m s−1 located at higher latitudes to low spectral width (<50 m s−1 located at lower latitudes. Because of its equatorward location, the TIGER Tasmanian radar is very sensitive to the detection of the spectral width boundary (SWB in the nightside auroral ionosphere. An analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and 2-D beam-swinging vectors suggests the meso-scale (~100 km convection is more erratic in the high spectral width region, but slower and more homogeneous in the low spectral width region. The radar autocorrelation functions are better modelled using Lorentzian Doppler spectra in the high spectral width region, and Gaussian Doppler spectra in the low spectral width region. However, paradoxically, Gaussian Doppler spectra are associated with the largest spectral widths. Application of the Burg maximum entropy method suggests the occurrence of double-peaked Doppler spectra is greater in the high spectral width region, implying the small-scale (~10 km velocity fluctuations are more intense above the SWB. These observations combined with collective wave scattering theory imply there is a transition from a fast flowing, turbulent plasma with a correlation length of velocity fluctuations less than the scattering wavelength, to a slower moving plasma with a correlation length greater than the scattering wavelength. Peak scaling and structure function analysis of fluctuations in the SWB itself reveals approximately scale-free behaviour across temporal scales of ~10 s to ~34 min. Preliminary scaling exponents for these fluctuations, αGSF=0.18±0.02 and αGSF=0.09±0.01, are even smaller than that expected for MHD turbulence.

  1. Theoretical studies of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light-mass region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczak Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review our theoretical knowledge of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light mass region in 28≤A≤52 obtained previously in cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations. We report additional toroidal high-spin isomers in 56Ni with I=114ħ and 140ħ, which follow the same (multi-particle–(multi-hole systematics as other toroidal high-spin isomers. We examine the production of these exotic nuclei by fusion of various projectiles on 20Ne or 28Si as an active target in time-projection-chamber (TPC experiments.

  2. CGHScan: finding variable regions using high-density microarray comparative genomic hybridization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekara Gireesh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization can rapidly identify chromosomal regions that vary between organisms and tissues. This technique has been applied to detecting differences between normal and cancerous tissues in eukaryotes as well as genomic variability in microbial strains and species. The density of oligonucleotide probes available on current microarray platforms is particularly well-suited for comparisons of organisms with smaller genomes like bacteria and yeast where an entire genome can be assayed on a single microarray with high resolution. Available methods for analyzing these experiments typically confine analyses to data from pre-defined annotated genome features, such as entire genes. Many of these methods are ill suited for datasets with the number of measurements typical of high-density microarrays. Results We present an algorithm for analyzing microarray hybridization data to aid identification of regions that vary between an unsequenced genome and a sequenced reference genome. The program, CGHScan, uses an iterative random walk approach integrating multi-layered significance testing to detect these regions from comparative genomic hybridization data. The algorithm tolerates a high level of noise in measurements of individual probe intensities and is relatively insensitive to the choice of method for normalizing probe intensity values and identifying probes that differ between samples. When applied to comparative genomic hybridization data from a published experiment, CGHScan identified eight of nine known deletions in a Brucella ovis strain as compared to Brucella melitensis. The same result was obtained using two different normalization methods and two different scores to classify data for individual probes as representing conserved or variable genomic regions. The undetected region is a small (58 base pair deletion that is below the resolution of CGHScan given the array design employed in the study

  3. Scalability of regional climate change in Europe for high-end scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O. B.; Yang, S.; Boberg, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the help of a simulation using the global circulation model (GCM) EC-Earth, downscaled over Europe with the regional model DMI-HIRHAM5 at a 25 km grid point distance, we investigated regional climate change corresponding to 6°C of global warming to investigate whether regional climate change...... are close to the RCP8.5 emission scenario. We investigated the extent to which pattern scaling holds, i.e. the approximation that the amplitude of any climate change will be approximately proportional to the amount of global warming. We address this question through a comparison of climate change results...... generally scales with global temperature even for very high levels of global warming. Through a complementary analysis of CMIP5 GCM results, we estimated the time at which this temperature may be reached; this warming could be reached in the first half of the 22nd century provided that future emissions...

  4. Innovation, regional development and relations between high- and low-tech industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The current European policy agenda strongly accentuates the importance of research and development (R&D) as a driver of economic growth. The basic assumption is that high European wage levels make it unlikely that less research-intensive parts of the economy can withstand competition from low...... of such policies. EU growth has caught up with that of the USA during recent years and low-tech industries continue to have considerable economic importance in Europe in terms of jobs and value added, especially outside the main growth regions, but also in the major urban regions. Empirical evidence from Denmark......-wage countries with increasingly skilled labour forces. Thus, the inferior growth of the European Union (EU) in the 1990s compared with the USA has been explained by the latter’s higher rate of R&D investments. The paper challenges this rather simplistic view of innovation and examines the regional consequences...

  5. High Energy Particle Effects in the D Region During and After Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, E. A.; Wagner, C. U.

    1984-01-01

    The precipitation of energetic particles from the magnetosphere produces a remarkable modification of the mid-latitude D-region structure during daytime and at dawn and dusk conditions. Beside the heavily fluctuating precipitation during the main storm phase, there exists a more continuous input of high energy electrons into the mesosphere in the belt between phi= 50 deg and the auroral zone up to ten days after the disturbance. The excessive D-region ionization, the after-effect of geomagnetic storms, is caused at least partly by additional nitric oxide production. The winter anomaly effects are especially amplified and prolonged by this effect. The source of this mid-latitude particle precipitation is thought to be situated in magnetospheric slot region processes.

  6. Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high homicide rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an Irrigation Scheduling Tool for the High Plains Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulski, M.; Hubbard, K. G.; You, J.

    2009-12-01

    The High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) at the University of Nebraska is one of NOAA’s six regional climate centers in the U.S. Primary objectives of the HPRCC are to conduct applied climate research, engage in climate education and outreach, and increase the use and availability of climate information by developing value-added products. Scientists at the center are engaged in utilizing regional weather data to develop tools that can be used directly by area stakeholders, particularly for agricultural sectors. A new study is proposed that will combine NOAA products (short-term forecasts and seasonal outlooks of temperature and precipitation) with existing capabilities to construct an irrigation scheduling tool that can be used by producers in the region. This tool will make use of weather observations from the regional mesonet (specifically the AWDN, Automated Weather Data Network) and the nation-wide relational database and web portal (ACIS, Applied Climate Information System). The primary benefit to stakeholders will be a more efficient use of water and energy resources owing to the reduction of uncertainty in the timing of irrigation.

  8. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract [number sign]DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  9. Calculations for nuclear data evaluation for Nb, Zr and W in the high energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Maruyama, Shin-ichi; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron total cross sections on Nb, Zr and W were calculated in the high energy region. In this calculation, we used the neutron optical-model potentials derived from those for proton incidence with introducing the symmetry term. Proton-induced activation yields for Nb and Zr was calculated by means of HETC/KFA2 and QMD plus SDM at incident energies up to 5 GeV. (author)

  10. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  11. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, A. E.; A. S. Denning; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; M. Uliasz; N. Parazoo; A. E. Andrews; D. E. J. Worthy

    2010-01-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous glob...

  12. Measurement of circumsolar ratio in high dust loading regions using a photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Hany; Shafiq, Talha; Rizvi, Arslan; El-Leathy, Abdelrahman

    2017-06-01

    Performance of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is highly affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI). However, it is also important to consider circumsolar radiation in any simulation of a CSP plant, especially in desert regions where dust loading in the atmosphere is expected. There are a number of methods to measure circumsolar radiation. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation. This work introduces a simple method to estimate circumsolar radiation. It involves taking high-resolution photographs of the sun and processing them using a computer code that identifies the sun's disk. The code then uses pixel intensities to obtain the solar intensity distribution across the sun's disk and in the aureole region. The solar intensity distribution is then used to obtain the circumsolar ratio (CSR) which represents the shape of the sun. To test this method, numerous photos of the sun were taken during the month of April and September 2016 at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a region that is well known for high dust-loading, especially during the summer. Two days of different atmospheric conditions were selected in September for comparative analysis. Results show that this method produces repeatable results, and that the CSR can increase significantly due to high dust loading and passing clouds. The CSR is found to be a strong function of DNI, ranging from about 4.5% at DNI values above 800 W/m2 and increasing to as much as 8.5% when DNI drops to about 400 W/m2, due to passing clouds. Furthermore, the results show that circumsolar ratio tends to be high in the early morning and late afternoon due to the high air mass, while its values tend to be lowest around solar noon when the air mass is lowest.

  13. Regional distribution of high affinity binding of 3H-adenosine in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversa, U.; Puppini, P.; de Angelis, L.; Vertua, R.

    1984-06-01

    The high and low affinity adenosine binding sites with Kd values ranging respectively from 0.8 to 1.65 microM and from 3.1 to 13.86 microM were demonstrated in the following rat brain areas: cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and pons-medulla. Adenosine receptors involved in the high affinity binding seem to be mainly Ra-type. The analysis of the regional distribution of 3H-Adenosine showed the highest levels of specific binding in striatum and hippocampus; somewhat smaller values in cortex, cerebellum, and diencephalon, and even lower in pons-medulla.

  14. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate trends in a non-traditional high quality wine producing region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global warming may put pressure over some world's highest quality wine producing regions. This fact indicates the need to evaluate the presence of climate change in non-traditional wine producing regions of the Globe. Therefore, the goals of this study were to detect trends in rainfall and air temperature series obtained from three locations of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (a non-traditional high quality wine producing region and to evaluate the effect of the detected climate trends on agrometeorological indices frequently used to indicate suitable areas for wine production. The trend analyses were applied to maximum and minimum air temperature series, rainfall series and to the following agrometeorological parameters: heliothermal index, cool night index and growing degree-days. These three indices were selected due to their previous use in studies that address the effect of regional climate conditions on the general wine style. The analyses took into account the grape phenological aspects for both summer and winter growing seasons. The results found in this study support the hypothesis of the presence of climate trends in the wine producing regions of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo-Brazil. These trends are mostly linked to changes in the minimum air temperature. The results also reveal a shortening in the duration of grapevines phenological phases and a change to warmer conditions during the ripening Months. These changes are consistent with the climate changes observed in other wine producing regions of the world and may negatively affect the wine production of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo.

  16. High resolution experiments with the ALADIN-Climate regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csima, G.

    2009-09-01

    The global climate models are able to describe the climate of the Earth at a rather coarse resolution providing realistic projections only for the synoptic scale characteristics of the climate. For this reason, they are insufficient for detailed regional or local scale estimations. However, impact studies and policy makers need simulations including all the effects caused by local features. Consequently, techniques for downscaling global climate model simulations - such as regional climate modelling - are essential. The ALADIN-Climate regional climate model (developed by Météo France on the basis of the internationally developed ALADIN modelling system) was adapted at the Hungarian Meteorological Service a few years ago. In the framework of the CECILIA project (www.cecilia-eu.org), the ALADIN-Climate regional climate model runs at high (10 km) horizontal resolution. Therefore, it is anticipated to give more realistic climate estimation for this century than either the global models or the lower resolution regional climate models. The ALADIN-Climate model was coupled to both ERA-40 re-analysis data and the ARPEGE/OPA global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model for the past - 1961-1990 - as the reference period. For the future time slices of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, the lateral boundary conditions were provided by the same global model with the use of A1B SRES scenario. The results have been validated against different observational datasets for the past, and have been compared to the results of the ARPEGE-Climat global model in order to expose the added value of the regional climate model. The ALADIN-Climate model has also been evaluated for the future to give an estimation of climate change in the Carpathian Basin.

  17. Synergistic Design of Cathode Region for the High-Energy-Density Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Liu, Si-Yu; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Han-Chi; Wu, Xing-Long; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2016-10-26

    The synergistic design of cathode region was conducted to minimize the shuttle effect of polysulfides and decrease the loading of inactive components in order to acquire high-energy-density lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The well-designed cathode region presented two special characteristics: one was the intertwined nanofibers interlayer based on ultrafine TiO2 nanocrystal uniformly embedded within N-doping porous carbon; the other was the lightweight and three-dimensional current collector of fibrous cellulose paper coated by reduced graphene oxide. In consequence, the decent reversible capacity of 874.8 mA h g-1 was acquired at 0.1 C with a capacity retention of 91.83% after 100 cycles. Besides, the satisfactory capacity of 670 mA h g-1 was delivered after 300 cycles at 1 C with the small decay rate of only 0.08%. Because of higher capacity and lower loading of inactive component in cathode region, the energy density of cell increased more than five times compared with unmodified cell. Moreover, to further enhance the energy density, the high-sulfur-loading electrode was fabricated. A good areal capacity of 4.27 mA h cm-2 was retained for the cell with the active material of 4 mg cm-2 and the cycle stability was also well-maintained. In addition, due to the flexibility of interlayer and current collector, Li-S full cell (in pouch cell format) was easily curved. Therefore, the synergistic design for cathode region, which combines the flexible and mass-produced interlayer and current collector together, provides an effective access to Li-S batteries with high energy density and flexibility for practical application.

  18. Detecting High Ice Water Content Cloud Regions Using Airborne and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Korolev, A.; Barker, H.; Wolde, M.; Heckman, I.; Duguay, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCS) have significant impacts on local and global hydrological cycles and radiation budgets. Moreover, high ice water content (HIWC) found inside MCS clouds at altitudes above 7 km have been identified as hazardous for aviation safety. The environment inside HIWC cloud regions may cause icing of aircraft engines resulting in uncontrolled engine power loss or damage. This phenomenon is known as ice crystal icing (ICI). International aviation regulatory agencies are now attempting to define techniques that enable prediction and detection of potential ICI environments. Such techniques range from on-board HIWC detection to nowcasting of ice crystal weather using satellite data and numerical weather prediction models. The most practical way to monitor continuously for areas of HIWC is by remote sensing with passive radiometers on geostationary satellites. Establishing correlations between HIWC cloud regions and radiances is, however, a challenging problem. This is because regions of HIWC can occur several kilometers below cloud top, while passive satellite radiometers response mainly to the upper kilometers of MCS clouds. The High Altitude Ice Crystals - High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) field campaigns in Cayenne, French Guiana collected a rich dataset from aboard the Canadian NRC Convair-580 that was equipped with a suite of in-situ microphysical instruments and Dopplerized W- and X-band radars with vertically- and horizontally-directed antenna. This paper aims to describe an algorithm that has been developed to establish relationships between satellite radiances and locations of HIWC regions identified from in-situ measurements of microphysical properties, Doppler velocities, and vertical and horizontal radar reflectivity.

  19. High-resolution Observations of Active Region Moss and its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s-1 for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  20. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the E-region echoes of a particular polarity is strongly dictated by the orientation of the convection plasma flow which itself has a significant asymmetry towards westward zonal flow.

  1. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  2. Combined effects of deterministic and statistical structure on high-frequency regional seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Christopher J.; Cormier, Vernon F.; Fitzpatrick, Michele

    2017-08-01

    Radiative transport modelling can combine the effects of both large-scale (deterministic) and the small-scale (statistical) structure on the coda envelopes of high-frequency regional seismograms. We describe a computer code to implement radiative transport modelling that propagates packets of seismic body wave energy along ray paths through large-scale deterministic 3-D structure, including the effects of velocity gradients, intrinsic attenuation, source radiation pattern and multiple scattering by layer boundaries and small-scale heterogeneities specified by a heterogeneity spectrum. The spatial distribution of these energy packets can be displayed as time snapshots to aid in the understanding of regional phase propagation or displayed as a coda envelope by summing at receiver bins. These techniques are applied to earthquakes and explosions recorded in the Lop Nor, China region to model observed narrow band passed seismic codas in the 1-4 Hz band. We predict that source discriminants in this region based on P/Lg amplitude ratios will best separate earthquake and explosion populations at frequencies 2 Hz and higher.

  3. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation.We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable.There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05; reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001; and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence.Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered.

  4. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Neri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. Aims: We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. Methods: The high spatial resolution of the 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. Results: We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined 60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5 × 1016 cm, a mass of 2.7 × 10-3M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as

  5. Multivariate Multi-data Assimilation System in Regional Model with High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Giraud St Albin, S.; Drillet, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Mercator Ocean has developed a regional North East Shelf forecasting system over the North East Atlantic, taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO (1/12°). This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the operational real-time Mercator Ocean North Atlantic high resolution system (1/12°). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (RTG-SST), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORIOLIS database, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements.At last, we used PALM coupler which provides a general structure for a modular implementation of a data assimilation system, and makes easier the changes in the analysis algorithm. We will confront the results obtained with the regional forecast system (1/12°) with IAU (Incremental Analysis Updates) to the ones obtained with Mercator Ocean North Atlantic high resolution system (1/12°).

  6. Performance of Precision Mobile Drip Irrigation in the Texas High Plains Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. O’Shaughnessy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile drip irrigation (MDI technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, information on the performance of this system and its benefits relative to common sprinkler application technologies in the region are limited. A two-year study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to compare grain yields, crop water use (ETc and water use efficiency (WUE of corn (Zea Mays L. irrigated with MDI, low elevation spray application (LESA and low energy precision application (LEPA methods. Irrigation amounts for each application method were based on weekly neutron probe readings. In both years, grain yield and yield components were similar among application treatment methods. Although WUE was similar for the MDI treatment plots compared with LEPA and LESA during the wet growing season (2015, MDI demonstrated improved WUE during the drier year of 2016. Additional studies using crops with less than full canopy cover at maturity (sorghum and cotton are needed to document the performance of MDI in the Texas High Plains region.

  7. High-resolution Observation of Moving Magnetic Features in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin

    2017-08-01

    Moving magnetic features (MMFs) are small photospheric magnetic elements that emerge and move outward toward the boundary of moat regions mostly during a sunspot decaying phase, in a serpent wave-like magnetic topology. Studies of MMFs and their classification (e.g., unipolar or bipolar types) strongly rely on the high spatiotemporal-resolution observation of photospheric magnetic field. In this work, we present a detailed observation of a sunspot evolution in NOAA active region (AR) 12565, using exceptionally high resolution Halpha images from the 1.6 New Solar telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and the UV images from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The spectropolarimetric measurements of photospheric magnetic field are obtained from the NST Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS) at Fe I 1.56 um line. We investigate the horizontal motion of the classified MMFs and discuss the clustering patterns of the geometry and motion of the MMFs. We estimate the rate of flux generation by appearance of MMFs and the role MMFs play in sunspot decaying phase. We also study the interaction between the MMFs and the existing magnetic field features and its response to Ellerman bombs and IRIS bombs respectively at higher layers.

  8. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  9. Biometric Properties Estimated from High Resolution Imagery in the Amazon and the Cerrado Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S.; Palace, M. W.; Braswell, B. H.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Amazon and Cerrado regions are unique ecotypes with complex and varied forest and vegetation structure. Forest structure reveals the dual influences of disturbance and growth. Because these two tropical regions have and are undergoing rapid change due to human encroachment, understanding the forests structure in these ecotypes aids in efforts to quantify carbon dynamics on both regional and global scales. Analysis of data from literature found that canopy cover and biomass are highly correlated in the Cerrado (r2=.86), more so than other structural variables. This indicates that use of radar and lidar to estimate biomass in savannah ecotypes with sparse and clumpy tree cover might be prone to error. Literature also suggests that lidar and radar saturate in high biomass forests. Remote sensing of forest canopy structure estimation has greatly advanced to due the aid of high resolution satellite images. We estimated forest structure using high resolution image data from IKONOS using textural methods such as lacunarity, semivariance, power spectrum, entropy, and a crown characterization algorithm for 11,014 image tiles or sections (1 square km each) extracted from 300 IKONOS images. Our preprocessing of this data calculated top-of-atmosphere reflectance based on metadata from IKONOS image acquisition. A user-trained five category landuse classification was used to determine which areas within an IKONOS tile would be analyzed using textural methods.We compare results with available field measured forest biometric data. We used an Index of Translational Homogeneity (ITH) calculated from our lacunarity results. ITH is an index of average crown width and we estimated an average of 8.1 m +/- 7.7 SD. Our estimate of the range based on semivariance was an average of 11.4 m +/- 7.3 SD. Our crown characterization algorithm estimated average crown width to be 12.5 m +/- 4.0 SD. The average entropy of each tile was 5.7 +/- 0.5 SD. We associated each IKONOS tile with one of

  10. What Causes the High Apparent Speeds in Chromospheric and Transition Region Spicules on the Sun?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pontieu, Bart; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Chintzoglou, Georgios, E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Spicules are the most ubuiquitous type of jets in the solar atmosphere. The advent of high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) and ground-based observatories has revealed the presence of very high apparent motions of order 100–300 km s{sup −1} in spicules, as measured in the plane of the sky. However, line of sight measurements of such high speeds have been difficult to obtain, with values deduced from Doppler shifts in spectral lines typically of order 30–70 km s{sup −1}. In this work, we resolve this long-standing discrepancy using recent 2.5D radiative MHD simulations. This simulation has revealed a novel driving mechanism for spicules in which ambipolar diffusion resulting from ion-neutral interactions plays a key role. In our simulation, we often see that the upward propagation of magnetic waves and electrical currents from the low chromosphere into already existing spicules can lead to rapid heating when the currents are rapidly dissipated by ambipolar diffusion. The combination of rapid heating and the propagation of these currents at Alfvénic speeds in excess of 100 km s{sup −1} leads to the very rapid apparent motions, and often wholesale appearance, of spicules at chromospheric and transition region temperatures. In our simulation, the observed fast apparent motions in such jets are actually a signature of a heating front, and much higher than the mass flows, which are of order 30–70 km s{sup −1}. Our results can explain the behavior of transition region “network jets” and the very high apparent speeds reported for some chromospheric spicules.

  11. Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia-present climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole B.; Christensen, Jens H.; Machenhauer, Bennert

    1998-01-01

    The hydrological cycle on a regional scale is poorly represented with a present-day coarse resolution general circulation model (GCM). With a dynamical downscaling technique, in which a regional higher-resolution climate model (RCM) is nested into the GCM, this starts to become feasible. Here...... the authors go one step further with a double nesting approach, applying an RCM at 19-km horizontal resolution nested into an RCM at 57-km resolution over an area covering the Scandinavian Peninsula. A 9-yr-long time-slice simulation is performed with the driving boundary conditions taken from a fully coupled...... simulated in the high-resolution simulation. It does, however, inherit certain large-scale systematic errors from the driving GCM. In many cases these errors increase with increasing resolution. Model verification of near-surface temperature and precipitation is made using a new gridded climatology based...

  12. High-Resolution Melting (HRM) of Hypervariable Mitochondrial DNA Regions for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rocha, Alípio; de Amorim, Isis Salviano Soares; Simão, Tatiana de Almeida; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza; Garrido, Rodrigo Grazinoli; Mencalha, Andre Luiz

    2017-08-23

    Forensic strategies commonly are proceeding by analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, new additional strategies have been proposed for forensic science. Thus, this article standardized the high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA for forensic analyzes. For HRM, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from eight individuals were extracted from mucosa swabs by DNAzol reagent, samples were amplified by PCR and submitted to HRM analysis to identify differences in hypervariable (HV) regions I and II. To confirm HRM, all PCR products were DNA sequencing. The data suggest that is possible discriminate DNA from different samples by HRM curves. Also, uncommon dual-dissociation was identified in a single PCR product, increasing HRM analyzes by evaluation of melting peaks. Thus, HRM is accurate and useful to screening small differences in HVI and HVII regions from mtDNA and increase the efficiency of laboratory routines based on forensic genetics. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. High Frequency Attenuation Modeling and Event Amplitude Estimation in the Southern Nevada Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of seismic amplitudes plays a critical role in underground explosion monitoring and the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions, which is crucial for global security. In order to improve amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances, an accurate 2D model of attenuation is important. As part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we develop a detailed attenuation model for the region around southern Nevada and test the model's usefulness in predicting amplitudes of local events. The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the waveform modeling efforts of these experiments, and enable us to take a more detailed look at local event discrimination. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Preliminary results show that our attenuation model correlates quite well with the regional geology, and a small number of comparisons of predicted and observed amplitudes from past SPE shots show reasonable agreement. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. High Resolution Regional Attenuation for the Source Physics Experiment Using Multiphase Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic event amplitude measurement plays a critical role in the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions. An accurate 2D model of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves traveling through the earth is especially important for reasonable amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances. In this study, we investigate the detailed attenuation structure in the region around southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the modeling efforts of these experiments. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases Pn, Pg, and Lg to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Our preliminary results agree generally with those from the continent-wide study by Pasyanos (2013). With additional data we are working to develop a more detailed and higher frequency model of the region as well as move toward a fully non-linear inversion.

  15. Regional reductions in sleep electroencephalography power in obstructive sleep apnea: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie G; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant alterations in neuronal integrity resulting from either hypoxemia and/or sleep loss. A large body of imaging research supports reductions in gray matter volume, alterations in white matter integrity and resting state activity, and functional abnormalities in response to cognitive challenge in various brain regions in patients with OSA. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), a functional imaging tool that could potentially be used during routine clinical care, to examine the regional distribution of neural activity in a non-clinical sample of untreated men and women with moderate/severe OSA. Sleep was recorded with 256-channel EEG in relatively healthy subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10, as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls selected from a research population initially recruited for a study on sleep and meditation. Sleep laboratory. Nine subjects with AHI > 10 and nine matched controls. N/A. Topographic analysis of hdEEG data revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the parietal cortex in OSA subjects. This parietal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in all stages and episodes of nonrapid eye movement sleep. This investigation suggests that regional deficits in electroencephalography (EEG) power generation may be a useful clinical marker for neural disruption in obstructive sleep apnea, and that high-density EEG may have the sensitivity to detect pathological cortical changes early in the disease process.

  16. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Schuh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1 ground studies and (2 atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS and an underlying biosphere (SiB3 model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and Ecosystem Respiration (ER is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a

  17. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  18. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2010-07-16

    Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon), that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus) and coyotes (C. latrans) than grey wolves (C. lupus). Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp) of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS) at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7%) and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 +/- 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 +/- 0.00097 SD) than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 +/- 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 +/- 0.00205 SD). Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. These results demonstrate high concordance between coding and non-coding regions of mtDNA, and provide

  19. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Bradley N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon, that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus and coyotes (C. latrans than grey wolves (C. lupus. Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. Results We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7% and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD. Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results demonstrate high concordance between coding

  20. An automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover over high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields) from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N). Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September) over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI) of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall) of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to rapidly

  1. An Automated Approach for Mapping Persistent Ice and Snow Cover over High Latitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N. Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI, and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI, with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to

  2. Quantifying uncertainty due to internal variability using high-resolution regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Ikeda, K.; Deser, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainty in future climate predictions is as large or larger than the mean climate change signal. As such, any predictions of future climate need to incorporate and quantify the sources of this uncertainty. One of the largest sources comes from the internal, chaotic, variability within the climate system itself. This variability has been approximated using the 30 ensemble members of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble. Here we examine the wet and dry end members of this ensemble for cool-season precipitation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains with a set of high-resolution regional climate model simulations. We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to simulate the periods 1990-2000, 2025-2035, and 2070-2080 on a 4km grid. These simulations show that the broad patterns of change depicted in CESM are inherited by the high-resolution simulations; however, the differences in the height and location of the mountains in the WRF simulation, relative to the CESM simulation, means that the location and magnitude of the precipitation changes are very different. We further show that high-resolution simulations with the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) predict a similar spatial pattern in the change signal as WRF for these ensemble members. We then use ICAR to examine the rest of the CESM Large Ensemble as well as the uncertainty in the regional climate model due to the choice of physics parameterizations.

  3. A novel candidate region for genetic adaptation to high altitude in Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available Humans living at high altitude (≥ 2,500 meters above sea level have acquired unique abilities to survive the associated extreme environmental conditions, including hypoxia, cold temperature, limited food availability and high levels of free radicals and oxidants. Long-term inhabitants of the most elevated regions of the world have undergone extensive physiological and/or genetic changes, particularly in the regulation of respiration and circulation, when compared to lowland populations. Genome scans have identified candidate genes involved in altitude adaption in the Tibetan Plateau and the Ethiopian highlands, in contrast to populations from the Andes, which have not been as intensively investigated. In the present study, we focused on three indigenous populations from Bolivia: two groups of Andean natives, Aymara and Quechua, and the low-altitude control group of Guarani from the Gran Chaco lowlands. Using pooled samples, we identified a number of SNPs exhibiting large allele frequency differences over 900,000 genotyped SNPs. A region in chromosome 10 (within the cytogenetic bands q22.3 and q23.1 was significantly differentiated between highland and lowland groups. We resequenced ~1.5 Mb surrounding the candidate region and identified strong signals of positive selection in the highland populations. A composite of multiple signals like test localized the signal to FAM213A and a related enhancer; the product of this gene acts as an antioxidant to lower oxidative stress and may help to maintain bone mass. The results suggest that positive selection on the enhancer might increase the expression of this antioxidant, and thereby prevent oxidative damage. In addition, the most significant signal in a relative extended haplotype homozygosity analysis was localized to the SFTPD gene, which encodes a surfactant pulmonary-associated protein involved in normal respiration and innate host defense. Our study thus identifies two novel candidate genes and

  4. Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa is highly prevalent in the Jerusalem region with a high frequency of founder mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. Methods The patients’ clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. Results We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder

  5. Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa is highly prevalent in the Jerusalem region with a high frequency of founder mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Dror; Banin, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. The patients' clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder mutation. Previous studies

  6. High blood pressure and obesity in indigenous ashaninkas of Junin region, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Candice; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.; Zavaleta, Carol; Unidad Salud Indígena-Fundación Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.6 Departamento de Geografía, Universidad McGill. Montreal, Canadá. Médico cirujano.; Cabrera, Lilia; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. enfermera, especialista en Salud Pública.; Gilman, Robert H.; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, EE. UU. médico, especialista en enfermedades infecciosas.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas, with limited contact with Western culture, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 in five Ashaninka communities of the Junin region in the jungle of Peru. Individuals aged 35 or older were included. 76 subjects were evaluated (average age 47.4 years old, 52.6 % women) corresponding to 43.2% of the eligible population. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.5% (CI 95%: 6.4-22.6) and the prev...

  7. Graphical possibilities in determining the vertical deflections in high-mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Vladimír

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a possibility of determining the topographical deflections of the vertical in a high-mountain region by means of using a simple and rapid graphical method. During five minutes it is possible to determine the topographical deflections of the vertical with the accuracy of ±(1½ using the explicit mathematical equations and a simple topographical map. The mathematical correction for very asymmetrical peaks, by-valleys and irregular slopes are given. No astronomical and geodetic observations or digital height models are necessary.

  8. High accuracy 234U(n,f cross section in the resonance energy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal-Cidoncha E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings, based on previous n_TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n_TOF neutron flux.

  9. High accuracy 234U(n,f) cross section in the resonance energy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Leal, L. C.; Naour, C. Le; Noguere, G.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f) as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f) obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings), based on previous n_TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f) cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n_TOF neutron flux.

  10. What Drives the Intellectual Property Output of High-Tech Firms? Regional-versus Firm-Level Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Masiak (Christian); C.O. Fisch (Christian); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyzes the effects of regional- and firm-level factors on the intellectual property (IP) output (i.e., patents and trademarks) of high-tech firms. So far, little is known on how regional factors influence the IP output of high-tech firms. We combine data on 8,317 German

  11. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Roth, Y [Advanced Technology Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Zangen, A [Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: rnsalvador@fc.ul.pt

    2009-05-21

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/{radical}2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  12. Patagonian fjord ecosystems in southern Chile as a highly vulnerable region: problems and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Jose Luis; González, Humberto E; Nahuelhual, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Southern Chile encompasses one of the most extensive fjord regions of the world, the Patagonia, currently exposed to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These fjord ecosystems provide important services to humans, which have not been adequately measured and valued. As a consequence, ecosystem services are commonly ignored in public policy design and in the evaluation of development projects. Here we tackle questions that are highly relevant for the nation's development, namely (1) understanding fjord functioning, and (2) developing management strategies based on ecosystem services, in order to secure simultaneous and adequate use of these ecosystems which area influenced by ecological (e.g., biogeochemical) and productive (e.g., aquaculture, fisheries) processes. We also seek to strengthen the analysis of fjord ecosystem value from the economical (including coastal zoning), socio-cultural, institutional, and governmental points of view. In addition, the investigation of current and future effects of climate change on this large region offers a unique opportunity to understand the social and economic consequences of a global phenomenon at local to regional scales. Biogeochemical and socio-economic models will be used to simulate future scenarios under a gamut of management options.

  13. High-Resolution Mapping of Biomass Burning Emissions in Three Tropical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2015-09-15

    Biomass burning in tropical regions plays a significant role in atmospheric pollution and climate change. This study quantified a comprehensive monthly biomass burning emissions inventory with 1 km high spatial resolution, which included the burning of vegetation, human waste, and fuelwood for 2010 in three tropical regions. The estimations were based on the available burned area product MCD64A1 and statistical data. The total emissions of all gases and aerosols were 17382 Tg of CO2, 719 Tg of CO, 30 Tg of CH4, 29 Tg of NOx, 114 Tg of NMOC (nonmethane organic compounds), 7 Tg of SO2, 10 Tg of NH3, 79 Tg of PM2.5 (particulate matter), 45 Tg of OC (organic carbon), and 6 Tg of BC (black carbon). Taking CO as an example, vegetation burning accounted for 74% (530 Tg) of the total CO emissions, followed by fuelwood combustion and human waste burning. Africa was the biggest emitter (440 Tg), larger than Central and South America (113 Tg) and South and Southeast Asia (166 Tg). We also noticed that the dominant fire types in vegetation burning of these three regions were woody savanna/shrubland, savanna/grassland, and forest, respectively. Although there were some slight overestimations, our results are supported by comparisons with previously published data.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Pasyanos, M; Skobeltsyn, G; Teoman, U; Godoladze, T; Sandvol, E

    2008-07-01

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been determined for all stations. Depth to Moho is estimated using slant stacking of the receiver functions, forward modeling, and inversion. Moho depths along the Caspian and in the Kura Depression are in general poorly constrained using only receiver functions due to thick sedimentary basin sediments. The best fitting models suggest a low velocity upper crust with Moho depths ranging from 30 to 40 km. Crustal thicknesses increase in the Greater Caucasus with Moho depths of 40 to 50 km. Pronounced variations with azimuth of source are observed indicating 3D structural complexity and upper crustal velocities are higher than in the Kura Depression to the south. In the Lesser Caucasus, south and west of the Kura Depression, the crust is thicker (40 to 50 km) and upper crustal velocities are higher. Work is underway to refine these models with the event based surface wave dispersion and ambient noise correlation measurements from continuous data. Regional phase (Lg and Pg) attenuation models as well as blockage maps for Pn and Sn are being developed. Two methods are used to estimate Q: the two-station method to estimate inter-station Q and the reversed, two-station, two event method. The results are then inverted to create Lg and Pg Q maps. Initial results suggest substantial variations in both Pg and Lg Q in the region. A zone of higher Pg Q extends west from the Caspian between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus and a narrow area of higher Lg Q is observed.

  15. Very-high energy observations of the galactic center region by VERITAS in 2010-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Chen, W. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J., E-mail: beilicke@physics.wustl.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    The Galactic center is an interesting region for high-energy (0.1-100 GeV) and very-high-energy (E > 100 GeV) γ-ray observations. Potential sources of GeV/TeV γ-ray emission have been suggested, e.g., the accretion of matter onto the supermassive black hole, cosmic rays from a nearby supernova remnant (e.g., Sgr A East), particle acceleration in a plerion, or the annihilation of dark matter particles. The Galactic center has been detected by EGRET and by Fermi/LAT in the MeV/GeV energy band. At TeV energies, the Galactic center was detected with moderate significance by the CANGAROO and Whipple 10 m telescopes and with high significance by H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS. We present the results from three years of VERITAS observations conducted at large zenith angles resulting in a detection of the Galactic center on the level of 18 standard deviations at energies above ∼2.5 TeV. The energy spectrum is derived and is found to be compatible with hadronic, leptonic, and hybrid emission models discussed in the literature. Future, more detailed measurements of the high-energy cutoff and better constraints on the high-energy flux variability will help to refine and/or disentangle the individual models.

  16. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring-ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Thompson, L.; Holzer, B.; Fitterer, M.; Bernard, N.; Kostka, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron-proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ˜1033 cm-2s-1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring-ring LHeC.

  17. High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Balatay, Amer A; Assafi, Mahde S; AlMufty, Tamara Abdulezel

    2016-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.

  18. Simulation of High Impact Rainfall Events Over Southeastern Hilly Region of Bangladesh Using MM5 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ahasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of high impact rainfall events over southeastern hilly region of Bangladesh has been carried out using Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 conducting two historical rainfall events, namely, 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004. These extraordinary rainfall events were localized over the Rangamati region and recorded 304 mm and 337 mm rainfall on 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004, respectively, over Rangamati within a span of 24 h. The model performance was evaluated by examining the different predicted and derived parameters. It is found that the seasonal monsoon trough has northerly position compared to normal and pass through Bangladesh extending up to northeast India for both cases. The heat low was found to be intense (996 hPa with strong north-south pressure gradient (12–15 hPa. The analysis of the geopotential height field at 200 hPa shows that the Tibetan high is shifted towards south by 7-8° latitudes with axis along 22–25°N for both cases. The analysis of the wind field shows that the areas of high impact rainfall exhibit strong convergence of low level monsoon circulation (~19–58 knots. The strong southwesterlies were found to exist up to 500 hPa level in both cases. The lower troposphere (925–500 hPa was characterized by the strong vertical wind shear (~9–18 ms−1 and high relative vorticity (~20–40 × 10−5 s−1. The analysis also shows that the areas of high impact rainfall events and neighbourhoods are characterized by strong low level convergence and upper level divergence. The strong southwesterly flow causes transportation of large amount of moisture from the Bay of Bengal towards Bangladesh, especially over the areas of Rangamati and neighbourhoods. The high percentage of relative humidity extends up to the upper troposphere along a narrow vertical column. Model produced details structure of the spatial patterns of rainfall over Bangladesh reasonably well though there are some

  19. Observations of Cyanopolyynes toward Four High-mass Star-forming Regions Containing Hot Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Hirota, Tomoya; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Dobashi, Kazuhito

    2017-07-01

    We carried out line survey observations at the 26-30 GHz band toward the four high-mass star-forming regions containing hot cores, G10.30-0.15, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We have detected HC5N from all of the sources, and HC7N from the three sources, except for G10.30-0.15. We further conducted observations of HC5N at the 42-46 GHz and 82-103 GHz bands toward the three sources, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The rotational lines of HC5N with the high-excitation energies ({E}{{u}}/k˜ 63{--}100 K), which are hardly excited in the cold dark clouds, have been detected from the three sources. The rotational temperatures of HC5N are found to be ˜13-20 K in the three sources. The detection of the lines with the high-excitation energies and the derived rotational temperatures indicate that HC5N exists in the warm gas within 0.07-0.1 pc radii around massive young stellar objects. The column densities of HC5N in the three sources are derived to be (˜2.0-2.8) × {10}13 cm-2. We compare the ratios between N(HC5N) the column density of HC5N and W(CH3OH) the integrated intensity of the thermal CH3OH emission line among the three high-mass star-forming regions. We found a possibility of the chemical differentiation in the three high-mass star-forming regions; G28.28-0.36 shows the largest N(HC5N)/W(CH3OH) ratio of > 8.0× {10}14 in units of (K km s-1)-1 cm-2, while G12.89+0.49 and G16.86-2.16 show the smaller values (˜ 2× {10}13).

  20. Primary drug resistance in a region with high burden of tuberculosis. A critical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Villa-Rosas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine rates of drug resistance in new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a region with a high burden of the disease. Materials and methods. New case suspects were referred for drug susceptibility testing. Results. 28.9% of new cases were resistant to at least one first line drug; 3.9% had a multidrug-resistant strain, 15.6% a monoresistant strain and 9.4% a polyresistant strain. Conclusion. Our rate of drug resistant tuberculosis in new cases is very high; this has important clinical implications, since even monoresistance can have a negative impact on the outcome of new cases treated empirically with a six month regimen.

  1. A high-resolution 1961-1990 monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebl, Johann; Auer, Ingeborg; Boehm, Reinhard; Schoener, Wolfgang [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna (Austria); Maugeri, Maurizio; Lentini, Gianluca; Spinoni, Jonathan [Univ. of Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Brunetti, Michele; Nanni, Teresa [Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council (ISAC-CNR), Bologna (Italy); Tadic, Melita Percec [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ), Zagreb (Croatia); Bihari, Zita [Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ), Budapest (Hungary); Dolinar, Mojca [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mueller-Westermeier, Gerhard [German Meteorological Service (DWD), Offenbach (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The main object of the presented study was the creation of a high-resolution monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region (GAR). This climatology, which is determined from observational averages for the period 1961-1990, necessitated a multinational, high-quality temperature dataset, in which especially inhomogeneities due to different methods of means estimation had to be regarded. Based on multilinear regression techniques and regionalisation, significant model improvements could be reached by adjusting for mesoscale effects in cold air pools, coastal and lakeshore belts, urban areas and slopes. The final 1 x 1 km grids allowing temperature description of the orographically complex Alpine terrain with an accuracy of 1 C have been made available for further applications at the web pages of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. (orig.)

  2. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  3. Impact of the assimilation of high-frequency altimetry data in a regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkiran, M.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/36° ( 3km) resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. The model was forced by ERA-interim products (every 3 hours) including the atmospheric pressure. In addition to atmospheric forcing, the model includes astronomical tidal forcing. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean regional system (with data assimilation, 1/12° resolution, PSY2).The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. A 3D-Var scheme corrects for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-04 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. The background SLA field accounts for the high frequency signal determined by the model and the forcing by atmospheric pressure. In this study we show the impact of the assimilation of altimetry data unfiltered and uncorrected fast atmospheric frequencies. Altimetry data assimilated contain the effect of atmospheric pressure and wind unlike conventional data used in operational systems.

  4. Meningococcal serogroup Y disease in Europe: Continuation of high importance in some European regions in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael; Emonet, Stéphane; Fazio, Cecilia; Jacobsson, Susanne; Koliou, Maria; Kuusi, Markku; Pace, David; Paragi, Metka; Pysik, Alexander; Simões, Maria João; Skoczynska, Anna; Stefanelli, Paola; Toropainen, Maija; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is divided into 12 distinct serogroups of which A, B, C, W, X, and Y are medically most important and cause health problems in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Globally, serogoup A has been prevalent in the African “meningitis belt” whereas serogroup B and C have predominated in Europe. In a paper published earlier in this journal1, an increase in serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in some European countries was reported based on the epidemiological data for 2010, 2011 and 2012. Here, we report additional data from 30 European countries indicating that high or increased serogroup Y disease levels have continued in 2013 in certain regions of Europe. In the Western and Central Europe, there were no major changes in the proportion of serogroup Y IMD cases in 2013 compared to 2012. In the Scandinavian countries, proportion of serogroup Y disease remained high, ranging from 26% to 51% in 2013. This was in contrast to Baltic, Eastern and most Southern European countries, where the proportion of serogroup Y IMD was low similarly to previous years. For the last 2 decades, the mean age of patients affected by serogroup Y was 41 y for 7 countries from which data was available and 50% of cases were in patients aged 45 to 88 y. The age distribution of serogroup Y was bimodal and did not change significantly despite the increase of the total number and the proportion of serogroup Y IMD in some European regions. PMID:26036710

  5. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  6. High Genetic Diversity of Measles Virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin E.; Jin, Li; Santibanez, Sabine; Shulga, Sergey V.; Aboudy, Yair; Demchyshyna, Irina V.; Djemileva, Sultana; Echevarria, Juan E.; Featherstone, David F.; Hukic, Mirsada; Johansen, Kari; Litwinska, Bogumila; Lopareva, Elena; Lupulescu, Emilia; Mentis, Andreas; Mihneva, Zefira; Mosquera, Maria M.; Muscat, Mark; Naumova, M.A.; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Nekrasova, Ljubov S.; Magurano, Fabio; Fortuna, Claudia; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena; Richard, Jean-Luc; Robo, Alma; Rota, Paul A.; Samoilovich, Elena O.; Sarv, Inna; Semeiko, Galina V.; Shugayev, Nazim; Utegenova, Elmira S.; van Binnendijk, Rob; Vinner, Lasse; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Wild, T. Fabian; Brown, David W.G.; Mankertz, Annette; Muller, Claude P.; Mulders, Mick N.

    2008-01-01

    During 2005–2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities. PMID:18258089

  7. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru; Birovljev, A. [Radonlab Ltd., Akersveien 24C, 0177 Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita - Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Technology and Health, Rome (Italy); Quarto, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita - Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Technology and Health, Rome (Italy); Obryk, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Paszkowski, M. [Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Senacka 1, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Celikovic, I. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ujic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budzanowski, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); McLaughlin, J.P. [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Waligorski, M.P.R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Centre of Oncology, Cracow (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m{sup 3} and at about 650 Bq/m{sup 3} in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m{sup 3}. The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m{sup 3}, with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m{sup 3}. The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics.

  8. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  9. MODIS AOD retrieval at high horizontal resolution with MAIAC on the Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Popp, C.; Korkin, S.; Zebisch, M.; Wunderle, S.; Petitta, M.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite data allow to determine the spatial distribution and variability of aerosols at a large scale. The standard products are developed for global applications and have a coarse resolution, for example 10 km for MODIS standard product (MOD04) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). On the other hand, the concentration of aerosols in in mountain regions like the Alps, is very heterogeneous and characterized by scales of variability of several kilometers. Therefore, satellite high resolution products are needed to provide an accurate aerosol mapping in mountain areas. Several approaches to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS at high resolution have been proposed in the recent years. They provide new opportunities for regional scale analysis, but application of these algorithms remains confined to few studies. Recently, the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS, which performs a simultaneous retrieval of surface bidirectional reflection and aerosol properties at a resolution of 1km. This algorithm has a global scope and works over both dark and bright surfaces; it has an internal cloud mask and snow detection, and provides an enhanced data coverage with respect to the MODIS standard product, which is very appealing for the Alpine region. In this study we analyze the quality and potential of MAIAC AOD in the European Alpine region using the 1km resolution AOD maps for the years 2008-2009. Since unresolved clouds and snow pixel contamination increase the noise of the AOD retrieval, we developed a filter that preserves the spatial resolution of the product and enhances the accuracy of MAIAC AOD for air-quality and climatological applications. The filtering approach is divided in three steps: a coarse and fine mode fraction filter, a proximity-cloud filter and an AOD standard deviation filter. The MAIAC AOD was validated with AERONET measurements in the region and compared with MODIS product MOD04. Similar

  10. MODIS AOD retrieval at high spatial resolution with MAIAC on the Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Korkin, S.; Popp, C. T.; Petitta, M.; Wunderle, S.; Zebisch, M.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite data allow to determine the spatial distribution and variability of aerosols at a large scale. The standard products are developed for global applications and have a coarse resolution, for example 10 km for MODIS standard product (MOD04) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). On the other hand, the concentration of aerosols in in mountain regions like the Alps, is very heterogeneous and characterized by scales of variability of several kilometers. Therefore, satellite high resolution products are needed to provide an accurate aerosol mapping in mountain areas. Several approaches to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS at high resolution have been proposed in the recent years. They provide new opportunities for regional scale analysis, but application of these algorithms remains confined to few studies. Recently, the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS, which performs a simultaneous retrieval of surface bidirectional reflection and aerosol properties at a resolution of 1km. This algorithm has a global scope and works over both dark and bright surfaces; it has an internal cloud mask and snow detection, and provides an enhanced data coverage with respect to the MODIS standard product, which is very appealing for the Alpine region. In this study we analyze the quality and potential of MAIAC AOD in the European Alpine region using the 1 km resolution AOD maps for the years 2008-2009. Since unresolved clouds and snow pixel contamination increase the noise of the AOD retrieval, we developed a filter that preserves the spatial resolution of the product and enhances the accuracy of MAIAC AOD for air-quality and climatological applications. The filtering approach is divided in three steps: a coarse and fine mode fraction filter, a proximity-cloud filter and an AOD standard deviation filter. The MAIAC AOD was validated with AERONET measurements in the region and compared with MODIS product MOD04. Similar

  11. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  12. Transcribed-ultra conserved region expression is associated with outcome in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garaventa Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma is the most common, pediatric, extra-cranial, malignant solid tumor. Despite multimodal therapeutic protocols, outcome for children with a high-risk clinical phenotype remains poor, with long-term survival still less than 40%. Hereby, we evaluated the potential of non-coding RNA expression to predict outcome in high-risk, stage 4 neuroblastoma. Methods We analyzed expression of 481 Ultra Conserved Regions (UCRs by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR and of 723 microRNAs by microarrays in 34 high-risk, stage 4 neuroblastoma patients. Results First, the comparison of 8 short- versus 12 long-term survivors showed that 54 UCRs were significantly (P P P P Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that a deregulation of the microRNA/T-UCR network may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. After further validation on a larger independent set of samples, such findings may be applied as the first T-UCR prognostic signature for high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

  13. Production of high-resolution digital terrain models in mountain regions to support risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Forlani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-accuracy digital terrain models (DTMs in the Alpine region has been steadily increasing in recent years in valleys as well as high mountains. In the former, the determination of the geo-mechanical parameters of rock masses is the main objective; global warming, which causes the retreat of glaciers and the reduction of permafrost, is the main drive of the latter. The consequence is the instability of rock masses in high mountains: new cost-effective monitoring techniques are required to deal with the peculiar characteristics of such environment, delivering results at short notice. After discussing the design and execution of photogrammetric surveys in such areas, with particular reference to block orientation and block control, the paper describes the production of DTMs of rock faces and glacier fronts with light instrumentation and data acquisition techniques, allowing highly automated data processing. To this aim, the PhotoGPS technique and structure from motion algorithms are used to speed up the orientation process, while dense matching area-based correlation techniques are used to generate the DTMs.

  14. Surface Hail Simulations in a High-Resolution Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Birriel, Cecille; Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Lukach, Maryna; Marbaix, Philippe; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2015-04-01

    The past years have seen a rapid advancement in computational resources, enabling regional climate models to perform at convection-permitting resolutions. This feature has allowed the use of complex bulk microphysical parameterizations as a means to improve cloud and precipitation representations within these models. Given the increased trend in the last decades of extreme precipitation events in numerous regions around the world, developments and evaluation of microphysical parameterizations implemented in regional climate models are crucial in order to better assess future precipitation projections. One important aspect for accurate deep convective storm simulations is in the hail parameterization within models, which can substantially impact precipitation and dynamical features within the cloud along with subsequent cold pool-driven secondary convection. Great economic costs and hazardous implications have been associated with hailstorms, which makes it of the utmost importance to properly simulate hailstone sizes at the surface. And yet many models have so far struggled to reproduce characteristic observational features of hail producing storms linked to weaknesses within microphysical parameterizations. As part of the aims for the Modeling Atmospheric Composition and Climate for the Belgian Territory (MACCBET) project1, we used the COSMO-CLM model, a nonhydrostatic regional climate model, driven by ERA-Interim data to simulate, at high resolution (3km), a selected number of intense convective cases in the 2000-2014 period with more than half having surface hail reports. A modified version of the 2-moment Seifert and Beheng (2006; Van Weverberg et al. 2014) microphysical scheme, with an added hail category, was used for this study. Preliminary results showed that the 2-moment scheme produced significant simulated hail as opposed to negligible amounts present in the model runs with a 1-moment version of the same parameterization. Additionally, the 2-moment

  15. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  16. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  17. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  18. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Rueda, Viviana Andrea

    2017-04-01

    I present a high sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array towards a sample of 58 high-mass star forming regions. The sample was chosen from clumps within infrared dark clouds, also known as cold molecular clumps (CMCs) with and without IR sources (CMC-IRs, CMCs, respectively) and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the remarkable improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the VLA, this survey achieved map rms levels of 3-10 ?Jy/beam at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. From this dataset I extracted 70 centimeter continuum sources that are associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and are prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the mm dust clumps for CMCs, CMC-IRs and HMCs are 6%, 53% and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. I calculated 5-25 GHz spectral indices using power law fits and obtain a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), which is consistent with thermal emission from ionized jets. Moreover, these detected ionized jets towards high-mass stars are well correlated with jets formed towards lower masses, providing further evidence that ionized jets from any luminosity have a common origin. Ultimately, this set of detections will likely provide good candidates to enable new tests of high-mass star formation theories, in particular testing predictions of core accretion and competitive accretion models.

  19. Gas kinematics in high-mass star-forming regions from the Perseus spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanova, M. S.; Sobolev, A. M.; Thomasson, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of a survey of 14 star-forming regions from the Perseus spiral armin CS (2-1) and 13CO (1-0) lines with the Onsala Space Observatory 20 m telescope. Maps of 10 sources in both lines are obtained. For the remaining sources a map in just one line or a single-point spectrum is obtained. On the basis of newly obtained and published observational data we consider the relation between velocities of the "quasi-thermal" CS (2-1) line and 6.7 GHz methanol maser line in 24 high-mass star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We show that, surprisingly, velocity ranges of 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission are predominantly red-shifted with respect to corresponding CS (2-1) line velocity ranges in the Perseus arm. We suggest that the predominance of the "red-shifted masers" in the Perseus arm could be related to the alignment of gas flows caused by the large-scalemotions in the Galaxy. Large-scale galactic shock related to the spiral structure is supposed to affect the local kinematics of the star-forming regions. Part of the Perseus arm, between galactic longitudes from 85° to 124° , does not contain blue-shifted masers at all. Radial velocities of the sources are the greatest in this particular part of the arm, so the velocity difference is clearly pronounced. 13CO (1-0) and CS (2-1) velocity maps of G183.35-0.58 show gas velocity difference between the center and the periphery of the molecular clump up to 1.2 km s-1. Similar situation is likely to occur in G85.40-0.00. This can correspond to the case when the large-scale shock wave entrains the outer parts of a molecular clump in motion while the dense central clump is less affected by the shock.

  20. Water abundance variations around high-mass protostars: HIFI observations of the DR21 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Marseille, M. G.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Doty, S.; Frieswijk, W.; Melnick, G.; Shipman, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G.; Jørgensen, J.; Kristensen, L.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; McCoey, C.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago, J.; Saraceno, P.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S.; Yıldız, U.; Ravera, L.; Roelfsema, P.; Siebertz, O.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in the star formation process, but its spatial distribution in star-forming regions is not well known. Aims: We study the distribution of dust continuum and H2O and 13CO line emission in DR21, a luminous star-forming region with a powerful outflow and a compact H ii region. Methods: Herschel-HIFI spectra near 1100 GHz show narrow 13CO 10-9 emission and H2O 111-000 absorption from the dense core and broad emission from the outflow in both lines. The H2O line also shows absorption by a foreground cloud known from ground-based observations of low-J CO lines. Results: The dust continuum emission is extended over 36” FWHM, while the 13CO and H2O lines are confined to ≈24” or less. The foreground absorption appears to peak further North than the other components. Radiative transfer models indicate very low abundances of ~2×10-10 for H2O and ~8×10-7 for 13CO in the dense core, and higher H2O abundances of ~4×10-9 in the foreground cloud and ~7×10-7 in the outflow. Conclusions: The high H2O abundance in the warm outflow is probably due to the evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles, while the H2O abundance is kept down by freeze-out in the dense core and by photodissociation in the foreground cloud. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. Long-term observations of D-region electron densities at high and middle northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Werner; Keuer, Dieter; Friedrich, Martin; Strelnikova, Irina; Latteck, Ralph

    D-region electron densities are estimated using Doppler radars at frequencies around 3 MHz in Andenes, Norway (69.3°N, 16.0°E) since summer 2003 and in Juliusruh, Germany (54.6°N, 13.4°E) since summer 2006. Both experiments utilize partial reflections of ordinary and extraordinary component waves from scatterers in the altitude range 50-90 km to estimate electron number densities from differential absorption (DAE) and differential phase (DPE) measurements. Height profiles of electron density are obtained between about 55 km and 90 km with sampling times of 2-3 minutes and height resolution of 1.5 km at Andenes and 3 km at Juliusruh. The electron density profiles independently derived from DAE and DPE measurements agree remarkably well. The radar results are compared with co-located simultaneously measured electron densities by rocket-borne radio wave propagation experiments (differential absorption, Faraday rotation, and impedance probe) in Andenes with good agreement between insitu and ground-based measurements. The diurnal and seasonal variability of electron densities as observed at high and mid-latitudes under quiet ionospheric conditions is presented and compared to the corresponding electron density profiles of the International Reference Ionosphere. The response of D-region ionization to regular solar activity variation as well as to solar activity storms and geomagnetic disturbances has been studied at polar latitudes. Characteristic electron density variations are found during downwelling events of nitric oxide due to strong vertical coupling during stratospheric warming events. In addition, we discuss the inter-relation between D-region electron densities from radar observations, riometer absorption, and the empirical model IMAZ at different levels of solar activity and during particle precipitation events.

  2. The status of lead and cadmium in soils of high prevalenct gastrointestinal cancer region of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohajer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium and lead compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Twenty five percent of all cancer-related deaths are attributed to gastrointestinal cancers (GI Ca. We investigated the levels of 2 different heavy metals (Cd and Pb in the soils of the Lenjanat region, Isfahan province, Central Iran where intensive agriculture is surrounded by different industries like steel and cement-making factories and mining and gastrointestinal cancers are very common in this province. Materials and methods: Two hundred topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth were collected from agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the region and were analyzed for heavy metals. The metal contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The findings of this study showed that frequency of gastrointestinal cancers in the study area have been increased in the recent years. Results of soil samples in this region showed that the mean concentration of Pb and Cd were more than 16 and 1 mg kg−1 , respectively. The total Cd concentration in most of the samples exceeded the suggested Swiss thresholds (0.8 mg kg−1 but the mean value of Pb concentration in soil was less than the threshold of 50 mg kg−1 set by Swiss Federal Office of Environmental, Forest and Landscape. Compared to the threshold values for heavy metals (Cd and Pb in soils, data showed that the studied fields were contaminated especially by Cd. Conclusion: High heavy metals content in the soils seems to play an important etiological role in the carcinogenesis. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in soil contamination, but also lead to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, and thus affect food quality and safety. Thus, analyzing heavy metals content in crops, water and dust could provide us a better insight to solve the problem.

  3. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) over the Mediterranean region based on high resolution gridded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychroni, Iliana; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean water resource system is heavily influenced by changes in climate conditions, which in turns affect significantly the socioeconomic development, specifically over coastal areas. Taking into consideration that the surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and the mean precipitation is likely to decrease in mid-latitude dry regions, according to IPCC 2014, we confronted the challenge to study the drought over the Mediterranean region by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), defined as the difference from the mean for a specified time period divided by the standard deviation, where the mean and standard deviation are determined from past records. Drought is a long-range phenomenon that affects the Mediterranean. The drought not only affects food production but also has severe environmental, economic and social impacts. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of the SPI for 3-, 6-, 9-, 12- month timescales, during the period 1950-2015. For this purpose, we processed high resolution gridded daily precipitation datasets (0.25° x 0.25°), based on the E-OBS dataset from ECA&D. Mean SPI patterns and trends for the whole examined period, as well as successive 30-year periods, were assessed by using R-project. Moreover, the influence of the well-known atmospheric circulation index of the wider region of Europe, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI), on the SPI over the Mediterranean was considered necessary to evaluate, because NAOI strongly modulates precipitation over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  4. Forest decline caused by high soil water conditions in a permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iwasaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the permafrost region near Yakutsk, eastern Siberia, Russia, annual precipitation (June–May in 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 exceeded the 26-year (1982–2008 mean of 222±68 mm by 185 mm and 128 mm, respectively, whereas in 2007–2008 the excedent was only 48 mm, well within the range of variability. Yellowing and browning of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. trees occurred in an undisturbed forest near Yakutsk in the 2007 summer growing season. Soil water content at a depth of 0.20 m was measured along a roughly 400 m long line transect running through areas of yellowing and browning larch trees (YBL and of normal larch trees (NL. In the two years of supranormal precipitation, soil water content was very high compared to values recorded for the same area in previous studies. For both wet years, the mean degree of saturation (s was significantly greater in YBL than NL areas, whereas the converse was the case for the gas diffusivity in soil. This implies that rather than mitigating water stress suffered during normal precipitation years, elevated soil water conditions adversely affected the growth of larch trees. Eastern Siberia's taiga forest extends widely into the permafrost region. Was such supranormal annual precipitation to extend for more than two years, as might be expected under impending global climate changes, forest recovery may not be expected and emission of greenhouse gas might continue in future.

  5. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  6. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  7. High rates of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst school children in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy in children is correlated with community-level factors, including the recent presence of disease and active foci of transmission in the community. We performed clinical and serological examinations of 1,592 randomly selected school children (SC in a cross-sectional study of eight hyperendemic municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Sixty-three (4% SC, with a mean age of 13.3 years (standard deviation = 2.6, were diagnosed with leprosy and 777 (48.8% were seropositive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I. Additionally, we evaluated 256 house-hold contacts (HHCs of the students diagnosed with leprosy; 24 (9.4% HHC were also diagnosed with leprosy and 107 (41.8% were seropositive. The seroprevalence of anti-PGL-I was significantly higher amongst girls, students from urban areas and students from public schools (p < 0.0001. Forty-five (71.4% new cases detected amongst SC were classified as paucibacillary and 59 (93.6% patients did not demonstrate any degree of physical disability at diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that there is a high rate of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst children in the Amazon Region. The advantages of school surveys in hyperendemic areas include identifying leprosy patients at an early stage when they show no physical disabilities, preventing the spread of the infection in the community and breaking the chain of transmission.

  8. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain regions with transient snow cover. One such region is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a regional climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the regional climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The regional effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a regional model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the region through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the impact of the SAF on the regional energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters region of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this region is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing

  9. Automated Segmentation of High-Resolution Photospheric Images of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Tian, Yu; Rao, Changhui

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of ground-based, large-aperture solar telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) resulting in increasing resolving ability, more accurate sunspot identifications and characterizations are required. In this article, we have developed a set of automated segmentation methods for high-resolution solar photospheric images. Firstly, a local-intensity-clustering level-set method is applied to roughly separate solar granulation and sunspots. Then reinitialization-free level-set evolution is adopted to adjust the boundaries of the photospheric patch; an adaptive intensity threshold is used to discriminate between umbra and penumbra; light bridges are selected according to their regional properties from candidates produced by morphological operations. The proposed method is applied to the solar high-resolution TiO 705.7-nm images taken by the 151-element AO system and Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics prototype system at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Yunnan Observatory. Experimental results show that the method achieves satisfactory robustness and efficiency with low computational cost on high-resolution images. The method could also be applied to full-disk images, and the calculated sunspot areas correlate well with the data given by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  10. Typical disturbances of the daytime equatorial F region observed with a high-resolution HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blanc

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available HF radar measurements were performed near the magnetic equator in Africa (Korhogo 9°24'63''N–5°37'38''W during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (1993–1994. The HF radar is a high-resolution zenithal radar. It gives ionograms, Doppler spectra and echo parameters at several frequencies simultaneously. This paper presents a comparative study of the daytime ionospheric structures observed during 3 days selected as representative of different magnetic conditions, given by magnetometer measurements. Broad Doppler spectra, large echo width, and amplitude fluctuations revealed small-scale instability processes up to the F-region peak. The height variations measured at different altitudes showed gravity waves and larger-scale disturbances related to solar daytime influence and equatorial electric fields. The possibility of retrieving the ionospheric electric fields from these Doppler or height variation measurements in the presence of the other possible equatorial ionospheric disturbances is discussed.

  11. Resolved complex coastlines and land-sea contrasts in a high-resolution regional climate model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Tian; Boberg, Fredrik; Christensen, Ole BøSsing

    2013-01-01

    system, and (2) examine different ocean responses in coarse and fine grids to atmospheric forcing. The experiments were performed covering the years 1990-2010, both using ERAI lateral boundary conditions. ERAI SSTs generally agree well with satellite SSTs in summer with differences within 1o......C, but the ERAI overestimates the ice extent by 72% in winter due to the coarse resolution in the Baltic Sea. The atmosphere in the Baltic land-sea transition was more sensitive to high-resolution modelled SSTs with a significant improvement in winter, but it also provided a cold bias in summer as a combination...... of errors from both atmospheric and ocean models. Overall, the coupled simulation without observational constraints showed only minor deviations in the air-sea interface in the Baltic coastal region compared to the prescribed simulation, with seasonal mean differences within 2oCin2m air temperatures and 1o...

  12. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Espinoza, Emma Marianela; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; García-Gil, María del Mar; Vargas-Morales, Guadalupe; Méndez-Sánchez, José Domingo; Pérez-Ramírez, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (indigenous language were significantly associated with the presence of E histolytical E dispar and Giardia lamblia. Source of water and lacking a refrigerator and electricity were associated with the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides. Measures should be taken to improve water quality, sewage disposal, and domestic hygiene. Furthermore, health programs should be established to promote breast-feeding, and education policies aimed at reinforcing the use of indigenous languages by physicians in the health services.

  13. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  14. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  15. Improvement of the sensitivity of CdTe detectors in the high energy regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kazunori; Takashima, Kazuo; Usami, Teruo [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    1996-07-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the full energy peak in the high energy regions, we had previously suggested a multi-layered structure of CdTe elements and have since confirmed the sensitivity improvement of the full energy peak. And furthermore, we have suggested a new type structure of multi-layered elements in this paper and we confirmed that the efficiency of the full energy peak became higher and that more proper energy spectra were obtained by our current experiment than by the detector with the conventional structure. This paper describes a simulation and experiment to improve the efficiency of the full energy peak and to obtain the more proper energy spectra of {sup 137}Cs (662keV) and {sup 60}Co (1.17 and 1.33MeV) using the new structure of CdTe detector. (J.P.N.)

  16. Establishment of extracorporeal circulation of artificial liver support system in high altitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-sen ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish extracorporeal circulation in big animal suitable for the research on artificial liver support system in high altitude region.Methods Under the anesthesia of ketamine hydrochloride/diazepam IV,cannulation of common carotid artery/external jugular vein(n=3 and inferior vena cava via the left external jugular vein/right external jugular vein(n=3,was respectively performed on six healthy Chang-Bai piglets adapted to native environment(altitude 3700m.One day after that,the extracorporeal circulation was performed at a progressively elevated blood current velocity,and the general condition of the animals,blood pressure,HR,bleeding tendoncy of the experimental pigs and coagulation in the cannulae were observed.Results On the premise that the hemodynamics was not influenced,the highest blood current velocity was 133.33±28.87ml/min,the lowest heparin maintaining speed amounted to 138.67±12.22mg/h,and the bleeding tendency and blood coagulation in the cannula was significant in the group of common carotid artery/external jugular vein intubation.While the highest blood current velocity was 400ml/min,the lowest heparin maintaining speed was 26.67±9.24mg/h,no bleeding tendency or obvious cannular blood coagulation were observed in the group of cannulation of inferior vena cava via the left external jugular vein/right external jugular vein.These untoward results were significantly less or slight than that of the former group(P < 0.01.Conclusion It is suitable to perform research of artificial liver support system on piglets in high altitude region by establishing extracorporeal circulation by the way of inferior vena cava with cannulation passing through the left external jugular vein/right external jugular vein with the blood current velocity of 400ml/min.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and its determinants in selected regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. However, it depends upon adherence to medication. The objective of this study was to examine the adherence to HAART and to evaluate individual patient characteristics i.e. self-efficacy, depression level, and social support and to finally determine HAART adherence in selected regions in Indonesia.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jakarta, Malang, Bandung, Makasar and Banda Aceh. The subject of the study was HIV-infected patients who were older than 13 years old and had taken HAART for at least a month. They were recruited consecutively then asked how many pills they had missed during the previous month. Poor adherence can be stated if the percentage of adherence rate is below 95%. HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale  (HIVASES, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL was adapted to assess self-efficacy, depression level and social support, respectively.Results: We found that 96% (n=53 of the subjects adhered to HAART. There were no associations between adherence with self-efficacy, depression level, and social support. The main cause of non-adherence in this study was ‘simply  forget’.Conclusion: Adherence to HAART was found to be high and not associated with self-efficacy, depression level and social support in some central regions in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:50-5Keywords: adherence, depression, HAART, HIV, self-efficacy, social support

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. PMID:28100790

  20. Geomorphology and spectrophotometric properties of the highly active Anhur-Bes regions on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Lee, J.-C.; Ferrari, S.; Massironi, M.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Mottola, S.; Barucci, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the spectrophotometric and geomorphological analysis of the Anhur and Bes regions located in the Southern hemisphere of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus. These regions are more fragmented than other areas on the nucleus and show local compositional heterogeneities with fresh exposure of several ice-rich patches. They are also highly active regions and sources of several jets, including the strongest outburst observed by Rosetta, which took place at the comet's perihelion passage

  1. Sca-1 expression identifies stem cells in the proximal region of prostatic ducts with high capacity to reconstitute prostatic tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia E Burger; Xiong, Xiaozhong; Coetzee, Sandra; Salm, Sarah N.; Moscatelli, David; Goto, Ken; Wilson, E. Lynette

    2005-01-01

    We previously showed that prostatic stem cells are concentrated in the proximal regions of prostatic ducts. We now report that these stem cells can be purified from isolated proximal duct regions by virtue of their high expression of the cell surface protein stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1). In an in vivo prostate reconstitution assay, the purified Sca-1-expressing cell population isolated from the proximal region of ducts was more effective in generating prostatic tissue than a comparable populat...

  2. Analysis of sultriness-triggering parameters using high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Benedict; Schipper, Janus Willem

    2017-04-01

    Under changing environmental conditions - which are a consequence of global climate change - living comfort should be maintained. A change of the temperature and humidity is expected, which affects the living comfort of people and is analyzed here. The study is performed in the framework of a project funded by the Baden-Württemberg foundation and couples the outdoor and the indoor climate as well as the thermal-hygric behavior of walls by thermal-energetic building simulations driven with regional climate model data. The intention is to avoid, too wet and sultry indoor climate by passive plaster systems. High resolution regional climate simulations are made with the non-hydrostatic regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) and driven by data from the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM6 for projection as well as ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF) for validation. The global data are dynamically downscaled with CCLM up to a convection permitting mesh size of 2.8 km; past (1981-2010) and future (2021-2050) periods are considered. To estimate the range of possible future developments an ensemble is created by the use of two emission scenarios, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, coupling CCLM with the soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme VEG3D (additionally to TERRA) and climate simulations with different GCMs as forcing models. Also a bias correction of the RCM runs is done to use them for the impact studies. The evaluation of the model simulations showed a high dependency of sultriness conditions in southwestern Germany on the large scale weather conditions. For example, if the prevailing wind direction was southwest, a quarter of the days in summer had a mean value of specific humidity over 12 g/kg (assumed as a sultriness limit here) in the Rhine valley (mean over 30 years). These large scale conditions were analyzed with the objective weather type classification of Dittmann and Bissolli. In the next step, factors affecting sultriness, for example orography, landuse or local wind

  3. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R. G.; Zanganeh, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program conducted to improve the understanding of fatigue crack growth rate behavior in the threshold growth rate region and to answer a question on the validity of threshold region test data. The validity question relates to the view held by some experimentalists that using the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce valid threshold test results and material properties. The question involves the fanning behavior observed in threshold region of da/dN plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out from the high R-ratio data. This fanning behavior or elevation of threshold values in the low R-ratio tests is generally assumed to be caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tests. Also, the increase in crack closure is assumed by some experimentalists to result from using the ASTM load shedding test procedure. The belief is that this procedure induces load history effects which cause remote closure from plasticity and/or roughness changes in the surface morphology. However, experimental studies performed by the authors have shown that the increase in crack closure is a result of extensive crack tip bifurcations that can occur in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the fanning behavior which occurs in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the alloy, and therefore, the fanned data does represent the true threshold properties of the material. However, for the corrosion sensitive steel alloys tested in laboratory air, the occurrence of fanning results from fretting corrosion at the crack tips, and these results should not be considered to be representative of valid threshold properties because the fanning is

  4. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  5. Spectra of High-Ionization Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Implications for the Narrow-Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Cohen, Ross D.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    We present line profiles and profile parameters for the Narrow-Line Regions (NLRs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies with high-ionization lines: MCG 8-11-11, Mrk 79, Mrk 704, Mrk 841, NGC 4151, and NGC 5548. The sample was chosen primarily with the goal of obtaining high-quality [Fe VII] lambda6087 and, when possible, [Fe X] lambda6374 profiles to determine if these lines are more likely formed in a physically distinct 'coronal line region' or are formed throughout the NLR along with lines of lower critical density (n(sub cr)) and/or Ionization Potential (IP). We discuss correlations of velocity shift and width with n(sub cr) and IP. In some objects, lines of high IP and/or n(sub cr) are systematically broader than those of low IP/n(sub cr). Of particular interest, however, are objects that show no correlations of line width with either IP or n(sub cr). In these objects, lines of high and low IP/n(sub cr), are remarkably similar, which is difficult to reconcile with the classical picture of the NLR, in which lines of high and low IP/n(sub cr) are formed in physically distinct regions. We argue for similar spatial extents for the flux in lines with similar profiles. Here, as well as in a modeling-oriented companion paper, we develop further an idea suggested by Moore & Cohen that objects that do and do not show line width correlations with IP/n(sub cr) can both be explained in terms of a single NLR model with only a small difference in the cloud column density distinguishing the two types of object. Overall, our objects do not show correlations between the Full Width at Half-Maximum (FWHM) and IP and/or n(sub cr). The width must be defined by a parameter that is sensitive to extended profile wings in order for the correlations to result. We present models in which FWHM correlations with IP and/or n(sub cr) result only after simulating the lower spectral resolution used in previous observational studies. The models that simulate the higher spectral resolution of our

  6. Incidence and care of environmental dermatoses in the high-altitude region of Ladakh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low humidity, high-velocity wind, excessive ultraviolet (UV exposure, and extreme cold temperature are the main causes of various types of environmental dermatoses in high altitudes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in patients visiting the lone dermatology department in Ladakh between July 2009 and June 2010. The aim was to identify the common environmental dermatoses in high altitudes so that they can be treated easily or prevented. The patients were divided into three demographic groups, namely, lowlanders, Ladakhis (native highlanders, and tourists. Data was analyzed in a tabulated fashion. Results: A total of 1,567 patients with skin ailments were seen, of whom 965 were lowlanders, 512 native Ladakhis, and 90 were tourists. The skin disorders due to UV rays, dry skin, and papular urticaria were common among all groups. The frequency of melasma ( n = 42; 49.4%, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD ( n = 18; 81.81% of total CAD cases, and actinic cheilitis ( n = 3; 100% was much higher among the native Ladakhis. The frequency of cold-related injuries was much lesser among Ladakhis ( n = 1; 1.19% than lowlanders ( n = 70; 83.33% and tourists ( n = 13; 15.47% ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dryness of skin, tanning, acute or chronic sunburn, polymorphic light reaction, CAD, insect bite reactions, chilblain, and frostbite are common environmental dermatoses of high altitudes. Avoidance of frequent application of soap, application of adequate and suitable emollient, use of effective sunscreen, and wearing of protective clothing are important guidelines for skin care in this region.

  7. Educational Leadership as Best Practice in Highly Effective Schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque County (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Nahia; Joaristi, Luis; Lizasoain, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This study presents part of a research project currently underway which aims to characterise the best practices of highly effective schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (Spain). Multilevel statistical modelling and hierarchical linear models were used to select 32 highly effective schools, with highly effective being taken to…

  8. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  9. Online Determination of the LHC Luminous Region with the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    During stable-beams operations of the LHC, the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) offers the fastest and most precise online measurement available of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region at the interaction point. Taking advantage of the high rate of triggered events, a dedicated algorithm is executed on the HLT processor farm of several hundred nodes that uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and its shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds. A correction is applied online to adjust for the intrinsic vertex resolution by examining the displacement of split vertices. The location, widths and tilts of the luminosity distribution are fed back to the LHC operators in real time. The transverse luminous centroid mirrors variations in the IP orbit, while its position along the beam axis is sensitive to the relative RF phase of the two beams. The time evolution of the luminous width tracks...

  10. Online Determination of the LHC Luminous Region with the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R

    2012-01-01

    During stable-beams operations of the LHC, the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) offers the fastest and most precise online measurement available of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region at the interaction point. Taking advantage of the high rate of triggered events, a dedicated algorithm is executed on the HLT processor farm of several hundred nodes that uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and its shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds. A correction is applied online to adjust for the intrinsic vertex resolution by examining the apparent separation of split vertices. The location, widths and tilts of the luminosity distribution are fed back to the LHC operators in real time. The transverse luminous centroid mirrors variations in the IP orbit, while its position along the beam axis is sensitive to the relative RF phase of the two beams. The time evolution of the luminous width...

  11. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXV. Highly Mobile Nucleolus Organizing Regions in Craugastor fitzingeri (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Feichtinger, Wolfgang; Nanda, Indrajit

    2017-10-24

    A 7-year cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Craugastor fitzingeri from Costa Rica and Panama revealed the existence of highly mobile nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) in their genomes. Silver (Ag)-staining of the active NORs demonstrated an exceptional interindividual pattern of NOR distribution at the telomeres of the chromosomes. All individuals examined showed a different and specific NOR location in their karyotypes. Furthermore, intraindividual variation in the NOR sites was found. This observation suggested the existence of mobile NORs in C. fitzingeri. Confirmation of this phenomenon was possible by systematic FISH analysis using an 18S + 28S rDNA probe. The extremely variable number and position of the NORs in C. fitzingeri is best explained by highly mobile NORs that move freely between the telomeres of the chromosomes. These transpositions must occur preferentially in premeiotic, meiotic, or postmeiotic stages, but also at a lower incidence in the somatic tissues of the animals. It is hypothesized that transposable (mobile) elements are closely linked to the NORs or are inserted into the major 18S + 28S rDNA spacers of C. fitzingeri. When such transposable elements spread by transpositions, they can carry with them complete or partial NORs. The present study provides detailed information on various differential chromosome banding techniques, in situ hybridization experiments, chromosomal hypermethylation patterns, determination of the genome size, and analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the DNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A new method to obtain the broad line region size of high redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ∼ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] λ1909, Si III] λ1892, Al III λ1860, Si II λ1814, C IV λ1549 and blended Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402). The flux ratios Al III λ1860/Si III] λ1892, C IV λ1549/Al III λ1860, Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/Si III] λ1892 and Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/C IV λ1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r {sub BLR} estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r {sub BLR}-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars.

  13. Extreme climate projections over the transboundary Koshi River Basin using a high resolution regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Rajbhandari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution climate model Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS was used to project the changes in future extreme precipitation and temperature over the Koshi River Basin for use in impact assessments. Three outputs of the Quantifying Uncertainties in Model Prediction (QUMP simulations using the Hadley Centre Couple Model (HadCM3 based on the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario were used to project the future climate. The projections were analysed for three time slices, 2011–2040 (near future, 2041–2070 (mid-century, and 2071–2098 (distant future. The results show an increase in the future frequency and intensity of climate extremes events such as dry days, consecutive dry days, and very wet days (95th percentile, with greater increases over the southern plains than in the mountainous area to the north. A significant decrease in moderate rainfall days (75th percentile is projected over the middle (high mountain and trans-Himalaya areas. Increases are projected in both the extreme maximum and extreme minimum temperature, with a slightly higher rate in minimum temperature. The number of warm days is projected to increase throughout the basin, with more rapid rates in the trans-Himalayan and middle mountain areas than in the plains. Warm nights are also projected to increase, especially in the southern plains. A decrease is projected in cold days and cold nights indicating overall warming throughout the basin.

  14. Sub- and multi-day precipitation extremes in high resolution Met Office regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven; Kendon, Elizabeth; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    As part of the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council-supported CONVEX project, the Met Office has completed two high-resolution (12-km parameterised convection and 1.5-km explicit convection permitting) regional climate model simulations. Extreme value theory is used as a diagnostic tool for the above two simulations. On sub-daily time scales, the 12-km simulation has weaker and more realistic typical JJA extremes than the 1.5-km RCM, yet the 12-km RCM has overly intense extreme extremes. Grid point storms are found to play a role in creating these overly intense extreme extremes. Comparisons with observations indicate that the 1.5-km RCM is more successful than the 12-km RCM in representing (multi-)hourly JJA extremes for long return periods. As accumulation periods increase toward (multi-)daily time scales, the 12-km precipitation extremes become more comparable with observations and the 1.5-km RCM. Both simulations have reasonable DJF sub- and multi-day extremes, but DJF extremes are generally weaker, so they are less interesting than JJA extremes practically. Overall, our results indicate that the usage of higher resolution explicit convection permitting models has led to some improvements in the simulations of high impact precipitation extremes.

  15. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  16. High-accuracy measurement of the emission spectrum of liquid xenon in the vacuum ultraviolet region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Keiko, E-mail: fujii-keiko-nv@ynu.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Endo, Yuya; Torigoe, Yui; Nakamura, Shogo [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Kasami, Katsuyu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mihara, Satoshi; Saito, Kiwamu; Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate School of Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tawara, Hiroko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    The emission spectrum of cryogenic liquid xenon in the vacuum ultraviolet region was measured by irradiating liquid xenon with gamma-rays from a radioactive source. To achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio, we employed coincident photon counting. Additionally, the charge of the photo-sensor signals was measured to estimate the number of detected photons accurately. In addition, proper corrections were incorporated for the wavelength; response functions of the apparatus obtained using a low-pressure mercury lamp, and photon detection efficiencies of the optical system were considered. The obtained emission spectrum is found to be in the shape of a Gaussian function, with the center at 57,199±34 (stat.)±33 (syst.) cm{sup −1} (174.8±0.1 (stat.)±0.1 (syst.) nm) and the full width at half maximum of 3328±72 (stat.)±65 (syst.) cm{sup −1} (10.2±0.2 (stat.)±0.2 (sys.) nm). These results are the most accurate values obtained in terms of the data acquisition method and the calibration for the experimental system and provide valuable information regarding the high-precision instruments that employ a liquid-xenon scintillator.

  17. Evidence of high-frequency/small-scale turbulence in the Cygnus region and anomalous Faraday rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Faraday effect - a common and useful probe of cosmic magnetic fields - is the result of magnetically-induced birefringence in plasmas causing rotation of the polarization plane of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. Classically, the rotation angle scales with the wavelength as Δϕ =RMλ2 , where RM is the rotation measure. Although a typical RM in the Milky Way is of the order of a few hundred to a few thousand, a famous Cygnus region shows anomalously small, even negative rotation measures. Moreover, Faraday rotation measurements seem to be inconsistent with the standard λ2-law. We argue that fast micro-turbulence can cause this anomaly. We demonstrate that electromagnetic high-frequency and/or small-scale fluctuations can lead to effective plasma collisionality by scattering electrons over pitch-angle. We show that such quasi-collisionality radically alters Faraday rotation and other radiative transport properties, e.g., absorption, transmission and reflection. Thus, we explain the Cygnus puzzle by anomalous Faraday rotation in a thin ``blanket'' of highly turbulent plasma at the front of an interstellar bubble/shock. Supported by DOE grant DE-SC0016368.

  18. Page 1 Tides in the Gulf of Khambhat and Bombay High regions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of ports in the region. In the next section we assemble these data to describe characteristics of propagation of tides in the region of interest. In section 3 we describe a barotropic nonlinear numerical model to simulate the tides in the region. The model predictions are compared with the observed tidal characteristics in section ...

  19. An Implementation of Region-of-Interest Selection for ATLAS High Level Trigger and Offline Software Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, AG; Brandt, S

    2003-01-01

    Among the many challenges presented by the future ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator are the high data taking rate and volume and the derivation of a rapid trigger decision within limited computing and networking resources. To address this challenge, within the High Level Trigger (HLT) system, a novel Region-of-Interest (RoI) mechanism is used which dramatically reduces the relevant fiducial volume necessary to be readout and processed to small regions guided by the hardware-based first level trigger.

  20. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe high ozone (O3 episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China during 7–12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10–12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h−1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h−1 in

  1. CUTLASS HF radar observations of high-velocity E-region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A short event of high-velocity E-region echo observations by the Pykkvibaer HF radar is analysed to study echo parameters and the echo relation to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability. The echoes were detected in several beams aligned closely to the magnetic L-shell direction. Two echo groups were identified: one group corresponded to the classical type 1 echoes with velocities close to the nominal ion-acoustic speed of 400 ms–1 , while the other group had significantly larger velocities, of the order of 700 ms–1 . The mutual relationship between the echo power, Doppler velocity, spectral width and elevation angles for these two groups was studied. Plotting of echo parameters versus slant range showed that all ~700 ms–1 echoes originated from larger heights and distances of 500–700 km, while all ~400 ms–1 echoes came from lower heights and from farther distances; 700–1000 km. We argue that both observed groups of echoes occurred due to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability excited by strong ( ~70 mVm–1 and uniformly distributed electric fields. We show that the echo velocities for the two groups were different because the echoes were received from different heights. Such a separation of echo heights occurred due to the differing amounts of ionospheric refraction at short and large ranges. Thus, the ionospheric refraction and related altitude modulation of ionospheric parameters are the most important factors to consider, when various characteristics of E-region decametre irregularities are derived from HF radar measurements.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; polar ionosphere

  2. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for Asia.

  3. High-wavenumber Solar f-mode Strengthening Prior to Active Region Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Raichur, Harsha; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-12-01

    We report a systematic strengthening of the local solar surface or fundamental f-mode one to two days prior to the emergence of an active region (AR) in the same (corotating) location. Except for a possibly related increase in the kurtosis of the magnetic field, no indication can be seen in the magnetograms at that time. Our study is motivated by earlier numerical findings of Singh et al., which showed that, in the presence of a nonuniform magnetic field that is concentrated a few scale heights below the surface, the f-mode fans out in the diagnostic kω diagram at high wavenumbers. Here we explore this possibility using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and show for six isolated ARs, 11130, 11158, 11242, 11105, 11072, and 11768, that at large latitudinal wavenumbers (corresponding to horizontal scales of around 3000 {km}), the f-mode displays strengthening about two days prior to AR formation and thus provides a new precursor for AR formation. Furthermore, we study two ARs, 12051 and 11678, apart from a magnetically quiet patch lying next to AR 12529, to demonstrate the challenges in extracting such a precursor signal when a newly forming AR emerges in a patch that lies in close proximity to one or several already existing ARs, which are expected to pollute neighboring patches. We then discuss plausible procedures for extracting precursor signals from regions with crowded environments. The idea that the f-mode is perturbed days before any visible magnetic activity occurs at the surface can be important in constraining dynamo models aimed at understanding the global magnetic activity of the Sun.

  4. On Asymmetry of Magnetic Helicity in Emerging Active Regions: High-resolution Observations

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    Tian, Lirong; Démoulin, Pascal; Alexander, David; Zhu, Chunming

    2011-01-01

    We employ the DAVE (differential affine velocity estimator) tracking technique on a time series of Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI)/1 minute high spatial resolution line-of-sight magnetograms to measure the photospheric flow velocity for three newly emerging bipolar active regions (ARs). We separately calculate the magnetic helicity injection rate of the leading and following polarities to confirm or refute the magnetic helicity asymmetry, found by Tian & Alexander using MDI/96 minute low spatial resolution magnetograms. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic helicity asymmetry is robust, being present in the three ARs studied, two of which have an observed balance of the magnetic flux. The magnetic helicity injection rate measured is found to depend little on the window size selected, but does depend on the time interval used between the two successive magnetograms being tracked. It is found that the measurement of the magnetic helicity injection rate performs well for a window size between 12 × 10 and 18 × 15 pixels and at a time interval Δt = 10 minutes. Moreover, the short-lived magnetic structures, 10-60 minutes, are found to contribute 30%-50% of the magnetic helicity injection rate. Comparing with the results calculated by MDI/96 minute data, we find that the MDI/96 minute data, in general, can outline the main trend of the magnetic properties, but they significantly underestimate the magnetic flux in strong field regions and are not appropriate for quantitative tracking studies, so provide a poor estimate of the amount of magnetic helicity injected into the corona.

  5. Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations in a highly polluted Italian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugno, Michele; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Catelan, Dolores; Grisotto, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale; Baccini, Michela

    2016-05-01

    The Lombardy region in northern Italy ranks among the most air polluted areas of Europe. Previous studies showed air pollution short-term effects on all-cause mortality. We examine here the effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on deaths and hospitalizations from specific causes, including cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. We considered air pollution, mortality and hospitalization data for a non-opportunistic sample of 18 highly polluted and most densely populated areas of the region in the years 2003-2006. We obtained area-specific effect estimates for PM10 and NO2 from a Poisson regression model on the daily number of total deaths or cause-specific hospitalizations and then combined them in a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis. For cause-specific mortality, we applied a case-crossover analysis. Age- and season-specific analyses were also performed. Effect estimates were expressed as percent variation in mortality or hospitalizations associated with a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM10 or NO2 concentration. Natural mortality was positively associated with both pollutants (0.30%, 90% Credibility Interval [CrI]: -0.31; 0.78 for PM10; 0.70%, 90%CrI: 0.10; 1.27 for NO2). Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher percent variation in association with NO2 (1.12%, 90% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.14; 2.11), while the percent variation for respiratory mortality was highest in association with PM10 (1.64%, 90%CI: 0.35; 2.93). The effect of both pollutants was more evident in the summer season. Air pollution was also associated to hospitalizations, the highest variations being 0.77% (90%CrI: 0.22; 1.43) for PM10 and respiratory diseases, and 1.70% (90%CrI: 0.39; 2.84) for NO2 and cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of PM10 on respiratory hospital admissions appeared to increase with age. For both pollutants, effects on cerebrovascular hospitalizations were more evident in subjects aged less than

  6. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  7. Measurement of regional pulse wave velocity using very high frame rate ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Hongo, Kazue; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation velocity of the pressure wave along the artery due to the heartbeat. The PWV becomes faster with progression of arteriosclerosis and, thus, can be used as a diagnostic index of arteriosclerosis. Measurement of PWV is known as a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and is widely used in clinical situations. In the traditional PWV method, the average PWV is calculated between two points, the carotid and femoral arteries, at an interval of several tens of centimeters. However, PWV depends on part of the arterial tree, i.e., PWVs in the distal arteries are faster than those in the proximal arteries. Therefore, measurement of regional PWV is preferable. To evaluate regional PWV in the present study, the minute vibration velocity of the human carotid arterial wall was measured at intervals of 0.2 mm at 72 points in the arterial longitudinal direction by the phased-tracking method at a high temporal resolution of 3472 Hz, and PWV was estimated by applying the Hilbert transform to those waveforms. In the present study, carotid arteries of three healthy subjects were measured in vivo. The PWVs in short segments of 14.4 mm in the arterial longitudinal direction were estimated to be 5.6, 6.4, and 6.7 m/s, which were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, for one of the subjects, a component was clearly found propagating from the periphery to the direction of the heart, i.e., a well known component reflected by the peripheral arteries. By using the proposed method, the propagation speed of the reflection component was also separately estimated to be -8.4 m/s. The higher magnitude of PWV for the reflection component was considered to be the difference in blood pressure at the arrivals of the forward and reflection components. Such a method would be useful for more sensitive evaluation of the change in elasticity due to progression of arteriosclerosis by measuring the regional PWV

  8. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  9. A regional-scale estimation of ice wedge ice volumes in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M.; Pollard, W. H.; Grand'Maison, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    Ice wedges are both prominent and environmentally vulnerable features in continuous permafrost environments. As the world's Arctic regions begin to warm, concern over the potential effects of ice wedge melt out has become an immediate issue, receiving much attention in the permafrost literature. In this study we estimate the volume of ice wedge ice for large areas in the Canadian High Arctic through the use of high resolution satellite imagery and the improved capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The methodology used for this study is similar to that of one performed in Siberia and Alaska by Ulrich et al, in 2014. Utilizing Ulrich's technique, this study detected ice wedge polygons from satellite imagery using ArcGIS. The average width and depth of these ice wedges were obtained from a combination of field data and long-term field studies for the same location. The assumptions used in the analysis of ice wedge volume have been tested, including trough width being representative of ice wedge width, and ice wedge ice content (Pollard and French 1980). This study used specific field sites located near Eureka on Ellesmere Island (N80°01', W85°43') and at Expedition Fiord on Axel Heiberg Island (N79°23', W90°59'). The preliminary results indicate that the methodology used by Ulrich et al, 2014 is transferrable to the Canadian High Arctic, and that ice wedge volumes range between 3-10% of the upper part of permafrost. These findings are similar to previous studies and their importance is made all the more evident by the dynamic nature of ice wedges where it could be argued that they are a key driver of thermokarst terrain. The ubiquitous nature of ice wedges across arctic terrain highlights the importance and the need to improve our understanding of ice wedge dynamics, as subsidence from ice wedge melt-out could lead to large scale landscape change.

  10. X-mode HF Pump-induced Phenomena at High Heater Frequencies in the High Latitude Ionosphere F-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results concentrating on X-mode HF-induced phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F region are discussed. Experiments have been carried out at the HF Heating facility at Tromsø with an effective radiated power of 450 - 650 MW at high heater frequencies of 6.2 - 8.0 MHz. Multi-instriment diagnostics included the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar at 931 MHz at Tromsø, the Finland CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radar, the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) equipment at Tromsø, and the HF receiver near St. Petersburg for the observations of narrow band SEE features. The key parameter considered is the ratio between the heater frequency and critical frequency of the F2 layer (fH/foF2). We have analyzed the behaviors of small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines (HFPLs and HFILs) depending on the pump proximity to the critical frequency. It was shown that the HFPLs and HFILs coexisted with FAIs throughout the whole heater pulse when fH/foF2 > 1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤ 1. It is indicative that parametric decay instability was not quenched by fully developed FAIs. The comparison between contrasting O/X mode HF-induced phenomena, when the heater frequency is below or near the critical frequency of F2 layer, is made. It was found that an X-mode HF pumping is able to excite different narrow band spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency), such as ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves) observed at a long distance from the HF Heating facility. It was suggested that these spectral component can be attributed to the stimulated Brillion scatter (SBS) process. The results obtained show that an X-polarized electromagnetic wave scattered by SBS can propagate more than one thousand km without significant attenuation.

  11. Star and jet multiplicity in the high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, R.; Massi, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Busoni, L.; Riccardi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Bisogni, S.; McCarthy, D.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present a study of the complex high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919 (also known as Mol8), where multiple jets and a rich stellar cluster have been described in previous works. Aims: Our goal is to determine the number of jets and shed light on their origin, and thus determine the nature of the young stars powering these jets. We also wish to analyse the stellar clusters by resolving the brightest group of stars. Methods: The star forming region was observed in various tracers and the results were complemented with ancillary archival data. The new data represent a substantial improvement over previous studies both in resolution and frequency coverage. In particular, adaptive optics provides us with an angular resolution of 80 mas in the near IR, while new mid- and far-IR data allow us to sample the peak of the spectral energy distribution and thus reliably estimate the bolometric luminosity. Results: Thanks to the near-IR continuum and millimetre line data we can determine the structure and velocity field of the bipolar jets and outflows in this star forming region. We also find that the stars are grouped into three clusters and the jets originate in the richest of these, whose luminosity is ~ 2.4 × 104L⊙. Interestingly, our high-resolution near-IR images allow us to resolve one of the two brightest stars (A and B) of the cluster into a double source (A1+A2). Conclusions: We confirm that there are two jets and establish that they are powered by B-type stars belonging to cluster C1. On this basis and on morphological and kinematical arguments, we conclude that the less extended jet is almost perpendicular to the line of sight and that it originates in the brightest star of the cluster, while the more extended one appears to be associated with the more extincted, double source A1+A2. We propose that this is not a binary system, but a small bipolar reflection nebula at the root of the large-scale jet, outlining a still undetected circumstellar

  12. Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.; Codella, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Molinari, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion in a similar fashion to low-mass stars. In this scenario, bipolar outflows ejected along the disk axis play a fundamental role, and their study can help characterize the different evolutionary stages involved in the formation of a high-mass star. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease in the SiO line intensity as the object evolves. Aims: The present study aims to characterize the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time and to study the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta (Spain) to map 14 high-mass star-forming regions in the SiO (2-1), SiO (5-4), and HCO+ (1-0) lines, which trace the molecular outflow emission. The FTS backend, covering a total frequency range of ~15 GHz, allowed us to simultaneously map several dense gas (e.g., N2H+, C2H, NH2D, H13CN) and hot-core (CH3CN) tracers. We used the Hi-GAL data to improve the previous spectral energy distributions and obtained a more accurate dust envelope mass and bolometric luminosity for each source. We calculated the luminosity-to-mass ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO. Results: We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all fourteen sources and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs with luminosities 103-104L⊙. We find an increase in the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolves, and a decrease in the SiO abundance with time from 10-8 to 10-9. The SiO (5-4) to (2-1) line ratio is found to be low at the ambient gas velocity, and increases as we move to red-/blue-shifted velocities, indicating that the excitation conditions of the SiO change with the velocity of the gas. In particular, the high-velocity SiO gas component seems to arise from

  13. Ionospheric variations during sudden stratospheric warming in the high- and mid-latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, Anna; Voeykov, Sergey; Mylnikova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The ionospheric dynamic in the high- and middle-latitude regions during the periods of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW) was studied by using the international network of phase dual-frequency GPS/GLONASS receivers and the vertical sounding data. Twelve SSW events that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere 2006 through 2013 were considered. In order to identify the possible response of the ionosphere to SSW events, we carried out the analysis of the total electron (TEC) and the F2-layer maximum electron density (NmF2) deviations from the background level. We have also studied changes of the level of total electron content (TEC) wave-like variations characterized by a special index WTEC. The index reflects the intensity of medium- and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. The dynamics of the high- and middle-latitude ionosphere at the points near the SSW areas was found to differ from the regular. For a large number of events, it is shown that, despite quiet geomagnetic conditions, a noticeable decrease in the NmF2 and TEC values (by 5-10% relative to the background level) is observed during the SSW evolution and maximum stages. On the contrary, for 10-20 days after the SSW maxima, NmF2 and TEC significantly exceed the monthly averaged values. Moreover, these electron density changes are observed for both strong and weak stratospheric warmings, and are recorded mainly during daytime. The observed SSW effects in the polar and mid-latitude ionosphere are assumed to be probably associated with the changes in the neutral composition at the thermospheric heights that affect the F2-layer electron density. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 16-35-60018, as well as by the RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-6894.2016.5).

  14. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to mineral growth by comprehensive studies on zoning patterns, trace element signatures, index mineral inclusions (melt inclusions, sillimanite and K-feldspar) in dated domains and textural correlations with coexisting minerals. The results show that inherited domains (500-400 Ma) are common in monazite even at granulite-facies conditions. Few monazites formed at the M1-stage ( 30-29 Ma) and recorded heterogeneous Th, Y, and HREE compositions, which formed by recrystallization related to muscovite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains were protected from dissolution or lateral overprinting mainly by the armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our

  15. Imaging the slab structure in the Alpine region by high-resolution P-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Stéphane; Zhao, Liang; Paul, Anne; Malusà, Marco G.; Xu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Tianyu; Solarino, stefano; Schwartz, Stéphane; Dumont, Thierry; Salimbeni, Simone; Aubert, Coralie; Pondrelli, Silvia; Wang, Qingchen; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-04-01

    Based upon a finite-frequency inversion of traveltimes, we computed a new high-resolution tomography model using P-wave data from 527 broadband seismic stations, both from permanent networks and temporary experiments (Zhao et al., 2016). This model provides an improved image of the slab structure in the Alpine region, and fundamental pin-points for the analysis of Cenozoic magmatism, (U)HP metamorphism and Alpine topography. Our results document the lateral continuity of the European slab from the Western to the Central Alps, and the down-dip slab continuity beneath the Central Alps, ruling out the hypothesis of slab breakoff to explain Cenozoic Alpine magmatism. A low velocity anomaly is observed in the upper mantle beneath the core of the Western Alps, pointing to dynamic topography effects (Malusà et al., this meeting). A NE-dipping Adriatic slab, consistent with Dinaric subduction, is possibly observed beneath the Eastern Alps, whereas the laterally continuous Adriatic slab of the Northern Apennines shows major gaps at the boundary with the Southern Apennines, and becomes near vertical in the Alps-Apennines transition zone. Tear faults accommodating opposite-dipping subductions during Alpine convergence may represent reactivated lithospheric faults inherited from Tethyan extension. Our results suggest that the interpretations of previous tomography results that include successive slab breakoffs along the Alpine-Zagros-Himalaya orogenic belt might be proficiently reconsidered. Malusà M.G. et alii (2017) On the potential asthenospheric linkage between Apenninic slab rollback and Alpine topographic uplift: insights from P wave tomography and seismic anisotropy analysis. EGU 2017. Zhao L. et alii (2016), Continuity of the Alpine slab unraveled by high-resolution P wave tomography. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2016JB013310.

  16. Experimental annotation of the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum transcribed regions using high-resolution tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sil Anita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum is thought to be the most common cause of fungal respiratory infections in immunocompetent humans, yet little is known about its biology. Here we provide the first genome-wide studies to experimentally validate its genome annotation. A functional interrogation of the Histoplasma genome provides critical support for continued investigation into the biology and pathogenesis of H. capsulatum and related fungi. Results We employed a three-pronged approach to provide a functional annotation for the H. capsulatum G217B strain. First, we probed high-density tiling arrays with labeled cDNAs from cells grown under diverse conditions. These data defined 6,172 transcriptionally active regions (TARs, providing validation of 6,008 gene predictions. Interestingly, 22% of these predictions showed evidence of anti-sense transcription. Additionally, we detected transcription of 264 novel genes not present in the original gene predictions. To further enrich our analysis, we incorporated expression data from whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays. These expression data included profiling under growth conditions that were not represented in the tiling experiment, and validated an additional 2,249 gene predictions. Finally, we compared the G217B gene predictions to other available fungal genomes, and observed that an additional 254 gene predictions had an ortholog in a different fungal species, suggesting that they represent genuine coding sequences. Conclusions These analyses yielded a high confidence set of validated gene predictions for H. capsulatum. The transcript sets resulting from this study are a valuable resource for further experimental characterization of this ubiquitous fungal pathogen. The data is available for interactive exploration at http://histo.ucsf.edu.

  17. Experimental annotation of the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum transcribed regions using high-resolution tiling arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Mark; Foo, Catherine K; Sil, Anita

    2011-09-29

    The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum is thought to be the most common cause of fungal respiratory infections in immunocompetent humans, yet little is known about its biology. Here we provide the first genome-wide studies to experimentally validate its genome annotation. A functional interrogation of the Histoplasma genome provides critical support for continued investigation into the biology and pathogenesis of H. capsulatum and related fungi. We employed a three-pronged approach to provide a functional annotation for the H. capsulatum G217B strain. First, we probed high-density tiling arrays with labeled cDNAs from cells grown under diverse conditions. These data defined 6,172 transcriptionally active regions (TARs), providing validation of 6,008 gene predictions. Interestingly, 22% of these predictions showed evidence of anti-sense transcription. Additionally, we detected transcription of 264 novel genes not present in the original gene predictions. To further enrich our analysis, we incorporated expression data from whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays. These expression data included profiling under growth conditions that were not represented in the tiling experiment, and validated an additional 2,249 gene predictions. Finally, we compared the G217B gene predictions to other available fungal genomes, and observed that an additional 254 gene predictions had an ortholog in a different fungal species, suggesting that they represent genuine coding sequences. These analyses yielded a high confidence set of validated gene predictions for H. capsulatum. The transcript sets resulting from this study are a valuable resource for further experimental characterization of this ubiquitous fungal pathogen. The data is available for interactive exploration at http://histo.ucsf.edu.

  18. Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20 406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health. PMID:22095343

  19. Region-of-interest cone beam computed tomography (ROI CBCT) with a high resolution CMOS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Takemoto, H.; Silver, M. D.; Nagesh, S. V. S.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems with rotational gantries that have standard flat panel detectors (FPD) are widely used for the 3D rendering of vascular structures using Feldkamp cone beam reconstruction algorithms. One of the inherent limitations of these systems is limited resolution (report on region-of-interest (ROI) CBCT with a high resolution CMOS detector (75 μm pixels, 600 μm HR-CsI) mounted with motorized detector changer on a commercial FPD-based C-arm angiography gantry (194 μm pixels, 600 μm HL-CsI). A cylindrical CT phantom and neuro stents were imaged with both detectors. For each detector a total of 209 images were acquired in a rotational protocol. The technique parameters chosen for the FPD by the imaging system were used for the CMOS detector. The anti-scatter grid was removed and the incident scatter was kept the same for both detectors with identical collimator settings. The FPD images were reconstructed for the 10 cm x10 cm FOV and the CMOS images were reconstructed for a 3.84 cm x 3.84 cm FOV. Although the reconstructed images from the CMOS detector demonstrated comparable contrast to the FPD images, the reconstructed 3D images of the neuro stent clearly showed that the CMOS detector improved delineation of smaller objects such as the stent struts (~70 μm) compared to the FPD. Further development and the potential for substantial clinical impact are suggested.

  20. Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

    2015-01-01

    The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118 kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS. PMID:24916642

  1. Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: a regional census of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Shari Kessel; O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W S

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. In the fall of 2008, 20,406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.

  2. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  3. The Effect of Land Cover/Land Use Changes on the Regional Climate of the USA High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mutiibwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the detection of the signatures of land use/land cover (LULC changes on the regional climate of the US High Plains. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI as a proxy of LULC changes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a proxy of greenhouse gases. An enhanced signal processing procedure was developed to detect the signatures of LULC changes by integrating autoregression and moving average (ARMA modeling and optimal fingerprinting technique. The results, which are representative of the average spatial signatures of climate response to LULC change forcing on the regional climate of the High Plains during the 26 years of the study period (1981–2006, show a significant cooling effect on the regional temperatures during the summer season. The cooling effect was attributed to probable evaporative cooling originating from the increasing extensive irrigation in the region. The external forcing of atmospheric CO2 was included in the study to suppress the radiative warming effect of greenhouse gases, thus, enhancing the LULC change signal. The results show that the greenhouse gas radiative warming effect in the region is significant, but weak, compared to the LULC change signal. The study demonstrates the regional climatic impact of anthropogenic induced atmospheric-biosphere interaction attributed to LULC change, which is an additional and important climate forcing in addition to greenhouse gas radiative forcing in High Plains region.

  4. High-quality annotation of promoter regions for 913 bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangannan, Vetriselvi; Bansal, Manju

    2010-12-15

    The number of bacterial genomes being sequenced is increasing very rapidly and hence, it is crucial to have procedures for rapid and reliable annotation of their functional elements such as promoter regions, which control the expression of each gene or each transcription unit of the genome. The present work addresses this requirement and presents a generic method applicable across organisms. Relative stability of the DNA double helical sequences has been used to discriminate promoter regions from non-promoter regions. Based on the difference in stability between neighboring regions, an algorithm has been implemented to predict promoter regions on a large scale over 913 microbial genome sequences. The average free energy values for the promoter regions as well as their downstream regions are found to differ, depending on their GC content. Threshold values to identify promoter regions have been derived using sequences flanking a subset of translation start sites from all microbial genomes and then used to predict promoters over the complete genome sequences. An average recall value of 72% (which indicates the percentage of protein and RNA coding genes with predicted promoter regions assigned to them) and precision of 56% is achieved over the 913 microbial genome dataset. The binary executable for 'PromPredict' algorithm (implemented in PERL and supported on Linux and MS Windows) and the predicted promoter data for all 913 microbial genomes are available at http://nucleix.mbu.iisc.ernet.in/prombase/.

  5. High-resolution photogrammetric surface extraction over glaciated regions from WorldView stereo pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, M.; Howat, I. M.; Morin, P. J.; Porter, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of surface change in glaciated regions such as Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica is an important pursuit in climate-related Earth Science. Repeat Digital Elevation Models (DEM) created by photogrammetric surface extraction from a time-series of stereo pairs provide an efficient and low cost means for analyzing surface change over large, remote areas. Stereo-photogrammetric DEM extraction over glaciated regions is challenging due to typically low-contrast surfaces such as ice, snow, mountain shadows and steep slopes, resulting in large feature search areas and matching failures. A method for reducing the feature search area is critical for successful and efficient DEM extraction in this terrain. The SETSM (Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization) algorithm is developed for overcoming these problems and performs surface extraction automatically, without any user-defined or a-priori information, such as seed DEMs, using only the sensor Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) for geometric constraints. Rotation-invariant, multi-patch Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) is used as its basic similarity measurement. SETSM constructs a TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) in the object-space domain in order to minimize the necessary search space. It employs a pyramiding strategy that uses iteratively finer resolution TIN's to minimize the search space and uses a vertical line locus to provide precise geometric constraints for reducing the search area. As a major benefit, SETSM relatively adjusts the Rational Function Model (RFM) between stereo pairs to reduce the offset between corresponding points projected by the vertical line locus caused by RPC errors, dramatically reducing the number of matching failures. In SETSM, this offset is iteratively removed with a parabolic adjustment of the NCC solution. As a demonstration, Worldview stereo pairs for a variety of test areas in Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica are selected for creating 2m grid

  6. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and Δm{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  7. CUTLASS HF radar observations of high-velocity E-region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky

    Full Text Available A short event of high-velocity E-region echo observations by the Pykkvibaer HF radar is analysed to study echo parameters and the echo relation to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability. The echoes were detected in several beams aligned closely to the magnetic L-shell direction. Two echo groups were identified: one group corresponded to the classical type 1 echoes with velocities close to the nominal ion-acoustic speed of 400 ms1 , while the other group had significantly larger velocities, of the order of 700 ms1 . The mutual relationship between the echo power, Doppler velocity, spectral width and elevation angles for these two groups was studied. Plotting of echo parameters versus slant range showed that all ~700 ms1 echoes originated from larger heights and distances of 500–700 km, while all ~400 ms1 echoes came from lower heights and from farther distances; 700–1000 km. We argue that both observed groups of echoes occurred due to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability excited by strong ( ~70 mVm1 and uniformly distributed electric fields. We show that the echo velocities for the two groups were different because the echoes were received from different heights. Such a separation of echo heights occurred due to the differing amounts of ionospheric refraction at short and large ranges. Thus, the ionospheric refraction and related altitude modulation of ionospheric parameters are the most important factors to consider, when various characteristics of E-region decametre irregularities are derived from HF radar measurements.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; polar ionosphere

  8. High prevalence of norovirus in children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Manaus, Amazon Region, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Hernández, Juliana das Mercês; Lucena, Maria Silvia Souza de; Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially in children under five years. Studies involving the detection and molecular characterisation of NoV have been performed in Brazil, demonstrating its importance as an etiological agent of AGE. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of human NoV and to genotype the strains isolated from 0-14-year-old patients of AGE in Manaus, Brazil, over a period of two years. A total of 426 faecal samples were collected between January 2010 and December 2011. All samples were tested for the presence of NoV antigens using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. RNA was extracted from all faecal suspensions and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the NoV-polymerase partial region was performed as a trial test. Positive samples were then subjected to PCR with specific primers for partial capsid genes, which were then sequenced. NoV was detected in 150 (35.2%) faecal samples, for at least one of the two techniques used. NoV was detected in children from all age groups, with the highest positivity observed among the group of 1-2 years old. Clinically, fever was verified in 43% of the positive cases and 46.3% of the negative cases, and vomiting was observed in 75.8% and 70.8% cases in these groups, respectively. Monthly distribution showed that the highest positivity was observed in January 2010 (81.2%), followed by February and April 2010 and March 2011, when the positivity rate reached almost 50%. Phylogenetic analyses performed with 65 positive strains demonstrated that 58 (89.2%) cases of NoV belonged to genotype GII.4, five (7.7%) to GII.6, and one (1.5%) each to GII.7 and GII.3. This research revealed a high circulation of NoV GII.4 in Manaus and contributed to the understanding of the importance of this virus in the aetiology of AGE cases, especially in a region with such few studies available.

  9. Highly syntenic regions in the genomes of soybean, Medicago truncatula, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Joann; Cannon, Steven B; Kalo, Peter; Oldroyd, Giles ED; Roe, Bruce A; Town, Christopher D; Young, Nevin D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent genome sequencing enables mega-base scale comparisons between related genomes. Comparisons between animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria demonstrate extensive synteny tempered by rearrangements. Within the legume plant family, glimpses of synteny have also been observed. Characterizing syntenic relationships in legumes is important in transferring knowledge from model legumes to crops that are important sources of protein, fixed nitrogen, and health-promoting compounds. Results We have uncovered two large soybean regions exhibiting synteny with M. truncatula and with a network of segmentally duplicated regions in Arabidopsis. In all, syntenic regions comprise over 500 predicted genes spanning 3 Mb. Up to 75% of soybean genes are colinear with M. truncatula, including one region in which 33 of 35 soybean predicted genes with database support are colinear to M. truncatula. In some regions, 60% of soybean genes share colinearity with a network of A. thaliana duplications. One region is especially interesting because this 500 kbp segment of soybean is syntenic to two paralogous regions in M. truncatula on different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of individual genes within these regions demonstrates that one is orthologous to the soybean region, with which it also shows substantially denser synteny and significantly lower levels of synonymous nucleotide substitutions. The other M. truncatula region is inferred to be paralogous, presumably resulting from a duplication event preceding speciation. Conclusion The presence of well-defined M. truncatula segments showing orthologous and paralogous relationships with soybean allows us to explore the evolution of contiguous genomic regions in the context of ancient genome duplication and speciation events. PMID:16102170

  10. Trigonometric parallaxes of high mass star forming regions: the structure and kinematics of the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hachisuka, K. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Rd., Shanghai (China); Moscadelli, L. [Arcetri Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J. [European Space Agency (ESA-ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bartkiewicz, A. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2014-03-10

    Over 100 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for masers associated with young, high-mass stars have been measured with the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey, a Very Long Baseline Array key science project, the European VLBI Network, and the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry project. These measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of spiral arms in the Milky Way, accurately locating many arm segments and yielding spiral pitch angles ranging from about 7° to 20°. The widths of spiral arms increase with distance from the Galactic center. Fitting axially symmetric models of the Milky Way with the three-dimensional position and velocity information and conservative priors for the solar and average source peculiar motions, we estimate the distance to the Galactic center, R {sub 0}, to be 8.34 ± 0.16 kpc, a circular rotation speed at the Sun, Θ{sub 0}, to be 240 ± 8 km s{sup –1}, and a rotation curve that is nearly flat (i.e., a slope of –0.2 ± 0.4 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}) between Galactocentric radii of ≈5 and 16 kpc. Assuming a 'universal' spiral galaxy form for the rotation curve, we estimate the thin disk scale length to be 2.44 ± 0.16 kpc. With this large data set, the parameters R {sub 0} and Θ{sub 0} are no longer highly correlated and are relatively insensitive to different forms of the rotation curve. If one adopts a theoretically motivated prior that high-mass star forming regions are in nearly circular Galactic orbits, we estimate a global solar motion component in the direction of Galactic rotation, V {sub ☉} = 14.6 ± 5.0 km s{sup –1}. While Θ{sub 0} and V {sub ☉} are significantly correlated, the sum of these parameters is well constrained, Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉} = 255.2 ± 5.1 km s{sup –1}, as is the angular speed of the Sun in its orbit about the Galactic center, (Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉})/R {sub 0} = 30.57 ± 0.43 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}. These parameters improve the accuracy

  11. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Rolffs, R.; van der Tak, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Aarts, H.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Kooi, J.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Loose, A.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of (H2O)-O-16, (H2O)-O-18, and (H2O)-O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze

  12. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery will...

  13. Pc5 modulation of high energy electron precipitation: particle interaction regions and scattering efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Spanswick

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the NORSTAR riometer and CANOPUS magnetometer arrays we have investigated the modulation of high energy electron precipitation by ULF waves in the Pc5 frequency band. We conducted two separate studies of Pc5 activity in the riometers. The first is an independent survey of three riometer stations in the Churchill line (one at each sub-auroral, auroral, and typical polar cap boundary latitudes in which we identified all riometer Pc5-band pulsations over 11 years. All had a corresponding magnetometer pulsation implying that a magnetic pulsation, is a necessary condition for a riometer pulsation (in the Pc5 Band. We find seasonal and latitude dependencies in the occurrence of riometer pulsations. By a factor of two, there are more riometer pulsations occurring in the fall-winter than the spring-summer. At higher latitudes there is a tendency towards noon pulsations during the spring-summer, suggesting that the criteria for riometer pulsations is affected by the dipole tilt. Our second study was based on the previous magnetometer study of Baker et al. (2003. Using the database of Pc5 activity from that study we were able to select the riometer Pc5 pulsations which adhere to the strict Pc5 definition in the magnetometer. We find that roughly 95% of the riometer pulsations occurred in the morning sector compared to 70% in the magnetometer. Given a magnetometer pulsation at Gillam in the morning sector, there is a 70% chance of there being a corresponding riometer pulsation. The morning sector probabilities at Rankin (geomagnetic (PACE latitude 74° and Pinawa (61° are 3% and 5%, respectively. These statistics suggest there is a localized region in the pre-noon magnetosphere where Pc5 band ULF activity can modulate high energy electron precipitation. We also find that riometer pulsations display a Kp selection towards mid (i.e. 3–4 activity levels which mimics the product of the Kp dependence of high-energy electron fluxes on the dawn side

  14. Pc5 modulation of high energy electron precipitation: particle interaction regions and scattering efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Spanswick

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the NORSTAR riometer and CANOPUS magnetometer arrays we have investigated the modulation of high energy electron precipitation by ULF waves in the Pc5 frequency band. We conducted two separate studies of Pc5 activity in the riometers. The first is an independent survey of three riometer stations in the Churchill line (one at each sub-auroral, auroral, and typical polar cap boundary latitudes in which we identified all riometer Pc5-band pulsations over 11 years. All had a corresponding magnetometer pulsation implying that a magnetic pulsation, is a necessary condition for a riometer pulsation (in the Pc5 Band. We find seasonal and latitude dependencies in the occurrence of riometer pulsations. By a factor of two, there are more riometer pulsations occurring in the fall-winter than the spring-summer. At higher latitudes there is a tendency towards noon pulsations during the spring-summer, suggesting that the criteria for riometer pulsations is affected by the dipole tilt. Our second study was based on the previous magnetometer study of Baker et al. (2003. Using the database of Pc5 activity from that study we were able to select the riometer Pc5 pulsations which adhere to the strict Pc5 definition in the magnetometer. We find that roughly 95% of the riometer pulsations occurred in the morning sector compared to 70% in the magnetometer. Given a magnetometer pulsation at Gillam in the morning sector, there is a 70% chance of there being a corresponding riometer pulsation. The morning sector probabilities at Rankin (geomagnetic (PACE latitude 74° and Pinawa (61° are 3% and 5%, respectively. These statistics suggest there is a localized region in the pre-noon magnetosphere where Pc5 band ULF activity can modulate high energy electron precipitation. We also find that riometer pulsations display a Kp selection towards mid (i.e. 3–4 activity levels which mimics the product of the Kp dependence of high

  15. The Value Chains of High-Technology Products as Factor of formation the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Safronova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the value chain of high-tech products in Asia and the role of this phenomenon in the further consolidation of trade blocs and alliances in the region. The presence of these chains and their gradual transition from a vertically integrated model to a system of horizontal linkages and interdependence leads to the formation of mechanisms of economic de-facto integration (so-called regionalization process. The East Asian region has demonstrated unprecedented high rates of economic growth in recent decades. The countries are actively developing mechanisms of multilateral cooperation, involving partners from across the Asia-Pacific region. Particular features of a new regional architecture of economic relations are becoming more tangible, and the essential element of this architecture is the intra-regional integration. The author presents an assessment of further developments of the Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP using the structural-functional approach and analytical instruments of the international political economy, The creation of this trade block will help less advanced countries of ASEAN to accelerate economic growth and improve the conditions for integration into global value chains. For advanced economies, participation in the RCEP seems controversial, because production chains have well-established formats within the framework of ASEAN +. The political standoff between Washington and Beijing has an impact on dynamics of regional integration. The split among the East Asian countries was galvanized by the Trans-Pacific Partnership Project (TTP, because TPP has objectives that are very similar to those of RCEP (trade liberalization and economic integration. The author concludes that the extension of this partnership in the ASEAN countries can seriously complicate the operation RVEP and enhance the impact of political factors on economic cooperation. In this case, the value of production and supply chains

  16. High-permeability region size on perfusion CT predicts hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Puig

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability has been proposed as a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA administration; however, the reliability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT permeability imaging for predicting HT is uncertain. We aimed to determine the performance of high-permeability region size on PCT (HPrs-PCT in predicting HT after intravenous tPA administration in patients with acute stroke.We performed a multimodal CT protocol (non-contrast CT, PCT, CT angiography to prospectively study patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. HT was graded at 24 hours using the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria. ROC curves selected optimal volume threshold, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified predictors of HT.The study included 156 patients (50% male, median age 75.5 years. Thirty-seven (23,7% developed HT [12 (7,7%, parenchymal hematoma type 2 (PH-2]. At admission, patients with HT had lower platelet values, higher NIHSS scores, increased ischemic lesion volumes, larger HPrs-PCT, and poorer collateral status. The negative predictive value of HPrs-PCT at a threshold of 7mL/100g/min was 0.84 for HT and 0.93 for PH-2. The multiple regression analysis selected HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min combined with platelets and baseline NIHSS score as the best model for predicting HT (AUC 0.77. HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min was the only independent predictor of PH-2 (OR 1, AUC 0.68, p = 0.045.HPrs-PCT can help predict HT after tPA, and is particularly useful in identifying patients at low risk of developing HT.

  17. High Resolution Modelling of Aerosols-Meteorology Interactions over Northern Europe and Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Baklanov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols have influence on weather, air quality and climate. Multi-scale modelling, and especially long-range atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerosols from remote sources is especially challenging in northern latitudes. It is due to complexity of meteorological, chemical and biological processes, their interactions and especially within and above the surface layer, linking to climate change, and influence on ecosystems. The online integrated meteorology-chemistry-aerosols model Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) was employed for evaluating spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric aerosols and their interactions and effects on meteorology with a focus on the Northern Europe and Arctic regions. The model setup covers domain having 510 x 568 grids of latitude vs. longitude, horizontal resolution of 0.15 deg, 40 vertical hybrid levels, time step of 360 sec, 6 h meteorological surface data assimilation. The model was run for January and July-August 2010 at DMI's CRAY-XC30 supercomputer. Emissions used are anthropogenic (ECLIPSE v5), shipping (combined AU_RCP and FMI), wildfires (IS4FIRES), and interactive sea salt, dust and DMS. The boundary conditions were obtained from ECMWF: for meteorology (from IFS at 0.15 and 0.25 deg. for summer and winter, respectively) and atmospheric composition (from MACC Reanalysis at 1.125 deg. resolution). The Enviro-HIRLAM model was employed in 4 modes: the reference run (e.g. without aerosols influence on meteorology) and 3 modified runs (direct aerosol effect (DAE), indirect aerosol effect (IDAE), and both effects DAE and IDAE included). The differences between the reference run and the runs with mentioned aerosol effects were estimated on a day-by-day, monthly and diurnal cycle bases over the domain, Arctic areas, European and Nordic countries. The results of statistical analyses are summarized and presented.

  18. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  19. Forecasting High-Priority Infectious Disease Surveillance Regions: A Socioeconomic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily H.; Scales, David A.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Hoen, Anne G.; Choden, Tenzin; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few researchers have assessed the relationships between socioeconomic inequality and infectious disease outbreaks at the population level globally. We use a socioeconomic model to forecast national annual rates of infectious disease outbreaks. Methods. We constructed a multivariate mixed-effects Poisson model of the number of times a given country was the origin of an outbreak in a given year. The dataset included 389 outbreaks of international concern reported in the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News from 1996 to 2008. The initial full model included 9 socioeconomic variables related to education, poverty, population health, urbanization, health infrastructure, gender equality, communication, transportation, and democracy, and 1 composite index. Population, latitude, and elevation were included as potential confounders. The initial model was pared down to a final model by a backwards elimination procedure. The dependent and independent variables were lagged by 2 years to allow for forecasting future rates. Results. Among the socioeconomic variables tested, the final model included child measles immunization rate and telephone line density. The Democratic Republic of Congo, China, and Brazil were predicted to be at the highest risk for outbreaks in 2010, and Colombia and Indonesia were predicted to have the highest percentage of increase in their risk compared to their average over 1996–2008. Conclusions. Understanding socioeconomic factors could help improve the understanding of outbreak risk. The inclusion of the measles immunization variable suggests that there is a fundamental basis in ensuring adequate public health capacity. Increased vigilance and expanding public health capacity should be prioritized in the projected high-risk regions. PMID:23118271

  20. Comparison between OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS Ozone Columns over High SO2 regions: Volcanic and Chinese Industrial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonei; Hong, Hyunkee; Lee, Hanlim

    2017-04-01

    In this present study, we identified the SO2 effect on O3 retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurement. The difference between OMI-Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and OMI-Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (DOAS) total O3 is calculated in high SO2 volcanic regions (Anatahan, La Cumbre, Sierra Negra, and Piton) and Chinese industrial region from 2005 through 2008. In volcanic plumes, OMI-TOMS total O3 column increases with middle and upper troposphere and stratosphere (TRM-STL) SO2, showing high correlation (R = 0.54) between TRM-STL SO2 and TOMS O3 while there is negligible correlation (R = 0.11) between TRM-STL SO2 and OMI- DOAS O3. There is a certain correlation (R = 0.54) between TRM-STL SO2 and the difference between OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS O3 (T-D). The T-D reaches its maximum up to 90 DU. T-D has a dependence on planetary boundary layer (PBL) SO2 (R = 0.36) even though T-D in the Chinese industrial region increases more slowly with SO2 than at the volcanic sites. Thus, the altitude at which SO2 exists has an effect on T-D, which could be due to reduced absolute radiance sensitivity in the boundary layer at 317.5 nm (the wavelength used to retrieve OMI-TOMS ozone in boundary layer). In addition, T-D shows a seasonal tendency on PBL SO2. In Turkey and Western USA, where PBL SO2 concentrations are low, |T-D| shows its positive maximum in summer and negative maximum in winter. However, no seasonal variation of T-D was found in the Chinese industrial region due to the effect of low and high PBL SO2 in summer and winter, respectively. The reason for the seasonal characteristics of T-D in the Chinese industrial region will be discussed.

  1. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  2. High-resolution multibeam backscatter data - northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution acoustic-backscatter data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  3. Rainfall Characteristics and Regionalization in Peninsular Malaysia Based on a High Resolution Gridded Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Loong Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily gridded rainfall data over Peninsular Malaysia are delineated using an objective clustering algorithm, with the objective of classifying rainfall grids into groups of homogeneous regions based on the similarity of the rainfall annual cycles. It has been demonstrated that Peninsular Malaysia can be statistically delineated into eight distinct rainfall regions. This delineation is closely associated with the topographic and geographic characteristics. The variation of rainfall over the Peninsula is generally characterized by bimodal variations with two peaks, i.e., a primary peak occurring during the autumn transitional period and a secondary peak during the spring transitional period. The east coast zones, however, showed a single peak during the northeast monsoon (NEM. The influence of NEM is stronger compared to the southwest monsoon (SWM. Significantly increasing rainfall trends at 95% confidence level are not observed in all regions during the NEM, with exception of northwest zone (R1 and coastal band of west coast interior region (R3. During SWM, most areas have become drier over the last three decades. The study identifies higher variation of mean monthly rainfall over the east coast regions, but spatially, the rainfall is uniformly distributed. For the southwestern coast and west coast regions, a larger range of coefficients of variation is mostly obtained during the NEM, and to a smaller extent during the SWM. The inland region received least rainfall in February, but showed the largest spatial variation. The relationship between rainfall and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO was examined based on the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Although the concurrent relationships between rainfall in the different regions and ENSO are generally weak with negative correlations, the rainfall shows stronger positive correlation with preceding ENSO signals with a time lag of four to eight months.

  4. Region-specific diversification of the highly virulent serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Cornick, Jennifer E.; Chaguza, Chrispin; Harris, Simon R; Yalcin, Feyruz; Senghore, Madikay; Kiran, Anmol M.; Govindpershad, Shanil; Ousmane, Sani; Plessis, Mignon Du; Pluschke, Gerd; Ebruke, Chinelo; McGee, Lesley; Siga?que, Beutel; Collard, Jean-Marc; Antonio, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) worldwide, with the highest burden in developing countries. We report the whole-genome sequencing analysis of 448 serotype 1 isolates from 27 countries worldwide (including 11 in Africa). The global serotype 1 population shows a strong phylogeographic structure at the continental level, and within Africa there is further region-specific structure. Our results demonstrate that region-specific diversif...

  5. Theoretical Investigation of the High-Altitude Cusp Region using Observations from Interball and ISTP Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental goal of magnetospheric physics is to understand the transport of plasma through the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. To attain such an understanding, we must determine the sources of the plasma, the trajectories of the particles through the magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields to the point of observation, and the acceleration processes they undergo enroute. This study employed plasma distributions observed in the near-Earth plasma sheet by Interball and Geotail spacecraft together with theoretical techniques to investigate the ion sources and the transport of plasma. We used ion trajectory calculations in magnetic and electric fields from a global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation to investigate the transport and to identify common ion sources for ions observed in the near-Earth magnetotail by the Interball and Geotail spacecraft. Our first step was to examine a number of distribution functions and identify distinct boundaries in both configuration and phase space that are indicative of different plasma sources and transport mechanisms. We examined events from October 26, 1995, November 29-30, 1996, and December 22, 1996. During the first event Interball and Geotail were separated by approximately 10 R(sub E) in z, and during the second event the spacecraft were separated by approximately 4(sub RE). Both of these events had a strong IMF By component pointing toward the dawnside. On October 26, 1995, the IMF B(sub Z) component was northward, and on November 1-9-30, 1996, the IMF B sub Z) component was near 0. During the first event, Geotail was located near the equator on the dawn flank, while Interball was for the most part in the lobe region. The distribution function from the Coral instrument on Interball showed less structure and resembled a drifting Maxwellian. The observed distribution on Geotail, on the other hand, included a great number of structures at both low and high energies. During the third event (December 22, 1996

  6. Carbonaceous matter deposition in the high glacial regions of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pengfei, C.; Shichang, K.; Fangping, Y.; Li, X.; Qu, B.; Sillanpää, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonaceous matter at glacial region plays important role in river ecosystems fed by glacier and albedo reduction of glacier surface. However, currently, limited knowledge are available on the carbonaceous matter within the glacial region of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, the data from six snowpits in the glacial region across the TP were reported. The results showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of snowpit samples of the TP were comparable to those of European Alps and the Arctic. The ratio of DOC to carbonaceous matter (40.25±8.98%) was lower than that of Alpine glaciers, thus indicating greater particulate carbon content in the TP glacial region. In addition, the DOC was significantly correlated with insoluble particulate carbon (IPC), indicating that IPC and DOC likely came from the same sources. Spatially, the DOC concentration decreased from the north (0.42±0.29 mg-C L-1) to the south TP (0.15±0.06 mg-C L-1), which was consistent with variations in the distribution of dust storm on the TP. Principal component analysis of major ions and DOC showed that mineral dust contributed the major part of DOC, followed by biogenic sources such as agriculture and livestock. Finally, based on DOC concentrations and precipitation amounts at different periods, the mean annul flux of DOC in the glacial region of the TP was calculated to be 0.11±0.05 g-C m-2 yr-1.

  7. High accuracy 235U(n,f data in the resonance energy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradela C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 235U neutron-induced cross section is widely used as reference cross section for measuring other fission cross sections, but in the resonance region it is not considered as an IAEA standard because of the scarce experimental data covering the full region. In this work, we deal with a new analysis of the experimental data obtained with a detection setup based on parallel plate ionization chambers (PPACs at the CERN n_TOF facility in the range from 1 eV to 10 keV. The relative cross section has been normalised to the IAEA value in the region between 7.8 and 11 eV, which is claimed as well-known. Comparison with the ENDF/B-VII evaluation and the IAEA reference file from 100 eV to 10 keV are provided.

  8. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Localized High Frequency Electrical Stimulation Within the Myocardial Infarct: Effects on Matrix Metalloproteinases and Regional Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Rivers, William T.; Ruddy, Jean Marie; Matthews, Robert G.; Koval, Christine N.; Plyler, Rebecca A.; Chang, Eileen I.; Patel, Risha K.; Kern, Christine B.; Stroud, Robert E.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Disruption of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and MMP inhibitors (TIMPs) within a myocardial infarct (MI) contribute to left ventricular (LV) wall thinning and changes in regional stiffness at the MI region. This study tested the hypothesis that a targeted regional approach through localized high frequency stimulation (LHFS) using low amplitude electrical pulses instituted within a formed MI scar would alter MMP/TIMP levels and prevent MI thinning. Methods/Results At 3 wks following MI, pigs were randomized for LHFS (n=7, 240bpm, 0.8V, 0.05ms pulses) or unstimulated (UNSTIM, n=10). At 4 wks post-MI, LV wall thickness (echo, 0.89±0.07 vs 0.67±0.08 cm, p<0.05) and regional stiffness (piezoelectric crystals, 14.70±2.08 vs 9.11±1.24, p<0.05) were higher with LHFS than UNSTIM. In vivo interstitial MMP activity (fluorescent substrate cleavage, 943±59 vs 1210±72 units, p<0.05) in the MI region was lower with LHFS than in UNSTIM. In the MI region, MMP-2 levels were lower, while TIMP-1 and collagen levels were higher with LHFS than in UNSTIM (all p<0.05). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor 1 and phosphorylated SMAD-2/3 levels within the MI region were higher with LHFS than in UNSTIM. Electrical stimulation (4Hz) of isolated fibroblasts resulted in a reduction of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP levels, but increased TIMP-1 levels compared to unstimulated fibroblasts. Conclusions These unique findings demonstrate that LHFS of the MI region altered LV wall thickness and material properties, likely due to reduced regional MMP activity. Thus, LHFS may provide a novel means to favorably modify LV remodeling post-MI. PMID:20566951

  10. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D; Richters, J.

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and veg...

  11. Comparison of regional and gobal GRACE gravity field models at high latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, B.C.; Wittwer, T.; Stolk, W.; Klees, R.; Ditmar, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we address the question of whether regional gravity field modeling techniques of GRACE data can offer improved resolution over traditional global spherical harmonic solutions. Earlier studies into large, equatorial river basins such as the Amazon, Zambezi and others showed no obvious

  12. Water emission from the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 17233-3606

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurini, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; van der Tak, F.; Beuther, H.; Flower, D. R.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    We investigate the physical and chemical processes at work during the formation of a massive protostar based on the observation of water in an outflow from a very young object previously detected in H2 and SiO in the IRAS 17233-3606 region. We estimated the abundance of water to understand its

  13. How to map soil organic carbon stocks in highly urbanized regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, V.I.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Vasenev, I.I.; Valentini, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is among the most impetuous current land-use change trends, resulting in a permanently increasing role of urban ecosystems in regional and global environments. Urban soil organic carbon (SOC) is probably the least understood stocks because of the lack of appropriate methodology to

  14. Regional radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: is the issue solved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, M; Petersen, C; Offersen, B V

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy is the treatment standard for breast cancer with lymph node metastases after breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. The inclusion of regional lymph nodes into the treatment volumes has been a question in recent clinical trials. Their impact on treatment standards and open ...

  15. Secular Dynamics and Family Identification Among Highly Inclined Asteroids in the Euphrosyne Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, J. F. M.; Carruba, V. C.

    2012-05-01

    In this work we identified 18 families and 39 clumps in the Euphrosyne region, and for the first time we detected stable populations of asteroids in aligned and anti-aligned librating states of the ν5 and ν6 linear secular resonances.

  16. Effective and Inclusive Schools? Attention to Diversity in Highly Effective Schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Nahia; Etxeberria, Feli; Bartau, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper forms part of a research project that aims to characterise best practices in highly effective schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (ARBC). The aim is for the best practices identified to serve as points of reference when designing improvement plans to be implemented in all schools in the ARBC, with the advice and…

  17. Herschel-HIFI observations of H2O in high-mass star-forming regions : First results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the first results of observations of H2O line emission with Herschel-HIFI towards high-mass star-forming regions, obtained within the WISH guaranteed time program. The data reveal three kinds of gas-phase H2O: "cloud water" in cold tenuous foreground clouds, "envelope water" in

  18. Herschel-HIFI observations of H2O in high-mass star-forming regions: first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the first results of observations of H2O line emission with Herschel-HIFI towards high-mass star-forming regions, obtained within the WISH guaranteed time program. The data reveal three kinds of gas-phase H2O: "cloud water" in cold tenuous foreground clouds, "envelope water" in

  19. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  20. A new, high-resolution surface mass balance map of Antarctica (1979–2010) based on regional atmospheric climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; van Meijgaard, E.; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891

    2012-01-01

    A new, high resolution (27 km) surface mass balance (SMB) map of the Antarctic ice sheet is presented, based on output of a regional atmospheric climate model that includes snowdrift physics and is forced by the most recent reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

  1. Assessment of roughness length schemes implemented within the Noah land surface model for high-altitude regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, R.; Su, Zhongbo; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Wen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Current land surface models still have difficulties with producing reliable surface heat fluxes and skin temperature (Tsfc) estimates for high-altitude regions, which may be addressed via adequate parameterization of the roughness lengths for momentum (z0m) and heat (z0h) transfer. In this study,

  2. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  3. Regional airway obstruction in cystic fibrosis determined by electrical impedance tomography in comparison with high resolution CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Frerichs, Inéz; Fischer, Rainald; Möller, Knut

    2013-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to deliver regional information to assess the airway obstruction in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the present study, regional obstruction in CF patients measured by EIT was compared with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Five CF patients were routinely scheduled for HRCT examination. EIT measurements were performed on these patients ±2 months during a standard pulmonary function test. The weighted Brody score derived from HRCT, which considers bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, peribronchial thickening, parenchymal opacity and hyperinflation, was calculated from the CT scans acquired at the location of EIT electrodes ±5 cm. Ratios of maximum expiratory flows at 25% and 75% of vital capacity (MEF25/MEF75) with respect to relative impedance change were calculated for regional areas in EIT images. Regional airway obstruction identified in the MEF25/MEF75 maps was similar to that found in CT. Median values of MEF25/MEF75 and weighted Brody score were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.05). We found that regional obstruction measured by EIT is reliable and may be used as an additional clinical examination tool for CF patients.

  4. Continuous positive airway pressure effects on regional lung aeration in patients with COPD: a high-resolution CT scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Marcelo A; Fortaleza, Simone C B; Alves-de-Almeida, Mirizana; Winkeler, Georgia F P; Reis, Ricardo C; Felix, John H S; Lima, José W O; Pereira, Eanes D B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the lung parenchyma of patients with COPD, to our knowledge, have never been assessed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning. HRCT scans were obtained at the apex, hilum, and basis of the lungs at functional residual capacity while on spontaneous respiration and at the end of CPAP trials of 5 cm water (H(2)O), 10 cm H(2)O, and 15 cm H(2)O in 11 stable patients with COPD and eight healthy volunteers. Lung aeration was assessed by quantitative density parameters and by qualitative analysis of each CT image after processing by means of a density-based color-mask computational algorithm. The quantitative parameters were density histograms, the relative area of the lungs with attenuation values lung aeration in both groups, but in some patients with COPD, CPAP deflated some regions of the lungs. CPAP levels of 10 cm H(2)O and 15 cm H(2)O increased the emphysematous zones in all sectors of the lungs, including dorsal and apical regions in patients with COPD compared to little hyperaeration predominantly in the ventral areas in healthy volunteers. Nasal CPAP causes variable effects on regional lung aeration in relation to the applied pressure and the regional distribution of emphysema in patients with COPD. Low pressure levels may cause regional lung deflation in some patients. High levels increase the emphysematous areas wherever they are located inside the lungs.

  5. Extracting Regional Ionospheric TEC Measurements from Dense GPS (GNSS) Networks in Areas of High Seismic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Y.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Tong, X.; Moore, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The ionosphere structure and peak electron density vary strongly with time, geographic location, and certain solar and geomagnetic disturbances, causing it to be dynamically variable, and hence, one of the main sources of GPS errors. Since ionospheric delays are a key limitation to successful GPS integer-cycle phase ambiguity resolution and point positioning accuracy, it is useful to estimate these delays on regional scales when using dense GPS networks. When estimating the Total Electron Content (TEC), one has to take into account the inner delay differences between the two frequencies, which are also known as the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), and can cause errors of several meters if they are ignored. Although DCB estimates for GNSS satellites and IGS ground receivers are provided on a regular basis by the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (such as CODE, JPL, and ESA), the DCBs for regional and local network receivers are not provided, and some of the IGS ground receiver estimates are not available from all analysis centers. Additionally, the DCB estimates vary between different GNSS satellites and ground receivers, where the majority of the DCBs values are based on the assumption that they are constant over 1 day or 1 month for any given GPS satellite or receiver. However, this assumption is far from being valid, since in fact the DCB values often vary diurnally or semi-diurnally. Developing and implementing regional ionospheric TEC models can be used in real-time to reduce errors in precise point positioning for dense real-time GPS networks. In addition, regional TEC maps extracted from GPS ionospheric path delays can be used, along with tropospheric delays, for mitigating errors in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, especially for the L-band signals. The regional ionospheric TEC maps can also be used for the detection and characterization of ionospheric perturbations, which is valuable for both telluric natural hazards

  6. High-resolution elevation mapping of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Fernandez-Diaz, Juan C.; Obryk, Maciej; Levy, Joseph; Gooseff, Michael; Van Horn, David J.; Morin, Paul; Shrestha, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    We present detailed surface elevation measurements for the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica derived from aerial lidar surveys flown in the austral summer of 2014-2015 as part of an effort to understand geomorphic changes over the past decade. Lidar return density varied from 2 to > 10 returns m-2 with an average of about 5 returns m-2. Vertical and horizontal accuracies are estimated to be 7 and 3 cm, respectively. In addition to our intended targets, other ad hoc regions were also surveyed including the Pegasus flight facility and two regions on Ross Island, McMurdo Station, Scott Base (and surroundings), and the coastal margin between Cape Royds and Cape Evans. These data are included in this report and data release. The combined data are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3.

  7. Very high resolution regional climate model simulations over Greenland: Identifying added value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas-Picher, P.; Wulff-Nielsen, M.; Christensen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents two simulations of the climate over Greenland with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM5 at 0.05° and 0.25° resolution driven at the lateral boundaries by the ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1989–2009. These simulations are validated against observations from meteorol...... models. However, the bias between the simulations and the few available observations does not reduce with higher resolution. This is partly explained by the lack of observations in regions where the higher resolution is expected to improve the simulated climate. The RCM simulations show...... adequate forcing fields for ice sheet models, particularly for their improved simulation of the processes occurring at the steep margins of the ice sheet....

  8. Emission in the 50-80 A region from highly ionized silver in PLT tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.A.; Finkenthal, M.

    1985-09-01

    The spectrum of silver emitted by Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak plasmas has been recorded in the 25 to 150 A region by a multichannel time-resolving grazing-incidence spectrometer. Silver atoms have been introduced in the tokamak plasma using the laser blow-off technique. For the first time, lines emitted within the 3p-3d transitions of Ag XXIX, Ag XXX, and Ag XXXI ions, between 50 and 80 A, have been identified.

  9. Economic impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, Claire L; Drake, Lesley J; Bundy, Donald A P

    2012-01-01

    We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia), the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA) was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1) The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2) In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3) The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4) If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied. The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.

  10. Economic impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Risley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia, the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA, contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART to the scenario of universal access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1 The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2 In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3 The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4 If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.

  11. Quench performance of Fermilab high gradient quadrupole short models for the LHC Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, N; Bossert, R; Brandt, J; Chichili, D R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Limon, P J; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Novitski, I; Ozelis, J P; Peterson, T; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Yadav, S; Zlobin, A V; Caspi, S; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M; Ghosh, A

    1999-01-01

    Fermilab and LBNL are in the midst of superconducting magnet R&D program to test and optimize the design of quadrupoles to be used in the LHC Interaction Region inner triplets. The magnets are required to deliver a 215 T/m gradient across a 70 mm aperture. Five quadrupole short models have been fabricated and four of them have been tested. This paper describes the last model design details and reports the results of the magnet quench performance study. (5 refs).

  12. Tidal variations in the high-latitude E- and F-region observed by EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Hocke

    Full Text Available During the MLTCS (Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study campaign the EISCAT UHF radar was continuously operated over 7 days (30 July–5 August 1992 in the CP-1 mode. The long time series obtained of the fundamental ionospheric parameters field-aligned ion velocity (Vi, ion and electron temperature (T and Te, and electron density (Ne are useful in investigating tidal variations in the E- and F-region since the geomagnetic activity was particularly low during the time of measurement. Maximum entropy spectra of the parameters were calculated for the relatively quiet interval from 1 August to 4 August 1992 and indicated dominant variations with harmonics of 24 hours. In the electron density spectrum especially, harmonics up to the sixth order (4-h period are clearly visible. The phase and amplitude height profiles (100–450 km of the diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal variations were determined by Fourier transform for a 24-h data set beginning at 12:00 UT on 3 August 1992 when the contaminating influences of electric fields were negligible. The tidal variations of the ion temperatures are compared with the corresponding variations of the neutral temperature predicted by the MSISE-90 model. A remarkable result is the dominance of terdiurnal temperature oscillations at E-region heights on 3–4 August 1992, while the measured diurnal and semidiurnal variations were negligible. The finding was confirmed by the analysis of further EISCAT data (2–3 August 1989, 2–3 July 1990, 31 March–1 April 1992 which also showed a dominant terdiurnal temperature tide in the E-region. This is different from numerous observations of tides in the E-region at mid-latitudes where the diurnal and especially the semidiurnal temperature oscillations were dominant.

  13. Tidal variations in the high-latitude E- and F-region observed by EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available During the MLTCS (Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study campaign the EISCAT UHF radar was continuously operated over 7 days (30 July–5 August 1992 in the CP-1 mode. The long time series obtained of the fundamental ionospheric parameters field-aligned ion velocity (Vi, ion and electron temperature (T and Te, and electron density (Ne are useful in investigating tidal variations in the E- and F-region since the geomagnetic activity was particularly low during the time of measurement. Maximum entropy spectra of the parameters were calculated for the relatively quiet interval from 1 August to 4 August 1992 and indicated dominant variations with harmonics of 24 hours. In the electron density spectrum especially, harmonics up to the sixth order (4-h period are clearly visible. The phase and amplitude height profiles (100–450 km of the diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal variations were determined by Fourier transform for a 24-h data set beginning at 12:00 UT on 3 August 1992 when the contaminating influences of electric fields were negligible. The tidal variations of the ion temperatures are compared with the corresponding variations of the neutral temperature predicted by the MSISE-90 model. A remarkable result is the dominance of terdiurnal temperature oscillations at E-region heights on 3–4 August 1992, while the measured diurnal and semidiurnal variations were negligible. The finding was confirmed by the analysis of further EISCAT data (2–3 August 1989, 2–3 July 1990, 31 March–1 April 1992 which also showed a dominant terdiurnal temperature tide in the E-region. This is different from numerous observations of tides in the E-region at mid-latitudes where the diurnal and especially the semidiurnal temperature oscillations were dominant.

  14. Evaluation of a high-resolution regional climate simulation over Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    LEFEBRE, Filip; Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; VAN YPERSELE, Jean-Pascal; Marbaix, Philippe; Greuell, Wouter; CALANCA Pierluigi

    2005-01-01

    A simulation of the 1991 summer has been performed over south Greenland with a coupled atmosphere–snow regional climate model (RCM) forced by the ECMWF re-analysis. The simulation is evaluated with in-situ coastal and ice-sheet atmospheric and glaciological observations. Modelled air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed and radiative fluxes are in good agreement with the available observations, although uncertainties in the radiative transfer scheme need further investigation to improve...

  15. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  16. Homogeneous temperature and precipitation series for a Peruvian High Andes regions from 1965 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, D.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Schwarb, M.; Salzmann, N.

    2010-09-01

    As a basis of a joint Swiss-Peruvian effort focused on water resources, food security and disaster preparedness (Peruvian Climate Adaptation Project, PACC) clean and homogenized meteorological datasets have been elaborated for the Cusco and Apurimac Regions in the Central Andes. Operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) were available as a data base. Additionally, meteorological data provided by the National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) or the Meteorological Aerodrome Records (METAR), have been considered. In contrast to many European countries, where most conventional sensors have been replaced by automated sensors during the last decades, instrumentation of climatological stations remained unchanged in Peru. Station records and station history of the Cusco-Apurimac-region are partially fragmentary or lost, mainly because of armed conflicts, particularly in the 1980ies. Moreover, many stations do observe precipitation as only variable. As a consequence, it was only possible so far to elaborate four complete homogenized air temperature series (Curahuasi 2763m a.s.l., Granja Kcayra-Cusco 3219m, Sicuani, 3574m and La Angostura, 4150m) since 1965. For precipitation a larger number of stations was available for elaboration, which is important because of the small scaled characteristics of the mostly convective type precipitation events in these regions. Based on these homogenized series, linear and gaussian low pass filtered trends have been calculated for all series of precipitation and air temperature records.

  17. A novel airport extraction model based on saliency region detection for high spatial resolution remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Libao; Zhu, Yongchun

    2017-06-01

    The airport is one of the most crucial traffic facilities in military and civil fields. Automatic airport extraction in high spatial resolution remote sensing images has many applications such as regional planning and military reconnaissance. Traditional airport extraction strategies usually base on prior knowledge and locate the airport target by template matching and classification, which will cause high computation complexity and large costs of computing resources for high spatial resolution remote sensing images. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic airport extraction model based on saliency region detection, airport runway extraction and adaptive threshold segmentation. In saliency region detection, we choose frequency-tuned (FT) model for computing airport saliency using low level features of color and luminance that is easy and fast to implement and can provide full-resolution saliency maps. In airport runway extraction, Hough transform is adopted to count the number of parallel line segments. In adaptive threshold segmentation, the Otsu threshold segmentation algorithm is proposed to obtain more accurate airport regions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms existing saliency analysis models and shows good performance in the extraction of the airport.

  18. High prevalence of Trichinella nativa infection in wolf (Canis lupus populations of Tvier and Smoliensk regions of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulli A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have frequently been documented in European regions of Russia, with the highest prevalence reported in wolves (Canis lupus. From 1998 to 2000, 75 carcasses of wolves shot by hunters were tested for Trichinella larvae, and 73 (97.3 % of them were found to be positive. This very high prevalence of infection, the highest ever detected in a natural population of carnivores, could be explained by the human impact on the natural ecosystem. In fact, the diet of wolves living in the region under study mainly consists of carcasses of dogs and wolves, which are left in the forest or used as bait by hunters.

  19. Supercontinuum laser based double-integrating-sphere system for measuring optical properties of highly dense turbid media in the 1300-2350nm region with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Sharma, Sandeep; Aernouts, Ben; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter

    2012-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of turbid media in the light path is important in NIR absorption spectroscopy of biological tissues where multiple scattering complexes the collected light signals due to the non-uniform tissue architecture. Several approaches such as time resolved spectroscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy have been proposed to measure the bulk optical properties of turbid media. Among them, double integrating sphere (DIS) measurements are recognized as the "golden standard" for in vitro optical properties measurement of turbid media because of its high accuracy and robustness in different conditions. A DIS system is convenient to measure the in vitro optical properties of turbid media like intralipid solutions and biological tissues, since it measures the diffuse reflectance and transmittance simultaneously. However, DIS measurements have been mostly limited to the optical window region (400-1000 nm) or suffered from low signal levels on the detectors due to the absorption by water in the NIR region. In this study, we developed a DIS system for optical property measurement in the 1300-2350 nm region based on a novel wavelength tunable spectroscopic setup which incorporates a high power broadband supercontinuum laser and a high precision monochromator. With this system, optical properties of intralipid solutions were measured in the wavelength region of 1300-2350nm.

  20. Improved modeling of midlatitude D-region ionospheric absorption of high frequency radio signals during solar X-ray flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Evelyn A.

    High frequency (HF) radio communication is widely used for real-time, medium to long range communications due to its low cost of operation and maintenance. However, HF communication is strongly dependent on the state of the ionosphere, which is sensitive to solar X-ray flares. The lowest region of the ionosphere, the D-region, is the region in which the majority of the absorption of HF radio wave energy occurs. D-region HF absorption depends on the local electron density, which is enhanced during a solar X-ray flare. HF propagation data obtained during the HF Investigation of D-region Ionospheric Variation Experiment (HIDIVE) and obtained at the Canadian Space Agency NORSTAR riometer in Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada and X-ray flux data, as reported by GOES satellites, are analyzed here for the purpose of validating and improving the performance of two HF absorption models, the operational Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) D-region Absorption model and the physical AbbyNormal model. The SWPC D-region absorption model is an empirical model providing real-time global predictions of D-region absorption, and the physical Absorption by the D and E Region of HF Signals with Normal Incidence (AbbyNormal) model is based on simple D-region chemistry and provides near real-time predictions of midlatitude D-region HF absorption. Analysis of the HIDIVE data revealed an absorption dependence on signal frequency of f-1.24 where f is signal frequency, and a Cos 0.9(chi) dependence on solar zenith angle, chi. These relations differ from what is used in the SWPC model, and from these relations, a new empirical model, the Empirical HIDIVE Absorption (EHA) model, is developed. The EHA model can be used to improve the SWPC model performance. NO density data obtained with the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) and during the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are used to improve the method by which the AbbyNormal model defines the nitric oxide (NO) profile within the atmosphere

  1. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  2. Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkrdem, Mofareh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

  3. Highly doped InP as a low loss plasmonic material for mid-IR region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Morozov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We study plasmonic properties of highly doped InP in the mid-infrared (IR) range. InP was grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the growth conditions optimized to achieve high free electron concentrations by doping with silicon. The permittivity of the grown material was found b...

  4. Structural highs on the western continental slope of India: Implications for regional tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Rajesh, M.; De, Suritha; Chakraborty, B.; Jauhari, P.

    and satellite gravity data, supported by other geophysical information, suggest that these structural highs are likely to be the peaks of the Upper Slope Ridge and the Prathap Ridge. The possible origin and mode of emplacement of these structural highs (and...

  5. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  6. Selling 'Fracking': Legitimation of High Speed Oil and Gas Extraction in the Marcellus Shale Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jacob R.

    The advent of horizontal hydraulic fracture drilling, or 'fracking,' a technology used to access oil and natural gas deposits, has allowed for the extraction of deep, unconventional shale gas and oil deposits in various shale seams throughout the United States and world. One such shale seam, the Marcellus shale, extends from New York State, across Pennsylvania, and throughout West Virginia, where shale gas development has significantly increased within the last decade. This boom has created a massive amount of economic activity surrounding the energy industry, creating jobs for workers, income from leases and royalties for landowners, and profits for energy conglomerates. However, this bounty comes with risks to environmental and public health, and has led to divisive community polarization over the issue in the Marcellus shale region. In the face of potential environmental and social disruption, and a great deal of controversy surrounding 'fracking,' the oil and gas industry has had to undertake a myriad of public relations campaigns and initiatives to legitimize their extraction efforts in the Marcellus shale region, and to project the oil and gas industry in a positive light to residents, policy makers, and landowners. This thesis describes one such public relations initiative, the Energy in Depth Northeast Marcellus Initiative. Through qualitative content analysis of Energy in Depth's online web material, this thesis examines the ways in which the oil and gas industry narrates the shale gas boom in the Marcellus shale region, and the ways in which the industry frames the discourse surrounding natural gas development. Through the use of environmental imagery, appeals to scientific reason, and appeals to patriotism, the oil and gas industry uses Energy in Depth to frame the shale gas extraction process in a positive way, all the while framing those who question or oppose the processes of shale gas extraction as irrational obstructionists.

  7. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  8. A high-resolution linkage map of the achondroplasia critical region on human chromosome 4q16.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with an incidence of greater than 1/40,000 births. Recently, a random search of the genome using highly polymorphic autosomal markers has localized the gene for achondroplasia to the distal portion of human chromosome 4p. We report here the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the critical region including the achondroplasia locus. The CEPH panel of pedigrees was genotyped at several loci using highly polymorphic markers, including the Huntington locus (IT15), D4S43, D4S115, and the gene for the {beta}-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB). These data were incorporated into the CEPH v.6.6 database and a multipoint map was generated using the LINKAGE programs v.5.1. Based on reported recombination events in achondroplasia pedigrees, the gene for achondroplasia lies distal to the anonymous marker D4S43, in the 8 cM region defined as follows: cen-IT15-D4S43-D4S98-[D4S115-D4S111]-D4S90-PDEB. The disparity between the genetic distance and the physical distance (2 mB) among these markers likely reflects the high rate of recombination within the region. Extension of this linkage map further toward the telomere and identification of distal recombinant markers should expedite efforts directed toward isolation of the gene for achondroplasia.

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  11. High Cooling Water Temperature Effects on Design and Operational Safety of NPPs in the Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP) are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia), and a much larger one at Barakah (4Χ1,400 MWe PWR from Korea). Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  12. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  13. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  14. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  15. Regional Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volumes in Youth at Familial Risk for Schizophrenia from the Harvard Adolescent High Risk Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Isabelle M.; Makris, Nikos; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Hodge, Steven M.; Brown, Ariel; Kennedy, David; Caviness, Verne S.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regional prefrontal cortex gray matter reductions have been identified in schizophrenia, likely reflecting a combination of genetic vulnerability and disease effects. Few morphometric studies to date have examined regional prefrontal abnormalities in non-psychotic biological relatives who have not passed through the age range of peak risk for onset of psychosis. We conducted a region-of-interest morphometric study of prefrontal subregions in adolescent and young adult relatives of schizophrenia patients. Methods Twenty-seven familial high-risk (FHR) first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and forty-eight control subjects without a family history of psychosis (ages 13–28) underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla. The prefrontal cortex was parcellated into polar, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, ventromedial and orbital subregions. The Chapman scales measured subpsychotic symptoms. General linear models examined associations of prefrontal subregion volumes with familial risk and subpsychotic symptoms. Results FHR subjects had significantly reduced bilateral ventromedial prefrontal and frontal pole gray matter volumes compared with controls. Ventromedial volume was significantly negatively correlated with magical ideation and anhedonia scores in FHR subjects. Conclusions Selective, regional prefrontal gray matter reductions may differentially mark genetic vulnerability and early symptom processes among non-psychotic young adults at familial risk for schizophrenia. PMID:20705433

  16. Distinct Regions within the Erlins Are Required for Oligomerization and Association with High Molecular Weight Complexes*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegg, Maja B.; Browman, Duncan T.; Resek, Mary E.; Robbins, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The group of stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain-containing proteins comprise members of diverse subcellular localization and function. Association with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and the propensity to form oligomers are two common properties of SPFH domain proteins and likely important for the function of these proteins. Our laboratory recently discovered two novel members of this protein group, which, based on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization and association with DRMs, were named ER lipid raft-associated protein (erlin)-1 and -2. Here we characterized erlin oligomerization and identified domains within the erlins responsible for oligomerization and DRM association. Using co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation approaches on endogenous and ectopically expressed erlin proteins, we found that they formed homo- and hetero-oligomers and were part of large multimeric complexes. These properties were independent of their DRM association. By analyzing truncation and point mutants of erlin-2 we discovered that interaction between erlin monomers (oligomerization) and association with high molecular weight complexes require distinct regions within the protein. Although oligomerization and DRM association were mediated by a region immediately downstream of the SPFH domain (residues 228–300), integration into high molecular weight complexes was absolutely dependent on a phenylalanine residue C-terminal of this region (Phe-305), which lies within a short stretch of hydrophobic residues. Our data demonstrate that lower order oligomerization and incorporation into multimeric complexes are two separate biochemical properties of the erlins, because they are mediated by distinct regions. PMID:19131330

  17. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling. Progress report, March 15, 1988--May 14, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract {number_sign}DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  18. Design of high-efficient freeform LED lens for illumination of elongated rectangular regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Mikhail A; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L

    2011-05-09

    We propose a method for the design of an optical element generating the required irradiance distribution in a rectangular area with a large aspect ratio. Application fields include streetlights, the illumination of halls or corridors, and so forth. The design assumes that the optical element has a complex form and contains two refractive surfaces. The first one converts a spherical beam from the light source to a cylindrical beam. The second one transforms an incident cylindrical beam and generates the required irradiance distribution in the target plane. Two optical elements producing a uniform irradiance distribution from a Cree® XLamp® source in rectangular regions of 17 m × 4 m and 17 m × 2 m are designed. The light efficiency of the designed optical element is larger than 83%, whereas the irradiance nonuniformity is less than 9%.

  19. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  20. Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Resonance Region at High $Q^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Villano, A N; Bosted, P E; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Jones, M K; Adams, G S; Afanasev, A; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Breuer, H; Christy, M E; Cui, Y; Danagulyan, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Khayari, N El; Elliot, B; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Gasparian, A; Grullon, S; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kinney, E R; Kubarovski, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Lu, M; Lung, A; Mack, D; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Napolitano, J; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Pamela, P; Potterveld, D H; Reimer, Paul E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stepanyan, S; Tadevosyan, V; Tahani, A; Tang, L; Tvaskis, V; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zhu, H

    2009-01-01

    The process $ep \\to e^{\\prime}p^{\\prime}\\pi^0$ has been measured at $Q^2$ = 6.4 and 7.7 \\ufourmomts in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. Unpolarized differential cross sections are reported in the virtual photon-proton center of mass frame considering the process $\\gamma^{\\ast}p \\to p^{\\prime}\\pi^0$. Various details relating to the background subtractions, radiative corrections and systematic errors are discussed. The usefulness of the data with regard to the measurement of the electromagnetic properties of the well known $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance is covered in detail. Specifically considered are the electromagnetic and scalar-magnetic ratios $R_{EM}$ and $R_{SM}$ along with the magnetic transition form factor $G_M^{\\ast}$. It is found that the rapid fall off of the $\\Delta(1232)$ contribution continues into this region of momentum transfer and that other resonances

  1. High contrast ultrasonic imaging of resin-rich regions in graphite/epoxy composites using entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael S.; McCarthy, John E.; Bruillard, Paul. J.; Marsh, Jon N.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2016-02-01

    This study compares different approaches for imaging a near-surface resin-rich defect in a thin graphite/epoxy plate using backscattered ultrasound. The specimen was created by cutting a circular hole in the second ply; this region filled with excess resin from the graphite/epoxy sheets during the curing process. Backscat-tered waveforms were acquired using a 4 in. focal length, 5MHz center frequency broadband transducer, scanned on a 100 × 100 grid of points that were 0.03 × 0.03 in. apart. The specimen was scanned with the defect side closest to the transducer. Consequently, the reflection from the resin-rich region cannot be gated from the large front-wall echo. At each point in the grid 256 waveforms were averaged together and subsequently used to produce peak-to-peak, Signal Energy (sum of squared digitized waveform values), as well as entropy images of two different types (a Renyi entropy, and a joint entropy). As the figure shows, all of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than the either the peak-to-peak or Signal Energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies.

  2. Development of ALARO-Climate regional climate model for a very high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Petr; Farda, Ales; Brozkova, Radmila; Masek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    ALARO-Climate is a new regional climate model (RCM) derived from the ALADIN LAM model family. It is based on the numerical weather prediction model ALARO and developed at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The model is expected to able to work in the so called "grey zone" physics (horizontal resolution of 4 - 7 km) and at the same time retain its ability to be operated in resolutions in between 20 and 50 km, which are typical for contemporary generation of regional climate models. Here we present the main features of the RCM ALARO-Climate and results of the first model simulations on longer time-scales (1961-1990). The model was driven by the ERA-40/Interim re-analyses and run on the large pan-European integration domain ("ENSEMBLES / Euro-Cordex domain") with spatial resolution of 25 km. The simulated model climate was compared with the gridded observation of air temperature (mean, maximum, minimum) and precipitation from the E-OBS version 7 dataset. The validation of the first ERA-40 simulation has revealed significant cold biases in all seasons (between -4 and -2 °C) and overestimation of precipitation on 20% to 60% in the selected Central Europe target area (0° - 30° eastern longitude ; 40° - 60° northern latitude). The consequent adaptations in the model and their effect on the simulated properties of climate variables are illustrated. Acknowledgements: This study was performed within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation) and CzechGlobe Centre (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0073). The partial support was also provided under the projects P209-11-0956 of the Czech Science Foundation and CZ.1.07/2.4.00/31.0056 (Operational Programme of Education for Competitiveness of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic).

  3. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  4. Spatial patterns in electoral wards with high lymphoma incidence in Yorkshire health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, N.; Cartwright, R. A.; O'Brien, C.; Roberts, B.; Richards, I. D.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities of clustering between those electoral wards which display higher than expected incidences of cases of the lymphomas occurring between 1978 and 1982 are examined. Clusters are defined as being those wards with cases in excess (at a probability of less than 10%) which are geographically adjacent to each other. A separate analysis extends the definition of cluster to include high incidence wards that are adjacent or separated by one other ward. The results indicate that many high incidence lymphoma wards do occur close together and when computer simulations are used to compute expected results, many of the observed results are shown to be highly improbable both in the overall number of clustering wards and in the largest number of wards comprising a 'cluster'. PMID:3663469

  5. Absorbed dose simulations in near-surface regions using high dose rate Iridium-192 sources applied for brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E. S.; Zeituni, C. A.; Sakuraba, R. K.; Gonçalves, V. D.; Cruz, J. C.; Júnior, D. K.; Souza, C. D.; Rostelato, M. E. C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Brachytherapy treatment with Iridium-192 high dose rate (HDR) sources is widely used for various tumours and it could be developed in many anatomic regions. Iridium-192 sources are inserted inside or close to the region that will be treated. Usually, the treatment is performed in prostate, gynaecological, lung, breast and oral cavity regions for a better clinical dose coverage compared with other techniques, such as, high energy photons and Cobalt-60 machines. This work will evaluate absorbed dose distributions in near-surface regions around Ir-192 HDR sources. Near-surface dose measurements are a complex task, due to the contribution of beta particles in the near-surface regions. These dose distributions should be useful for non-tumour treatments, such as keloids, and other non-intracavitary technique. For the absorbed dose distribution simulations the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE with the general code penEasy was used. Ir-192 source geometry and a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube, for beta particles shield were modelled to yield the percentage depth dose (PDD) on a cubic water phantom. Absorbed dose simulations were realized at the central axis to yield the Ir-192 dose fall-off along central axis. The results showed that more than 99.2% of the absorbed doses (relative to the surface) are deposited in 5 cm depth but with slower rate at higher distances. Near-surface treatments with Ir-192 HDR sources yields achievable measurements and with proper clinical technique and accessories should apply as an alternative for treatment of lesions where only beta sources were used.

  6. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Atmosphere, PK-6530, Succ. Centre-ville, B.P. 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Elia, Ramon [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Ouranos Consortium, Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions. (orig.)

  7. Broadband plasmonic silver nanoflowers for high-performance random lasing covering visible region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multicolor random lasing has broad potential applications in the fields of imaging, sensing, and optoelectronics. Here, silver nanoflowers (Ag NF with abundant nanogaps are fabricated by a rapid one-step solution-phase synthesis method and are first proposed as effective broadband plasmonic scatterers to achieve different color random lasing. With abundant nanogaps and spiky tips near the surface and the interparticle coupling effect, Ag NFs greatly enhance the local electromagnetic field and induce broadband plasmonic scattering spectra over the whole visible range. The extremely low working threshold and the high-quality factor for Ag NF-based random lasers are thus demonstrated as 0.24 MW cm−2 and 11,851, respectively. Further, coherent colorful random lasing covering the visible range is realized using the dye molecules oxazine (red, Coumarin 440 (blue, and Coumarin 153 (green, showing high-quality factor of more than 10,000. All these features show that Ag NF are highly efficient scatterers for high-performance coherent random lasing and colorful random lasers.

  8. Extra-high doses detected in the enamel of human teeth in the Techa riverside region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A., E-mail: ElenaA.Shishkina@gmail.com [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Degteva, M.O.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 S. Kovalevsky Str, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    During the long-term study of tooth enamel by EPR dosimetry for population exposed to radiation due to contamination of the Techa River, it was found out that for some of the tooth donors the dose accumulated in tooth enamel could be as high as several tens of Gy. Such doses were absorbed only in tooth enamel and they should not be associated with exposures to other organs or the whole body. The nature of such doses was discussed in a number of previous papers where it was shown that the source of such doses is {sup 90}Sr incorporated in the calcified dental tissues. However, among specialists in radiation dosimetry who were not involved in the biokinetic studies, the nature and dosimetric significance of extra-high doses in tooth enamel are still raising questions. The aim of the current paper is to summarize the accumulated information on extra-high doses in the teeth of the Techa riverside residents, describe the dose levels observed, explain the nature of extra-high doses in the enamel and discuss their informative value. The paper includes an overview of already published findings and an analysis of information collected in the data bank of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), Chelyabinsk, Russia, which has not been published before.

  9. Broadband plasmonic silver nanoflowers for high-performance random lasing covering visible region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Shi, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xuan; Tong, Junhua; Liu, Dahe; Wang, Zhaona

    2017-05-01

    Multicolor random lasing has broad potential applications in the fields of imaging, sensing, and optoelectronics. Here, silver nanoflowers (Ag NF) with abundant nanogaps are fabricated by a rapid one-step solution-phase synthesis method and are first proposed as effective broadband plasmonic scatterers to achieve different color random lasing. With abundant nanogaps and spiky tips near the surface and the interparticle coupling effect, Ag NFs greatly enhance the local electromagnetic field and induce broadband plasmonic scattering spectra over the whole visible range. The extremely low working threshold and the high-quality factor for Ag NF-based random lasers are thus demonstrated as 0.24 MW cm-2 and 11,851, respectively. Further, coherent colorful random lasing covering the visible range is realized using the dye molecules oxazine (red), Coumarin 440 (blue), and Coumarin 153 (green), showing high-quality factor of more than 10,000. All these features show that Ag NF are highly efficient scatterers for high-performance coherent random lasing and colorful random lasers.

  10. High-Resolution Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Models of Eastern Tibet and Adjacent Regions (Post Print)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    closely beneath the Moho discontinuity, and thus its velocity model mainly represents the velocity structure of the uppermost mantle. We have applied the...have high Pn velocities. An abrupt Moho depth change is suggested by the observed significant difference of station delays along Kunlun, the northern

  11. Regional plantar foot pressure distributions on high-heeled shoes-shank curve effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yan; Lee, Winson; Zhang, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Forefoot pain is common in high-heeled shoe wearers due to the high pressure caused by the center of body mass moving forward and the increased arch height with heel elevation. Sufficient arch support could reduce the high pressure over forefoot. However, too much arch support could lead to abnormal foot alignment and pain over midfoot. Little information is reported on the relationship among plantar arch height, shank curve design and plantar pressure. This study aimed at quantifying the plantar arch height changes at different heel heights and investigating the effect of shank curve on plantar pressure distribution. The plantar arch height increased to (7.6±1.3)mm at heel height of 75 mm. The Chinese standard suggests the depth of last should be 8.5mm for heel height of 75 mm. When a shank curve with higher depth of last (11 mm) was used, the peak pressure over forefoot further decreased in midstance phase, which might ease the forefoot problems, while the peak pressure over midfoot increased but not exceeded the discomfort pressure thresholds. To achieve a more ideal pressure distribution in high-heeled shoes, a higher than expected depth of last would be suggested that would not cause discomfort over midfoot.

  12. Identification of immunogenic HLA-B7 "Achilles' heel" epitopes within highly conserved regions of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Rivera, Daniel S; McMurry, Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in class I human leukocyte antigen molecules (HLA) have been shown to determine susceptibility to HIV infection as well as the rate of progression to AIDS. In particular, the HLA-B7 supertype has been shown to be associated with high viral loads and rapid progression to dise...

  13. Development of ALARO-Climate regional climate model for a very high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Petr; Farda, Ales; Brozkova, Radmila; Masek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    ALARO-Climate is a new regional climate model (RCM) derived from the ALADIN LAM model family. It is based on the numerical weather prediction model ALARO and developed at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The model is expected to able to work in the so called "grey zone" physics (horizontal resolution of 4 - 7 km) and at the same time retain its ability to be operated in resolutions in between 20 and 50 km, which are typical for contemporary generation of regional climate models. Here we present the main results of the RCM ALARO-Climate model simulations in 25 and 6.25 km resolutions on the longer time-scale (1961-1990). The model was driven by the ERA-40 re-analyses and run on the integration domain of ~ 2500 x 2500 km size covering the central Europe. The simulated model climate was compared with the gridded observation of air temperature (mean, maximum, minimum) and precipitation from the E-OBS version dataset 8. Other simulated parameters (e.g., cloudiness, radiation or components of water cycle) were compared to the ERA-40 re-analyses. The validation of the first ERA-40 simulation in both, 25 km and 6.25 km resolutions, revealed significant cold biases in all seasons and overestimation of precipitation in the selected Central Europe target area (0° - 30° eastern longitude ; 40° - 60° northern latitude). The differences between these simulations were small and thus revealed a robustness of the model's physical parameterization on the resolution change. The series of 25 km resolution simulations with several model adaptations was carried out to study their effect on the simulated properties of climate variables and thus possibly identify a source of major errors in the simulated climate. The current investigation suggests the main reason for biases is related to the model physic. Acknowledgements: This study was performed within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation) and CzechGlobe Centre (CZ.1

  14. Structure of high-spin states in A {approx} 60 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Hitoshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Hatsukawa, Y. [and others

    1998-03-01

    High-spin states in the proton-rich Cu-Zn nuclei are investigated by the experiments at JAERI. New levels and {gamma}-rays are identified by the particle-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence, and J{sup P} assignments are made via the DCO ratio analysis. Yrast sequences are observed up to J {approx} 18 for {sup 62}Zn, and {sup 64}Zn, J {approx} 27/2 for {sup 61}Cu and J {approx} 23/2 for {sup 63}Cu. Though we cannot settle new J{sup P} values for {sup 61,63}Zn, their yrast sequence is also extended. In {sup 64}Zn, a doublet of {gamma}-rays is discovered at 1315 keV, clarifying the similarity in the level scheme between {sup 62}Zn and {sup 64}Zn. We reproduce the yrast levels by a shell-model calculation, by which structure of the high-spin states is further studied. A parity change in the yrast sequence is established, in which the unique-parity orbit 0g{sub 9/2} plays an essential role; one nucleon excitation to g{sub 9/2} gains high angular momentum with low seniority, at the cost of the single-parity energy. Second parity-change is also suggested by the calculation. Such parity change seems characteristic to spherical or nearly spherical nuclei. In {sup 61}Cu, concentration of the {gamma}-ray intensity is observed. This happens because a stretched 3-quasiparticle configuration including 0g{sub 9/2} is relatively stable, similarly to some isomers. Thus, by studying the structure of the high-spin states of the A {approx} 60 nuclei, we have clarified the role of unique-parity orbit in high-spin states, which may be generic to spherical and nearly spherical nuclei. (J.P.N.)

  15. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  16. High-reliability microcontroller nerve stimulator for assistance in regional anaesthesia procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Carlos A; Quevedo, Antonio A F

    2017-07-01

    In the last decades, the use of nerve stimulators to aid in regional anaesthesia has been shown to benefit the patient since it allows a better location of the nerve plexus, leading to correct positioning of the needle through which the anaesthetic is applied. However, most of the nerve stimulators available in the market for this purpose do not have the minimum recommended features for a good stimulator, and this can lead to risks to the patient. Thus, this study aims to develop an equipment, using embedded electronics, which meets all the characteristics, for a successful blockade. The system is made of modules for generation and overall control of the current pulse and the patient and user interfaces. The results show that the designed system fits into required specifications for a good and reliable nerve stimulator. Linearity proved satisfactory, ensuring accuracy in electrical current amplitude for a wide range of body impedances. Field tests have proven very successful. The anaesthesiologist that used the system reported that, in all cases, plexus blocking was achieved with higher quality, faster anaesthetic diffusion and without needed of an additional dose when compared with same procedure without the use of the device.

  17. Phase relations study on the melting and crystallization regions of the Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polasek Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The melting and solidification behavior of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10 (Bi-2223 precursors has been studied. Nominal compositions corresponding to excess of liquid, Ca2CuO3 and CuO have been investigated. Each sample was made by packing a precursor powder into a silver crucible, in order to approximately simulate the situation found in 2223 silver-sheathed tapes. The samples were partially melted and then slow-cooled, being quenched from different temperatures and analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. The precursors decomposed peritectically during melting, forming liquid and solid phases. Very long plates with compositions falling in the vicinity of the 2223 primary phase field formed upon slow-cooling. The 2223 phase may have been formed and the results suggest that long grains of this phase might be obtained by melting and crystallization if the exact peritectic region and the optimum processing conditions are found.

  18. High-Resolution Specification of the Land and Ocean Surface for Improving Regional Mesoscale Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lazarus, Steven M.; Splitt, Michael E.; Crosson, William L.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2008-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many meteorological processes. High-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), soil temperature and moisture content, ground fluxes, and vegetation are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of sensible weather. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been conducting separate studies to examine the impacts of high-resolution land-surface initialization data from the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS) on subsequent WRF forecasts, as well as the influence of initializing WRF with SST composites derived from the MODIS instrument. This current project addresses the combined impacts of using high-resolution lower boundary data over both land (LIS data) and water (MODIS SSTs) on the subsequent daily WRF forecasts over Florida during May 2004. For this experiment, the WRF model is configured to run on a nested domain with 9- km and 3-kin grid spacing, centered on the Florida peninsula and adjacent coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. A control configuration of WRF is established to take all initial condition data from the NCEP Eta model. Meanwhile, two WRF experimental runs are configured to use high-resolution initialization data from (1) LIS land-surface data only, and (2) a combination of LIS data and high-resolution MODIS SST composites. The experiment involves running 24-hour simulations of the control WRF configuration, the MS-initialized WRF, and the LIS+MODIS-initialized WRF daily for the entire month of May 2004. All atmospheric data for initial and boundary conditions for the Control, LIS, and LIS+MODIS runs come from the NCEP Eta model on a 40-km grid. Verification statistics are generated at land surface observation sites and buoys, and the impacts

  19. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; Richters, J.

    2011-05-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV) indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII) data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000) and at the end of austral summer (May 2001). The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %). Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43) and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2) from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82) in dry austral winter months (June to August) and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75) during austral summer (March to May). Annual changes in spatial extend of perennial HAWA

  20. Importance of post-shock streams and sheath region as drivers of intense magnetospheric storms and high-latitude activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere can be very different depending on the type of solar wind driver. We have determined the solar wind causes for intense magnetic storms (Dst<-100nT over a 6-year period from the beginning of 1997 to the end of 2002, using observations by the WIND and ACE spacecraft. We have taken into consideration whether the storm was caused by the sheath region or by the following interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also divided ICMEs into those having a magnetic cloud structure and those without such a structure. We found that post-shock streams and sheath regions caused the largest fraction of intense magnetic storms. We present four periods of magnetospheric activity in more detail. One of the events was caused by a magnetic cloud (10-11 August 2000 and the rest (13-14 July 2000, 8-9 June 2000 and 17-18 April 2001 by sheath regions and post-shock streams. We have used several magnetic indices to monitor the low- and high-latitude magnetospheric response to these different solar wind structures. Two of the events are interesting examples where at first strong high-latitude activity took place and the low-latitude response followed several hours later. These events demonstrate that low- and high-latitude activity do not always occur concurrently and the level of activity may be very different. According to the examples shown the evolution of the pressure-corrected Dst index was more difficult to model for a sheath region or a post-shock stream driven storm than for a storm caused by a magnetic cloud.

  1. Changes of somatotype in high school students, V region, Chile: 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana Arce, P; Almagiâ Flores, A; Simpson Lelievre, C; Ivanovic Marincovic, D; Binvignat Gutiérrez, O; Berral de la Rosa, F

    2012-01-01

    To determine the trend of high school students from Valparaíso Chile by means of an anthropometrical somatotype. two samples of students during the years 1984-1985 (86 men and 71 women) and 2009-2010 (77 men and 86 women) between 15 and 18 years of age have been studied. Somatotype was estimated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. significant differences were found in all the variables of the somatotype during the periods studied (p somatotype of the adolescent population, especially women in Valparaiso, Chile has changed to a predominant endomorphic biotype, and its mesomorphic component has decreased. A high relative adiposity contributes to increase the probability for these people to suffer non-transmissible chronic diseases and cardiovascular issues.

  2. Analysis of a high-resolution regional climate simulation for Alpine temperature. Validation and influence of the NAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proemmel, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    To determine whether the increase in resolution of climate models improves the representation of climate is a crucial topic in regional climate modelling. An improvement over coarser-scale models is expected especially in areas with complex orography or along coastlines. However, some studies have shown no clear added value for regional climate models. In this study a high-resolution regional climate model simulation performed with REMO over the period 1958-1998 is analysed for 2m temperature over the orographically complex European Alps and their surroundings called the Greater Alpine Region (GAR). The model setup is in hindcast mode meaning that the simulation is driven with perfect boundary conditions by the ERA40 reanalysis through prescribing the values at the lateral boundaries and spectral nudging of the large-scale wind field inside the model domain. The added value is analysed between the regional climate simulation with a resolution of 1/6 and the driving reanalysis with a resolution of 1.125 . Before analysing the added value both the REMO simulation and the ERA40 reanalysis are validated against different station datasets of monthly and daily mean 2m temperature. The largest dataset is the dense, homogenised and quality controlled HISTALP dataset covering the whole GAR, which gave the opportunity for the validation undertaken in this study. The temporal variability of temperature, as quantified by correlation, is well represented by both REMO and ERA40. However, both show considerable biases. The REMO bias reaches 3 K in summer in regions known to experience a problem with summer drying in a number of regional models. In winter the bias is strongly influenced by the choice of the temperature lapse rate, which is applied to compare grid box and station data at different altitudes, and has the strongest influence on inner Alpine subregions where the altitude differences are largest. By applying a constant lapse rate the REMO bias in winter in the high

  3. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dario A. Bastidas; Jairo A. Guerrero; Kris Wyckhuys

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp), are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control...

  4. High-Altitude Laser Altimetry from the Global Hawk UAV for Regional Mapping of Surface Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Wake, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Michell, S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) is a high-altitude, full-waveform, geodetic-imaging laser altimeter system of which a UAV-based version (LVIS-GH) is currently being tested. From 20 km above the surface in the Global Hawk UAV, LVIS-GH images surface topography and roughness (including forest height) across a 4 km wide swath using 15 m diameter footprints. In recent years, the LVIS has been flown at altitudes of up to 14 km over Greenland and Antarctica on flights up to 12 hours in duration, enabling the efficient and precise mapping of large areas from the air. The Global Hawk will extend this capability to up to 32 hours and altitudes approaching 20 km. In order to achieve decimeter level vertical precision and accuracy from high altitude, advanced parameter estimation techniques, based on those implemented in NASA's GEODYN software, are used to estimate the angular, spatial, and temporal biases required to accurately georeference the component lidar data sets. Data from specific in-air maneuvers are utilized in order to isolate the effects of different error sources and to break correlations between biases. Examples of high-altitude data and airborne/spaceborne sensor intercomparison and fusion will be shown. For example, the comparison of data from NASA's ICESat-1 mission with coincident LVIS data collected around 86S (the maximum extent of data collected during ICESat) to quantify inter-campaign biases in Icesat-1 elevation measurements and improve estimates of long -term elevation change rates of ice sheets will be shown. These results illustrate the utility of high-altitude wide swath imaging, particularly from platforms such as the Global-Hawk, for enhancing spacebased data sets.

  5. A new TEC interpolation method based on the least squares collocation for high accuracy regional ionospheric maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Paweł; Jarmołowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    The ionosphere plays a crucial role in space weather that affects satellite navigation as the ionospheric delay is one of the major errors in GNSS. On the other hand, GNSS observations are widely used to determine the amount of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). An important aspect in the electron content estimation at regional and global scale is adopting the appropriate interpolation strategy. In this paper we propose and validate a new method for regional TEC modeling based on least squares collocation (LSC) with noise variance estimation. This method allows for providing accurate TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such maps may be used to support precise GNSS positioning and navigation, e.g. in RTK mode and also in the ionosphere studies. To test applicability of new TEC maps to positioning, double-difference ionospheric corrections were derived from the maps and their accuracy was analyzed. In addition, the corrections were applied to GNSS positioning and validated in ambiguity resolution domain. The tests were carried out during a strong ionospheric storm when the ionosphere is particularly difficult to model. The performance of the new approach was compared to IGS and UPC global, and CODE regional TEC maps. The results showed an advantage of our solution with resulting accuracy of the relative ionospheric corrections usually better than 10 cm, even during the ionospheric disturbances. This proves suitability of our regional TEC maps for, e.g. supporting fast ambiguity resolution in kinematic GNSS positioning.

  6. Evaluation of tissue displacement and regional strain in the Achilles tendon using quantitative high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Stijn; De Brito Carvalho, Catarina; Scheys, Lennart; Desloovere, Kaat; D'hooge, Jan; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; Peers, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The Achilles tendon has a unique structure-function relationship thanks to its innate hierarchical architecture in combination with the rotational anatomy of the sub-tendons from the triceps surae muscles. Previous research has provided valuable insight in global Achilles tendon mechanics, but limitations with the technique used remain. Furthermore, given the global approach evaluating muscle-tendon junction to insertion, regional differences in tendon mechanical properties might be overlooked. However, recent advancements in the field of ultrasound imaging in combination with speckle tracking have made an intratendinous evaluation possible. This study uses high-frequency ultrasound to allow for quantification of regional tendon deformation. Also, an interactive application was developed to improve clinical applicability. A dynamic ultrasound of both Achilles tendons of ten asymptomatic subjects was taken. The displacement and regional strain in the superficial, middle and deep layer were evaluated during passive elongation and isometric contraction. Building on previous research, results showed that the Achilles tendon displaces non-uniformly with a higher displacement found in the deep layer of the tendon. Adding to this, a non-uniform regional strain behavior was found in the Achilles tendon during passive elongation, with the highest strain in the superficial layer. Further exploration of tendon mechanics will improve the knowledge on etiology of tendinopathy and provide options to optimize existing therapeutic loading programs.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of two highly affected regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Aqeel, Talieha; Salman, Saad; Ibrahim, Qamer; Idrees, Jawaria; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid

    2015-11-05

    Despite the efforts of national and international organizations, polio has not been eradicated from Pakistan. The prevalence of polio in Pakistan is exceptional in global context. Quetta and Peshawar divisions are amongst the most affected regions hit by polio in Pakistan. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 768 participants was conducted from August to December, 2014 in Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was used to draw a sample of residents from each division. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from eligible participants. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results. A total of 38.8 % participants exhibited good knowledge about polio. Mean knowledge score of the participants was 7.35 ± 2.54 (based on 15 knowledge questions). Older age (p attitudes towards polio immunization (84.8 %), with a mean score of 19.19 ± 2.39 (based on 8 attitude statements). Lack of education (p attitudes of participants towards polio immunization. False religious beliefs (39.06 %), lack of knowledge (33.7 %), fear of infertility by polio vaccines (32.16 %) and security issues (29.42 %) were reported by the participants as the main barriers towards polio immunization. The findings of this study showed poor knowledge and negative attitudes of participants towards polio immunizations. Religious beliefs and lack of knowledge about polio immunization were reported as the major barriers towards polio immunization.

  8. Gender and High School Organization: Insights on Leadership Styles in the Niger Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta A. Opara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The position of the school principal as a leader is incontrovertible. The problems that plagues the school system are so numerous that those who are within the educational system are so overwhelmed not to talk of outsiders who are poised to ask such a pertinent question like “are the principals leading the schools well?” If the principals among the male and female are sophisticated with the theories and practice of management, to what extent do they quantitatively involve the rightful leadership styles to direct the affairs of their various schools? The sex of the principal has equally become very important in a study of this nature. Every person within the school system looks forward to the principals to give the appropriate leadership for others to follow. The sex of the principal from previous experience reveals that the strength of character and dynamism is needed to achieve or reach some administrative goals.The female principals may be intimidated by the enormity of the school problems and get carried away or accept the situation as it is. This study examined the quality valuation among the male and female principals in their choice of leadership styles in Rivers State of the Niger Delta region. The principals, the teachers and the student were all required to make their contributions to ascertain what style of leadership that is commonly adopted by the male on the one hand and the female principals on the other. The analysed data shows that the female principals qualitatively involve the democratic style of leadership than the men. The female principals also involve their staff in decision-making than does the male counterpart, the male principals, who adopted the democratic and the autocratic styles of leadership are quicker at the management of crises in schools than the female principals.

  9. An erbium(III)-based NIR emitter with a highly conjugated β-diketonate for blue-region sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Ramos, P., E-mail: pablomartinramos@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Martín, I.R.; Lahoz, F. [Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Hernández-Navarro, S. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Pereira da Silva, P.S. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Hernández, I. [CITIMAC Dept., Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cantabria, Avenida Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Lavín, V. [Department of Physics and MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Ramos Silva, M. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A new highly coordinated Er{sup 3+} complex has been synthesized and its properties studied. • X-ray diffraction shows that complex packs efficiently: no solvent accessible voids. • dnm ligand successfully extends the excitation bands to the blue region up to 550 nm. • Efficient energy transfer by antenna effect results in 1.53 μm emission from Er{sup 3+}. - Abstract: The sensitization of lanthanide complexes in the visible region is of particular interest for practical applications such as labeling, biological analysis and optoelectronics. A visible-light sensitized Er{sup 3+} complex based on the use of a highly conjugated β-diketonate (1,3-di(2-naphthyl)-1,3-propanedione, Hdnm) and 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5NO{sub 2}phen) as an ancillary ligand, [Er(dnm){sub 3}(5NO{sub 2}phen)], has been synthesized, fully characterized and its photophysical properties have been investigated. Suitably expanded π-conjugation in the complex molecule makes the excitation window red-shifted to the visible region (up to 550 nm). Efficient energy transfer by antenna effect results in 1.53 μm emission from the Er{sup 3+} ion.

  10. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in high altitude sites of the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvana Velázquez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in National Parks is essential for the establishment of policies for conservation. The aim of this study was to characterize the AMF communities in the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. We surveyed AMF spores associated with the rhizospheres of 9 plant species in the Patagonian Steppe (PS, Challhuaco Hill (ChH, Catedral Hill (CH, and Tronador Hill (TH regions and detected a total of 27 Glomeromycota species. Acaulospora laevis was dominant at all sites. The AMF community was dominated by Acaulosporaceae, as regards the number of species and contribution of each one to the total number of spores. Three Glomeromycota families were detected at PS, the site with the lowest elevation; whereas five to six families were detected at ChH, CH, and TH. Cluster analysis indicated that the AMF communities were grouped according to habitat. We concluded that certain patterns of the AMFcommunity structure detected were equivalent to those of high-altitude environments from other studies, while others were unique to the Patagonian region; thus suggesting that historical influences like dispersion and speciation played a critical role in shaping AMF community composition in such high-altitude environments.

  11. Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05. On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.

  12. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  13. Post-earthquake road damage assessment using region-based algorithms from high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighattalab, A.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Taleai, M.

    2010-10-01

    Receiving accurate and comprehensive knowledge about the conditions of roads after earthquake strike are crucial in finding optimal paths and coordinating rescue missions. Continuous coverage of the disaster region and rapid access of high-resolution satellite images make this technology as a useful and powerful resource for post-earthquake damage assessment and the evaluation process. Along with this improved technology, object-oriented classification has become a promising alternative for classifying high-resolution remote sensing imagery, such as QuickBird, Ikonos. Thus, in this study, a novel approach is proposed for the automatic detection and assessment of damaged roads in urban areas based on object based classification techniques using post-event satellite image and vector map. The most challenging phase of the proposed region-based algorithm is the segmentation procedure. The extracted regions are then classified using nearest neighbor classifier making use of textural parameters. Then, an appropriate fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed for road damage assessment. Finally, the roads are correctly labeled as 'Blocked road' or 'Unblocked road' in the road damage assessment step. The proposed method was tested on QuickBird pan-sharpened image of Bam, Iran, concerning the devastating earthquake that occurred in December 2003. The visual investigation of the obtained results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency in School Children Residing at High Altitude Regions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Yadav, Chander Prakash

    2017-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies among children residing at high altitude regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. A total of 215 school children in the age group of 6-18 y were included. Biochemical estimation of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels was undertaken using chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The consumption pattern of foods high in dietary vitamin B12 and folate was recorded using Food Frequency Questionnaire. The median levels (interquartile range) of serum vitamin B12 and folate were 326 (259-395) pg/ml and 7.7 (6-10) ng/ml respectively. The prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency amongst school age children was found as 7.4% and 1.5% respectively. A low prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies was found amongst children aged 6-18 y living at high altitude regions in India. This is possibly due to high frequency of consumption of foods rich in vitamin B12 and folate.

  15. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  16. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  17. A Study on the High Temperature Irradiation Test Possibility for the HANARO Outer Core Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Shin, Y. T.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G

    2008-01-15

    1. Information on the neutron flux levels and the gamma heat of the concerned test holes, which have been produced from a series of nuclear analysis and tests performed at KAERI since 1993, were collected and analyzed to develop the nuclear data for the concerned test holes of HANARO and to develop the new design concepts of a capsule for the high temperature irradiation devices. 2. From the literature survey and analysis about the system design characteristics of the new concepts of irradiation devices in the ATR and MIT reactor, U.S. and the JHR reactor, France, which are helpful in understanding the key issues for the on-going R and D programmes related to a SFR and a VHTR, the most important parameters for the design of high temperature irradiation devices are identified as the neutron spectrum, the heat generation density, the fuel and cladding temperature, and the coolant chemistry. 3. From the thermal analysis of a capsule by using a finite element program ANSYS, high temperature test possibility at the OR and IP holes of HANARO was investigated based on the data collected from a literature survey. The OR holes are recommended for the tests of the SFR and VHTR nuclear materials. The IP holes could be applicable for an intermediate temperature irradiation of the SWR and LMR materials. 4. A thermal analysis for the development of a capsule with a new configuration was also performed. The size of the center hole, which is located at the thermal media of a capsule, did not cause specimen temperature changes. The temperature differences are found to be less than 2%. The introduction of an additional gap in the thermal media was able to contribute to an increase in the specimen temperature by up to 27-90 %.

  18. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  19. BMP-SMAD signalling output is highly regionalized in cardiovascular and lymphatic endothelial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Karen; Staring, Michael W; Criem, Nathan; Maas, Elke; Schellinx, Niels; de Sousa Lopes, Susana M Chuva; Umans, Lieve; Zwijsen, An

    2016-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages. For this, we used the BRE::gfp BMP signalling reporter mouse in which the BMP response element (BRE) from the ID1-promotor, a SMAD1/5/9 target gene, drives the expression of GFP. A mosaic pattern of GFP was present in various angiogenic sprouting plexuses and in endocardium of cardiac cushions and trabeculae in the heart. High calibre veins seemed to be more BRE::gfp transcriptionally active than arteries, and ubiquitous activity was present in embryonic lymphatic vasculature. Postnatal lymphatic vessels showed however only discrete micro-domains of transcriptional activity. Dynamic shifts in transcriptional activity were also observed in the endocardium of the developing heart, with a general decrease in activity over time. Surprisingly, proliferative endothelial cells were almost never GFP-positive. Patches of transcriptional activity seemed to correlate with vasculature undergoing hemodynamic alterations. The BRE::gfp mouse allows to investigate selective context-dependent aspects of BMP-SMAD signalling. Our data reveals the highly dynamic nature of BMP-SMAD mediated transcriptional regulation in time and space throughout the vascular tree, supporting that BMP-SMAD signalling can be a source of phenotypic diversity in some, but not all, healthy endothelium. This knowledge can provide insight in vascular bed or organ-specific diseases and phenotypic heterogeneity within an

  20. High-resolution mapping of a 130-kb core region of the MYCN amplicon in neuroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, J.L.; Brodeur, G.M. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on a high-resolution restriction map containing the MYCN locus. the exon-intron structure and tissue distribution of the laminin {gamma}2 chain (LAMC2) gene, which is mutated in some cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The article also discusses the transcription and splicing of this gene, which result in alternative uses of the last two exons of the gene. The different tissue distributions of the transcripts indicate different functions for the gene in vivo. 36 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The metabolism of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid in hypothalamic and cortical regions of the developing female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C; Lim, L

    1978-01-01

    The regional metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the developing female rat brain was investigated after the intracranial injection of [32P]P1. The synthesis of polyadenylated RNA relative to high-molecular-weight RNA was determined after oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography of total cellular high-molecular-weight RNA labelled after 4h. In both hypothalamus and cortex this synthesis was significantly higher during the first 10 days post partum than at subsequent ages. In both regions apparently more mRNA is synthesized in the young. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight RNA relative to that of the nucleus, measured after a 48 h period of labelling, was considered to be an index of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized RNA [Berthold & Lim (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 529--539]. In the cortex, nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in rats aged up to 20 days was significantly higher than in older rats, with the maximal value being attained between 16 and 19 days post partum. In contrast, in the hypothalamus, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA was low during the neonatal period and comparable with that of the mature animal. However, there were two periods of increased transport at later stages of development, the first between 15 and 19 days post partum and the second between 25 and 29 days post partum. These prepubertal changes in the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA in the female hypothalamus during weeks 3 and 4 post partum are coincident with other reported changes occurring during sexual differentiation. Differences in the timing of the maturational changes of the two brain regions thus appear to be reflected in developmental changes in RNA transport. PMID:743256

  2. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pérez-Guzmán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Materials and methods. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. Results. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. Conclusions. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guzmán, Carlos; Vargas, Mario H; Arellano-Macías, María del Rosario; Hernández-Cobos, Silvia; García-Ituarte, Aurea Zelindabeth; Serna-Vela, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-01

    To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB) and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years) might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  4. Multiplicity and diversity of Plasmodium vivax infections in a highly endemic region in Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is highly endemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and accounts for a large proportion of the malaria cases in children less than 5 years of age. We collected 2117 blood samples at 2-monthly intervals from a cohort of 268 children aged 1 to 4.5 years and estimated the diversity and multiplicity of P. vivax infection. All P. vivax clones were genotyped using the merozoite surface protein 1 F3 fragment (msp1F3 and the microsatellite MS16 as molecular markers. High diversity was observed with msp1F3 (H(E = 88.1% and MS16 (H(E = 97.8%. Of the 1162 P. vivax positive samples, 74% harbored multi-clone infections with a mean multiplicity of 2.7 (IQR = 1-3. The multiplicity of P. vivax infection increased slightly with age (P = 0.02, with the strongest increase in very young children. Intensified efforts to control malaria can benefit from knowledge of the diversity and MOI both for assessing the endemic situation and monitoring the effects of interventions.

  5. Net regional methane sink in high artic soils of northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Juncher; Johansen, K. M. L.; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra soils serve as potentially important but poorly understood sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4), a powerful greenhouse gas1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Numerical simulations project a net increase in methane consumption in soils in high northern latitudes as a consequence of warming in the past few...... decades3, 6. Advances have been made in quantifying hotspots of methane emissions in Arctic wetlands7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, but the drivers, magnitude, timing and location of methane consumption rates in High Arctic ecosystems are unclear. Here, we present measurements of rates of methane consumption...... in different vegetation types within the Zackenberg Valley in northeast Greenland over a full growing season. Field measurements show methane uptake in all non-water-saturated landforms studied, with seasonal averages of − 8.3 ± 3.7 μmol CH4 m−2 h−1 in dry tundra and − 3.1 ± 1.6 μmol CH4 m−2 h−1 in moist...

  6. Actual problems of protecting highly productive animals farms in the Lipetsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ushkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to more efficient use of feed, many farms, ensuring high productivity, has reached the profitability of milk production 40 % or more. No wonder milk has recently been called "white gold" because it provides the highest profitability among livestock products. However, higher producing cows have higher requirements for balanced feeding. Such cows are more intense metabolism: compared to cows of average productivity, the gas exchange is increased in 1,5-2 times, also increases blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration. This means that the wear and tear of the body is faster. And the consequences of inadequate feeding due to unbalanced diets on nutritional and biological active substances lead to profound metabolic disorders, which leads to disruption of the function of reproduction, diseases, shortening productive use of animals to one or two lactations. Without a system of introduction of achievements of zoo technical and veterinary Sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, application of progressive forms of work organization - cannot be opened, laid in the animals genetic potential. The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification. The effectiveness of intensification is the implementation of the following development paths: full implementation and improvement of the genetic potential of dairy cattle; rich, biologically full feeding of animals; preparation of sufficient high-quality feed; implementation of efficient technologies.

  7. Space Weather effects on airline communications in the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honary, Farideh

    2014-05-01

    Efficient air traffic management depends on reliable communications between aircraft and the air traffic control centres at all times. At high latitudes, and especially on polar routing, VHF ground infrastructure does not exist and the aircraft have to rely on HF radio for communications. HF relies on reflections from the ionosphere to achieve long distance communications. Unfortunately the high latitude ionosphere is affected by space weather events. During such events HF radio communication can be severely disrupted and aircraft are forced to use longer low latitude routes with consequent increased flight time, fuel consumption and cost. This presentation describes a new research programme at the University of Lancaster in collaboration with the University of Leicester, Solar Metrics Ltd and Natural Resources Canada for the development of a nowcasting and forecasting HF communications tool designed for the particular needs of civilian airlines. This project funded by EPSRC will access a wide variety of solar and interplanetary measurements to derive a complete picture of space weather disturbances affecting radio absorption and reflection

  8. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P weaned (8.92, 10.12, and 10.60) piglets. For sows of parity 3 to 6, litter sizes were not affected for treatment 1 to 3, respectively, for the total (11.82, 11.71, and 11.46), live born (10.82, 10.64, and 10.23), and weaned (8.65, 9.01, 8.79) piglets. Piglet BW were affected (P Piglet BW decreased due to vitamin A treatment in parity 1 and 2 sows (linear, P weaning and breeding improves the subsequent number of pigs born and weaned per litter, indicating that vitamin A requirements for maximal performance may vary with age.

  9. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Ps (δvs, τ=ταP (δvlos, τ and δvs=δvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD turbulence (α=0.25, except close to magnetic dusk where they peaked towards the basic MHD value. For Population A, the scaling exponents were larger than for Population B

  10. Dynamics of rye chromosome 1R regions with high or low crossover frequency in homology search and synapsis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia T Valenzuela

    Full Text Available In many organisms, homologous pairing and synapsis depend on the meiotic recombination machinery that repairs double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs produced at the onset of meiosis. The culmination of recombination via crossover gives rise to chiasmata, which locate distally in many plant species such as rye, Secale cereale. Although, synapsis initiates close to the chromosome ends, a direct effect of regions with high crossover frequency on partner identification and synapsis initiation has not been demonstrated. Here, we analyze the dynamics of distal and proximal regions of a rye chromosome introgressed into wheat to define their role on meiotic homology search and synapsis. We have used lines with a pair of two-armed chromosome 1R of rye, or a pair of telocentrics of its long arm (1RL, which were homozygous for the standard 1RL structure, homozygous for an inversion of 1RL that changes chiasma location from distal to proximal, or heterozygous for the inversion. Physical mapping of recombination produced in the ditelocentric heterozygote (1RL/1RL(inv showed that 70% of crossovers in the arm were confined to a terminal segment representing 10% of the 1RL length. The dynamics of the arms 1RL and 1RL(inv during zygotene demonstrates that crossover-rich regions are more active in recognizing the homologous partner and developing synapsis than crossover-poor regions. When the crossover-rich regions are positioned in the vicinity of chromosome ends, their association is facilitated by telomere clustering; when they are positioned centrally in one of the two-armed chromosomes and distally in the homolog, their association is probably derived from chromosome elongation. On the other hand, chromosome movements that disassemble the bouquet may facilitate chromosome pairing correction by dissolution of improper chromosome associations. Taken together, these data support that repair of DSBs via crossover is essential in both the search of the homologous partner

  11. Measurement of retinal thickness in macular region of high myopic eyes using spectral domain OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ping Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of retinal thickness in macula of high myopic eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT.METHODS: Middle-aged and young myopic patients were divided into three groups according to their refractive error/axial length:low and medium myopia group (LMMG, high myopia group (HMG and super high myopia group (SHMG. Cirrus HD-OCT was used to evaluate total average macular thickness, central subfield thickness, inner/outer macular thickness and macular volume. The differences among experimental groups were analyzed by one-factor analysis of variance. Associations between macular thickness and refractive error/axial length were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age among the three groups (P=0.2789. The mean refraction error in the LMMG, HMG, and SHMG groups was -2.49±1.38D, -8.53±1.95D and -13.88±1.76D, respectively (P<0.001. The central subfield thickness of three groups was 244.56±12.19μm, 254.33±11.61μm and 261.75±11.83μm, respectively, and there were statistically significance between random two groups. The total average macular thickness, inner/outer macular thickness, and macular volume decreased with increased myopia/axial length. Average foveal thickness had negative correlations with refractive error (P<0.001, and positive correlations with axial length. The inferior and temporal inner macular thickness, all the quadrants of outer ring, total average macular thickness and macular volume featured positive correlations with refractive error, and negative correlations with axial length. Average foveal thickness, superior and temporal inner macular thicknesses, and temporal outer macular thickness was lower in females compared to males.CONCLUSION:With an increase in myopia degree/axial length, the average foveal thickness increased and the inner/outer macular thickness decreased. Females featured thicker average foveal thickness, and

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in humans at high altitude: gradual ascent and 2 wk at 5,050 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, C K; Smith, K J; Day, T A; Ray, L A; Lewis, N C S; Bakker, A; Macleod, D B; Ainslie, P N

    2014-04-01

    The interindividual variation in ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude is likely reflected in variability in the cerebrovascular responses to high altitude, particularly between brain regions displaying disparate hypoxic sensitivity. We assessed regional differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with Duplex ultrasound of the left internal carotid and vertebral arteries. End-tidal Pco2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during a trekking ascent to, and during the first 2 wk at, 5,050 m. Transcranial color-coded Duplex ultrasound (TCCD) was employed to measure flow and diameter of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Measures were collected at 344 m (TCCD-baseline), 1,338 m (CBF-baseline), 3,440 m, and 4,371 m. Following arrival to 5,050 m, regional CBF was measured every 12 h during the first 3 days, once at 5-9 days, and once at 12-16 days. Total CBF was calculated as twice the sum of internal carotid and vertebral flow and increased steadily with ascent, reaching a maximum of 842 ± 110 ml/min (+53 ± 7.6% vs. 1,338 m; mean ± SE) at ∼ 60 h after arrival at 5,050 m. These changes returned to +15 ± 12% after 12-16 days at 5,050 m and were related to changes in SpO2 (R(2) = 0.36; P < 0.0001). TCCD-measured MCA flow paralleled the temporal changes in total CBF. Dilation of the MCA was sustained on days 2 (+12.6 ± 4.6%) and 8 (+12.9 ± 2.9%) after arrival at 5,050 m. We observed no significant differences in regional CBF at any time point. In conclusion, the variability in CBF during ascent and acclimatization is related to ventilatory acclimatization, as reflected in changes in SpO2.

  13. APIFLAME v1.0: high-resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling) project. The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load consumed and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent), and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The applicability to high spatial resolutions and the flexibility to different input data (including vegetation classifications) and domains are the main strength of the proposed algorithm. The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require any change in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. A regional analysis of fire activity and the resulting emissions in this region is provided. The burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in eastern Europe, western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represent a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~ 30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~ 20% for CO). The uncertainty regarding the daily carbon emissions is estimated at ~ 100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties regarding emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons with other widely used emission inventories show good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 in the amplitude of the emissions, our results

  14. Evaluating adaptation options for urban flooding based on new high-end emission scenario regional climate model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonardsen, L.; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation studies on urban flooding are often based on a model chain approach from climate forcing scenarios to analysis of adaptation measures. Previous analyses of climate change impacts in Copenhagen, Denmark, were supplemented by 2 high-end scenario simulations. These include...... to pluvial flooding that makes the urban areas more robust and reduces the risk of flooding under the current climate to a very low level. The reduction in flood risk for the A1B scenario is substantial (corresponding to 0.2-0.3 times the current EAD in 2100), and even in the high-end scenarios, the risk...... a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees C in 2100 as well as a projection based on a high radiative forcing scenario (RCP8.5). With these scenarios, projected impacts of extreme precipitation increase significantly. For extreme sea surges, the impacts do...

  15. Updated vegetation information in high resolution regional climate simulations using WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    modify the energy distribution at the land surface. In weather and climate models it is important to represent the vegetation variability accurately to obtain reliable results. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model uses a green vegetation fraction (GVF) climatology to represent the seasonal......Climate studies show that the frequency of heat wave events and above-average high temperatures during the summer months over Europe will increase in the coming decades. Such climatic changes and long-term meteorological conditions will impact the seasonal development of vegetation and ultimately...... variation of vegetation parameters. The climatology describes the fractional vegetation cover within each grid cell but is additionally used to scale other parameters such as LAI, roughness, emissivity and albedo within predefined intervals. The climatology does not reflect recent climatic changes...

  16. Doppler Lidar Observations over a High Altitude Mountainous Site Manora Peak in the Central Himalayan Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanikumar, D. V.; Shukla, K. K.; Naja, M.; Singh, N.; Sahai, S.; Sagar, R.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.

    2016-07-10

    The RAWEX-GVAX field campaign has been carried out from June 2011 to March 2012 over a high altitude site Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4 degrees N; 79.2 degrees E; 1958 m amsl) in the central Himalayas to assess the impacts of absorbing aerosols on atmospheric thermodynamics and clouds. This paper presents the preliminary results of the observations and data analysis of the Doppler Lidar, installed at Nainital. Strong updrafts with vertical winds in the range of similar to 2-4 ms(-1) occurred during the daytime and throughout the season indicating thermally driven convection. On the other hand during nighttime, weak downdrafts persisted during stable conditions. Plan Position Indicator scan of Doppler Lidar showed north-northwesterly winds in the boundary layer. The mixing layer height, derived from the vertical velocity variance, showed diurnal variations, in the range similar to 0.7-1 km above ground level during daytime and very shallow during nighttime.

  17. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  18. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  19. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  20. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Psvs, τ=ταPvlos, τ and δvsvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD

  1. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy alone or with regional hyperthermia for localised high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised phase 3 multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issels, Rolf D; Lindner, Lars H; Verweij, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The optimum treatment for high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults is unclear. Regional hyperthermia concentrates the action of chemotherapy within the heated tumour region. Phase 2 studies have shown that chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia improves local control compared...... with chemotherapy alone. We designed a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy....

  2. Bimodality and variability of particle size distributions in high Ice Water Content regions and their implications for microphysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Leroy, D.; Korolev, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Wu, W.; Strapp, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Aviation records since the 1990s indicate that aircraft engines are facing a threat of occasional power loss due to ice ingestion over tropical oceanic convective clouds. The typical absence of radar echoes greater than 30 dBZ during such incidents suggests the existence of large amounts of small ice particles. The industrial aviation safety concerns inspired the High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content (HAIC/HIWC) campaign, whose Phase I was conducted between January and March 2014. A 2-D Stereo (2DS) probe, Precipitation Imaging Probe (PIP) and Isokinetic Evaporator Probe were installed on the French Falcon 20 making in-situ observations off the coast of Darwin, Australia. Composite particle size distributions (PSDs) using 2DS and PIP data were derived for each 5 second period in cloud. Using an automated technique to identify multiple modes in PSDs and an Incomplete Gamma Fit technique, the intercept (N0), slope (λ) and shape parameter (μ) of each mode of a gamma distribution were determined. The variation of PSDs and fit parameters for Ice Water Contents (IWCs) > 1.5 g m-3 with cloud and environmental parameters and their differences from PSDs measured outside of high IWC conditions are summarized here. Two types of HIWC conditions were observed, according to whether the median mass diameters (MMD) were positively or negatively correlated with IWC. The principal findings about high IWC regions are as follows: 1) larger μ and N0 are found in high IWC regions while λ tends to remain unchanged; 2) PSDs are more likely to be bimodal at lower temperatures. 3) Positive MMD-IWC correlations are associated with larger μ and smaller N0; 4) Bimodal distributions are more frequent for positive MMD-IWC correlations; and 5) Positive MMD-IWC correlations are usually associated with longer-aged clouds, but there are exceptions, showing other factors affect the occurrence of frequent small particles in high IWC regions. Implications for modeling of high IWC

  3. An Improved Estimation of Regional Fractional Woody/Herbaceous Cover Using Combined Satellite Data and High-Quality Training Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping vegetation cover is critical for understanding and monitoring ecosystem functions in semi-arid biomes. As existing estimates tend to underestimate the woody cover in areas with dry deciduous shrubland and woodland, we present an approach to improve the regional estimation of woody and herbaceous fractional cover in the East Asia steppe. This developed approach uses Random Forest models by combining multiple remote sensing data—training samples derived from high-resolution image in a tailored spatial sampling and model inputs composed of specific metrics from MODIS sensor and ancillary variables including topographic, bioclimatic, and land surface information. We emphasize that effective spatial sampling, high-quality classification, and adequate geospatial information are important prerequisites of establishing appropriate model inputs and achieving high-quality training samples. This study suggests that the optimal models improve estimation accuracy (NMSE 0.47 for woody and 0.64 for herbaceous plants and show a consistent agreement with field observations. Compared with existing woody estimate product, the proposed woody cover estimation can delineate regions with subshrubs and shrubs, showing an improved capability of capturing spatialized detail of vegetation signals. This approach can be applicable over sizable semi-arid areas such as temperate steppes, savannas, and prairies.

  4. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  5. Water mass mixing shapes bacterial biogeography in a highly hydrodynamic region of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Ameneiro, Julia; Teira, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Even though compelling evidences indicate that marine microbes show biogeographic patterns, very little is known on the mechanisms driving those patterns in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, bacterial community structure was examined in epipelagic waters of a highly hydrodynamic area of the Southern Ocean to gain insight into the role that biogeochemical factors and water mass mixing (a proxy of dispersal) have on microbial biogeography. Four water masses that converge and mix around the South Shetland Islands (northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula) were investigated. Bacterioplankton communities were water-mass specific, and were best explained by dispersal rather than by biogeochemical factors, which is attributed to the relatively reduced environmental gradients found in these cold and nutrient rich waters. These results support the notion that currents and water mixing may have a considerable effect in connecting and transforming different water bodies, and consequently, in shaping communities of microorganisms. Considering the multidimensional and dynamic nature of the ocean, analysis of water mass mixing is a more suitable approach to investigate the role of dispersal on the biogeography of planktonic microorganisms rather than geographical distance. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Modeling of Pore Coarsening in the Rim Region of High Burn-up UO2 Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the coarsening process of the large fission gas pores in the high burn-up structure (HBS of irradiated UO2 fuel is very necessary for analyzing the safety and reliability of fuel rods in a reactor. A numerical model for the description of pore coarsening in the HBS based on the Ostwald ripening mechanism, which has successfully explained the coarsening process of precipitates in solids is developed. In this model, the fission gas atoms are treated as the special precipitates in the irradiated UO2 fuel matrix. The calculated results indicate that the significant pore coarsening and mean pore density decrease in the HBS occur upon surpassing a local burn-up of 100 GWd/tM. The capability of this model is successfully validated against irradiation experiments of UO2 fuel, in which the average pore radius, pore density, and porosity are directly measured as functions of local burn-up. Comparisons with experimental data show that, when the local burn-up exceeds 100 GWd/tM, the calculated results agree well with the measured data.

  7. Performance of School Principal at State Islamic Senior High School in Ex-Surakarta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Wahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the percentage of the influence of school Organization and motivation atmosphere on Principal’s performance at Madrasah Aliyah (state Islamic  senor  high  school.  This  study  employs  a  co-relational  survey  method. Results of the research show that: (1 average performance of the school principals is good especially on doing their main job and function; (2 the atmosphere of school organization influence significantly on the principal’s performance, the percentage of this influence to Principal performance is 71.30%; (3 work motivation affects significantly to principal performance, the percentage of this influence to principal’s performance is 73.80%; (4 Both school organization atmosphere and work motivation are significantly influential to principal’s performance, the percentage of these to principal’s performance is 78.70%, and (5 work motivation variable is the strongest contribution to influence principal’s performance at 51.60%.

  8. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Bastidas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp, are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control. Inadequate use of pesticides could possibly entail public health risks, environmental contamination and ultimately interfere with international trade. Surveys were carried out to passifloras producers of three spices of passiflora crops, yellow passion fruit, sweet passion fruit and purple passion fruit  from the largest producers municipalities in Colombia with the aim to know the integrate pest control and agricultural practices related with pesticides applied in the crops. Ramdomly sampling was realized and samples were analyzed by multiresidue analysis methodology validated in the laboratory and based on IAEA-QuEChERS method. With the results of survey and laboratory analysis it is showed the presence of pesticide residues that exceed maximum residue limits in some samples and the pesticides identified in the samples correspond to those used by farmers. It was found that the presence of residues is mainly due to the shortcomings in the proper use of agricultural practices related primarily to the implementation of agricultural products no registered for such crops.

  9. High-conductivity silicon based spectrally selective plasmonic surfaces for sensing in the infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulu, K.; Gok, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic perfect absorbers have found a wide range of applications in imaging, sensing, and light harvesting and emitting devices. Traditionally, metals are used to implement plasmonic structures. For sensing applications, it is desirable to integrate nanophotonic active surfaces with biasing and amplification circuitry to achieve monolithic low cost solutions. Commonly used plasmonic metals such as Au and Ag are not compatible with standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we demonstrate plasmonic perfect absorbers based on high conductivity silicon. Standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching techniques were used for the patterning of the samples. We present computational and experimental results of surface plasmon resonances excited on a silicon surface at normal and oblique incidences. We experimentally demonstrate our absorbers as ultra-low cost, CMOS-compatible and efficient refractive index sensing surfaces. The experimental results reveal that the structure exhibits a sensitivity of around 11 000 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of up to 2.5. We also show that the sensing performance of the structure can be improved by increasing doping density.

  10. Swept Forward Magnetic Field Variability in High-Latitude Regions of Saturn's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Hansen, K. C.; Coates, A. J.; Hunt, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Swept forward field is the term given to configurations of magnetic field wherein the field lines deviate from the meridional planes of a planet in the direction of its rotation. Evidence is presented for swept-forward field configurations on Cassini orbits around Saturn from the first half of 2008. These orbits were selected on the basis of high inclination, spatial proximity, and temporal proximity, allowing for the observation of swept-forward field and resolution of dynamic effects using data from the Cassini magnetometer. Nine orbits are surveyed; all show evidence of swept-forward field, with typical sweep angle found to be 23°. Evidence is found for transient events that lead to temporary dramatic increases in sweep-forward angle. The Michigan Solar Wind Model is employed to investigate temporal correlation between the arrivals of solar wind shocks at Saturn with these transient events, with two shown to include instances corresponding with solar wind shock arrivals. Measurements of equatorial electron number density from anode 5 of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer instrument are investigated for evidence of magnetospheric compression, corresponding with predicted shock arrivals. Potential mechanisms for the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere are discussed.

  11. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.M.; Ansari, M.S.; de Paulis, T.; Schmidt, D.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Manning, R.G.; Gillespie, D.; Ebert, M.H. (Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with (125I)iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8.

  12. The development of p-type silicon detectors for the high radiation regions of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlon, M D L

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the production and characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors and test structures on p-type substrates. An account is given of the production and full parameterisation of a p-type microstrip detector, incorporating the ATLAS-A geometry in a beam test. This detector is an AC coupled device incorporating a continuous p-stop isolation frame and polysilicon biasing and is typical of n-strip devices proposed for operation at the LHC. It was successfully read out using the FELix-128 analogue pipeline chip and a signal to noise (s/n) of 17+-1 is reported, along with a spatial resolution of 14.6+-0.2 mu m. Diode test structures were fabricated on both high resistivity float zone material and on epitaxial material and subsequently irradiated with 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS up to a dose of (8.22+-0.23) x 10 sup 1 sup 4 per cm sup 2. An account of the measurement program is presented along with results on the changes in the effective doping concentration (N sub e sub f sub f) with irradiat...

  13. Development of a high resolution grid-based river flow model for use with regional climate model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid-based approach to river flow modelling has been developed for regional assessments of the impact of environmental change on hydrologically sensitive systems. The approach also provides a means of assessing, and providing feedback on, the hydrological performance of the land-surface component of a regional climate model (RCM. When combined with information on the evolution of climate, the model can give estimates of the impact of future climate change on river flows and flooding. The high-resolution flow routing and runoff-production model is designed for use with RCM-derived rainfall and potential evaporation (PE, although other sources of gridded rainfall and PE can be employed. Called the "Grid-to-Grid Model", or G2G, it can be configured on grids of different resolution and coverage (a 1 km grid over the UK is used here. The model can simulate flow on an area-wide basis as well as providing estimates of fluvial discharges for input to shelf-sea and ocean models. Configuration of the flow routing model on a relatively high resolution 1 km grid allows modelled river flows to be compared with gauged observations for a variety of catchments across the UK. Modelled flows are also compared with those obtained from a catchment-based model, a parameter-generalised form of the Probability-Distributed Model (PDM developed for assessing flood frequency. Using RCM re-analysis rainfall and PE as input, the G2G model performs well compared with measured flows at a daily time-step, particularly for high relief catchments. It performs less well for low-relief and groundwater-dominated regions because the dominant model control on runoff production is topography.

  14. Assessing the performance of different high-density tiling microarray strategies for mapping transcribed regions of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, Olof; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Zheng, Deyou; Rozowsky, Joel S; Urban, Alexander E; Du, Jiang; Lian, Zheng; Stolc, Viktor; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Genomic tiling microarrays have become a popular tool for interrogating the transcriptional activity of large regions of the genome in an unbiased fashion. There are several key parameters associated with each tiling experiment (e.g., experimental protocols and genomic tiling density). Here, we assess the role of these parameters as they are manifest in different tiling-array platforms used for transcription mapping. First, we analyze how a number of published tiling-array experiments agree with established gene annotation on human chromosome 22. We observe that the transcription detected from high-density arrays correlates substantially better with annotation than that from other array types. Next, we analyze the transcription-mapping performance of the two main high-density oligonucleotide array platforms in the ENCODE regions of the human genome. We hybridize identical biological samples and develop several ways of scoring the arrays and segmenting the genome into transcribed and nontranscribed regions, with the aim of making the platforms most comparable to each other. Finally, we develop a platform comparison approach based on agreement with known annotation. Overall, we find that the performance improves with more data points per locus, coupled with statistical scoring approaches that properly take advantage of this, where this larger number of data points arises from higher genomic tiling density and the use of replicate arrays and mismatches. While we do find significant differences in the performance of the two high-density platforms, we also find that they complement each other to some extent. Finally, our experiments reveal a significant amount of novel transcription outside of known genes, and an appreciable sample of this was validated by independent experiments.

  15. Endoscopic findings in a mass screening program for gastric cancer in a high risk region - Guilan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sokhanvar, Homayoon; Joukar, Farahnaz; Shafaghi, Afshin; Yousefi-Mashhour, Mahmud; Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Fakhrieh, Saba; Aminian, Keyvan; Ghorbani, Kambiz; Taherzadeh, Zahra; Sheykhian, Mohammad Reza; Rajpout, Yaghoub; Mehrvarz, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both sexes in Iran. This study was designed to assess upper GI endoscopic findings among people>50 years targeted in a mass screening program in a hot-point region. Based on the pilot results in Guilan Cancer Registry study(GCRS), one of the high point regions for GC - Lashtenesha - was selected. The target population was called mainly using two methods: in rural regions, by house-house direct referral and in urban areas using public media. Upper GI endoscopy was performed by trained endoscopists. All participants underwent biopsies for rapid urea test (RUT) from the antrum and also further biopsies from five defined points of stomach for detection of precancerous lesions. In cases of visible gross lesions, more diagnostic biopsies were taken and submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Of 1,394 initial participants, finally 1,382 persons (702 women, 680 men) with a mean age of 61.7 ± 9.0 years (range:50-87 years) underwent upper GI endoscopy. H.pylori infection based on the RUT was positive in 66.6%. Gastric adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus were detected in seven (0.5%) and one(0.07%) persons, respectively. A remarkable proportion of studied participants were found to have esophageal hiatal hernia(38.4%). Asymptomatic gastric masses found in 1.1% (15) of cases which were mostly located in antrum (33.3%), cardia (20.0%) and prepyloric area (20.0%). Gastric and duodenal ulcers were found in 5.9% (82) and 6.9% (96) of the screened population. Upper endoscopy screening is an effective technique for early detection of GC especially in high risk populations. Further studies are required to evaluate cost effectiveness, cost benefit and mortality and morbidity of this method among high and moderate risk population before recommending this method for GC surveillance program at the national level.

  16. Crustal structure beneath the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon and surrounding regions from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kevin C.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.; Carlson, Richard W.

    2011-02-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions to image crustal structure beneath the High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon and surrounding regions. Coverage from 206 broadband seismic stations provides the first opportunity to resolve variations in crustal composition, thickness, and heterogeneity on scales of a few km in depth and tens of km laterally across the HLP region. We utilize both H - κ stacking and a new Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacking technique. We find crust that is ≥40 km thick beneath the Cascades, Idaho Batholith, and Owyhee Plateau and thinner (˜31 km) crust beneath the HLP and northern Great Basin. Low Poisson's ratios of ˜0.240 characterize the granitic crust beneath the Idaho Batholith, while the Owyhee Plateau exhibits values of ˜0.270, typical of average continental crust. The Owyhee Plateau is a thick simple crustal block with distinct edges at depth. The western HLP exhibits high average values of 0.304, typical for regions of widespread basaltic volcanism. Combined with other geological and geophysical observations, the areas of abnormally high Poisson's ratios (˜0.320) and low-velocity zones in the crust beneath north-central and southern Oregon are consistent with the presence of partial melt on either side of the HLP trend, suggesting a central zone where crustal melts have drained to the surface, perhaps enabled by the Brothers Fault Zone. Thicker crust and an anomalous N-S band of low Poisson's ratios (˜0.252) skirting the Steens Mountain escarpment is consistent with residuum from a midcrustal magma source of the massive flood basalts, supporting the view of extensive mafic underplating and intraplating of the crust from Cenozoic volcanism.

  17. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  20. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  1. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  2. Sequence characterized amplified region marker as a tool for selection of high-artemisinin containing species of Artemisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Matin; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Poorebrahim, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries. High resistance to available antimalarial drugs has been reported frequently, thus it is crucial to focus on the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, an effective antimalarial medication, is isolated from various Artemisia species. To identify the Artemisia species producing high quantity of artemisinin, eight species of Artemisia were screened with the genetic sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for higher quantity of artemisinin. The DNA band corresponding to SCAR marker was cloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector and sequenced. The content of artemisinin in tested species was also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The primers designed for high-artemisinin SCAR marker could amplify a specific band of approximately 1000 bp which was present in two Artemisia annua and Artemisia absinthium species. These SCAR marker sequences for two selected species were submitted into the GenBank databases under KC337116 and KC465952 accession numbers. HPLC analysis indicated that two selected Artemisia species, genetically recognized as high-artemisinin yielding plants, had higher artemisinin content in comparison to other examined species. Therefore, in this study, we propose developed SCAR marker as a complementary tool for confidently detection of high-artemisinin content in Artemisia species.

  3. Localization of beta and high-frequency oscillations within the subthalamic nucleus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.M. van Wijk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO within the 150–400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established. For example, it is unclear whether HFO arise from the same neural populations as beta oscillations. We intraoperatively recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus while advancing DBS electrodes in 2 mm steps from 4 mm above the surgical target point until 2 mm below, resulting in 4 recording sites. Data from 26 nuclei from 14 patients were analysed. For each trajectory, we identified the recording site with the largest spectral peak in the beta range (13–30 Hz, and the largest peak in the HFO range separately. In addition, we identified the recording site with the largest beta-HFO PAC. Recording sites with largest beta power and largest HFO power coincided in 50% of cases. In the other 50%, HFO was more likely to be detected at a more superior recording site in the target area. PAC followed more closely the site with largest HFO (45% than beta power (27%. HFO are likely to arise from spatially close, but slightly more superior neural populations than beta oscillations. Further work is necessary to determine whether the different activities can help fine-tune deep brain stimulation targeting.

  4. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae strains from a region of high endemic leprosy prevalence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Mallika; Jadhav, Rupendra; Turankar, Ravindra P; Singh, Itu; Nigam, Astha; Sengupta, U

    2015-12-01

    Leprosy is still a major health problem in India which has the highest number of cases. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been proposed as tools of strain typing for tracking the transmission of leprosy. However, empirical data for a defined population from scale and duration were lacking for studying the transmission chain of leprosy. Seventy slit skin scrapings were collected from Purulia (West Bengal), Miraj (Maharashtra), Shahdara (Delhi), and Naini (UP) hospitals of The Leprosy Mission (TLM). SNP subtyping and MLVA on 10 VNTR loci were applied for the strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae. Along with the strain typing conventional epidemiological investigation was also performed to trace the transmission chain. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was done on variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) data sets using sequence type analysis and recombinational tests (START) software. START software performs analyses to aid in the investigation of bacterial population structure using multilocus sequence data. These analyses include data summary, lineage assignment, and tests for recombination and selection. Diversity was observed in the cross-sectional survey of isolates obtained from 70 patients. Similarity in fingerprinting profiles observed in specimens of cases from the same family or neighborhood locations indicated a possible common source of infection. The data suggest that these VNTRs including subtyping of SNPs can be used to study the sources and transmission chain in leprosy, which could be very important in monitoring of the disease dynamics in high endemic foci. The present study strongly indicates that multi-case families might constitute epidemic foci and the main source of M. leprae in villages, causing the predominant strain or cluster infection leading to the spread of leprosy in the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M

    1999-09-01

    To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13-16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general population sample was obtained with characteristics closely matching the census distributions in the area. Interview and survey methods provided data on athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations during the past year, and risk for pregnancy. Bivariate correlations were used to examine relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Next, path analyses were done in order to test for hypothesized relationships between athletic participation, sexual behavior, and pregnancy involvement while controlling for age, race, income, family cohesion, and non-athletic forms of extracurricular activity. Variables that were significantly associated with sexual behavior and/or pregnancy involvement were presented for both sexes within the resulting multivariate models. Lower income and higher rates of sexual activity were associated with higher rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes. Family cohesion was associated with lower sexual activity rates for both sexes. For girls, athletic participation was directly related to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. Male athletes did not exhibit lower rates of sexual behavior and involvement with pregnancy than male non-athletes. Boys who participated in the arts, however, did report lower rates of sexual behavior and, indirectly, less involvement with pregnancy. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male

  6. High-resolution regional modelling of natural and anthropogenic radiocarbon in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, Mohamed; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Mouchet, Anne; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Montagna, Paolo; Tanhua, Toste; Siani, Giuseppe; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    A high-resolution dynamical model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Mediterranean configuration - NEMO-MED12) was used to give the first simulation of the distribution of radiocarbon (14C) across the whole Mediterranean Sea. The simulation provides a descriptive overview of both the natural pre-bomb 14C and the entire anthropogenic radiocarbon transient generated by the atmospheric bomb tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s. The simulation was run until 2011 to give the post-bomb distribution. The results are compared to available in situ measurements and proxy-based reconstructions. The radiocarbon simulation allows an additional and independent test of the dynamical model, NEMO-MED12, and its performance to produce the thermohaline circulation and deep-water ventilation. The model produces a generally realistic distribution of radiocarbon when compared with available in situ data. The results demonstrate the major influence of the flux of Atlantic water through the Strait of Gibraltar on the inter-basin natural radiocarbon distribution and characterize the ventilation of intermediate and deep water especially through the propagation of the anthropogenic radiocarbon signal. We explored the impact of the interannual variability on the radiocarbon distribution during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) event. It reveals a significant increase in 14C concentration (by more than 60 ‰) in the Aegean deep water and at an intermediate level (value up to 10 ‰) in the western basin. The model shows that the EMT makes a major contribution to the accumulation of radiocarbon in the eastern Mediterranean deep waters.

  7. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Annemarie Rinder; Lazarus, Jeff; Donoghoe, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess the level of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region. Methods. Analysis of data from three national surveys of 53 WHO European Member States. The comparative level of access to HAART for women and children...... was assessed by comparing the percentage of reported HIV cases with the percentage of HAART recipients in women at the end of 2002 and 2006 and in children at the end of 2004 and 2006. Findings. Overall, the data suggest that there is equivalence of access to antiretroviral therapy by gender and age in Europe...

  8. Exploration of Quench Initiation Due to Intentional Geometrical Defects in a High Magnetic Field Region of an SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dai, K. Zhao, G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, A.D. Palczewski; Dai, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, A. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Eremeev, G. V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Geng, R. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhao, K. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    A computer program which was used to simulate and analyze the thermal behaviors of SRF cavities has been developed at Jefferson Lab using C++ code. This code was also used to verify the quench initiation due to geometrical defects in high magnetic field region of SRF cavities. We built a CEBAF single cell cavity with 4 artificial defects near equator, and this cavity has been tested with T-mapping. The preheating behavior and quench initiation analysis of this cavity will be presented here using the computer program.

  9. Quench performance and mechanical behavior of the first Fermilab- built prototype high gradient quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, N; Bauer, P; Bossert, R; Brandt, J; Carson, J; Caspi, S; Chichili, D R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Ghosh, A; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Makarov, A; McInturff, A D; Nicol, T H; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Peterson, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Robotham, W; Scanlan, R M; Schlabach, P; Sylvester, C D; Strait, J B; Tartaglia, A; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Yadav, S; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    As part of the US LHC program to provide high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions, a 5.5 meter long prototype magnet has been built and tested horizontally in a production type cryostat at Fermilab. This prototype magnet was used to validate the mechanical and magnetic design, production fabrication and assembly tooling. The first prototype magnet has met the LHC requirements of operating at 215 T/m with excellent magnetic field harmonics. This paper summarizes the test results of this magnet, including quench tests and mechanical behavior over several thermal cycles. (11 refs).

  10. Regional Core-Mantle-Boundary modeling with PcP-P using high-density seismic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of lateral variations in structure in the D" region at the base of the earth's mantle is not yet precisely known. There is also much controversy on the wavelengths of topography on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Dense high-quality seismic networks in combination with powerful seismic data-processing techniques can potentially provide accurate measurements over large portions of the globe that are currently poorly sampled, and contribute constraints on these questions. Here, we attempt to build high-resolution regional models of the CMB region from PcP-P travel-time differences and amplitude ratios observed at USArray and other nearby networks as well as a data-processing methodology that enhances our ability to accurately measure PcP in a wider distance range than is commonly done. Indeed, accurate measurements of PcP are still a challenge. PcP arrives in the coda of the P phase, there are interferences with pP and sP depth phases for shallow earthquakes, and its relatively low amplitude due to a relatively low reflection coefficient at CMB hinders its detection. We separate P and PcP locally in slowness, without compromising resolution, using dense high-quality seismic networks. Specifically, we employ the local slant-stack transform in the time-scale domain (Ventosa et al. 2011) to decompose each seismogram in slowness in many frequency bands. We then design adaptive filters, driven by coherence measures, to obtain clean measurements of P and PcP travel times and amplitudes. This allows a significant increase in the quantity and the quality of the PcP measurements available for modeling. The main sources of PcP-P travel-time differences, with respect to theoretical values from global 1D models, are due to heterogeneities in the mantle and in D'', or due to topography in CMB. We apply the above approach to study two different regions of CMB, Alaska and the north of Canada, which are far from the LLSVPs and documented ULVZ, and Central America, which

  11. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  12. A high-altitude balloon platform to measure regional carbon dioxide exchange from agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Pocs, M.; Bouche, A.; Roberts, K.; Goedde, C.; Beck-Winchatz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide are an important component of the global carbon cycle, and understanding current exchanges is crucial for predicting future uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Agricultural systems in the Midwestern United States cover a large area and have the potential to influence the future carbon budget of the United States. Biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide are typically measured at the ecosystem level using the eddy covariance technique that covers a relatively small spatial area. Top-down approaches using a global network of carbon dioxide concentration measurements provide relatively coarse spatial information. High altitude balloons (HABs) are an inexpensive platform for sounding the vertical structure and composition of the atmosphere that can bridge the spatial gap between these two other techniques. The HAB platform will also complement new satellite measurements of carbon dioxide from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. In the first-generation approach of the HAB technique, a single balloon is launched, and a vertical profile of carbon dioxide is recorded during the balloon's ascent. The balloon bursts between 11 and 14 km altitude, and a second profile of carbon dioxide is obtained during the descent. The difference in carbon dioxide concentration is computed as a function of altitude, which is converted to a molar difference by accounting for the temperature and pressure profile of the atmosphere, and then a flux is obtained by summing the molar differences and dividing by the time difference between ascent and descent. The second-generation approach uses two balloons and compares their ascent profiles. This is an improvement, since the balloon can travel 100 km due to the strength of the jet stream, making it difficult to compare ascent and descent profiles. The technique works best on days with a well-developed convective boundary layer. During peak growing season, uptake rates of -30 to -50

  13. High Resistance to Azithromycin in Clinical Samples from Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangyong; Bu, Jin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Geng; Cao, Juan; Tang, Zhongshu; Gan, Quan; Wei, Pingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Azithromycin is used as an alternative medicine in patients with syphilis who are intolerant to penicillin. Nevertheless, the report of treatment failure of azithromycin for patients with syphilis has raised concerns in China in the past years. In this study, 178 patients with early syphilis, who were treated in sexually transmitted infections clinics in four cities in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were enrolled to investigate the regional prevalence of Treponema pallidum strain resistant to azithromycin. Nested PCR was performed to amplify the 23S ribosomal RNA (23SrRNA) gene. The point mutation of A2058G in 23SrRNA, which confers Treponema pallidum resistance to azithromycin, was measured by endonuclease digestion of PCR amplification products using MboII. A2058G point mutation was detected in 91.0% (162/178; 95% CI, 86.8%, 95.2%) of the specimens, but no difference in prevalence of azithromycin resistance was found between the patients who had taken antibiotics before enrollment and the patients who had not (91.8% vs. 89.4%), nor between the patients with and without past sexually transmitted infections (87.1% vs. 93.1%). We concluded that azithromycin may not be suitable for syphilis as a treatment option in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region because of the extremely high prevalence of resistance in the general syphilis population.

  14. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: juarez@ice.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  15. Identification of soybean genotypes with high stability for the Brazilian macro-region 402 via biplot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, E U Ramos; Brogin, R L; Godinho, V P C; Botelho, F J E; Tardin, F D; Teodoro, P E

    2017-09-27

    Biplot analysis has often been used to recommend genotypes from different crops in the presence of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE). The objective of this study was to verify the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and to select soybean genotypes that simultaneously meet high grain yield and stability to the environments belonging to the Edaphoclimatic Region 402, from Soybean Cultivation Region 4 (Mid-West), which comprises the Center North and West of Mato Grosso, and the southern region of Rondônia. Grain yield of 12 soybean genotypes was evaluated in seven competition trials of soybean cultivars in the 2014/2015 harvest. Significant GxE interaction revealed the need to use methods for recommending genotypes with adaptability and yield stability. The methods were complementary regarding the recommendation of the best genotypes. The AMMI analysis recommended MG/BR46 (Conquista) (G10) widely for all environments evaluated, whereas the BRY23-55012 (G9) and BRAS11-0149 (G2) were the most indicated genotypes by the GGE biplot method. However, the methods were concordant as to Porto Velho (PV1) environment that contributed least to the GxE interaction.

  16. Identification of a high incidence region for retroviral vector integration near exon 1 of the LMO2 locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakashita Kazuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapeutic retroviral vector integration near the oncogene LMO2 is thought to be a cause of leukemia in X-SCID gene therapy trials. However, no published studies have evaluated the frequency of vector integrations near exon 1 of the LMO2 locus. We identified a high incidence region (HIR of vector integration using PCR techniques in the upstream region close to the LMO2 transcription start site in the TPA-Mat T cell line. The integration frequency of the HIR was one per 4.46 × 104 cells. This HIR was also found in Jurkat T cells but was absent from HeLa cells. Furthermore, using human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells we identified a HIR in a similar region as the TPA-Mat T cell line. One of the X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID patients that developed leukemia after gene therapy had a vector integration site in this HIR. Therefore, the descriptions of the location and the integration frequency of the HIR presented here may help us to better understand vector-induced leukemogenesis.

  17. Hardware acceleration of lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm for high-performance real-time video processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Tyler; Jackson, Christopher; Cayci, Furkan; Carhart, Gary W.; Liu, J. J.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2015-06-01

    "Lucky-region" fusion (LRF) is a synthetic imaging technique that has proven successful in enhancing the quality of images distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions of an image obtained from a series of short exposure frames from fast, high-resolution image sensors, and fuses the sharp regions into a final, improved image. In our previous research, the LRF algorithm had been implemented on CPU and field programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. The CPU did not have sufficient processing power to handle real-time processing of video. Last year, we presented a real-time LRF implementation using an FPGA. However, due to the slow register-transfer level (RTL) development and simulation time, it was difficult to adjust and discover optimal LRF settings such as Gaussian kernel radius and synthetic frame buffer size. To overcome this limitation, we implemented the LRF algorithm on an off-the-shelf graphical processing unit (GPU) in order to take advantage of built-in parallelization and significantly faster development time. Our initial results show that the unoptimized GPU implementation has almost comparable turbulence mitigation to the FPGA version. In our presentation, we will explore optimization of the LRF algorithm on the GPU to achieve higher performance results, and adding new performance capabilities such as image stabilization.

  18. High resolution mapping and positional cloning of ENU-induced mutations in the Rw region of mouse chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimenti Kerry J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forward genetic screens in mice provide an unbiased means to identify genes and other functional genetic elements in the genome. Previously, a large scale ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to query the functional content of a ~50 Mb region of the mouse genome on proximal Chr 5. The majority of phenotypic mutants recovered were embryonic lethals. Results We report the high resolution genetic mapping, complementation analyses, and positional cloning of mutations in the target region. The collection of identified alleles include several with known or presumed functions for which no mutant models have been reported (Tbc1d14, Nol14, Tyms, Cad, Fbxl5, Haus3, and mutations in genes we or others previously reported (Tapt1, Rest, Ugdh, Paxip1, Hmx1, Otoe, Nsun7. We also confirmed the causative nature of a homeotic mutation with a targeted allele, mapped a lethal mutation to a large gene desert, and localized a spermiogenesis mutation to a region in which no annotated genes have coding mutations. The mutation in Tbc1d14 provides the first implication of a critical developmental role for RAB-GAP-mediated protein transport in early embryogenesis. Conclusion This collection of alleles contributes to the goal of assigning biological functions to all known genes, as well as identifying novel functional elements that would be missed by reverse genetic approaches.

  19. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Hill, Rick E; Clifford, John

    2017-04-01

    The 2014-2015 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out programme that cost the US government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all US-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, and allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the US not affected by HPAI. Disease response and control activities in addition to the use of comprehensive surveillance and regionalization (zoning) as prescribed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code are a scientifically valid and effective means to maintain safe trade in poultry and poultry products. This was further realized during the 2016 H7N8 HPAI outbreak in Dubois County, Indiana, with greater acceptance of regionalization and continuity in trade with a more limited cost of $30 million for eradication.

  20. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite: a collaborative initiative to improve Geohazards Assessment and Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in a highly populated region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Mahinda, Celestin K.; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Ciraba, Honoré M.; Mavonga, Georges T.

    2017-04-01

    Located within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), the Virunga Volcanic Province is a young highly volcanically and seismically active region. It provides a unique opportunity to study deep mantle upwelling through the crust. Several Geohazards are encountered in this highly populated region, and include volcanic hazards (lava flows, volcanic gases and ash, …), earthquake hazard; landslide, mud flows and floods hazards. In addition, the overturn of Lake Kivu (which lies in the Kivu Graben, western branch of the EARS) could release huge CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere. A few days after the January 17, 2002 Nyiragongo eruption whose lava flows devastated Goma city, destroying the houses of ˜120,000 people, forced a mass self-evacuation of ˜300,000 people of Goma (of estimated ˜400,000 inhabitants), and killed ˜140 people; the international scientific community deployed a "dream scientific team" to evaluate the state of Geohazards in the Virunga region. Particularly, the team had to check whether the stability of Lake Kivu that dissolves ˜300 and ˜60 km3 of CO2 and CH4 (at 0˚ C and 1 atm.) in its deep water was not disturbed due to Nyiragongo lava that entered the lake. Since 2002 several projects were funded with the main goal of accompanying the local scientific team to set up a more professional team to assess and continuous monitor Geohazards in the Virunga. For the time being, while Nyiragongo volcano solely threatens ˜1.5 million inhabitants of Goma (DR Congo) and Gisenyi (Rwanda) cities in addition to people living in the surrounding villages, and Lake Kivu threatening ˜3 million inhabitants of its catchment, the local scientists remain less qualified and equipped. Here we show that collaboration between Virunga local scientists and international scientists through the Geohazards Supersites network could be a most efficient pathway to improve Geohazards assessment and monitoring in the Virunga, and hence yield Disaster Risk

  1. Complex geological investigations to select a site for high-level waste disposal in the Krasnoyarsk region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Savonenkov, V.G.; Shabalev, S.I.; Rogozin, Yu.M. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lyubtseva, E.F. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Revenko, Yu.A.; Sabaev, Yu.I.; Nosukhin, A.V. [Chemical Mining Company, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Milovidov, V.L. [VNIPI Promtechnologii, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukina, N.V. [GIN RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopatin, A.P. [State Centre ' Priroda' , Krasnoyarsk branch, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Datsenko, V.M. [KNIIGiMS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovsky, V.A. [' Krasnoyarskgeolsyomka' , Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in deep geological formations is now considered by the international community as the ultimate stage in the optimum solution to the general problem of radioactive waste management, although other, more hypothetical, possibilities, (e.g. transmutation, space disposal) have been considered. lt is no exaggeration to state that the creation of an underground HLW repository in the Krasnoyarsk region is the greatest of the key environmental and economic problems governing the very existence of the large nuclear company, the Mining and Chemical Company (MCC), which generates considerable quantities of radioactive wastes, including HLW. On the other hand, radioactive waste disposal is not merely a problem for the Krasnoyarsk region, but is one of the key problems determining the future development of the Russian nuclear power industry in general, particularly if the nuclear fuel cycle includes the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel which is planned for the RT-2 plant currently under construction in the Krasnoyarsk region. lt is no accident, therefore, that the Russian Federal programme on radioactive waste management includes a special topic devoted to characterisation work in the Krasnoyarsk region with a view to selecting a site for the construction of a repository. The results of a number of international scientific research programmes have demonstrated that in the case of long-term storage of HLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) in the earth's surface, the risk to the population and to the biosphere in general is too great and, consequently, unacceptable. Thus, the concept of an underground radioactive waste repository has wide support among the leading nuclear countries, including the U.K., France, U.S.A., Sweden, Finland and Germany. In these countries, projects to construct repositories for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are either underway or are planned. 1 ref.

  2. A high quality assembly of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome reveals the structure of two sex determination regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Matthew A; Gammerdinger, William J; Bartie, Kerry L; Penman, David J; Kocher, Thomas D

    2017-05-02

    Tilapias are the second most farmed fishes in the world and a sustainable source of food. Like many other fish, tilapias are sexually dimorphic and sex is a commercially important trait in these fish. In this study, we developed a significantly improved assembly of the tilapia genome using the latest genome sequencing methods and show how it improves the characterization of two sex determination regions in two tilapia species. A homozygous clonal XX female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was sequenced to 44X coverage using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) SMRT sequencing. Dozens of candidate de novo assemblies were generated and an optimal assembly (contig NG50 of 3.3Mbp) was selected using principal component analysis of likelihood scores calculated from several paired-end sequencing libraries. Comparison of the new assembly to the previous O. niloticus genome assembly reveals that recently duplicated portions of the genome are now well represented. The overall number of genes in the new assembly increased by 27.3%, including a 67% increase in pseudogenes. The new tilapia genome assembly correctly represents two recent vasa gene duplication events that have been verified with BAC sequencing. At total of 146Mbp of additional transposable element sequence are now assembled, a large proportion of which are recent insertions. Large centromeric satellite repeats are assembled and annotated in cichlid fish for the first time. Finally, the new assembly identifies the long-range structure of both a ~9Mbp XY sex determination region on LG1 in O. niloticus, and a ~50Mbp WZ sex determination region on LG3 in the related species O. aureus. This study highlights the use of long read sequencing to correctly assemble recent duplications and to characterize repeat-filled regions of the genome. The study serves as an example of the need for high quality genome assemblies and provides a framework for identifying sex determining genes in tilapia and related fish species.

  3. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  4. A new, high-resolution surface mass balance map of Antarctica (1979-2010) based on regional atmospheric climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, J. T. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van de Berg, W. J.; van Meijgaard, E.; Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2012-02-01

    A new, high resolution (27 km) surface mass balance (SMB) map of the Antarctic ice sheet is presented, based on output of a regional atmospheric climate model that includes snowdrift physics and is forced by the most recent reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), ERA-Interim (1979-2010). The SMB map confirms high accumulation zones in the western Antarctic Peninsula (>1500 mm y-1) and coastal West Antarctica (>1000 mm y-1), and shows low SMB values in large parts of the interior ice sheet (181 Gt y-1. Snowfall shows modest interannual variability (σ = 114 Gt y-1), but a pronounced seasonal cycle (σ = 30 Gt mo-1), with a winter maximum. The main ablation process is drifting snow sublimation, which also peaks in winter but with little interannual variability (σ = 9 Gt y-1).

  5. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000 and at the end of austral summer (May 2001. The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %. Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43 and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2 from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82 in dry austral winter months (June to August and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75 during austral summer

  6. APIFLAME v1.0: high resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME project (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling). The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent) and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The strength of the proposed algorithm is its high resolution and its flexibility in terms of domain and input data (including the vegetation classification). The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require changes in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. In this region, the burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in Eastern Europe, Western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represents a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~20% for CO). The uncertainty on the daily carbon emissions was estimated to ~100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties on emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons to other widely used emission inventories shows good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 on the amplitude of the emissions, our results being generally on the higher end.

  7. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (MLENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE-dipping fault between 2-5 km depth in the carbonate reservoir. The fault measures 5 km along dip and corresponds to a pre-existing thrust fault favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional field.

  8. Regional CO pollution and export in China simulated by the high-resolution nested-grid GEOS-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated version of the nested-grid GEOS-Chem model is developed allowing for higher horizontal (0.5°×0.667° resolution as compared to global models. CO transport over a heavily polluted region, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH city cluster in China, and the pattern of outflow from East China in summertime are investigated. Comparison of the nested-grid with global models indicates that the fine-resolution nested-grid model is capable of resolving individual cities with high associated emission intensities. The nested-grid model indicates the presence of a high CO column density over the Sichuan Basin in summer, attributable to the low-level stationary vortex associated with the Basin's topographical features. The nested-grid model provides good agreement also with measurements from a suburban monitoring site in Beijing during summer 2005. Tagged CO simulation results suggest that regional emissions make significant contributions to elevated CO levels over Beijing on polluted days and that the southeastward moving cyclones bringing northwest winds to Beijing are the key meteorological mechanisms responsible for dispersion of pollution over Beijing in summer. Overall CO fluxes to the NW Pacific from Asia are found to decrease by a factor of 3–4 from spring to summer. Much of the seasonal change is driven by decreasing fluxes from India and Southeast Asia in summer, while fluxes from East China are only 30% lower in summer than in spring. Compared to spring, summertime outflow from Chinese source regions is strongest at higher latitudes (north of 35° N. The deeper convection in summer transporting CO to higher altitudes where export is more efficient is largely responsible for enhanced export in summer.

  9. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3' noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J; Barnes, David W

    2007-01-23

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3' UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3' mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology.

  10. Use of SOFEA to predict 1,3-D concentrations in air in high-use regions of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; Havens, P L; Houtman, B A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl bromide, a commonly used soil fumigant, is being phased out per the Montreal Protocol and multiple fumigants are being positioned as replacements. Most effective soil fumigants, including methyl bromide, have the potential for inhalation exposure if the material volatilizes from soil. Chronic exposures for the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) are managed in part by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation by limiting the annual amount that can be used within a given township. A stochastic/deterministic numerical system (SOil Fumigant Exposure Assessment system [SOFEA]) was developed using the USEPA air dispersion model ISCST3, field study observations for flux loss, and links to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). SOFEA was used retrospectively to simulate concentrations of 1,3-D in air for direct comparison with monitoring program observations conducted by California Air Resources Board in Fresno County. These results indicated slight overprediction but correct magnitudes for regional air concentrations, especially at the higher percentiles, and provide a performance test. SOFEA was also used, prospectively, to predict air concentrations in potential future-use scenarios. These simulations of chronic air concentrations in two high-use 1,3-D counties of California (Ventura, Merced) consisted of 25 contiguous townships treated either at 1.5 times the current township allocation (40,937 kg) or at the maximum levels of 1,3-D used between 1999 and 2006. Exposure predictions for large regions are necessary to evaluate chronic population-based lifetime exposure and risk to 1,3-D should use patterns change. SOFEA provides a tool to estimate regional air concentrations within high-use areas required for such risk assessments. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  12. The role of total wind in the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A seasonally dependent total neutral wind model obtained from experimental data is used to evaluate the diurnal variation of the vertical ion velocity in the E-region at a high-latitude location (Tromsø, for each season, in the presence of an electric field with a typical diurnal variation for quiet auroral days. The diurnal variation and spatial locations of the vertical convergence of ions are analyzed and the effect of the total wind on the occurrence of sporadic E-layers is inferred. The results show that the structure of the wind is an important factor in controlling the vertical velocities of ions, favoring or hindering the sporadic E-layer formation. The ion convergence conditions are improved when the permanent wind is removed, which suggests that sporadic E-layers occur when the mean wind has small values, thus allowing the electric field and/or the semidiurnal tide to control the ion dynamics. We conclude that for quiet days the formation of the sporadic layers is initiated by the electric field, while their evolution and dynamics is controlled by the wind. We also find that the seasonal variation of the Es layers cannot be related to the seasonally dependent wind shear. Although we focus on sporadic E-layers, our results can be used in the analysis of other processes involving the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes.

  13. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirousek, Martin, E-mail: machozrut@mail.muni.c [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Hajek, Michal [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bragazza, Luca [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Site Lausanne, Station 2, Case Postale 96, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Ecological Systems - ECOS, Batiment GR, Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara, Corso Ercole I d' Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m{sup -2} year{sup -1} in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. - Research highlights: Despite high atmopsheric nitrogen deposition, Sphagnum mosses still have rather low N:P ratio. Regional climate and landscape management can enhance P and K availability in bogs. Sphagnum species of the Cuspidata section were characterised by lower N:P ratio. - Regional climate and local forestry practices are expected to alter nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum mosses at high atmospheric N deposition in Central-East Europe.

  14. Unexpected weak seasonal climate in the western Mediterranean region during MIS 31, a high-insolation forced interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dulce; Sánchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Naughton, Filipa; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Martrat, Belen; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Trigo, Ricardo; Hodell, David; Abrantes, Fátima; Desprat, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS 31) is an important analogue for ongoing and projected global warming, yet key questions remain about the regional signature of its extreme orbital forcing and intra-interglacial variability. Based on a new direct land-sea comparison in SW Iberian margin IODP Site U1385 we examine the climatic variability between 1100 and 1050 ka including the ;super interglacial; MIS 31, a period dominated by the 41-ky obliquity periodicity. Pollen and biomarker analyses at centennial-scale-resolution provide new insights into the regional vegetation, precipitation regime and atmospheric and oceanic temperature variability on orbital and suborbital timescales. Our study reveals that atmospheric and SST warmth during MIS 31 was not exceptional in this region highly sensitive to precession. Unexpectedly, this warm stage stands out as a prolonged interval of a temperate and humid climate regime with reduced seasonality, despite the high insolation (precession minima values) forcing. We find that the dominant forcing on the long-term temperate forest development was obliquity, which may have induced a decrease in summer dryness and associated reduction in seasonal precipitation contrast. Moreover, this study provides the first evidence for persistent atmospheric millennial-scale variability during this interval with multiple forest decline events reflecting repeated cooling and drying episodes in SW Iberia. Our direct land-sea comparison shows that the expression of the suborbital cooling events on SW Iberian ecosystems is modulated by the predominance of high or low-latitude forcing depending on the glacial/interglacial baseline climate states. Severe dryness and air-sea cooling is detected under the larger ice volume during glacial MIS 32 and MIS 30. The extreme episodes, which in their climatic imprint are similar to the Heinrich events, are likely related to northern latitude ice-sheet instability and a disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning

  15. Using a Regional Climate Model for the Simulation of Hydrologic Processes in the High Himalayan Wangchu Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, T.; Hank, T.

    2009-04-01

    Since the late 70ies of the previous century, computer aided modelling of physical processes has developed to a substantial scientific tool that is widely applied in the most diverse scientific branches. For the scientific fields of hydrology and climatology, the mapping of the multiple exchange fluxes of mass and energy between landsurface and atmosphere is of special interest, since the mass and energy balance at the landsurface is defining the lower border conditions of the atmospheric climate models on one hand, while it is determining the upper boundary of the landsurface models on the other. If well developed and thoroughly tested, both, regional climate models and landsurface models can be reliable instruments to assist with the investigation of multiple environmental variables. This study focuses on an application of the hydrological landsurface model PROMET (Process of Radiation Mass and Energy Transfer Model), which is being developed at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU) in Munich at the Chair of Geography and Remote Sensing. PROMET is successfully applied in central Europe to the Upper Danube watershed as part of the BMB+F funded cooperative project GLOWA-Danube. Supporting the idea of twinning the Upper Danube with the Brahmaputra, which is a basic issue of the EU funded cooperative project ‘Brahmatwinn - Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to enhance capacity and implement adaptive management approaches', PROMET was applied to the quantitative analysis of the landsurface water balance of the Wangchu watershed located in Bhutan, Asia without adjusting the model parameterisation. The Wangchu represents a small sized subcatchment of the Brahmaputra river system. The catchment covers a large part of the West of the Kingdom of Bhutan. It comprises high mountain regions of the Himalaya in the North, characterized by cold temperatures and low precipitation rates, temperate forested hills and evergreen deciduous forests featuring a humid

  16. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...... level of social capital leads to a higher propensity to innovate. We find also that being located in an area characterized by a high degree of localized social capital is complementary to firms' investments in internal research and development (R&D) and that such a location positively moderates...

  17. Humic Haplustox under different land uses in a high altitude environment in the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Kelly Silva Araujo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Garanhuns Plateau in the Agreste region of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil is characterized by humid climatic conditions due to orographic rains, unlike the surrounding semiarid region. These soils are subjected to intense agricultural use and are extremely important for the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Brejão in the Agreste region with the aim of assessing changes in humic Haplustox soils subjected to different land uses. Four plots with different vegetation covers (native forest, secondary shrubby vegetation (capoeira, traditional cropping system, and planted pasture were selected, and samples were taken from a soil profile and four small pits surrounding it at each site. Physical and chemical properties were assessed, including aggregate stability, humic organic fractions, and a microbiological evaluation through determination of basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and metabolic quotient. The soils under study showed physical and chemical properties typical of a Haplustox, such as low nutrient content, low cation exchange capacity, and high levels of acidity and Al saturation. The total organic carbon (TOC contents were high regardless of the type of land use. Aggregates < 2 mm were dominant in all the conditions under study. The TOC content was higher in the soil under capoeira, 43.91 g kg-1 on the surface, while 34.36 and 33.43 g kg-1 of TOC were observed in the first layer of forest and pasture soils, respectively. While the microbial biomass C (MBC was greater than 700 mg kg-1 in the forest and pasture areas (in the 0-5 cm layer, and 588 mg kg-1 in the soil under capoeira, these numbers were not statistically different. In the cultivated soil area, there was a reduction of around 28 % in TOC and MBC contents. Agricultural activity contributed to degradation of the humic horizon, as can be seen from a significant decrease in the TOC and changes in the relative distribution of the humic

  18. A high-resolution air pollutants emission inventory in 2013 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zheng, Bo; Li, Meng; Yu, Fang; Chen, Chuchu; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiafei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a high-resolution Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regional air pollutants emission inventory for the year 2013. The inventory was established using a bottom-up approach based on facility-level activity data obtained from multiple data sources. The estimates from the BTH 2013 emission inventory show that the total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC were 2,305, 2,686, 1,090, 1,494, 20,567, 2,207, 623, 160, and 254 Gg, respectively. The industry sector is the largest emissions source for SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NMVOC in the BTH region, contributing 72.6%, 43.7%, 59.6%, 64.7%, 60.3%, and 70.4% of the total emissions, respectively. Power plants contributed 11.8% and 23.3% of the total SO2 and NOX emissions, respectively. The transportation sector contributed 28.9% of the total NOX emissions. Emissions from the residential sector accounted for 31.3%, 21.5%, 46.6% and 71.7% of the total PM2.5, NMVOC, BC and OC emissions, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of the total NH3 emissions originate from the agriculture sector, with 44.2% from fertilizer use and 47.7% from livestock. The spatial distribution results illustrate that air pollutant emissions are mainly distributed over the eastern and southern BTH regions. Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Tangshan and Handan are the major contributors of air pollutants. The major NMVOC species in the BTH region are ethylene, acetylene, ethane and toluene. Ethylene is the biggest contributor in Tianjin and Hebei. The largest contributor in Beijing is toluene. There is relatively low uncertainty in SO2 and NOX emission estimates, medium uncertainty in PM2.5, PM10 and CO emission estimates, and high uncertainties in VOC, NH3, BC and OC emission estimates. The proposed policy recommendations, based on the BTH 2013 emission inventory, would be helpful to develop strategies for air pollution control.

  19. The Pre-Onset, Transitional, and Foot Regions in Resistance Versus Temperature Behavior in High-T sub 2 Cuprates: Inferences Regarding Maximum T sub 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    linearity region, the transitional regime, and the foot region in the resistance versus temperature behavior of high-Tc oxide superconductors ... superconductor Tl1Ca 1Ba2 Cu207.6 to show commonality of pyramidal building blocks, and also to the well known A2 BX4 related archetype. The structure...The material shows strong levitation , high density, very low porosity, large grain size, and very high electrical conductivity in the normal state. In

  20. Determining the nature of active region heating using high spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, M. W.; Cirtain, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Rarely have active regions on the Sun been studied at wavelengths less than 10 nm while simultaneously maintaining both high spatial and high spectral measurements. Marshall's Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) will measure the soft X-ray solar spectrum within a wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm (0.5 - 2.0 keV) while maintaining a 5 arcsec spatial resolution. The wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm can provide insight into the heating roles of two of the likely coronal heating mechanisms: nanoflare and Alfven wave heating. The key difference in nanoflares and Alfven wave heating is the high temperature components of plasmas inside single magnetic strands. If the observed frequency of the heating event is low, it is determined to be a nanoflare. If the frequency of the heating event is high, it is Alfvenic in nature. To discriminate between these two distinct events requires that the components of the local high-temperature plasma be measured. MaGIXS is a proposed sounding rocket experiment. Currently in its prototype phase, MaGIXS is being aligned and characterized in hopes of a 2015 launch. To measure the attributes of high-temperature plasma, MaGIXS will employ the use of a matched pair of parabolic mirrors in conjunction with a planar varied-line-space silicon wafer grating. The two mirrors act as a collimator and re-focusing system, molding the beam to desired specifications and removing off-axis optical aberrations in the process. The grating has a HeNe alignment feature which allows the grating to be aligned at atmospheric pressure while focusing the HeNe laser beam near the center of MaGIXS wavelength range. This presentation will cover the alignment procedure of the mirrors, and the results of preliminary testing using both white light and X-ray sources.

  1. From the Bay of Biscay to the High Atlas: completing the anisotropic characterization of the westernmost Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the anisotropic properties beneath the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco has been dramatically changed since late 2007 with the analysis of the data provided by the dense TopoIberia-Iberarray broad-band seismic network, the increasing number of permanent stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain and the contribution of smaller scale/higher resolution experiments. The first TopoIberia deployment in the Betics-Alboran zone has evidenced a spectacular rotation of the fast polarization direction (FPD) along the Gibraltar arc following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain, from roughly N65E beneath the Betics to close to N65W beneath the Rif chain. (Díaz et al, 2010). This result, confirmed latter on by the analysis of the PICASSO experiment data (Miller et al., 2013), has been interpreted as an evidence of mantle flow deflected around the high velocity slab identified by tomographic methods beneath the Gibraltar Arc. Data from the second TopoIberia deployment and from additional deployments in the Moroccan Meseta and the western High Atlas, allowed expanding the investigated area and obtaining a larger scale image of the mantle flow around the region. Diaz et al. (2014) have shown that SW Portugal and the western High Atlas regions have a small degree of anisotropy and a large number of "null" measurements, which suggest the presence of vertical flow in the mantle associated to small-scale edge-driven convective cells. The rather uniform N100ºE FPD retrieved beneath the Variscan Central Iberian Massif is consistent with global mantle flow models taking into account contributions of surface plate motion, density variations and net lithosphere rotation. The last Iberarray deployment covers the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula and has been coeval with the deployment of a similar seismic network in southern France in the framework of the Pyrope project. Even if data from short term experiments in the Pyrenees and northern Iberia have

  2. Influence of high deformation rate, brain region, transverse compression, and specimen size on rat brain shear stress morphology and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslach, Henry W; Gipple, Jenna M; Leahy, Lauren N

    2017-04-01

    An external mechanical insult to the brain, such as a blast, may create internal stress and deformation waves, which have shear and longitudinal components that can induce combined shear and compression of the brain tissue. To isolate the consequences of such interactions for the shear stress and to investigate the role of the extracellular fluid in the mechanical response, translational shear stretch at 10/s, 60/s, and 100/s translational shear rates under either 0% or 33% fixed transverse compression is applied without preconditioning to rat brain specimens. The specimens from the cerebrum, the cerebellum grey matter, and the brainstem white matter are nearly the full length of their respective regions. The translational shear stress response to translational shear deformation is characterized by the effect that each of four factors, high deformation rate, brain region, transverse compression, and specimen size, have on the shear stress magnitude averaged over ten specimens for each combination of factors. Increasing the deformation rate increases the magnitude of the shear stress at a given translational shear stretch, and as tested by ANOVAs so does applying transverse fixed compression of 33% of the thickness. The stress magnitude differs by the region that is the specimen source: cerebrum, cerebellum or brainstem. The magnitude of the shear stress response at a given deformation rate and stretch depends on the specimen length, called a specimen size effect. Surprisingly, under no compression a shorter length specimen requires more shear stress, but under 33% compression a shorter length specimen requires less shear stress, to meet a required shear deformation rate. The shear specimen size effect calls into question the applicability of the classical shear stress definition to hydrated soft biological tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  4. A near real time regional JPSS and GOES-R data assimilation system for high impact weather research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, P.; Han, H.; Schmit, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    JPSS and GOES-R observations play important role in numerical weather prediction (NWP). However, how to best represent the information from satellite observations and how to get value added information from these satellite data into regional NWP models, including both radiance and derived products, still need investigations. In order to enhance the applications of JPSS and GOES-R data in regional NWP for high impact weather forecasts, scientists from Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at University of Wisconsin-Madison have recently developed a near realtime regional Satellite Data Assimilation system for Tropical storm forecasts (SDAT) (http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/sdat). The system consists of the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) assimilation system and the advanced Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. In addition to assimilate GOES, AMSUA/AMSUB, HIRS, MHS, ATMS (Suomi-NPP), AIRS and IASI radiances, the SDAT is also able to assimilate satellite-derived products such as hyperspectral IR retrieved temperature and moisture profiles, total precipitable water (TPW), GOES Sounder (and future GOES-R) layer precipitable water (LPW) and GOES Imager atmospheric motion vector (AMV) products into the system. Real time forecasted GOES infrared (IR) images simulated from SDAT output have also been part of the SDAT system for applications and forecast evaluations. To set up the system parameters, a series of experiments have been carried out to test the impacts of different initialization schemes, including different background error matrix, different NCEP global model date sets, and different WRF model horizontal resolutions. Using SDAT as a research testbed, researches have been conducted for different satellite data impacts study, as well as different techniques for handling clouds in radiance assimilation. Since the fall of 2013, the SDAT system has been running in near real time. The results from historical cases and 2014

  5. An AIS-based high-resolution ship emission inventory and its uncertainty in Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Yuan, Zibing; Ou, Jiamin; Fan, Xiaoli; Ye, Siqi; Xiao, Teng; Shi, Yuqi; Huang, Zhijiong; Ng, Simon K W; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zheng, Junyu

    2016-12-15

    Ship emissions contribute significantly to air pollution and impose health risks to residents along the coastal area. By using the refined data from the Automatic Identification System (AIS), this study developed a highly resolved ship emission inventory for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, home to three of ten busiest ports in the world. The region-wide SO2, NOX, CO, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions in 2013 were estimated to be 61,484, 103,717, 10,599, 7155, 6605, and 4195t, respectively. Ocean going vessels were the largest contributors of the total emissions, followed by coastal vessels and river vessels. In terms of ship type, container ship was the leading contributor, followed by conventional cargo ship, dry bulk carrier, fishing ship, and oil tanker. These five ship types accounted for >90% of total emissions. The spatial distributions of emissions revealed that the key emission hot spots all concentrated within the newly proposed emission control area (ECA) and ship emissions within ECA covered >80% of total ship emissions in the PRD, highlighting the importance of ECA in emissions reduction in the PRD. The uncertainties of emission estimates of pollutants were quantified, with lower bounds of -24.5% to -21.2% and upper bounds of 28.6% to 33.3% at 95% confidence intervals. The lower uncertainties in this study highlighted the powerfulness of AIS data in improving ship emission estimates. The AIS-based bottom-up methodology can be used for developing and upgrading ship emission inventory and formulating effective control measures on ship emissions in other port regions wherever possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  7. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  8. Impact of immigration on burden of tuberculosis in Umbria: a low-incidence Italian region with high immigrants rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonora, N; Chiavarini, M; Salmasi, L; Giaimo, M D; Minelli, L

    2013-03-01

    In Italy, Tubercolosis (TB) has increasingly become a disease for specific population subgroups such as immigrants. The objective of this paper is to describe the trend in TB incidence from 1999 to 2008 in Umbria: a low-incidence Italian region with high immigrants rates. Data were obtained from the Regional Information System for Infectious Diseases. Using a linear regressions model we estimated trends for number of cases and incidence rates; with a logistic regression model we estimated the effect of a set of covariates on the probability of being affected by TB. 590 TB cases were reported of whom 254 (43%) were foreign. In 2008 39.7 new cases per 100.000 were registered among foreign-born subjects. TB incidence among Italians was 3.8/100.000 Italians. But a linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant decreasing trend in the notification rate among foreign-born people (coef: -7.32, r2:0.57, p foreign patients (OR = 0.72, CI = 0.48-1.07). Foreign unskilled workers report a higher probability to be affected by TB (OR = 19.05, CI = 6.01-60.4). Increasing immigration rates may affect TB epidemiology. The analysis of incidence trends is an important toolfor monitoring tuberculosis disease control and to identify specific sub-group at risk.

  9. Evaluation of Cancer Risk of Heavy Metals in the Air of a High Traffic Urban Region and Its Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Moattar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sampling was conducted on particles smaller than ten microns (PM10 in a high-traffic urban region once a week for two years in which fifteen heavy metals were measured. Methods: positive matrix factorization (EPA-PMF5, was used for source apportionment and characterization of the collected PM10. Assessment of cancer risk resulting from metals including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead was conducted in three concentration ranges of maximum, average and minimum. Results: Results for children and adults living in the region indicated that cancer risk indexes at different concentration ranges of carcinogenic metals were between 10-4 to 10-6 for adults and children. Since EPA recommendations suggest that planning should be conducted if cancer risk is in the range of 10-4 to 10-6, using PMF5 model, source characterization of pollutants was implemented by all measured heavy metals. Conclusion: It was found that 41.5% of PM10 resulted from fuel and combustion, 12% from waste dump soil of lead and zinc industries, 35.7% from suspended open soil and 11% from industrial activities. It was also found that cadmium, nickel and, chromium have higher cancer risk than other metals and, suspended open soil, industrial activities and industrial fuel and combustion are the main sources of these metals respectively.

  10. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  11. ALP-RISK, a smartphone app for collecting data on geomorphic phenomena at high altitude in the Mont Blanc region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A network of observers (mountain guides, hut keepers and mountaineers) has been created from 2005 for the Mont Blanc massif in order to acquire data on rockfall in permafrost-affected rock walls. This network, fully operational since 2007, is based on observation sheets or oral communications and has documented nearly 350 events with volume between 100 and 45,000 m3. Their analysis confirmed and helped to better understand the role of the permafrost degradation as main triggering factor. To i) reinforce this network, ii) facilitate its observation work and iii) develop it as well in space (the whole Mont Blanc region, or eventually the whole western Alps) as in a thematic point of view (all glacial and periglacial brutal phenomena), the Alp-Risk app has been created in the framework of the Alcotra PrévRisk Mont-Blanc project. The latter (2011-13) has been developed to improve the prevention of individual and collective natural hazards around the Mont Blanc massif. The app was created for I-Phones and Androids in three languages (French, English and Italian) and allows, as intuitively and quickly as possible, transmitting data on natural hazards in high mountain (snow and ice avalanche, landslides and rockfalls, landslides, moraine destabilization, water pocket outburst flood, torrential flood, and others) to both practitioners (observations available directly on the app via an interface web), scientists, and possibly local managers. Alp-Risk thus constitutes a new step for participatory science in the Mont Blanc region.

  12. A high-resolution linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was evaluated in 554 progeny of 10 populations derived from Poncirus trifoliata. A dominant gene (Ctv) controlled CTV resistance in P. trifoliata. Twenty-one dominant PCR-based DNA markers were identified as linked to Ctv by bulked segregant analysis. Of the 11 closest markers to Ctv, only 2 segregated in all populations. Ten of these markers were cloned and sequenced, and codominant RFLP markers were developed. Seven RFLP markers were then evaluated in 10 populations. Marker orders were consistent in all linkage maps based on data of single populations or on combined data of populations with similar segregation patterns. In a consensus map, the six closest marker loci spanned 5.3 cM of the Ctv region. Z16 cosegregated with Ctv. C19 and AD08 flanked Ctv at distances of 0.5 and 0.8 cM, respectively. These 3 markers were present as single copies in the Poncirus genome, and could be used directly for bacterial artificial chromosome library screening to initiate a walk toward Ctv. BLAST searches of the GenBank database revealed high sequence similarities between 2 markers and known plant disease resistance genes, indicating that a resistance gene cluster exists in the Ctv region in P. trifoliata. PMID:9755216

  13. Diffraction of high-intensity field in focal region as dynamics of nonlinear system with low-frequency dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Hedberg, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The stationary profile in the focal region of a focused nonlinear acoustic wave is described. Three models following from the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya (KZ) equation with three independent variables are used: (i) the simplified one-dimensional Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko equation, (ii) the system of equations for paraxial series expansion of the acoustic field in powers of transverse coordinates, and (iii) the KZ equation reduced to two independent variables. The structure of the last equation is analogous to the Westervelt equation. Linearization through the Legendre transformation and reduction to the well-studied Euler-Tricomi equation is shown. At high intensities the stationary profiles are periodic sequences of arc sections having singularities of derivative in their matching points. The occurrence of arc profiles was pointed out by Makov. These appear in different nonlinear systems with low-frequency dispersion. Profiles containing discontinuities (shock fronts) change their form while passing through the focal region and are non-stationary waves. The numerical estimations of maximum pressure and intensity in the focus agree with computer calculations and experimental measurements.

  14. High Dose Involved Field Radiation Therapy as Salvage for Loco-Regional Recurrence of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sun Hyun; Nam, Heerim; Park, Hee Chul; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Jhingook; Kim, Kwhanmien; Ahn, Jin Seok; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effectiveness of salvage radiation therapy (RT) in patients with loco-regional recurrences (LRR) following initial complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assess prognostic factors affecting survivals. Materials and Methods Between 1994 and 2007, 64 patients with LRR after surgery of NSCLC were treated with high dose RT alone (78.1%) or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT, 21.9%) at Samsung Medical Center. Twenty-nine patients (45.3%) had local recurrence, 26 patients (40.6%) had regional recurrence and 9 patients (14.1%) had recurrence of both components. The median RT dose was 54 Gy (range, 44-66 Gy). The radiation target volume included the recurrent lesions only. Results The median follow-up time from the start of RT in survivors was 32.0 months. The rates of in-field failure free survival, intra-thoracic failure free survival and extra-thoracic failure free survival at 2 years were 52.3%, 33.9% and 59.4%, respectively. The median survival after RT was 18.5 months, and 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 47.9%. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, the interval from surgery till recurrence and CCRT were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that involved field salvage RT is effective for LRR of NSCLC following surgery. PMID:23074111

  15. Air Quality Modeling for the Urban Jackson, Mississippi Region Using a High Resolution WRF/Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton J. Swanier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to simulate the air quality with reference to ozone over the Jackson (Mississippi region using an online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting–Chemistry model. The WRF/Chem model has the advantages of the integration of the meteorological and chemistry modules with the same computational grid and same physical parameterizations and includes the feedback between the atmospheric chemistry and physical processes. The model was designed to have three nested domains with the inner-most domain covering the study region with a resolution of 1 km. The model was integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 0000 UTC of 6 June 2006 and the evolution of surface ozone and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. The model simulated atmospheric flow fields and distributions of NO2 and O3 were evaluated for each of the three different time periods. The GIS based spatial distribution maps for ozone, its precursors NO, NO2, CO and HONO and the back trajectories indicate that all the mobile sources in Jackson, Ridgeland and Madison contributing significantly for their formation. The present study demonstrates the applicability of WRF/Chem model to generate quantitative information at high spatial and temporal resolution for the development of decision support systems for air quality regulatory agencies and health administrators.

  16. Total and regional lung volume changes during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) of the normal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, R Blaine; Lancaster, Christopher T; Fuld, Matthew K; Custer, Jason W; Hager, David N; Kaczka, David W; Simon, Brett A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) settings on the distribution of lung volume (V(L)) with changes in mean airway pressure (Paw), frequency (f(R)) and tidal volume (V(T)) remains controversial. We used computer tomographic (CT) imaging to quantify the distribution of V(L) during HFOV compared to static continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In anesthetized, supine canines, CT imaging of the entire lung was performed during CPAP and HFOV at Paw of 5, 12.5 and 20 cm H(2)O, f(R)=5, 10, 15 Hz. We found small, statistically significant decreases compared with CPAP in total and regional V(L) during HFOV that were greatest at lower f(R) and Paw. Apex and base sub-volumes underwent changes comparable to the lung overall. Increases in f(R) were accompanied by increases in Pa(O)(2). These finding provide additional insight into the impact of HFOV settings on the distribution of V(L) and suggest that there is low risk of occult regional over-distention during HFOV in normal lungs.

  17. Quality ratings of frequency-compressed speech by participants with extensive high-frequency dead regions in the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salorio-Corbetto, Marina; Baer, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to assess the degradation of speech sound quality produced by frequency compression for listeners with extensive high-frequency dead regions (DRs). Quality ratings were obtained using values of the starting frequency (Sf) of the frequency compression both below and above the estimated edge frequency, fe, of each DR. Thus, the value of Sf often fell below the lowest value currently used in clinical practice. Several compression ratios were used for each value of Sf. Stimuli were sentences processed via a prototype hearing aid based on Phonak Exélia Art P. Five participants (eight ears) with extensive high-frequency DRs were tested. Reductions of sound-quality produced by frequency compression were small to moderate. Ratings decreased significantly with decreasing Sf and increasing CR. The mean ratings were lowest for the lowest Sf and highest CR. Ratings varied across participants, with one participant rating frequency compression lower than no frequency compression even when Sf was above fe. Frequency compression degraded sound quality somewhat for this small group of participants with extensive high-frequency DRs. The degradation was greater for lower values of Sf relative to fe, and for greater values of CR. Results varied across participants.

  18. Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ► Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ► Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ► Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

  19. Progress in the study of multivitamins and minerals nutritional supplements for troops stationed in high altitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-qiang ZHONG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are products intended to supplement and improve the diet, and they contain one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, protein and other substances or their constituents. Supplement of vitamins and trace elements play an important role in the nutritional supplements. Supplements play a direct role in health by filling the nutritional gap and preventing diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially for certain groups of the population who require higher than normal requirements, for example, pregnant women and people working in special environment. We reviewed the use of dietary supplements at home and abroad, and compared the formulations of different kinds of dietary supplements in the market. Based on the investigation of dietary habits and nutritional status of the residents and troops stationed in high altitude regions, the necessity of nutritional supplements suitable for troops stationed in high altitude area is discussed, considering the plateau geography and climate characteristics in China. Meanwhile, a theoretical guidance for the formula and the production of multivitamin dietary supplements suitable for troops stationed in high altitude area is provided. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.001

  20. Satellite formation design in orbits of high eccentricity for missions with performance criteria specified over a region of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Christopher William Thomas

    Several methods are presented for the design of satellite formations for science missions in high-eccentricity reference orbits with quantifiable performance criteria specified throughout only a portion the orbit, called the Region of Interest (RoI). A modified form of the traditional average along-track drift minimization condition is introduced to account for the fact that performance criteria are only specified within the RoI, and a robust formation design algorithm (FDA) is defined to improve performance in the presence of formation initialization errors. Initial differential mean orbital elements are taken as the design variables and the Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix (G-A STM) is used for relative motion propagation. Using mean elements and the G-A STM allows for explicit inclusion of J2 perturbation effects in the design process. The methods are applied to the complete formation design problem of the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and results are verified using the NASA General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). Since satellite formations in high-eccentricity orbits will spend long times at high altitude, third-body perturbations are an important design consideration as well. A detailed analytical analysis of third-body perturbation effects on satellite formations is also performed and averaged dynamics are derived for the particular case of the lunar perturbation. Numerical results of the lunar perturbation analysis are obtained for the example application of the MMS mission and verified in GMAT.

  1. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  2. Drift region doping effects on characteristics and reliability of high-voltage n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jone F.; Chang, Chun-Po; Liu, Yu Ming; Tsai, Yan-Lin; Hsu, Hao-Tang; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hwang, Hann-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, off-state breakdown voltage (VBD) and hot-carrier-induced degradation in high-voltage n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with various BF2 implantation doses in the n- drift region are investigated. Results show that a higher BF2 implantation dose results in a higher VBD but leads to a greater hot-carrier-induced device degradation. Experimental data and technology computer-aided design simulations suggest that the higher VBD is due to the suppression of gate-induced drain current. On the other hand, the greater hot-carrier-induced device degradation can be explained by a lower net donor concentration and a different current-flow path, which is closer to the Si-SiO2 interface.

  3. Influence of the Bermuda High on interannual variability of summertime ozone in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bermuda High (BH quasi-permanent pressure system is the key large-scale circulation pattern influencing summertime weather over the eastern and southern US. Here we developed a multiple linear regression (MLR model to characterize the effect of the BH on year-to-year changes in monthly-mean maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8 ozone in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria (HGB metropolitan region during June, July, and August (JJA. The BH indicators include the longitude of the BH western edge (BH-Lon and the BH intensity index (BHI defined as the pressure gradient along its western edge. Both BH-Lon and BHI are selected by MLR as significant predictors (p < 0.05 of the interannual (1990–2015 variability of the HGB-mean ozone throughout JJA, while local-scale meridional wind speed is selected as an additional predictor for August only. Local-scale temperature and zonal wind speed are not identified as important factors for any summer month. The best-fit MLR model can explain 61–72 % of the interannual variability of the HGB-mean summertime ozone over 1990–2015 and shows good performance in cross-validation (R2 higher than 0.48. The BH-Lon is the most important factor, which alone explains 38–48 % of such variability. The location and strength of the Bermuda High appears to control whether or not low-ozone maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico can enter southeastern Texas and affect air quality. This mechanism also applies to other coastal urban regions along the Gulf Coast (e.g., New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL, and Pensacola, FL, suggesting that the BH circulation pattern can affect surface ozone variability through a large portion of the Gulf Coast.

  4. Influence of the Bermuda High on interannual variability of summertime ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Jia, Beixi; Wang, Sing-Chun; Estes, Mark; Shen, Lu; Xie, Yuanyu

    2016-12-01

    The Bermuda High (BH) quasi-permanent pressure system is the key large-scale circulation pattern influencing summertime weather over the eastern and southern US. Here we developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to characterize the effect of the BH on year-to-year changes in monthly-mean maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) metropolitan region during June, July, and August (JJA). The BH indicators include the longitude of the BH western edge (BH-Lon) and the BH intensity index (BHI) defined as the pressure gradient along its western edge. Both BH-Lon and BHI are selected by MLR as significant predictors (p temperature and zonal wind speed are not identified as important factors for any summer month. The best-fit MLR model can explain 61-72 % of the interannual variability of the HGB-mean summertime ozone over 1990-2015 and shows good performance in cross-validation (R2 higher than 0.48). The BH-Lon is the most important factor, which alone explains 38-48 % of such variability. The location and strength of the Bermuda High appears to control whether or not low-ozone maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico can enter southeastern Texas and affect air quality. This mechanism also applies to other coastal urban regions along the Gulf Coast (e.g., New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL, and Pensacola, FL), suggesting that the BH circulation pattern can affect surface ozone variability through a large portion of the Gulf Coast.

  5. New Possibilities for High-Resolution, Large-Scale Ecosystem Assessment of the World's Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, J. A.; Goldblatt, R.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding drivers of land use change - and in particular, levels of ecosystem degradation - in semi-arid regions is of critical importance because these agroecosystems (1) are home to the world's poorest populations, almost all of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, (2) play a critical role in the global carbon and climate cycles, and (3) have in many cases seen dramatic changes in temperature and precipitation, relative to global averages, over the past several decades. However, assessing ecosystem health (or, conversely, degradation) presents a difficult measurement problem. Established methods are very labor intensive and rest on detailed questionnaires and field assessments. High-resolution satellite imagery has a unique role semi-arid ecosystem assessment in that it can be used for rapid (or repeated) and very simple measurements of tree and shrub density, an excellent overall indicator for dryland ecosystem health. Because trees and large shrubs are more sparse in semi-arid regions, sub-meter resolution imagery in conjunction with automated image analysis can be used to assess density differences at high spatial resolution without expensive and time-consuming ground-truthing. This could be used down to the farm level, for example, to better assess the larger-scale ecosystem impacts of different management practices, to assess compliance with REDD+ carbon offset protocols, or to evaluate implementation of conservation goals. Here we present results comparing spatial and spectral remote sensing methods for semi-arid ecosystem assessment across new data sources, using the Brazilian Sertão as an example, and the implications for large-scale use in semi-arid ecosystem science.

  6. Characterization of aerosol optical properties over the high-altitude station Hanle, in the trans-Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Bagare, S. P.; Sinha, N.; Singh, Rajendra B.; Srivastava, A. K.; Larson, E.; Kanawade, V. P.

    2014-03-01

    Optical properties of aerosols over Hanle (4500 m amsl) in the western Himalayas were studied using skyradiometer observations during October 2007 to December 2010. Yearly mean value of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm is 0.042 ± 0.002, which demonstrates the pristine environment of the station. Seasonal mean AODs at 500 nm during summer, autumn, winter, and spring are 0.044 ± 0.002, 0.031 ± 0.001, 0.031 ± 0.001, and 0.061 ± 0.002, respectively. The relatively high AOD during spring, associated with an elevated aerosol layer observed from space, supports the hypothesis of middle-upper tropospheric heating during pre-monsoon period. Seasonal mean values of Angstrom exponent (α) estimated from linear regression method varied from minimum 0.65 (spring) to maximum 1.02 (autumn). Dominance of coarse mode aerosols at the site is thus evident during spring. Analysis of AOD profiles obtained from satellite data and airmass back trajectories superimposed with fire-counts data indicated the presence of desert-dust at the altitudes of 5 to 7 km amsl during the episodes of high AOD and low α. These trajectories indicated airmasses mostly coming from different desert regions, e.g in north-west Asia and Iran in the Middle east. Further, arrival of airmasses from the densely populated and industrialized Punjab and Haryana regions from the north-west of India apparently explains the relative contribution of transported anthropogenic aerosols over the station.

  7. Radiologically isolated syndrome: an uncommon finding at a university clinic in a high-prevalence region for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Martola, Juha; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Fredrikson, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Objective The improved availability of MRI in medicine has led to an increase in incidental findings. Unexpected brain MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) without typical symptoms of MS were recently defined as radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). The prevalence of RIS is uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RIS at a university hospital in a region with a high prevalence for MS and describe the long-term prognosis of the identified patients. Design Retrospective cohort study conducted in 2012. Setting All brain MRI examinations performed at Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden during 2001 were retrospectively screened by a single rater for findings fulfilling the Okuda criteria. The sample year was chosen in order to establish the long-term prognosis of the patients identified. The examinations of interest were re-evaluated according to the Barkhof criteria by a neuroradiologist with long experience in MS. Participants In total 2105 individuals were included in the study. Ages ranged from 0 to 90 years with a median age of 48 years. Only one patient with RIS was identified, equivalent to a prevalence of 0.05% in the studied population, or 0.15% among patients aged 15–40 years. The patient with RIS developed symptoms consistent with MS within 3 months accompanied with radiological progression and was diagnosed with MS. Conclusions RIS, according to present criteria, is an uncommon finding in a tertiary hospital setting in a high-prevalence region for MS where awareness and clinical suspicion of MS is common. In order to study the prognosis of RIS, multicentre studies, or case–control studies are recommended. PMID:24189079

  8. Status of the Regional Nodal Basin Remains Highly Prognostic in Melanoma Patients with In-Transit Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexandra B; Jakub, James W; Harmsen, William S; Suman, Vera J; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2016-07-01

    The role of SLNB for in-transit (IT) melanoma is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and prognostic significance of occult nodal disease in patients undergoing surgical nodal staging for IT disease. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with IT melanoma from May 2005 through September 2014. Analysis was limited to patients with a first-time IT event who underwent surgical excision. Associations between clinicopathologic characteristics, patterns of recurrence, and survival were analyzed. A total of 261 patients treated at our center were identified and 157 met inclusion criteria, of which 135 (86%) presented with no evidence of nodal disease. At the time of surgical excision of the IT lesion, 80 (58%) clinically node-negative patients underwent observation of the nodal basin and 55 (41%) surgical nodal staging. Twenty (36%) clinically node-negative but surgically staged patients were found to have nodal disease. Distant metastasis-free survival was 70.8 months for surgically staged node-negative patients, 19.2 months for surgically staged node-positive patients, 22.8 months for those staged node-negative by clinical examination only and 4.8 months for those with clinical nodal disease (p = 0.01). The regional nodal basin was the first site of failure in 14 of 66 (21%) clinically staged patients, 5 of 50 (10%) for those surgically staged, and 6 of 16 (38%) for those with clinical nodal disease. Patients with IT disease are at high risk for occult nodal metastasis. Because clinical staging is unreliable, SLNB should be considered. For patients with IT recurrence, the status of the regional basin is strongly prognostic and stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of local field potentials by high-frequency stimulation of afferent axons in the hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Feng, Zhouyan; Cao, Jiayue; Guo, Zheshan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Hu, Na; Wei, Xuefeng

    2016-03-01

    Modulation of the rhythmic activity of local field potentials (LFP) in neuronal networks could be a mechanism of deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, exact changes of LFP during the periods of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS are unclear because of the interference of dense stimulation artifacts with high amplitudes. In the present study, we investigated LFP changes induced by HFS of afferent axons in the hippocampal CA1 region of urethane-anesthetized rats by using a proper algorithm of artifact removal. Afterward, the LFP changes in the frequency bands of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] rhythms were studied by power spectrum analysis and coherence analysis for the recorded signals collected in the pyramidal layer and in the stratum radiatum of CA1 region before, during and after 1-min long 100 and 200[Formula: see text]Hz HFS. Results showed that the power of LFP rhythms in higher-frequency band ([Formula: see text] rhythm) increased in the pyramidal layer and the power of LFP rhythms in lower-frequency bands ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] rhythms) decreased in the stratum radiatum during HFS. The synchronization of [Formula: see text] rhythm decreased and the synchronization of [Formula: see text] rhythm increased during HFS in the stratum radiatum. These results suggest that axonal HFS could modulate LFP rhythms in the downstream brain areas with a plausible underlying mechanism of partial axonal blockage induced by HFS. The study provides new evidence to support the mechanism of DBS modulating rhythmic activity of neuronal populations.

  10. Radio-continuum study of the supernova remnants in the large Magellanic Cloud: An SNR with a highly polarized breakout region: SNR J0455-6838

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of new moderate resolution ATCA observations of SNR J0455-6838. We found that this SNR exhibits a mostly typical appearance with rather steep and curved α=-0.81±0.18 and D=43×31±1 pc. Regions of high polarization were detected, including unusually strong (~70% region corresponding to the northern breakout. Such a strong polarization in breakout regions has not been observed in any other SNR.

  11. Effects of Regional Creative Milieu on Interregional Migration of the Highly Educated in Korea: Evidence from Hierarchical Cross-Classified Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the effects of a regional creative milieu on the migration inflows and outflows of the highly educated between urbanized areas in Korea. To estimate the push and pull effects, we use the 5% Population and Housing Census (2005 and employ a hierarchical cross-classified linear model as an empirical modeling framework. The graduate migration between areas is generally affected by regional and individual characteristics. To this effect, the literature suggests that highly-educated individuals tend to significantly value diverse and creative regional amenities in migration decision making. Our results reveal that, regarding the push and pull effect for the highly educated, talent and tolerance in a region and a high level of the creativity index in a region are likely to increase the likelihood of in-migration and decrease that of out-migration by lowering the barriers to entry for the highly educated. Our findings emphasize the role of regions with well-established amenities as a creative milieu for attracting the highly educated and, thus, have significant implications for sustainable regional development policies.

  12. Landscapes with high geotouristic value and impact from the Benguela-Sumbe region (Western Angola): inventory and geological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís V.; Segundo, Januário; Gonçalves, Alberto; Cavita, João R.; Lapão, Luís; Bandeira, Manuel; Callapez, Pedro; Meneses, Luís; Prata, Mendonça E.

    2014-05-01

    The natural beauties and wildlife of Austral Africa are worldwide known, and their related touristic and socioeconomic activities have a strong interregional impact. Angola, one of the larger countries from this region of the Southern Hemisphere, shows a high number of natural landscapes, well testified by the recent election of "7 Natural Wonders of Angola". This contest, the first one of this kind carry out in Africa, means the priority of this country in the promotion of geotourism. Despite the large diversity of landscapes, among deserts, mountains, coastal cliffs, waterfalls, and/or caves, resulting from different geomorphological contexts and age (from Archaean to Recent), the geological knowledge of the territory remains poor, through scientific documents, great part of them published before and around the 70's of last century. Based on this concern, the first goal of this work is the inventory and the geological description of several geosites with natural relevance and touristic potential from the Meso-Cenozoic coastal region of Benguela and Sumbe Provinces (Western Angola). This area, particularly materialized by the sedimentary infill of Benguela Basin, with deposits (carbonates, siliciclastics and evaporites) mainly dated from the Cretaceous, has been recently studied and researched by our team in the domains of sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, geological mapping, resources and geoheritage. On the basinal onshore stand out hundreds of outcrops with good exposure, great part of them never studied, representing and recording a large number of sedimentary units deposited on a complex tectonic setting. Besides the geological characterization of Egito-Praia, Sassa Caves and Binga waterfalls (this one located in the eastern boundary of the basin), three of the twenty seven sites proposed for the reported Angola's natural wonders contest, we present and describe several other distinctive natural sites and coastal landscapes of this region such as the cases

  13. Investigating Cenozoic climate change in tectonically active regions with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd; Li, Jingmin; Werner, Martin; Stepanek, Christian; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Cenozoic palaeo-climates contribute to our understanding of contemporary climate change by providing insight into analogues such as the Pliocene (PLIO), and by evaluation of GCM (General Circulation Models) performance using the Mid-Holocene (MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Furthermore, climate is a factor to be considered in the evolution of ecology, landscapes and mountains, and in the reconstruction of erosion histories. In this study, we use high-resolution (T159) ECHAM5 simulations to investigate pre-industrial (PI) and the the above mentioned palaeo-climates for four tectonically active regions: Alaska (St. Elias Range), the US Northwest Pacific (Cascade Range), western South America (Andes) and parts of Asia (Himalaya-Tibet). The PI climate simulation is an AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) style ECHAM5 experiment, whereas MH and LGM simulation are based on simulations conducted at the Alfred Wegner Institute, Bremerhaven. Sea surface boundary conditions for MH were taken from coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (Wei and Lohmann, 2012; Zhang et al, 2013) and sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentration for the LGM are based on GLAMAP project reconstructions (Schäfer-Neth and Paul, 2003). Boundary conditions for the PLIO simulation are taken from the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) project and the employed PLIO vegetation boundary condition is created by means of the transfer procedure for the PRISM vegetation reconstruction to the JSBACH plant functional types as described by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012). For each of the investigated areas and time slices, the regional simulated climates are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability of precipitation, 2m air temperature and the intra-annual amplitude of the values. Results indicate the largest differences to a PI climate are observed for LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and warming

  14. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  15. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (sglamo.gamma-rs.ch), shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  16. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  17. EMISSION MECHANISM OF 'GREEN FUZZIES' IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Chen, How-Huan; Karr, Jennifer L.; Lee, Hsu-Tai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lai, Shih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Minh, Young-Chol, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-20

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed that a number of high-mass protostars are associated with extended mid-infrared emission, particularly prominent at 4.5 {mu}m. These are called 'Green Fuzzy' emission or 'Extended Green Objects'. We present color analysis of this emission toward six nearby (d = 2-3 kpc) well-studied high-mass protostars and three candidate high-mass protostars identified with the Spitzer GLIMPSE survey. In our color-color diagrams, most of the sources show a positive correlation between the [3.6]-[4.5] and [3.5]-[5.8] colors along the extinction vector in all or part of the region. We compare the colors with those of scattered continuum associated with the low-mass protostar L 1527, modeled scattered continuum in cavities, shocked emission associated with low-mass protostars, modeled H{sub 2} emission for thermal and fluorescent cases, and modeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. Of the emission mechanisms discussed above, scattered continuum provides the simplest explanation for the observed linear correlation. In this case, the color variation within each object is attributed to different foreground extinctions at different positions. Alternative possible emission mechanisms to explain this correlation may be a combination of thermal and fluorescent H{sub 2} emission in shocks, and a combination of scattered continuum and thermal H{sub 2} emission, but detailed models or spectroscopic follow-up are required to investigate this possibility further. Our color-color diagrams also show possible contributions from PAHs in two objects. However, none of our samples show clear evidence for PAH emission directly associated with the high-mass protostars, several of which should be associated with ionizing radiation. This suggests that these protostars are heavily embedded even at mid-infrared wavelengths.

  18. High-mass star formation possibly triggered by cloud-cloud collision in the H II region RCW 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    We report on the possibility that the high-mass star located in the H II region RCW 34 was formed by a triggering induced by a collision of molecular clouds. Molecular gas distributions of the 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 and 12CO J = 3-2 lines in the direction of RCW 34 were measured using the NANTEN2 and ASTE telescopes. We found two clouds with velocity ranges of 0-10 km s-1 and 10-14 km s-1. Whereas the former cloud is as massive as ˜1.4 × 104 M⊙ and has a morphology similar to the ring-like structure observed in the infrared wavelengths, the latter cloud, with a mass of ˜600 M⊙, which has not been recognized by previous observations, is distributed to just cover the bubble enclosed by the other cloud. The high-mass star with a spectral type of O8.5V is located near the boundary of the two clouds. The line intensity ratio of 12CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 yields high values (≳1.0), suggesting that these clouds are associated with the massive star. We also confirm that the obtained position-velocity diagram shows a similar distribution to that derived by a numerical simulation of the supersonic collision of two clouds. Using the relative velocity between the two clouds (˜5 km s-1), the collisional time scale is estimated to be ˜0.2 Myr with the assumption of a distance of 2.5 kpc. These results suggest that the high-mass star in RCW 34 was formed rapidly within a time scale of ˜0.2 Myr via a triggering of a cloud-cloud collision.

  19. Spatial Planning and High-tech Development : A comparative study of Eindhoven city-region, the Netherlands and Hsinchu City-region, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    High-tech development—which lies at the very heart of the processes of economic growth—has been recognised by many developed and developing countries as a strategic instrument to enhance and sustain their competitiveness in the global economic network. Although the concept of high-tech development

  20. Novel procedure for genotyping of the human serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)--a region with a high level of allele diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik B; Werge, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The serotonin transporter, the target of a group of antidepressant drugs, is involved in the regulation of the availability and reuptake of serotonin. A variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene, designated 5-HTTLPR, affects...... the transcription of this gene and appears to modulate the susceptibility to a variety of diseases including depression. Of importance, 5-HTTLPR alleles composed of the same number of basic units may differ at single nucleotide positions providing an additional source of variation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a procedure...

  1. High variability in complementarity-determining regions compensates for a low number of V gene families in the lambda light chain locus of the platypus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johansson, Jeannette; Salazar, Janice N; Aveskogh, Maria; Munday, Barry; Miller, Robert D; Hellman, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a panel of variable (V) region sequences from the Australian duck-billed platypus and the Australian short beaked echidna, the monotremes were found to express a highly diversified Vlambda repertoire...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  3. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  4. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  5. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3' untranslated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3'UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3'UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3'UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3'UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3'UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3'UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3'UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3′ untranslated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P.; Björklund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3′UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3′UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3′UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3′UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3′UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3′UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3′UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. PMID:25550424

  7. Investigation of active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Gilbreth, C.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Topka, K.; Wolfson, J.

    1989-01-01

    SOUP is a versatile, visible-light solar observatory, built for space or balloon flight. It is designed to study magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with high spatial resolution and temporal uniformity, which cannot be achieved from the surface of the earth. The SOUP investigation is carried out by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, under contract to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Co-investigators include staff members at a dozen observatories and universities in the U.S. and Europe. The primary objectives of the SOUP experiment are: to measure vector magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with much better spatial resolution than can be achieved from the ground; to study the physical processes that store magnetic energy in active regions and the conditions that trigger its release; and to understand how magnetic flux emerges, evolves, combines, and disappears on spatial scales of 400 to 100,000 km. SOUP is designed to study intensity, magnetic, and velocity fields in the photosphere and low chromosphere with 0.5 arcsec resolution, free of atmospheric disturbances. The instrument includes: a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope; an active mirror for image stabilization; broadband film and TV cameras; a birefringent filter, tunable over 5100 to 6600 A with 0.05 A bandpass; a 35 mm film camera and a digital CCD camera behind the filter; and a high-speed digital image processor.

  8. Landscape genetics in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys "chasiquensis" associated with highly disturbed habitats from the southeastern Pampas region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Matías Sebastián; Mapelli, Fernando J; López, Aldana; Gómez Fernández, María Jimena; Mirol, Patricia M; Kittlein, Marcelo J

    2017-12-01

    Studies of genetic differentiation in fragmented environments help us to identify those landscape features that most affect gene flow and dispersal patterns. Particularly, the assessment of the relative significance of intrinsic biological and environmental factors affecting the genetic structure of populations becomes crucial. In this work, we assess the current dispersal patterns and population structure of Ctenomys "chasiquensis", a vulnerable and endemic subterranean rodent distributed on a small area in Central Argentina, using 9 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We use landscape genetics approaches to assess the relationship between genetic connectivity among populations and environmental attributes. Our analyses show that populations of C. "chasiquensis" are moderately to highly structured at a regional level. This pattern is most likely the outcome of substantial gene flow on the more homogeneous sand dune habitat of the Northwest of its distributional range, in conjunction with an important degree of isolation of eastern and southwestern populations, where the optimal habitat is surrounded by a highly fragmented landscape. Landscape genetics analysis suggests that habitat quality and longitude were the environmental factors most strongly associated with genetic differentiation/uniqueness of populations. In conclusion, our results indicate an important genetic structure in this species, even at a small spatial scale, suggesting that contemporary habitat fragmentation increases population differentiation.

  9. Trace Element Compositions and Defect Structures of High-Purity Quartz from the Southern Ural Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Götze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz samples of different origin from 10 localities in the Southern Ural region, Russia have been investigated to characterize their trace element compositions and defect structures. The analytical combination of cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, and trace-element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed that almost all investigated quartz samples showed very low concentrations of trace elements (cumulative concentrations of <50 ppm with <30 ppm Al and <10 ppm Ti and low abundances of paramagnetic defects, defining them economically as “high-purity” quartz (HPQ suitable for high-tech applications. EPR and CL data confirmed the low abundances of substitutional Ti and Fe, and showed Al to be the only significant trace element structurally bound in the investigated quartz samples. CL microscopy revealed a heterogeneous distribution of luminescence centres (i.e., luminescence active trace elements such as Al as well as features of deformation and recrystallization. It is suggested that healing of defects due to deformation-related recrystallization and reorganization processes of the quartz lattice during retrograde metamorphism resulted in low concentrations of CL activator and other trace elements or vacancies, and thus are the main driving processes for the formation of HPQ deposits in the investigated area.

  10. Performance of smooth and micro-fin tubes in high mass flux region of R-134a during evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsa-ngam, Jittraporn; Nualboonrueng, Thipjak; Wongwises, Somchai

    . The two-phase heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop during evaporation of pure R-134a in smooth and micro-fin tubes are experimentally investigated. Different from most previous studies, the present experiments have been performed at high mass flux conditions. The test section is a 2.5 m long counterflow horizontal double tube heat exchanger with refrigerant flow inside the tube while hot water flows in the annulas. The inner tubes are made from smooth or micro-fin horizontal copper tubing of 9.52 mm outer diameter. The test runs are done at average saturated evaporating temperatures ranging between 10 and 20 °C. The mass fluxes are between 400 and 800 kg/m