WorldWideScience

Sample records for vesicular trafficking nucleocytosolic

  1. Influenza infection modulates vesicular trafficking and induces Golgi complex disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vibha; Panganiban, Antonito T; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Voss, Thomas G

    2016-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi. Also, we carried out complementary studies to determine the effect of IFV on intracellular membranes. Inhibition of the CRM1 and TAP-P15 nuclear transport pathways by DRB and LB blocked completely the export of virus. Inhibition of vesicular trafficking by BFA, NOC, and ZWEHD also affected influenza infection. Interestingly, IFV infection induced fragmentation of the Golgi complex resulting in diffuse distribution of large and small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. Live-cell microscopy revealed expansion of Golgi localization signals indicating progressive dispersion of Golgi positive structures, resulting in the disassembly of the Golgi ribbon structure. Other vesicular components (Rab1b, ARF1 and GBF1) were also found to be required for IFV infection. Furthermore, the exact step at which IFV infection disrupts vesicle trafficking was identified as the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. These findings suggest that IFV NP is trafficked from the nucleus via the CRM1 and TAP pathways. IFV modulates vesicular trafficking inducing disruption of the Golgi complex. These studies provide insight on the ways in which IFV affects intracellular trafficking of different host proteins and will facilitate identification of useful pharmaceutical targets to abrogate virus

  2. A new role for human dyskerin in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Nunzia; Vicidomini, Rosario; Angrisani, Alberto; Belli, Valentina; Furia, Maria; Turano, Mimmo

    2017-10-01

    Dyskerin is an essential, conserved, multifunctional protein found in the nucleolus, whose loss of function causes the rare genetic diseases X-linked dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. To further investigate the wide range of dyskerin's biological roles, we set up stable cell lines able to trigger inducible protein knockdown and allow a detailed analysis of the cascade of events occurring within a short time frame. We report that dyskerin depletion quickly induces cytoskeleton remodeling and significant alterations in endocytic Ras-related protein Rab-5A/Rab11 trafficking. These effects arise in different cell lines well before the onset of telomere shortening, which is widely considered the main cause of dyskerin-related diseases. Given that vesicular trafficking affects many homeostatic and differentiative processes, these findings add novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlining the pleiotropic manifestation of the dyskerin loss-of-function phenotype.

  3. Disturbed vesicular trafficking of membrane proteins in prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Miyata, Hironori; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of prion diseases remains unknown. We recently reported that prion infection disturbs post-Golgi trafficking of certain types of membrane proteins to the cell surface, resulting in reduced surface expression of membrane proteins and abrogating the signal from the proteins. The surface expression of the membrane proteins was reduced in the brains of mice inoculated with prions, well before abnormal symptoms became evident. Prions or pathogenic prion proteins were mainly detected in endosomal compartments, being particularly abundant in recycling endosomes. Some newly synthesized membrane proteins are delivered to the surface from the Golgi apparatus through recycling endosomes, and some endocytosed membrane proteins are delivered back to the surface through recycling endosomes. These results suggest that prions might cause neuronal dysfunctions and cell loss by disturbing post-Golgi trafficking of membrane proteins via accumulation in recycling endosomes. Interestingly, it was recently shown that delivery of a calcium channel protein to the cell surface was impaired and its function was abrogated in a mouse model of hereditary prion disease. Taken together, these results suggest that impaired delivery of membrane proteins to the cell surface is a common pathogenic event in acquired and hereditary prion diseases.

  4. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  5. Coxiella burnetii effector protein subverts clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking for pathogen vacuole biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Successful macrophage colonization by Coxiella burnetii, the cause of human Q fever, requires pathogen-directed biogenesis of a large, growth-permissive parasitophorous vacuole (PV) with phagolysosomal characteristics. The vesicular trafficking pathways co-opted by C. burnetii for PV development are poorly defined; however, it is predicted that effector proteins delivered to the cytosol by a defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm) type 4B secretion system are required for membrane recruitment. Here, we describe involvement of clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking in PV generation and the engagement of this pathway by the C. burnetii type 4B secretion system substrate Coxiella vacuolar protein A (CvpA). CvpA contains multiple dileucine [DERQ]XXXL[LI] and tyrosine (YXXΦ)-based endocytic sorting motifs like those recognized by the clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP1, AP2, and AP3. A C. burnetii ΔcvpA mutant exhibited significant defects in replication and PV development, confirming the importance of CvpA in infection. Ectopically expressed mCherry-CvpA localized to tubular and vesicular domains of pericentrosomal recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and transferrin receptor, and CvpA membrane interactions were lost upon mutation of endocytic sorting motifs. Consistent with CvpA engagement of the endocytic recycling system, ectopic expression reduced uptake of transferrin. In pull-down assays, peptides containing CvpA-sorting motifs and full-length CvpA interacted with AP2 subunits and clathrin heavy chain. Furthermore, depletion of AP2 or clathrin by siRNA treatment significantly inhibited C. burnetii replication. Thus, our results reveal the importance of clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking in C. burnetii infection and define a role for CvpA in subverting these transport mechanisms. PMID:24248335

  6. Molecular mechanisms of Sar/Arf GTPases in vesicular trafficking in yeast and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Small GTPase proteins play essential roles in the regulation of vesicular trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells. Two types of small GTPases, secretion-associated Ras-related protein (Sar) and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf), act in the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Sar/Arf GTPases function as molecular switches by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound forms, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. Activated Sar/Arf GTPases undergo a conformational change, exposing the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix for insertion into membranes. The process triggers the recruitment and assembly of coat proteins to the membranes, followed by coated vesicle formation and scission. In higher plants, Sar/Arf GTPases also play pivotal roles in maintaining the dynamic identity of organelles in the secretory pathway. Sar1 protein strictly controls anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the recruitment of plant COPII coat components onto membranes. COPII vesicle transport is responsible for the organization of highly conserved polygonal ER networks. In contrast, Arf proteins contribute to the regulation of multiple trafficking routes, including transport through the Golgi complex and endocytic transport. These transport systems have diversified in the plant kingdom independently and exhibit several plant-specific features with respect to Golgi organization, endocytic cycling, cell polarity and cytokinesis. The functional diversification of vesicular trafficking systems ensures the multicellular development of higher plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of Sar/Arf GTPases, highlighting the molecular details of GTPase regulation in vesicle formation in yeast and advances in knowledge of the characteristics of vesicle trafficking in plants.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of Sar/Arf GTPases in vesicular trafficking in yeast and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eYorimitsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPase proteins play essential roles in the regulation of vesicular trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells. Two types of small GTPases, secretion-associated Ras-related protein (Sar and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf, act in the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Sar/Arf GTPases function as molecular switches by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound forms, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. Activated Sar/Arf GTPases undergo a conformational change, exposing the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix for insertion into membranes. The process triggers the recruitment and assembly of coat proteins to the membranes, followed by coated vesicle formation and scission. In higher plants, Sar/Arf GTPases also play pivotal roles in maintaining the dynamic identity of organelles in the secretory pathway. Sar1 GTPase strictly controls anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER through the recruitment of plant COPII coat components onto membranes. COPII vesicle transport is responsible for the organization of highly conserved polygonal ER networks. In contrast, Arf GTPases contribute to the regulation of multiple trafficking routes, including transport through the Golgi complex and endocytic transport. These transport systems have diversified in the plant kingdom independently and exhibit several plant-specific features with respect to Golgi organization, endocytic cycling, cell polarity and cytokinesis. The functional diversification of vesicular trafficking systems ensures the multicellular development of higher plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of Sar/Arf GTPases, highlighting the molecular details of GTPase regulation in vesicle formation in yeast and advances in knowledge of the characteristics of vesicle trafficking in plants.

  8. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor clustering by ADF/cofilin-directed vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Wai; Han, Jianzhong; Bamburg, James R; Han, Liang; Lynn, Rachel; Zheng, James Q

    2009-07-01

    Postsynaptic receptor localization is crucial for synapse development and function, but the underlying cytoskeletal mechanisms remain elusive. Using Xenopus neuromuscular junctions as a model, we found that actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin regulated actin-dependent vesicular trafficking of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic membrane. Active ADF/cofilin was concentrated in small puncta adjacent to AChR clusters and was spatiotemporally correlated with the formation and maintenance of surface AChR clusters. Notably, increased actin dynamics, vesicular markers and intracellular AChRs were all enriched at the sites of ADF/cofilin localization. Furthermore, a substantial amount of new AChRs was detected at these ADF/cofilin-enriched sites. Manipulation of either ADF/cofilin activity through its serine-3 phosphorylation or ADF/cofilin localization via 14-3-3 proteins markedly attenuated AChR insertion and clustering. These results suggest that spatiotemporally restricted ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AChR trafficking during the development of neuromuscular synapses.

  9. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Kingsbury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1 orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic–nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic–nuclear or nuclear–cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes.

  10. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Joanne M; Cardenas, Maria E

    2016-01-06

    The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1) orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR) genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic-nuclear or nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes. Copyright © 2016 Kingsbury and Cardenas.

  11. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg2+ as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. PMID:26224801

  12. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg(2+) as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Regulation of monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 by cAMP dependent vesicular trafficking in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhernik, Amy L; Li, Lun; LaVoy, Nathan; Velasquez, Micah J; Smith, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a detailed characterization of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter-1 (Mct1) in cytoplasmic vesicles of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells shows them to be a diverse population of endosomes intrinsic to the regulation of the transporter by a brief 25 to 30 minute exposure to the membrane permeant cAMP analog, 8Br-cAMP. The vesicles are heterogeneous in size, mobility, internal pH, and co-localize with discreet markers of particular types of endosomes including early endosomes, clathrin coated vesicles, caveolar vesicles, trans-golgi, and lysosomes. The vesicular localization of Mct1 was not dependent on its N or C termini, however, the size and pH of Mct1 vesicles was increased by deletion of either terminus demonstrating a role for the termini in vesicular trafficking of Mct1. Using a novel BCECF-AM based assay developed in this study, 8Br-cAMP was shown to decrease the pH of Mct1 vesicles after 25 minutes. This result and method were confirmed in experiments with a ratiometric pH-sensitive EGFP-mCherry dual tagged Mct1 construct. Overall, the results indicate that cAMP signaling reduces the functionality of Mct1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by facilitating its entry into a highly dynamic vesicular trafficking pathway that appears to lead to the transporter's trafficking to autophagosomes and lysosomes.

  14. A spatio-temporal analysis of matrix protein and nucleocapsid trafficking during vesicular stomatitis virus uncoating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To study VSV entry and the fate of incoming matrix (M protein during virus uncoating we used recombinant viruses encoding M proteins with a C-terminal tetracysteine tag that could be fluorescently labeled using biarsenical (Lumio compounds. We found that uncoating occurs early in the endocytic pathway and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative (DN Rab5, but is not inhibited by DN-Rab7 or DN-Rab11. Uncoating, as defined by the separation of nucleocapsids from M protein, occurred between 15 and 20 minutes post-entry and did not require microtubules or an intact actin cytoskeleton. Unexpectedly, the bulk of M protein remained associated with endosomal membranes after uncoating and was eventually trafficked to recycling endosomes. Another small, but significant fraction of M distributed to nuclear pore complexes, which was also not dependent on microtubules or polymerized actin. Quantification of fluorescence from high-resolution confocal micrographs indicated that after membrane fusion, M protein diffuses across the endosomal membrane with a concomitant increase in fluorescence from the Lumio label which occurred soon after the release of RNPs into the cytoplasm. These data support a new model for VSV uncoating in which RNPs are released from M which remains bound to the endosomal membrane rather than the dissociation of M protein from RNPs after release of the complex into the cytoplasm following membrane fusion.

  15. Gliadin-mediated proliferation and innate immune activation in celiac disease are due to alterations in vesicular trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vittoria Barone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Damage to intestinal mucosa in celiac disease (CD is mediated both by inflammation due to adaptive and innate immune responses, with IL-15 as a major mediator of the innate immune response, and by proliferation of crypt enterocytes as an early alteration of CD mucosa causing crypts hyperplasia. We have previously shown that gliadin peptide P31-43 induces proliferation of cell lines and celiac enterocytes by delaying degradation of the active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR due to delayed maturation of endocytic vesicles. IL-15 is increased in the intestine of patients affected by CD and has pleiotropic activity that ultimately results in immunoregulatory cross-talk between cells belonging to the innate and adaptive branches of the immune response. Aims of this study were to investigate the role of P31-43 in the induction of cellular proliferation and innate immune activation. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation both in CaCo-2 cells and in biopsies from active CD cases and controls. We used real-time PCR to evaluate IL-15 mRNA levels and FACS as well as ELISA and Western Blot (WB analysis to measure protein levels and distribution in CaCo-2 cells. Gliadin and P31-43 induce a proliferation of both CaCo-2 cells and CD crypt enterocytes that is dependent on both EGFR and IL-15 activity. In CaCo-2 cells, P31-43 increased IL-15 levels on the cell surface by altering intracellular trafficking. The increased IL-15 protein was bound to IL15 receptor (IL-15R alpha, did not require new protein synthesis and functioned as a growth factor. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have shown that P31-43 induces both increase of the trans-presented IL-15/IL5R alpha complex on cell surfaces by altering the trafficking of the vesicular compartments as well as proliferation of crypt enterocytes with consequent remodelling of CD mucosa due to a cooperation of IL-15 and EGFR.

  16. Identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors regulated by the LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA regulatory cascade, many of which modulate vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Oded; Zusman, Tal; Rasis, Michal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Segal, Gil

    2014-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular human pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate a large repertoire of effectors into host cells. To find coregulated effectors, we performed a bioinformatic genomic screen with the aim of identifying effector-encoding genes containing putative CsrA regulatory elements. The regulation of these genes by the LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA regulatory cascade was experimentally validated by examining their levels of expression in deletion mutants of relevant regulators and by site-directed mutagenesis of the putative CsrA sites. These analyses resulted in the identification of 26 effector-encoding genes regulated by the LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA regulatory cascade, all of which were expressed at higher levels during the stationary phase. To determine if any of these effectors is involved in modulating the secretory pathway, they were overexpressed in wild-type yeast as well as in a yeast sec22 deletion mutant, which encodes an R-SNARE that participates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking. This examination identified many novel LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA regulated effectors which are involved in this process. To further characterize the role of these 26 effectors in vesicular trafficking, they were examined in yeast arf and arl deletion mutants, which encode small GTPases that regulate ER-Golgi trafficking. This analysis revealed that the effectors examined manipulate different processes of the secretory pathway. Collectively, our results demonstrate that several of the L. pneumophila effectors which are coregulated in the bacterial cell are involved in the modulation of the same eukaryotic pathway.

  17. Disease resistance through impairment of α-SNAP–NSF interaction and vesicular trafficking by soybean Rhg1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Adam M.; Smith, John M.; Song, Junqi; McMinn, Patrick H.; Teillet, Alice; August, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    α-SNAP [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor) attachment protein] and NSF proteins are conserved across eukaryotes and sustain cellular vesicle trafficking by mediating disassembly and reuse of SNARE protein complexes, which facilitate fusion of vesicles to target membranes. However, certain haplotypes of the Rhg1 (resistance to Heterodera glycines 1) locus of soybean possess multiple repeat copies of an α-SNAP gene (Glyma.18G022500) that encodes atypical amino acids at a highly conserved functional site. These Rhg1 loci mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; H. glycines), the most economically damaging pathogen of soybeans worldwide. Rhg1 is widely used in agriculture, but the mechanisms of Rhg1 disease resistance have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that the resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAP is defective in interaction with NSF. Elevated in planta expression of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs depleted the abundance of SNARE-recycling 20S complexes, disrupted vesicle trafficking, induced elevated abundance of NSF, and caused cytotoxicity. Soybean, due to ancient genome duplication events, carries other loci that encode canonical (wild-type) α-SNAPs. Expression of these α-SNAPs counteracted the cytotoxicity of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs. For successful growth and reproduction, SCN dramatically reprograms a set of plant root cells and must sustain this sedentary feeding site for 2–4 weeks. Immunoblots and electron microscopy immunolocalization revealed that resistance-type α-SNAPs specifically hyperaccumulate relative to wild-type α-SNAPs at the nematode feeding site, promoting the demise of this biotrophic interface. The paradigm of disease resistance through a dysfunctional variant of an essential gene may be applicable to other plant–pathogen interactions. PMID:27821740

  18. The Effector Cig57 Hijacks FCHO-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking to Facilitate Intracellular Replication of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latomanski, Eleanor A; Newton, Patrice; Khoo, Chen Ai; Newton, Hayley J

    2016-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique lysosome-derived vacuole. When Coxiella is trafficked to a host cell lysosome the essential Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is activated allowing over 130 bacterial effector proteins to be translocated into the host cytosol. This cohort of effectors is believed to manipulate host cell functions to facilitate Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transposon mutagenesis has demonstrated that the Dot/Icm effector Cig57 is required for CCV development and intracellular replication of Coxiella. Here, we demonstrate a role for Cig57 in subverting clathrin-mediated traffic through its interaction with FCHO2, an accessory protein of clathrin coated pits. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified FCHO2 as a binding partner of Cig57 and this interaction was confirmed during infection using immunoprecipitation experiments. The interaction between Cig57 and FCHO2 is dependent on one of three endocytic sorting motif encoded by Cig57. Importantly, complementation analysis demonstrated that this endocytic sorting motif is required for full function of Cig57. Consistent with the intracellular growth defect in cig57-disrupted Coxiella, siRNA gene silencing of FCHO2 or clathrin (CLTC) inhibits Coxiella growth and CCV biogenesis. Clathrin is recruited to the replicative CCV in a manner that is dependent on the interaction between Cig57 and FCHO2. Creation of an FCHO2 knockout cell line confirmed the importance of this protein for CCV expansion, intracellular replication of Coxiella and clathrin recruitment to the CCV. Collectively, these results reveal Cig57 to be a significant virulence factor that co-opts clathrin-mediated trafficking, via interaction with FCHO2, to facilitate the biogenesis of the fusogenic Coxiella replicative vacuole and enable intracellular success of this human pathogen.

  19. Vesicular trafficking of incoming human papillomavirus 16 to the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum requires γ-secretase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Kazakov, Teymur; Popa, Andreea; DiMaio, Daniel

    2014-09-16

    The route taken by papillomaviruses from the cell surface to the nucleus during infection is incompletely understood. Here, we developed a novel human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) pseudovirus in which the carboxy terminus of the minor capsid protein L2 is exposed on the exterior of the intact capsid prior to cell binding. With this pseudovirus, we used the proximity ligation assay immune detection technique to demonstrate that during entry HPV16 L2 traffics into and out of the early endosome prior to Golgi localization, and we demonstrated that L2 enters the endoplasmic reticulum during entry. The cellular membrane-associated protease, γ-secretase, is required for infection by HPV16 pseudovirus and authentic HPV16. We also showed that inhibition of γ-secretase does not interfere substantively with virus internalization, initiation of capsid disassembly, entry into the early endosome, or exit from this compartment, but γ-secretase is required for localization of L2 and viral DNA to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. These results show that incoming HPV16 traffics sequentially from the cell surface to the endosome and then to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum prior to nuclear entry. The human papillomaviruses are small nonenveloped DNA viruses responsible for approximately 5% of all human cancer deaths, but little is known about the process by which these viruses transit from the cell surface to the nucleus. Here we show that incoming HPV16, the most common high-risk HPV, traffics though a series of vesicular compartments during infectious entry, including the endosome, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, we show that γ-secretase, a cellular membrane-associated protease, is required for entry of the L2 minor capsid protein and viral DNA into the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. These studies reveal a new pathway of cell entry by DNA viruses and suggest that components of this pathway are candidate

  20. Loss-of-function mutations in ATP6V0A2 impair vesicular trafficking, tropoelastin secretion and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucthagowder, Vishwanathan; Morava, Eva; Kornak, Uwe; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Fischer, Björn; Dimopoulou, Aikaterini; Aldinger, Annika; Choi, Jiwon; Davis, Elaine C.; Abuelo, Dianne N.; Adamowicz, Maciej; Al-Aama, Jumana; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Fernandez, Bridget; Greally, Marie T.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kayserili, Hulya; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Tekin, Mustafa; Türkmen, Seval; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Yüksel-Konuk, Berrin; Mundlos, Stefan; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Wevers, Ron A.; Urban, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), a syndrome of growth and developmental delay and redundant, inelastic skin, is caused by mutations in the a2 subunit of the vesicular ATPase H+-pump (ATP6V0A2). The goal of this study was to define the disease mechanisms that lead to connective tissue lesions in ARCL2. In a new cohort of 17 patients, DNA sequencing of ATP6V0A2 detected either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Considerable allelic and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed, with a missense mutation of a moderately conserved residue p.P87L leading to unusually mild disease. Abnormal N- and/or mucin type O-glycosylation was observed in all patients tested. Premature stop codon mutations led to decreased ATP6V0A2 mRNA levels by destabilizing the mutant mRNA via the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. Loss of ATP6V0A2 either by siRNA knockdown or in ARCL2 cells resulted in distended Golgi cisternae, accumulation of abnormal lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Immunostaining of ARCL2 cells showed the accumulation of tropoelastin (TE) in the Golgi and in large, abnormal intracellular and extracellular aggregates. Pulse–chase studies confirmed impaired secretion and increased intracellular retention of TE, and insoluble elastin assays showed significantly reduced extracellular deposition of mature elastin. Fibrillin-1 microfibril assembly and secreted lysyl oxidase activity were normal in ARCL2 cells. TUNEL staining demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in ARCL2 cell cultures. We conclude that loss-of-function mutations in ATP6V0A2 lead to TE aggregation in the Golgi, impaired clearance of TE aggregates and increased apoptosis of elastogenic cells. PMID:19321599

  1. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  2. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  3. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  4. Rebooting Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Villiers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While popular psychology and appeals to emotion have unfortunately dominated discussions of ‘sex trafficking’, this article suggests that feminist psychoanalytic film theory and theories of affect are still useful for making sense of the appeal of sensational exposés like Lifetime Television’s Human Trafficking (2005. The dynamic of identification with (and impersonation of a human trafficking ‘victim’ by the rescuing Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent (Mira Sorvino is particularly worthy of scrutiny. Film theory about the ‘rebooting’ of film franchises (iconic brands like Batman also helps explain the preponderance of similar programming—Sex Slaves (2005, Selling the Girl Next Door (2011, Trafficked (2016—and the way contemporary discourses of human trafficking have effectively rebranded the myth of ‘white slavery’.

  5. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  6. Specific Sorting and Post-Golgi trafficking of Dendritic Potassium Channels in Living Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Watanabe, Shoji; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2014-01-01

    localization in distinct dendritic sub-compartments are largely unknown. Here, we developed a quantitative live-cell imaging method to analyze protein sorting and post-Golgi vesicular trafficking. We focused on two dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels which exhibit distinct localizations; Kv2...

  7. TRAFFICKING PRESPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Novita Dian Novita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Trafficking is a classic matter that has been existed since the establishment of human culture.  The major cause of the trafficking is the lack of information about trafficking, poverty  and the law level of education and skill of people, specifically villagers. To fight against trafficking, the government needs to accelarate the education and skill quality and cooperate with other countries. Besides, it is important to provide a sufficient law device for international scale in order to drag feet the trafficking network. Furthermore, trafficker must be punished with heavy penalties and the victim must be protected properly.     Key Words: Trafficking, hukum pidana, pelaku dan korban

  8. Cellular Localization and Trafficking of the Human ABCG1 Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Edward B.; O’Brien, Katherine; Walts, Avram D.; Stonik, John A.; Demosky, Steven J.; Malide, Daniela; Combs, Christian A.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a suitable heterologous cell expression system to study the localization, trafficking, and site(s) of function of the human ABCG1 transporter. Increased plasma membrane (PM) and late endosomal (LE) cholesterol generated by ABCG1 was removed by lipoproteins and liposomes, but not apoA-I. Delivery of ABCG1 to the PM and LE was required for ABCG1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. ABCG1 LEs frequently contacted the PM, providing a collisional mechanism for transfer of ABCG1-mobilized cholesterol, similar to ABCG1-mediated PM cholesterol efflux to lipoproteins. ABCG1-mobilized LE cholesterol also trafficked to the PM by a non-vesicular pathway. Transfer of ABCG1-mobilized cholesterol from the cytoplasmic face of LEs to the PM and concomitant removal of cholesterol from the outer leaflet of the PM bilayer by extracellular acceptors suggests that ABCG1 mobilizes cholesterol on both sides of the lipid bilayer for removal by acceptors. ABCG1 increased uptake of HDL into LEs, consistent with a potential ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux pathway involving HDL resecretion. Thus, ABCG1 at the PM mobilizes PM cholesterol and ABCG1 in LE/LYS generates mobile pools of cholesterol that can traffic by both vesicular and non-vesicular pathways to the PM where it can also be transferred to extracellular acceptors with a lipid surface. PMID:25405320

  9. Smuggled or trafficked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bhabha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

  10. Sex for Sale: Globalization and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Annmarie

    2009-01-01

    The practice of trafficking has many different facets; drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking complete the top three illegal trafficking practices today. Human trafficking may be the third highest illegal trafficking practice, however there is inadequate mainstream information on the affects of the trade and horrifying issues that incorporate trafficking in human beings. This paper will discuss how the globalized world has been enabling trafficking in human beings with a con...

  11. Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    forced labor. Victims trafficked to the UAE usually fly to Dubai from Yerevan or via cities in Russia; the trafficking route to Turkey is... Queensland Police Task Force “Argos” dismantled a criminal ring which arranged and provided live video feeds of the sexual and physical abuse of...for labor exploitation in restaurants, bars, sweatshops, horticulture, fruit farms, and construction sites. According to Belgian immigration, the

  12. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER-Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Transcellular communication at the immunological synapse: a vesicular traffic-mediated mutual exchange [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Finetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell’s ability to communicate with the extracellular environment, with other cells, and with itself is a crucial feature of eukaryotic organisms. In the immune system, T lymphocytes assemble a specialized structure upon contact with antigen-presenting cells bearing a peptide-major histocompatibility complex ligand, known as the immunological synapse (IS. The IS has been extensively characterized as a signaling platform essential for T-cell activation. Moreover, emerging evidence identifies the IS as a device for vesicular traffic-mediated cell-to-cell communication as well as an active release site of soluble molecules. Here, we will review recent advances in the role of vesicular trafficking in IS assembly and focused secretion of microvesicles at the synaptic area in naïve T cells and discuss the role of the IS in transcellular communication.

  14. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Brasil , February 20, 2001. 20 Arms Trafficking and Colombia chased, when and how they were transferred to the guerrillas or paramilitaries, or through...Mercado Blanco De Armas,” 1999, p. 44. 31Franco, Ilimar, “Pf to Block Farc Supply Routes in Amazon,” Jornal do Brasil , August 20, 1999. 26 Arms...minor base for illegal arms trafficking flights to Colombia. Planes fly from Panama into El Banco , Magdalena, or Acandí, Chocó.81 Weapons are then

  15. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trafficking in Persons in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    OLWAN, Mohamed Y.

    2011-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) The study is designed to offer the reader an outline of Jordan’s legal responses to human trafficking. It is divided into five sections: legal framework of human trafficking; child labor and human trafficking; migrant domestic workers and human trafficking; migrant laborers in the qualified industrial zones (Qizs); and finally Jordanian case law. The conclusion then follows these five sections. ...

  17. Protons Regulate Vesicular Glutamate Transporters through an Allosteric Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Chang, Roger; McGregor, Matt; Silm, Katlin; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Edwards, Robert H

    2016-05-18

    The quantal nature of synaptic transmission requires a mechanism to transport neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles without promoting non-vesicular efflux across the plasma membrane. Indeed, the vesicular transport of most classical transmitters involves a mechanism of H(+) exchange, which restricts flux to acidic membranes such as synaptic vesicles. However, vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate depends primarily on membrane potential, which would drive non-vesicular efflux, and the role of protons is unclear. Adapting electrophysiology to record currents associated with the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), we characterize a chloride conductance that is gated by lumenal protons and chloride and supports glutamate uptake. Rather than coupling stoichiometrically to glutamate flux, lumenal protons and chloride allosterically activate vesicular glutamate transport. Gating by protons serves to inhibit what would otherwise be substantial non-vesicular glutamate efflux at the plasma membrane, thereby restricting VGLUT activity to synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane and luminal proteins reach the apicoplast by different trafficking pathways in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Rahul; Dey, Vishakha; Narayan, Aishwarya; Sharma, Shobhona; Patankar, Swati

    2017-01-01

    The secretory pathway in Plasmodium falciparum has evolved to transport proteins to the host cell membrane and to an endosymbiotic organelle, the apicoplast. The latter can occur via the ER or the ER-Golgi route. Here, we study these three routes using proteins Erythrocyte Membrane Protein-1 (PfEMP1), Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (PfTPxGl) and inhibitors of vesicular transport. As expected, the G protein-dependent vesicular fusion inhibitor AlF4(-) and microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine block the trafficking of PfEMP-1, a protein secreted to the host cell membrane. However, while both PfTPxGl and ACP are targeted to the apicoplast, only ACP trafficking remains unaffected by these treatments. This implies that G protein-dependent vesicles do not play a role in classical apicoplast protein targeting. Unlike the soluble protein ACP, we show that PfTPxGl is localized to the outermost membrane of the apicoplast. Thus, the parasite apicoplast acquires proteins via two different pathways: first, the vesicular trafficking pathway appears to handle not only secretory proteins, but an apicoplast membrane protein, PfTPxGl; second, trafficking of apicoplast luminal proteins appear to be independent of G protein-coupled vesicles.

  19. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sia...

  20. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. Methods American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. Results For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. Conclusion This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast. PMID:29385198

  1. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Arnette

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms.

  2. ARF1 and SAR1 GTPases in Endomembrane Trafficking in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Cevher-Keskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases largely control membrane traffic, which is essential for the survival of all eukaryotes. Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1 and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1 are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. ARF1 has been shown to play a critical role in COPI (Coat Protein Complex I-mediated retrograde trafficking in eukaryotic systems, whereas SAR1 GTPases are involved in intracellular COPII-mediated protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. This review offers a summary of vesicular trafficking with an emphasis on the ARF1 and SAR1 expression patterns at early growth stages and in the de-etiolation process.

  3. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hung, Mien-Chie, E-mail: mhung@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Center for Molecular Medicine and Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  4. Small-Molecule Screening Identifies Modulators of Aquaporin-2 Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogum, Jana; Faust, Dörte; Zühlke, Kerstin; Eichhorst, Jenny; Moutty, Marie C.; Furkert, Jens; Eldahshan, Adeeb; Neuenschwander, Martin; von Kries, Jens Peter; Wiesner, Burkhard; Trimpert, Christiane; Deen, Peter M.T.; Valenti, Giovanna; Rosenthal, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the principal cells of the renal collecting duct, arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates the synthesis of cAMP, leading to signaling events that culminate in the phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 water channels and their redistribution from intracellular domains to the plasma membrane via vesicular trafficking. The molecular mechanisms that control aquaporin-2 trafficking and the consequent water reabsorption, however, are not completely understood. Here, we used a cell-based assay and automated immunofluorescence microscopy to screen 17,700 small molecules for inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent redistribution of aquaporin-2. This approach identified 17 inhibitors, including 4-acetyldiphyllin, a selective blocker of vacuolar H+-ATPase that increases the pH of intracellular vesicles and causes accumulation of aquaporin-2 in the Golgi compartment. Although 4-acetyldiphyllin did not inhibit forskolin-induced increases in cAMP formation and downstream activation of protein kinase A (PKA), it did prevent cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation at serine 256 of aquaporin-2, which triggers the redistribution to the plasma membrane. It did not, however, prevent cAMP-induced changes to the phosphorylation status at serines 261 or 269. Last, we identified the fungicide fluconazole as an inhibitor of cAMP-mediated redistribution of aquaporin-2, but its target in this pathway remains unknown. In conclusion, our screening approach provides a method to begin dissecting molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-mediated water reabsorption, evidenced by our identification of 4-acetyldiphyllin as a modulator of aquaporin-2 trafficking. PMID:23559583

  5. International aspects of human trafficking – Especially trafficking with minors

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Liberalization of understanding and relations, the liberation of sexuality from the constrains of primitivism and tradition, leads to rapid growth of prostitution as a socio-pathological phenomenon, which necessarily stimulate the emergence of crime - trafficking with human beings. Particularly worrying is the emergence of a new dimension of human trafficking - trafficking in minors. Children, in addition to women, in international documents, often receive the status of “spe...

  6. Mutations in the vesicular trafficking protein annexin A11 are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Bradley N.; Topp, Simon D.; Fallini, Claudia; Shibata, Hideki; Chen, Han-Jou; Troakes, Claire; King, Andrew; Ticozzi, Nicola; Kenna, Kevin P.; Soragia-Gkazi, Athina; Miller, Jack W.; Sato, Akane; Dias, Diana Marques; Jeon, Maryangel; Vance, Caroline; Wong, Chun Hao; de Majo, Martina; Kattuah, Wejdan; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Scotter, Emma L.; Parkin, Nicholas W.; Sapp, Peter C.; Nolan, Matthew; Nestor, Peter J.; Simpson, Michael; Weale, Michael; Lek, Monkel; Baas, Frank; Vianney de Jong, J. M.; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.; Redondo, Alberto Garcia; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; Tiloca, Cinzia; Verde, Federico; Duga, Stefano; Leigh, Nigel; Pall, Hardev; Morrison, Karen E.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Pamela J.; Kirby, Janine; Turner, Martin R.; Talbot, Kevin; Hardiman, Orla; Glass, Jonathan D.; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Maki, Masatoshi; Moss, Stephen E.; Miller, Christopher; Gellera, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Brown, Robert H.; Silani, Vincenzo; Landers, John E.; Shaw, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We screened 751 familial ALS patient whole-exome sequences and identified six mutations including p.D40G in the ANXA11 gene in 13 individuals. The p.D40G mutation was absent from 70,000 control whole-exome sequences. This

  7. GLTP mediated non-vesicular GM1 transport between native membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lauria

    Full Text Available Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are emerging as key players in lipid homeostasis by mediating non-vesicular transport steps between two membrane surfaces. Little is known about the driving force that governs the direction of transport in cells. Using the soluble LTP glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP, we examined GM1 (monosialotetrahexosyl-ganglioside transfer to native membrane surfaces. With artificial GM1 donor liposomes, GLTP can be used to increase glycolipid levels over natural levels in either side of the membrane leaflet, i.e., external or cytosolic. In a system with native donor- and acceptor-membranes, we find that GLTP balances highly variable GM1 concentrations in a population of membranes from one cell type, and in addition, transfers lipids between membranes from different cell types. Glycolipid transport is highly efficient, independent of cofactors, solely driven by the chemical potential of GM1 and not discriminating between the extra- and intracellular membrane leaflet. We conclude that GLTP mediated non-vesicular lipid trafficking between native membranes is driven by simple thermodynamic principles and that for intracellular transport less than 1 µM GLTP would be required in the cytosol. Furthermore, the data demonstrates the suitability of GLTP as a tool for artificially increasing glycolipid levels in cellular membranes.

  8. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  9. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  10. Nigeria: human trafficking and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ijeoma Nwogu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Readmission agreements between Nigeria and migrant destination countries fail to comply with international standards for the protection of migrants’ and trafficked persons’ rights.

  11. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sialic acid cotransporter, is present in hippocampal synaptic vesicles and pineal SLMVs. RNA interference of sialin expression decreased exocytosis of aspartate and glutamate in pinealocytes. Proteoliposomes containing purified sialin actively accumulated aspartate and glutamate to a similar extent when inside positive membrane potential is imposed as the driving force. Sialin carrying a mutation found in people suffering from Salla disease (R39C) was completely devoid of aspartate and glutamate transport activity, although it retained appreciable H+/sialic acid cotransport activity. These results strongly suggest that sialin possesses dual physiological functions and acts as a vesicular aspartate/glutamate transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose aspartergic (and also the associated glutamatergic) neurotransmission, and this could provide an explanation for why Salla disease causes severe neurological defects. PMID:18695252

  12. Eeyarestatin 1 interferes with both retrograde and anterograde intracellular trafficking pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina-Olga Aletrari

    Full Text Available The small molecule Eeyarestatin I (ESI inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-cytosol dislocation and subsequent degradation of ERAD (ER associated protein degradation substrates. Toxins such as ricin and Shiga/Shiga-like toxins (SLTx are endocytosed and trafficked to the ER. Their catalytic subunits are thought to utilise ERAD-like mechanisms to dislocate from the ER into the cytosol, where a proportion uncouples from the ERAD process, recovers a catalytic conformation and destroys their cellular targets. We therefore investigated ESI as a potential inhibitor of toxin dislocation.Using cytotoxicity measurements, we found no role for ES(I as an inhibitor of toxin dislocation from the ER, but instead found that for SLTx, ESI treatment of cells was protective by reducing the rate of toxin delivery to the ER. Microscopy of the trafficking of labelled SLTx and its B chain (lacking the toxic A chain showed a delay in its accumulation at a peri-nuclear location, confirmed to be the Golgi by examination of SLTx B chain metabolically labelled in the trans-Golgi cisternae. The drug also reduced the rate of endosomal trafficking of diphtheria toxin, which enters the cytosol from acidified endosomes, and delayed the Golgi-specific glycan modifications and eventual plasma membrane appearance of tsO45 VSV-G protein, a classical marker for anterograde trafficking.ESI acts on one or more components that function during vesicular transport, whilst at least one retrograde trafficking pathway, that of ricin, remains unperturbed.

  13. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HUMAN TRAFFICKING DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND THE DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Gerry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Australia and Indonesia have made commitments to combatting human trafficking.  Through the experience of Mary Jane Veloso it can be seen that it is most often the vulnerable ‘mule’ that is apprehended by law enforcement and not the powerful leaders of crime syndicates. It is unacceptable that those vulnerable individuals may face execution for acts committed under threat of force, coercion, fraud, deception or abuse of power. For this reason it is vital that a system of victim identification is developed, including better training for law enforcement, legal representatives and members of the judiciary. This paper builds on submissions by authors for Australian Parliamentary Inquiry into Human Trafficking, and focusses on issues arising in the complex cross section of human trafficking, drug trafficking, and the death penalty with particular attention on identifying victims and effective reporting mechanisms in both Australia and Indonesia. It concludes that, in the context of human trafficking both countries could make three main improvements to law and policy, among others, 1 enactment of laws that create clear mandatory protection for human trafficking victims; 2 enactment of criminal laws that provides complete defence for victim of human trafficking; 3 enactment of corporate reporting mechanisms. Systemic protection and support is not sufficiently available without clear legislative protection as this paper suggests together with standardised referral mechanisms and effective financial reporting mechanisms. The implementation can be achieved through collaborative responses and inter-agency coordination with data collection and properly trained specialists.

  15. Ricin Trafficking in Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Spooner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterodimeric plant toxin ricin binds exposed galactosyls at the cell surface of target mammalian cells, and, following endocytosis, is transported in vesicular carriers to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Subsequently, the cell-binding B chain (RTB and the catalytic A chain (RTA are separated reductively, RTA embeds in the ER membrane and then retrotranslocates (or dislocates across this membrane. The protein conducting channels used by RTA are usually regarded as part of the ER-associated protein degradation system (ERAD that removes misfolded proteins from the ER for destruction by the cytosolic proteasomes. However, unlike ERAD substrates, cytosolic RTA avoids destruction and folds into a catalytic conformation that inactivates its target ribosomes. Protein synthesis ceases, and subsequently the cells die apoptotically. This raises questions about how this protein avoids the pathways that are normally sanctioned for ER-dislocating substrates. In this review we focus on the molecular events that occur with non-tagged ricin and its isolated subunits at the ER–cytosol interface. This focus reveals that intra-membrane interactions of RTA may control its fate, an area that warrants further investigation.

  16. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    hemophagocytic syndrome) and metabolic (diabe- tes) disorders [2, 23, 33]. Mutations in the genes of the basic secretory protein machinery lead to a number of membrane trafficking diseases such as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Cohen.

  17. Plasma membrane protein trafficking in plant-microbe interactions: a plant cell point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eLeborgne-Castel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure their physiological and cellular functions, plasma membrane (PM proteins must be properly conveyed from their site of synthesis, i.e. the endoplasmic reticulum, to their final destination, the PM, through the secretory pathway. PM protein homeostasis also relies on recycling and/or degradation, two processes that are initiated by endocytosis. Vesicular membrane trafficking events to and from the PM have been shown to be altered when plant cells are exposed to mutualistic or pathogenic microbes. In this review, we will describe the fine-tune regulation of such alterations, and their consequence in PM protein activity. We will consider the formation of intracellular perimicrobial compartments, the PM protein trafficking machinery of the host, and the delivery or retrieval of signaling and transport proteins such as pattern-recognition receptors, producers of reactive oxygen species, and sugar transporters.

  18. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  19. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  20. Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Randy D.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The regulated exocytosis that mediates chemical signaling at synapses requires mechanisms to coordinate the immediate response to stimulation with the recycling needed to sustain release. Two general classes of transporter contribute to release, one located on synaptic vesicles that loads them with transmitter, and a second at the plasma membrane that both terminates signaling and serves to recycle transmitter for subsequent rounds of release. Originally identified as the target of psychoactive drugs, these transport systems have important roles in transmitter release, but we are only beginning to understand their contribution to synaptic transmission, plasticity, behavior, and disease. Recent work has started to provide a structural basis for their activity, to characterize their trafficking and potential for regulation. The results indicate that far from the passive target of psychoactive drugs, neurotransmitter transporters undergo regulation that contributes to synaptic plasticity. PMID:22199021

  1. Vesicular secretion of auxin: Evidences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin is secreted in root apices via phospholipase Dzeta2 (PLDzeta2) activity which produces specific population of phosphatidic acid that stimulates secretion of vesicles enriched with auxin. These vesicles were reported to be localized at plant synapses which are active in auxin secretion, especially at the transition zone of the root apex. There are several implications of this vesicular secretion of auxin. In root apices, auxin emerges as plant neurotransmitter-like signal molecule which coordinates activities of adjacent cells via electric and chemical signaling. Putative quantal release of auxin after electrical stimulation, if confirmed, would be part of neuronal communication between plant cells. As auxin transport across plant synapses is tightly linked with integrated sensory perception of environment, especially of omnipresent gravity and light, this process is proposed to mediate the plant perception of environment. These neuronal features allow sessile plants to integrate multitude of sensory signals into the adaptive behavior of whole plants and the animal-like exploratory behavior of growing roots.

  2. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  3. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE USHER PROTEIN COMPLEXES FROM A VESICULAR SUBFRACTION OF TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Sisson, Joseph H.; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the major cause of deaf/blindness in the world. It is a genetic heterogeneous disorder, with nine genes already identified as causative for the disease. We noted expression of all known Usher proteins in bovine tracheal epithelial cells, and exploited this system for large-scale biochemical analysis of Usher protein complexes. The dissected epithelia were homogenized in non-detergent buffer, and sedimented on sucrose gradients. At least two complexes were evident after the first gradient: one formed by specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR-1, and a different one at the top of the gradient that included all the Usher proteins and rab5, a transport vesicle marker. TEM analysis of these top fractions found them enriched in 100–200 nm vesicles, confirming a vesicular association of the Usher complex(es). Immunoisolation of these vesicles confirmed some of the associations already predicted and identified novel interactions. When the vesicles are lysed in the presence of phenylbutyrate, most of the Usher proteins co-sediment into the gradient at a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 50S, correlating with a predicted molecular mass of 2 × 106 Daltons. Although it is still unclear whether there is only one complex or several independent complexes that are trafficked within distinct vesicular pools, this work shows for the first time that native Usher proteins complexes occur in vivo. This complex(es) is present primarily in transport vesicles at the apical pole of tracheal epithelial cells, predicting that Usher proteins may be directionally transported as complexes in hair cells and photoreceptors. PMID:20058854

  4. Synaptojanin 1 is required for endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins in cone photoreceptor inner segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A George

    Full Text Available Highly polarized cells such as photoreceptors require precise and efficient strategies for establishing and maintaining the proper subcellular distribution of proteins. The signals and molecular machinery that regulate trafficking and sorting of synaptic proteins within cone inner segments is mostly unknown. In this study, we show that the polyphosphoinositide phosphatase Synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1 is critical for this process. We used transgenic markers for trafficking pathways, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry to characterize trafficking defects in cones of the zebrafish mutant, nrc(a14 , which is deficient in phosphoinositide phosphatase, SynJ1. The outer segments and connecting cilia of nrc(a14 cone photoreceptors are normal, but RibeyeB and VAMP2/synaptobrevin, which normally localize to the synapse, accumulate in the nrc(a14 inner segment. The structure of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in nrc(a14 mutant cones is normal. Golgi develop normally, but later become disordered. Large vesicular structures accumulate within nrc(a14 cone photoreceptor inner segments, particularly after prolonged incubation in darkness. Cone inner segments of nrc (a14 mutants also have enlarged acidic vesicles, abnormal late endosomes, and a disruption in autophagy. This last pathway also appears exacerbated by darkness. Taken altogether, these findings show that SynJ1 is required in cones for normal endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins.

  5. The Role of Rab Proteins in Neuronal Cells and in the Trafficking of Neurotrophin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Bucci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that are important for neuronal development, neuronal survival and neuronal functions. Neurotrophins exert their role by binding to their receptors, the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC and p75NTR, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily. Binding of neurotrophins to receptors triggers a complex series of signal transduction events, which are able to induce neuronal differentiation but are also responsible for neuronal maintenance and neuronal functions. Rab proteins are small GTPases localized to the cytosolic surface of specific intracellular compartments and are involved in controlling vesicular transport. Rab proteins, acting as master regulators of the membrane trafficking network, play a central role in both trafficking and signaling pathways of neurotrophin receptors. Axonal transport represents the Achilles' heel of neurons, due to the long-range distance that molecules, organelles and, in particular, neurotrophin-receptor complexes have to cover. Indeed, alterations of axonal transport and, specifically, of axonal trafficking of neurotrophin receptors are responsible for several human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we will discuss the link between Rab proteins and neurotrophin receptor trafficking and their influence on downstream signaling pathways.

  6. Tratamiento actual de la litiasis vesicular Current treatment of vesicular lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento quirúrgico de la litiasis vesicular ha cambiado en los últimos años. La incorporación de las nuevas conductas en la práctica médica diaria no siempre es inmediata. Se argumentan las razones relativas a cuándo operar a un paciente con cálculos en la vesícula biliar, y se documenta cómo este procedimiento se reserva fundamentalmente para los pacientes sintomáticos, considerando el dolor como el síntoma por excelencia. También se expone cómo se ha enfrentado este cambio.Surgical treatment of vesicular lithiasis has changed in past years. The addition of the new techniques in daily medical practice not always is immediate. Reasons relative to when to operate a patient presenting with gall bladder calculi are argued and documenting how this procedure is mainly reserved for symptomatic patients where pain is considered as a symptom par excellence . Also, it is exposed how this change has been faced.

  7. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    2000-01-01

    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  8. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care.

  9. Arms Trafficking: Aiding and Abetting Core Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zgaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The provision of arms for the commission of crimes is one of the typical forms of aiding and abetting. This article discusses arms trafficking as a form of aiding and abetting the commission of core crimes. It opens with a discussion of aiding and abetting as a form of complicity in the Rome Statute and the case law of the International Criminal Court. Furthermore, the article also analyses the regulation of legal arms trafficking in international and European law. Accordingly, the international criminal law further regulates illegal arms trafficking as an international crime and as complicity to core crimes. Therefore, the article first presents arms trafficking as an international crime and subsequently discusses arms trafficking as complicity in core crimes. The article concludes with a discussion on the regulation of arms trafficking in Slovene law, beginning with legal arms trafficking according to the Firearms Act-1 and ending with illegal arms trafficking as a crime.

  10. Tratamiento actual de la litiasis vesicular Current treatment of vesicular lithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar García Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El tratamiento quirúrgico de la litiasis vesicular ha cambiado en los últimos años. La incorporación de las nuevas conductas en la práctica médica diaria no siempre es inmediata. Se argumentan las razones relativas a cuándo operar a un paciente con cálculos en la vesícula biliar, y se documenta cómo este procedimiento se reserva fundamentalmente para los pacientes sintomáticos, considerando el dolor como el síntoma por excelencia. También se expone cómo se ha enfrentado este cambio.Surgical t...

  11. Child protection from trafficking in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Žegarac Nevenka

    2005-01-01

    Trafficking in children is particularly severe form of exploitation and breach of the children rights, while security and welfare of children that are exposed to trafficking are obligations of state authorities, services and organizations of civil society. System of protection and support to children victims of trafficking should contain following: criteria for proper identification of child-victim of trafficking, mechanisms for immediate referring of a child to specialized services, procedur...

  12. Security Implications of Human-Trafficking Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    to those security concerns. Background How is Human Trafficking Carried Out? While trafficking victims are often found in sweatshops , domestic...labor. This type of trafficking is often found in agricultural labor, the production of goods (typically called sweatshops ) and construction labor

  13. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  14. Tubular-vesicular transformation in the contractile vacuole system of Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Günther; Heuser, John; Clarke, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    The contractile vacuole complex of Dictyostelium is the paradigm of a membrane system that undergoes tubular-vesicular transitions during its regular cycle of activities. This system acts as an osmoregulatory organelle in freshwater amoebae and protozoa. It collects fluid in a network of tubules and cisternae, and pumps it out of the cell through transient pores in the plasma membrane. Tubules and vacuoles are interconvertible. The tubular channels are associated with the cortical actin network and are capable of moving and fusing. The contractile vacuole complex is separate from vesicles of the endosomal pathway and preserves its identity in a dispersed state during cell division. We outline techniques to visualize the contractile vacuole system by electron and light microscopy. Emphasis is placed on GFP-fusion proteins that allow visualization of the dynamics of the contractile vacuole network in living cells. Proteins that control activities of this specialized organelle in Dictyostelium have been conserved during evolution and also regulate membrane trafficking in man.

  15. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  16. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion: Post-Palade Era Researchers Win the Nobel Prize. Riddhi Atul Jani Subba Rao Gangi Setty. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 421-445 ...

  17. Human trafficking in domestic legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakavac Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is an occurrence that, even in our time, is present in alarming proportions, in its actuality and consequences. It is a phenomenon with a long history and has been qualified as a serious international problem and is the object of interest for a large number of international subjects. However, the key international document that defines this phenomenon is the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime from Palermo 2000; specifically its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. After its adoption, intensive actions were undertaken to regulate the phenomenon on the level of national legislature. It's done so in the local legislature too. According to the criminal law of the republic of Serbia, besides the concrete law against human trafficking, a number of other crimes are connected to human trafficking. This paper deals with the most important ones. The purpose of this paper is to review the legislature on the phenomenon in the domestic law, then the accordance of incrimination with international standards, as well as to indicate the need for further changes in domestic legislature.

  18. Anti-Human Trafficking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a significant number of programs and policies have been developed and implemented to prevent and combat human trafficking. At the international, regional and national levels, government, and international, and nongovernment organizations have established plans of action, conducted training, developed policy tools, and…

  19. Intracellular trafficking of silicon particles and logic-embedded vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Silvia; Mack, Aaron; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Bean, Andrew J.; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita E.

    2010-08-01

    Mesoporous silicon particles show great promise for use in drug delivery and imaging applications as carriers for second-stage nanoparticles and higher order particles or therapeutics. Modulation of particle geometry, surface chemistry, and porosity allows silicon particles to be optimized for specific applications such as vascular targeting and avoidance of biological barriers commonly found between the site of drug injection and the final destination. In this study, the intracellular trafficking of unloaded carrier silicon particles and carrier particles loaded with secondary iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Following cellular uptake, membrane-encapsulated silicon particles migrated to the perinuclear region of the cell by a microtubule-driven mechanism. Surface charge, shape (spherical and hemispherical) and size (1.6 and 3.2 μm) of the particle did not alter the rate of migration. Maturation of the phagosome was associated with an increase in acidity and acquisition of markers of late endosomes and lysosomes. Cellular uptake of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded silicon particles resulted in sorting of the particles and trafficking to unique destinations. The silicon carriers remained localized in phagosomes, while the second stage iron oxide nanoparticles were sorted into multi-vesicular bodies that dissociated from the phagosome into novel membrane-bound compartments. Release of iron from the cells may represent exocytosis of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded vesicles. These results reinforce the concept of multi-functional nanocarriers, in which different particles are able to perform specific tasks, in order to deliver single- or multi-component payloads to specific sub-cellular compartments.Mesoporous silicon particles show great promise for use in drug delivery and imaging applications as carriers for second-stage nanoparticles and higher order particles or therapeutics. Modulation of particle geometry, surface chemistry, and porosity allows silicon

  20. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs.

  1. Vesicular signalling and immune modulation as hedonic fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christina F; Bak, Steffen; Christensen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    ) differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The majority of the proteins we identified were enzymes involved in different metabolic activities. Additional proteins were functionally classified as vesicular proteins and immune system proteins. Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor...

  2. Formulation and evaluation of a transfersomal vesicular carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AF1 was investigated. NIPRD-AF1 is a phytomedicine derived from the leaves of an indigenous plant, for use in the treatment of fungal infections. A transfersomal vesicular carrier system of NIPRD-AF1 was formulated and evaluated for topical ...

  3. Effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The symbiotic association between certain plants and microorganisms plays an important role in soil fertilization, and improves their growth and mineral nutrition. The symbiotic association between vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and roots provides a significant contribution to plant nutrition and growth.

  4. The vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis | Quilambo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi are associated with the majority ot the terrestrial plants. Their function ranges from stress alleviation to bioremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals. However, our knowledge about this symbiosis is still limited. For the semi-arid tropics, where some african countries are located, ...

  5. Influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to find out the effect of biofertilizers, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM), and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) individually and in combination on growth and physiological attributing properties of Marsdenia volubilis plant under nursery conditions. The plant seedlings were ...

  6. Phospholipid synthesis participates in the regulation of diacylglycerol required for membrane trafficking at the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarri, Elisabet; Sicart, Adrià; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Egea, Gustavo

    2011-08-12

    The lipid metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) is required for transport carrier biogenesis at the Golgi, although how cells regulate its levels is not well understood. Phospholipid synthesis involves highly regulated pathways that consume DAG and can contribute to its regulation. Here we altered phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol synthesis for a short period of time in CHO cells to evaluate the changes in DAG and its effects in membrane trafficking at the Golgi. We found that cellular DAG rapidly increased when PC synthesis was inhibited at the non-permissive temperature for the rate-limiting step of PC synthesis in CHO-MT58 cells. DAG also increased when choline and inositol were not supplied. The major phospholipid classes and triacylglycerol remained unaltered for both experimental approaches. The analysis of Golgi ultrastructure and membrane trafficking showed that 1) the accumulation of the budding vesicular profiles induced by propanolol was prevented by inhibition of PC synthesis, 2) the density of KDEL receptor-containing punctated structures at the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi interface correlated with the amount of DAG, and 3) the post-Golgi transport of the yellow fluorescent temperature-sensitive G protein of stomatitis virus and the secretion of a secretory form of HRP were both reduced when DAG was lowered. We confirmed that DAG-consuming reactions of lipid synthesis were present in Golgi-enriched fractions. We conclude that phospholipid synthesis pathways play a significant role to regulate the DAG required in Golgi-dependent membrane trafficking.

  7. P120-Catenin Regulates Early Trafficking Stages of the N-Cadherin Precursor Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Wehrendt

    Full Text Available It is well established that binding of p120 catenin to the cytoplasmic domain of surface cadherin prevents cadherin endocytosis and degradation, contributing to cell-cell adhesion. In the present work we show that p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor, contributes to its anterograde movement from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi complex. In HeLa cells, depletion of p120 expression, or blocking its binding to N-cadherin, increased the accumulation of the precursor in the ER, while it decreased the localization of mature N-cadherin at intercellular junctions. Reconstitution experiments in p120-deficient SW48 cells with all three major isoforms of p120 (1, 3 and 4 had similar capacity to promote the processing of the N-cadherin precursor to the mature form, and its localization at cell-cell junctions. P120 catenin and protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B facilitated the recruitment of the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF, an ATPase involved in vesicular trafficking, to the N-cadherin precursor complex. Dominant negative NSF E329Q impaired N-cadherin trafficking, maturation and localization at cell-cell junctions. Our results uncover a new role for p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor ensuring its trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway towards the cell surface.

  8. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it.

  9. Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    terrorism and drug-insurgency nexus. 22 ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 1 1. “La industria del secuestro esquilma a América Latina” (The Kidnapping Industry...Brookings Institution Press, 2009. 7. Guillermo Ibara in Manuel Roig-Franzia, “Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations Take Barbarous Turn: Targeting By...Issue, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 16, No. 1, February 2009. 18. Mónica Serrano and María Celia Toro , “From Drug Traf- ficking to Transnational

  10. Application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model to study requirements for trafficking of Yersinia pestis YopM in eucaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Elbieta; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Straley, Susan C

    2003-02-01

    YopM is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) virulence protein that is delivered into host cells when any of the three human-pathogenic species of Yersinia binds to mammalian cells. It exhibits heterogeneity of size and sequence among the yersiniae, but the functional consequences of this variability are not yet known. Yersinia pestis YopM was previously shown to accumulate in the nuclei of infected HeLa cells by a mechanism that requires vesicular trafficking. In this study, we characterized the trafficking of Y. pestis YopM in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model previously found to support nuclear localization of YopM from an enteropathogenic Yersinia strain (C. F. Lesser and S. I. Miller, EMBO J. 20:1840-1849, 2001). Y. pestis YopM was N-terminally fused to the yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) and inducibly expressed in the cytoplasm. yEGFP-YopM localized to the yeast nucleus, showing that this property is conserved for YopMs so far tested and that infection and the presence of other Yops are not required for its trafficking. When expressed in S. cerevisiae that is temperature sensitive for vesicular transport, YopM failed to accumulate in the nucleus at the nonpermissive temperature but did accumulate when the permissive temperature was restored. This shows that vesicular trafficking also is required in yeast for normal localization of YopM. YopM consists of a 71-residue leader sequence, 15 LRRs, and a 32-residue tail. Deletion analysis revealed that the leader sequence or tail is alone insufficient to direct YopM to the nucleus, showing that the LRR structure is required. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of YopM localized to the nucleus, indicating the possible presence of two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in YopM or domains in YopM where an NLS-containing protein might bind; this fits with the presence of two highly conserved regions among Yersinia YopMs. yEGFP-YopM lacking LRRs 4 to 7 or 7 to 10 accumulated in the nucleus in yeast, and Yop

  11. The political aspects of human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Lukach

    2014-01-01

    The negative international results of human trafficking are researched by the author. Namely, problems of governance organization that are created by powerful criminal groups of human traffickers and smugglers, mass stay of a significant number of non­citizens in the country; formation of the negative international image of the origin, destination or transit country as the state which is unable to counter effectively illegal migration and human trafficking.

  12. Human organ trafficking in the cyber space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletić Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated growth of the information-communication technology use brought about cyber crime as a new form of crime connected with the misuse of computer network. Human trafficking and human organ trafficking are changing in line with the state-of-art technological achievements i.e. becoming more and more characteristic of cyber space. Passing appropriate regulations at both national and international levels presents an important step in solving the problem of human organ trafficking through Internet.

  13. α-Synuclein-induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzulli, Joseph R; Zunke, Friederike; Isacson, Ole; Studer, Lorenz; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-02-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn). A major barrier in treatment discovery for PD is the lack of identifiable therapeutic pathways capable of reducing aggregates in human neuronal model systems. Mutations in key components of protein trafficking and cellular degradation machinery represent important risk factors for PD; however, their precise role in disease progression and interaction with α-syn remains unclear. Here, we find that α-syn accumulation reduced lysosomal degradation capacity in human midbrain dopamine models of synucleinopathies through disrupting hydrolase trafficking. Accumulation of α-syn at the cell body resulted in aberrant association with cis-Golgi-tethering factor GM130 and disrupted the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi localization of rab1a, a key mediator of vesicular transport. Overexpression of rab1a restored Golgi structure, improved hydrolase trafficking and activity, and reduced pathological α-syn in patient neurons. Our work suggests that enhancement of lysosomal hydrolase trafficking may prove beneficial in synucleinopathies and indicates that human midbrain disease models may be useful for identifying critical therapeutic pathways in PD and related disorders.

  14. [Vesicular and pronuclear glycoproteins in the pathogenesis of cholesterol lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Smíd, F; Marecek, Z

    1998-01-26

    Several biliary proteins have been known to accelerate fusion of cholesterol rich phospholipid vesicles. Some of them are present in vesicular membrane, localisation of other proteins is unknown. Biliary glycoprotein has not been studied in consequence with pathogenesis of cholesterol lithiasis. Low molecular extravesicular proteins were separated from vesicles by gel filtration on a 1200mm column of Sephacryl S-300 HR. Immunoglobulins IgM, IgA, haptoglobin, biliary glycoprotein I (BGP I) and nonspecific crossreactive antigen were eluted along with vesicles. Albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein were eluted later and must be extravesicular. Fact that BGP I (85 kDa membrane glycoprotein) eluted along with vesicles and not in albumin fraction suggests that it might be bound in vesicular membrane. As a known adhesion molecule it could thus play an important role in pathogenesis of cholesterol cholelithiasis.

  15. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  16. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in Rat Odontoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Erina; Goto, Tetsuya; Gunjigake, Kaori; Kuroishi, Kayoko; Ueda, Masae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Seta, Yuji; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding pain transmission mechanisms in tooth. However, the exact signaling mechanism from odontoblasts to pulp nerves remains to be clarified. Recently, ATP-associated pain transmission has been reported, but it is unclear whether ATP is involved in tooth pain transmission. In the present study, we focused on the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a transporter of ATP into vesicles, and examined whether VNUT was involved in ATP release from odontob...

  17. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Valery Z Grdzelishvili

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV’s broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV’s neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a sa...

  18. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  19. Cigarette trafficking in five northeastern US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Grimshaw, Victoria; Merriman, David; Farrelly, Matthew C; Chernick, Howard; Coady, Micaela H; Campbell, Kelsey; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Cigarette taxation is effective in reducing tobacco use in the USA. However, these benefits are reduced when taxes are unpaid. Cigarette trafficking (ie, the illegal importation of cigarettes into a high-tax jurisdiction from a lower-tax jurisdiction) is well documented in high-tax places like New York City (NYC), but the extent of trafficking in other northeastern cities is relatively unknown. To estimate the extent of cigarette trafficking in Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Providence and Washington, DC, and project the benefits of reducing cigarette trafficking for recouping lost taxes and reducing smoking in these cities. Littered cigarette packs were collected from a random sample of Census tracts in five US cities. Data collection yielded 1439 total littered packs. The share of cigarette packs bearing proper local, known non-local, foreign or unknown, or no tax stamp was calculated for each city. These data were used to estimate tax revenue recovery if cigarette trafficking could be eliminated. We also estimated the extent to which eliminating cigarette trafficking would reduce cigarette consumption. Overall, 58.7% of packs did not have a proper local tax stamp, and 30.5-42.1% were attributed to trafficking. We estimate that eliminating cigarette trafficking would result in declines in youth smoking prevalence ranging from negligible in low-tax cities like Philadelphia to up to 9.3% in higher-tax NYC. We estimate that these five cities could recoup $680-729 million annually in cigarette tax revenue if cigarette trafficking was eliminated. Reducing cigarette trafficking would increase the effectiveness of tobacco taxes in reducing smoking and generate additional tax revenue, particularly in higher-taxed cities. Federal action to reduce cigarette trafficking, such as a track-and-trace system, is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Dromedary milk exosomes as mammary transcriptome nano-vehicle: Their isolation, vesicular and phospholipidomic characterizatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Yassin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles that play a role in cellular trafficking and communication. Camel milk exosomes might carry the potential of recovery of several illnesses that coins the dromedary milk. This study shows for the first time their isolation and fine characterization. The differential ultracentrifugation was used for their isolation. Their recovery from dromedary milk during different lactation periods was evaluated. The vesicular characterization and stability testing of the recovered exosome were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The proteome footprinting was resolved by gel electrophoresis prior to their specific protein biomarker analysis. The immunoblotting of their specific protein biomarker TSG101 unexpectedly revealed a truncated 35 KDa protein specific for dromedary milk exosome rather than the previously reported 43 KDa mammalian one. The reversed-phase HPLC screening of their phospholipid makeup was compared with that of cattle milk exosomes at different lactation periods. Since dromedary milk exosomes reflect their mammary transcriptome outcome, further assessment of their content of αs1casein, αs2casein β-casein κ-casein mRNAs parallel with a constitutive glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (GAPD gene was performed using real-time PCR. The TEM scanning indicated that dromedary milk exosomes are freeze-stress unstable homogeneous with average size of 30 nm. There was no significant difference in expression level of different casein genes in mid lactation period in dromedary milk exosomes over late lactation period. The phospholipidomic survey proved that phosphatidylcholine is the major candidate of the examined phospholipids in dromedary milk exosomes. The obtained data give novel interpretation about the content of camel milk exosomes with possible insight for use as potentially-safe nano carrier.

  1. A Proteomics Approach to Membrane Trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Lilley, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Membrane trafficking, including that of integral membrane proteins as well as peripherally associated proteins, appears to be a vital process common to all eukaryotes. An important element of membrane trafficking is to determine the protein composition of the various endomembrane compartments. A

  2. The Palermo Protocol: Trafficking Takes it All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palermo Protocol is the outcome of bargain and lobbying with global institutions, NGOs and government representatives embattling to enforce their interests. The outcome is the concept of trafficking that embraces the struggles against prostitution, slavery and child labour. This broad concept has allowed various local cultural practices and survival strategies of those who live under difficult conditions to become classified as trafficking. While such definition may facilitate fundraising there are adverse consequences to be considered. Firstly, hazardous conditions of children that obviously are not trafficking tend to become ignored. Second, the victims of “real” trafficking become invisible by the excessive number of children allegedly trafficked. Third, the broad definition of trafficking has contributed to criminalization of whole communities and consequent conflicts between NGOs engaged in anti-trafficking activities and the communities involved. Such a situation is not in the best interest of the children involved. Rather than spending huge amount of resources on the conventional anti-trafficking measures there is a need to address the root causes of whatsoever unacceptable condition a child is suffering from.

  3. TRACE-ing human trafficking : Project Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billion-dollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  4. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice:implications for Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing αtubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling.

  5. Was Trafficking in Persons Really Criminalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Kangaspunta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the successes and setbacks in the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons. While today, the majority of countries have passed specific legislation criminalising human trafficking in response to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, there are still very few convictions of trafficking. Using currently available knowledge, this paper discusses four possible reasons for low conviction rates. Further, the paper suggests that due to the heavy dependency on victim testimonies when prosecuting trafficking in persons crimes, members of criminal organisations that are easily identifiable by victims may face criminal charges more frequently than other members of the criminal group, particularly those in positions of greater responsibility who profit the most from the criminal activities. In this context, the exceptionally high number of women among convicted offenders is explored.

  6. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B...

  7. Human trafficking and the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael G

    2012-05-01

    "Human trafficking" is a term for a modern form of slavery. It is a criminal human rights violation and a significant health issue. Dental professionals can assist in recognizing victims of trafficking. The author conducted a PubMed search of the English-language literature through May 2011, which yielded no articles meeting the search criteria "dentistry" and "human trafficking prostitution." Given these results, the author reviewed articles published in medical journals, reports from both governmental and nongovernmental agencies and lay literature. The author examines the present state of human trafficking and provides information--including specific questions to ask--to help dentists identify victims. In addition, the author suggests means of notifying authorities and assisting trafficking victims. He also examines the health care needs of these patients. Human trafficking is a global problem, with thousands of victims in the United States, including many women and children. Dentists have a responsibility to act for the benefit of others, which includes detecting signs of abuse and neglect. Dental professionals are on the front lines with respect to encountering and identifying potential victims who seek dental treatment. Dentists can combat human trafficking by becoming informed and by maintaining vigilance in their practices.

  8. Endobronchial tuberculosis presented as multiple endobronchial vesicular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Idrees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB is a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbiological and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. EBTB commonly presents as acute or insidious onset cough, wheeze, low grade fever, and constitutional symptoms. In elderly patients, other differentials like malignancy and pneumonia may lead to misdiagnosis. Hence, bronchoscopy is essential for confirmation of EBTB. Here we report a rare presentation of EBTB in a 65 year old patient who presented with 3 months history of fever and cough and have multiple endobronchial vesicular lesions on bronchoscopy.

  9. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...... in fumigated plots, although both it and P uptake were increased by adding P fertilizer. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. A supplementary survey on infection development at five other field sites showed that peas are extensively colonized by VAM fungi, even in soils where a standard...

  10. Update: What Nurses Need to Know about Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Joy

    Nurses are key people who interact with victims of human trafficking in healthcare and other settings. This article provides a current overview of human trafficking, explains legal definitions, elements for protocols in healthcare settings when trafficking is suspected, nursing roles and responses, interview tools, resources, public health recommendations, and nursing education approaches to address human trafficking.

  11. Do Public Events Affect Sex Trafficking Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kyle; Kennedy, Emily; Dubrawski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    For several years the pervasive belief that the Super Bowl is the single biggest day for human trafficking in the United States each year has been perpetuated in popular press despite a lack of evidentiary support. The practice of relying on hearsay and popular belief for decision-making may result in misappropriation of resources in anti-trafficking efforts. We propose a data-driven approach to analyzing sex trafficking, especially as it is carried on during--and perhaps in response to--larg...

  12. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Multivalency Effect of TAT-Peptide-Functionalized Nanoparticle in Cellular Endocytosis and Subcellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Chumki; Jana, Nikhil R

    2017-04-13

    Although trans-activating transcription (TAT) peptide-functionalized nanoparticle/polymer/liposome is widely used for cellular transfection applications, the multivalency (number of attached peptide per particle) effect on cell uptake mechanism and subcellular targeting performance is largely unexplored. Here we show that multivalency of nanoparticle controls the cellular interaction, cellular entry/exit mechanism, and subcellular targeting performance. We have synthesized TAT-peptide functionalized quantum dot (QD) of 30-35 nm hydrodynamic diameter with varied multivalency from 10 to 75 (e.g., QD(TAT)10, QD(TAT)20, QD(TAT)40, QD(TAT)75) and studied the role of multivalency in endocytosis and subcellular trafficking. We found that both low and high multivalent nanoparticles enter into cell predominantly via lipid-raft mediated endocytosis but the higher multivalency of 40 and 75 induces vesicular trapping followed by exocytosis within 12 h. In contrast, lower multivalency of 10 and 20 offers efficient trafficking toward perinuclear region and Golgi apparatus. This work shows the functional role of nanoparticle multivalency in cellular uptake mechanism and importance of lower multivalency for efficient subcellular targeting.

  14. How Golgi glycosylation meets and needs trafficking: the case of the COG complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Ellen; Foulquier, François; Annaert, Wim; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-07-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the major biosynthetic functions occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments. It requires an amazing number of enzymes, chaperones, lectins and transporters whose actions delicately secure the fidelity of glycan structures. Over the past 30 years, glycobiologists hammered that glycan structures are not mere decorative elements but serve crucial cellular functions. This becomes dramatically illustrated by a group of mostly severe, inherited human disorders named congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). To date, many types of CDG have been defined genetically and most of the time the defects impair the biosynthesis, transfer and remodeling of N-glycans. Recently, the identification of the several types of CDG caused by deficiencies in the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a complex involved in vesicular Golgi trafficking, expanded the field of CDG but also brought novel insights in glycosylation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathway of N-glycosylation in the Golgi are far from understood. The availability of COG-deficient CDG patients and patients' cells offered a new way to study how COG, and its different subunits, could influence the Golgi N-glycosylation machinery and localization. This review summarizes the recent findings on the implication of COG in Golgi glycosylation. It highlights the need for a dynamic, finely tuned balance between anterograde and retrograde trafficking for the correct localization of Golgi enzymes to assure the stepwise maturation of N-glycan chains.

  15. Human trafficking in Asia: a heinous crime against humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the human trafficking especially women and children trafficking in Asia. Human trafficking is not only a local problem but also a global concern. It is performed for various purposes such as labor, prostitution, organ transplant, drug couriers, and arm smuggling and affects virtually every country in the world. Recently trafficking of human being increased alarmingly due to globalization and liberalization. In Bangladesh and Nepal trafficking becomes an important issue re...

  16. Perdagangan Orang (Trafficking) sebagai Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia

    OpenAIRE

    Munthe, Riswan

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is garbage of civilization which is hard to be fought. This sentence provide an invasion for all that human trafficking is a common enemy. Human trafficking is often done by agent who has national even international network, has power, strong physically and arrogance. Due to the victim of human trafficking is the group in the lower class of economy and education. Generally the victim of human trafficking is everyone without exception. Since Indonesian independence, it is con...

  17. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  18. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development.

  19. Vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs experimentally infected with Senecavirus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, has been infrequently associated with cases of idiopathic vesicular disease (IVD) in pigs in the US and Canada since 1988. In 2014 and 2015 there was surge of IVD cases in Brazil and US, respectively. SVA was identified in serum, vesicular fluid, an...

  20. H-aggregation of azobenzene-substituted amphiphiles in vesicular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, JM; Engberts, JBFN

    2004-01-01

    Photochemical switching has been studied of double-tailed phosphate amphiphiles containing azobenzene units in both tails in aqueous vesicular dispersions and in mixed vesicular systems with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Since the ease of switching depends on the strength of the

  1. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  2. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  3. International Human Trafficking: Measuring Clandestinity by the Structural Equation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rudolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide human trafficking is the third most often registered international criminal activity, ranked only after drug and weapon trafficking. This article focusses on three questions: 1 How can human trafficking be measured? 2 What are the causes and indicators of this criminal activity which exploits individuals? 3 Which countries observe a high (or low level of human trafficking inflow? We apply the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural equation model to measure human trafficking inflows in a way which includes all potential causes and indicators in one estimation model. The human trafficking measurement focusses on international human trafficking. We use freely available existing data and thus generate an objective measure of the extent of trafficking. Countries are ranked according to their potential to be a destination country based on various characteristics of the trafficking process.

  4. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Bac T. Nguyen; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila...

  5. A role of Rab29 in the integrity of the trans-Golgi network and retrograde trafficking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicong Wang

    Full Text Available Rab29 (also referred as Rab7L1 is a novel Rab protein, and is recently demonstrated to regulate phagocytosis and traffic from the Golgi to the lysosome. However, its roles in membrane trafficking have not been investigated extensively. Our results in this study revealed that Rab29 is associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN, and is essential for maintaining the integrity of the TGN, because inhibition of the activity of Rab29 or depletion of Rab29 resulted in fragmentation of the TGN marked by TGN46. Expression of the dominant negative form Rab29T21N or shRNA-Rab29 also altered the distribution of mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR, and interrupted the retrograde trafficking of M6PR through monitoring the endocytosis of CD8-tagged calcium dependent M6PR (cdM6PR or calcium independent M6PR (ciM6PR, but without significant effects on the anterograde trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G. Our results suggest that Rab29 is essential for the integrity of the TGN and participates in the retrograde trafficking of M6PRs.

  6. Human Trafficking in Indonesia: Law Enforcement Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalina Naibaho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered as a crime against humanity. To conduct the due process of law towards cases related with human trafficking, the law enforcement officers cannot work by themselves. They really need assistance from many parties – such as active report from the society – as a valuable information to disclose such cases. Law enforcement conducted towards woman and child trafficking is still ineffective. It is proven by many existing cases, that low number of processed cases before the court and minimum sanction convicted to the perpetrators is clearly evident. Factors which are deemed to have correlation with low attempt of law enforcement towards legal case on this case, among others are: Lack of the Government’s commitment to fight against the crime of human trafficking, in the event that the ineffectiveness in utilization of prevailing laws and regulation; Lack of capacity of professionalism of law enforcement agency (and relevant parties in handling women and child trafficking at the field. This may be caused by lack of knowledge on infringed regulation. For that matter, those law enforcement agency shall be given socialization and an SOP (standardized operational procedure, so that there will be no inconsistency in handling the existing cases.

  7. Characterising the online weapons trafficking on cryptomarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Werner, Denis; Gilliéron, Quentin; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin

    2017-12-08

    Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking. Among all weapon related listings (n=386), firearms only account for approximately 25% of sales proposal since the proportion of non-lethal and melee weapons is important (around 46%). Based on the recorded pseudonyms, a total of 96 vendor profiles were highlighted. Some pseudonyms were encountered on several cryptomarkets, suggesting that some vendors may manage accounts on different markets. This hypothesis was strengthened by comparing pseudonyms to online traces such as PGP keys, images and profiles descriptions. Such a method allowed to estimate more accurately the number of vendors offering weapons across cryptomarkets. Finally, according to the gathered data, the extent of the weapons trafficking on the cryptomarkets appear to be limited compared to other illicit goods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Debate: Strategically Working in Parallel to Traffickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tournecuillert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s be realistic, counter-trafficking teams will never be as effective as the proactive and flexible networks of outlaws that violate the rights of millions of people each year. The ‘bad guys’ operate without the same financial limitations such as bureaucratic red tape and donor criteria, and take advantage of patchy and often uncoordinated border surveillance that is chronically untrained in detecting trafficking in persons.  Non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the fight against human trafficking—and in direct contact with presumed victims (their status is not assessed until at a stage later than this initial contact—are in a diametrically opposite situation. They must carefully abide by the national and international legal frameworks that their criminal antagonists ignore. Donors and national authorities operate within the constraints of geographic target areas and funding cycles. Since counter-trafficking actors neither create the markets nor devise the routes for trafficking, their strategic cross-border (or long distance partnerships are always a few steps behind the traffickers, if not many steps behind, and rarely efficient.

  9. Membrane Trafficking Modulation during Entamoeba Encystation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Emily; Siegesmund, Maria A; Bottery, Michael J; van Aerle, Ronny; Shather, Maulood Mohammed; Caler, Elisabet; Dacks, Joel B; van der Giezen, Mark

    2017-10-09

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite that infects 50-100 million people and causes up to 55,000 deaths annually. The transmissive form of E. histolytica is the cyst, with a single infected individual passing up to 45 million cysts per day, making cyst production an attractive target for infection control. Lectins and chitin are secreted to form the cyst wall, although little is known about the underlying membrane trafficking processes supporting encystation. As E. histolytica does not readily form cysts in vitro, we assessed membrane trafficking gene expression during encystation in the closely related model Entamoeba invadens. Genes involved in secretion are up-regulated during cyst formation, as are some trans-Golgi network-to-endosome trafficking genes. Furthermore, endocytic and general trafficking genes are up-regulated in the mature cyst, potentially preserved as mRNA in preparation for excystation. Two divergent dynamin-related proteins found in Entamoeba are predominantly expressed during cyst formation. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that they are paralogous to, but quite distinct from, classical dynamins found in human, suggesting that they may be potential drug targets to block encystation. The membrane-trafficking machinery is clearly regulated during encystation, providing an additional facet to understanding this crucial parasitic process.

  10. Child protection from trafficking in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žegarac Nevenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in children is particularly severe form of exploitation and breach of the children rights, while security and welfare of children that are exposed to trafficking are obligations of state authorities, services and organizations of civil society. System of protection and support to children victims of trafficking should contain following: criteria for proper identification of child-victim of trafficking, mechanisms for immediate referring of a child to specialized services, procedures for appointing a guardian who will secure that procedures and decisions are in accordance with the best interest of child, measures for regulating of residential status, assistance with reparation and reintegration as well as measures for protection of children witnesses and victims of trafficking. Finally, it should include a proper access to justice. In the article, recommendations are proposed for improvement of identification system, proper evaluation of needs and planning services and protection measures as well as measures and activities which should secure long term solutions in accordance with rights of the child and her/his best interests.

  11. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session's development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

  12. Are vesicular neurotransmitter transporters potential treatment targets for temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri eVan Liefferinge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3, the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT, the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA transporter (VGAT in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies.

  13. Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT): appearance of an actress on the stage of purinergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hiasa, Miki; Sakamoto, Shohei; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi

    2017-06-14

    Vesicular storage of ATP is one of the processes initiating purinergic chemical transmission. Although an active transport mechanism was postulated to be involved in the processes, a transporter(s) responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP remained unidentified for some time. In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP. VNUT transports various nucleotides in a membrane potential-dependent fashion and is expressed in the various ATP-secreting cells. Mice with knockout of the VNUT gene lose vesicular storage and release of ATP from neurons and neuroendocrine cells, resulting in blockage of the initiation of purinergic chemical transmission. Thus, VNUT plays an essential role in the vesicular storage and release of ATP. The VNUT knockout mice exhibit resistance for neuropathic pain and a therapeutic effect against diabetes by way of increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, VNUT inhibitors and suppression of VNUT gene expression may be used for therapeutic purposes through suppression of purinergic chemical transmission. This review summarizes the studies to date on VNUT and discusses what we have learned about the relevance of vesicular ATP release as a potential drug target.

  14. Endosomal accumulation of APP in wobbler motor neurons reflects impaired vesicle trafficking: Implications for human motor neuron disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troakes Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is largely unknown but hypotheses about disease mechanisms include oxidative stress, defective axonal transport, mitochondrial dysfunction and disrupted RNA processing. Whereas familial ALS is well represented by transgenic mutant SOD1 mouse models, the mouse mutant wobbler (WR develops progressive motor neuron degeneration due to a point mutation in the Vps54 gene, and provides an animal model for sporadic ALS. VPS54 protein as a component of a protein complex is involved in vesicular Golgi trafficking; impaired vesicle trafficking might also be mechanistic in the pathogenesis of human ALS. Results In motor neurons of homozygous symptomatic WR mice, a massive number of endosomal vesicles significantly enlarged (up to 3 μm in diameter were subjected to ultrastructural analysis and immunohistochemistry for the endosome-specific small GTPase protein Rab7 and for amyloid precursor protein (APP. Enlarged vesicles were neither detected in heterozygous WR nor in transgenic SOD1(G93A mice; in WR motor neurons, numerous APP/Rab7-positive vesicles were observed which were mostly LC3-negative, suggesting they are not autophagosomes. Conclusions We conclude that endosomal APP/Rab7 staining reflects impaired vesicle trafficking in WR mouse motor neurons. Based on these findings human ALS tissues were analysed for APP in enlarged vesicles and were detected in spinal cord motor neurons in six out of fourteen sporadic ALS cases. These enlarged vesicles were not detected in any of the familial ALS cases. Thus our study provides the first evidence for wobbler-like aetiologies in human ALS and suggests that the genes encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking should be screened for pathogenic mutations.

  15. Debate - The Trafficking Protocol and the Anti-Trafficking Framework: Insufficient to address exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Baer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol[1] has shaped and advanced a global movement against human trafficking; notably through establishing a global definition and creating criminal justice remedies befitting an international crime.[2] Borne out of and including the Protocol, a global anti-trafficking framework has emerged. This framework reflects these two central tenets at international, regional and national levels and includes initiatives by States not party to the Protocol, such as Singapore. However, the emphasis on these tenets, which comprise only part of a robust anti-trafficking strategy, has rendered the existing framework insufficient to address exploitation. [1] In full: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children [2] K H Heinrich, ‘Ten Years After the Palermo Protocol: Where are Protections for Human Trafficking?’, Human Rights Brief 18, no.1, 2010, retrieved 5 January 2015, http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1145&context=hrbrief ; K E Hyland, The Impact of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Human Rights Brief 8, no. 2, 2001, retrieved 5 January 2015, http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1492&context=hrbrief

  16. Regulation of GPCR Trafficking by Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Justine E; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-promoted signaling mediates cellular responses to a variety of stimuli involved in diverse physiological processes. In addition, GPCRs are also the largest class of target for many drugs used to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the role of GPCR signaling in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms governing GPCR signaling remain poorly understanding. Classically, GPCR signaling is tightly regulated by GPCR kinases and β-arrestins, which act in a concerted fashion to govern GPCR desensitization and also GPCR trafficking. Ubiquitination has now emerged as an important posttranslational modification that has multiple roles, either directly or indirectly, in governing GPCR trafficking. Recent studies have revealed a mechanistic link between GPCR phosphorylation, β-arrestins, and ubiquitination. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how ubiquitin regulates GPCR trafficking within the endocytic pathway. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  18. Ubiquitously expressed GPCR membrane-trafficking orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Chris W; Lee, Jaquelina D R; Komives, Claire F

    2005-03-01

    Olfactory receptors are a diverse set of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that localize to cellular plasma membranes in the olfactory epithelium. Associated trafficking proteins often assist in targeting these GPCRs to the membrane, facilitating function. One such trafficking protein has been isolated as a mutant defective for both odorant response and proper receptor localization in Caenorhabditis elegans. This gene (ODR-4) allows for functional expression of olfactory receptors in heterologous cells that are otherwise incapable of targeting. We have isolated a full-length human cDNA that is homologous to the C. elegans gene at the protein level across nearly the entire gene by using a novel RecA-based gene enrichment procedure. This sequence is homologous to a family of orthologs that share predicted structural features, indicating a conserved function. The gene was expressed in 41 of 44 human, mouse, and rat tissues, suggesting an important role in trafficking olfactory and other GPCRs.

  19. Sex trafficking in Ireland from a health care perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McConkey, S J; Garcia, C; Mann, A; Conroy, R

    2014-01-01

    Sex trafficking within Ireland is a hidden phenomenon. In 2010, 78 alleged victims were reported to An Garda Siochina and the recorded levels of human trafficking into Ireland have remained at this level for the last four years...

  20. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setti...

  2. Lassa-vesicular stomatitis chimeric virus safely destroys brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N; Cepko, Connie; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2015-07-01

    High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We tested a series of

  3. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  4. Gender Issues in Human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    girls and women embodies deep cultural practices, which often times requires a historic .... Literature Review. Trafficking Women and Sex Slavery. In evaluating the global trend in trafficking activities all over the world, Kempendoo. (2005) argued that the interest in trafficking waned ..... It was a symbolic representation of.

  5. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  6. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  7. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  8. a Study of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo's Trafficked

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trafficking is frowned at in Nigeria, yet people are perpetually trafficked. In this research work, the researcher examines the novel in line with sociological approach so that the ills of human trafficking as it is a case in the contemporary society would be seen. The researcher believes that when the ills are exposed, there ...

  9. South Africa - safe haven for human traffickers? Employing the arsenal of existing law to combat human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, H B; Oosthuizen, H

    2012-01-01

    aving ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not enacted the required comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation. The question that now arises is if the absence of such anti-trafficking legislation poses an insurmountabl...

  10. Trafficking as a Human Rights Violation: Is South Africa's Curriculum Stuck in a Traffick Jam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Petro; Simmonds, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery and is often collectively referred to as a human rights violation. However, human trafficking is more complex than this suggests as this article attempts to demonstrate. It begins by describing the landscape of international trends in human trafficking, with particular attention to child…

  11. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in Rat Odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Erina; Goto, Tetsuya; Gunjigake, Kaori; Kuroishi, Kayoko; Ueda, Masae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Seta, Yuji; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-02-27

    Several theories have been proposed regarding pain transmission mechanisms in tooth. However, the exact signaling mechanism from odontoblasts to pulp nerves remains to be clarified. Recently, ATP-associated pain transmission has been reported, but it is unclear whether ATP is involved in tooth pain transmission. In the present study, we focused on the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a transporter of ATP into vesicles, and examined whether VNUT was involved in ATP release from odontoblasts. We examined the expression of VNUT in rat pulp by RT-PCR and immunostaining. ATP release from cultured odontoblast-like cells with heat stimulation was evaluated using ATP luciferase methods. VNUT was expressed in pulp tissue, and the distribution of VNUT-immunopositive vesicles was confirmed in odontoblasts. In odontoblasts, some VNUT-immunopositive vesicles were colocalized with membrane fusion proteins. Additionally P2X3, an ATP receptor, immunopositive axons were distributed between odontoblasts. The ATP release by thermal stimulation from odontoblast-like cells was inhibited by the addition of siRNA for VNUT. These findings suggest that cytosolic ATP is transported by VNUT and that the ATP in the vesicles is then released from odontoblasts to ATP receptors on axons. ATP vesicle transport in odontoblasts seems to be a key mechanism for signal transduction from odontoblasts to axons in the pulp.

  12. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV’s broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV’s neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a safe vector. Therefore, it is very important to understand the determinants of VSV tropism and develop strategies to alter it. VSV glycoprotein (G) and matrix (M) protein play major roles in its cell tropism. VSV G protein is responsible for VSV broad cell tropism and is often used for pseudotyping other viruses. VSV M affects cell tropism via evasion of antiviral responses, and M mutants can be used to limit cell tropism to cell types defective in interferon signaling. In addition, other VSV proteins and host proteins may function as determinants of VSV cell tropism. Various approaches have been successfully used to alter VSV tropism to benefit basic research and clinically relevant applications. PMID:23796410

  13. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Jeffery; Tang, Xiaolin; Landesman, Michael B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Ruedas, John B. [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Ghimire, Anil [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Gudheti, Manasa V. [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Perrault, Jacques [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Jorgensen, Erik M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Gerton, Jordan M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Utah (United States); Saffarian, Saveez, E-mail: saffarian@physics.utah.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter.

  14. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2013-09-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV's broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV's neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a safe vector. Therefore, it is very important to understand the determinants of VSV tropism and develop strategies to alter it. VSV glycoprotein (G) and matrix (M) protein play major roles in its cell tropism. VSV G protein is responsible for VSV broad cell tropism and is often used for pseudotyping other viruses. VSV M affects cell tropism via evasion of antiviral responses, and M mutants can be used to limit cell tropism to cell types defective in interferon signaling. In addition, other VSV proteins and host proteins may function as determinants of VSV cell tropism. Various approaches have been successfully used to alter VSV tropism to benefit basic research and clinically relevant applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  16. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  17. Molecular architecture of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmeh, Amal A; Schenk, Andreas D; Danek, Eric I; Kranzusch, Philip J; Liang, Bo; Walz, Thomas; Whelan, Sean P J

    2010-11-16

    Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell a highly specialized RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein and associated with the viral polymerase. The catalytic core of this protein-RNA complex is a 250-kDa multifunctional large (L) polymerase protein that contains enzymatic activities for nucleotide polymerization as well as for each step of mRNA cap formation. Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of NNS RNA viruses, we used negative stain electron microscopy (EM) to obtain a molecular view of L, alone and in complex with the viral phosphoprotein (P) cofactor. EM analysis, combined with proteolytic digestion and deletion mapping, revealed the organization of L into a ring domain containing the RNA polymerase and an appendage of three globular domains containing the cap-forming activities. The capping enzyme maps to a globular domain, which is juxtaposed to the ring, and the cap methyltransferase maps to a more distal and flexibly connected globule. Upon P binding, L undergoes a significant rearrangement that may reflect an optimal positioning of its functional domains for transcription. The structural map of L provides new insights into the interrelationship of its various domains, and their rearrangement on P binding that is likely important for RNA synthesis. Because the arrangement of conserved regions involved in catalysis is homologous, the structural insights obtained for VSV L likely extend to all NNS RNA viruses.

  18. [Safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in complicated vesicular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Alfonso; Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Díaz-Blanco, Fernando; Martínez-Fernández, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the experience and safety of cholecystectomy through laparoscopic approach in patients with complicated biliary gallbladder disease who were attended at the Hospital Español, Veracruz, Mexico, during a 10-year period. A prospective, longitudinal, comparative study with a control group was designed. We studied a group of patients with complicated cholelithiasis disease (Group I) and compared them with patients without complicated diseases. We analyzed the following variables: age, gender, risk factors, associated trans-operative pathology and accidents, surgical time, rate of conversion to open procedure, length of hospital stay, complications and evolution. During the 10-year period, 733 cholecystectomies were performed, 245 (33.42%) to treat complicated cholelithiasis and 488 (66.58%) uncomplicated. There were no differences regarding gender, age, risk factors, hospital stay, complications, morbidity and mortality, and iatrogenic lesions of the biliary tree, postoperative morbidity and mortality. In all patients of Group I (245), we found complications of cholelithiasis (acute cholecystitis, choledochal gallstones, vesicular adherences, and cholecystocolonic fistula). Surgical time was longer in Group I and surgical accidents made the surgical procedure more difficult. The overall results established that laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our institution is a safe procedure in patients with complicated gallbladder disease and can be performed by experienced surgeons.

  19. Sinai Trafficking: Origin and Definition of a New Form of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Reisen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon that is coined “Sinai Trafficking” started in 2009 in the Sinai desert. It involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture, sexual violation and killing of men, women and children. Migrants, of whom the vast majority are from Eritrean descent, are abducted and brought to the Sinai desert, where they are sold and resold, extorted for very high ransoms collected by mobile phone, while being brutally and “functionally” tortured to support the extortion. Many of them die in Sinai. Over the last five years broadcasting stations, human rights organisations and academics have reported on the practices in the Sinai and some of these reports have resulted in some confusion on the modus operandi. Based on empirical research by the authors and the analysis of data gathered in more than 200 recorded interviews with Sinai hostages and survivors on the practices, this article provides a definition of Sinai Trafficking. It argues that the term Sinai Trafficking can be used to differentiate a particular new set of criminal practices that have first been reported in the Sinai Peninsula. The article further examines how the new phenomenon of Sinai Trafficking can be framed into the legal human trafficking definition. The interconnectedness of Sinai Trafficking with slavery, torture, ransom collection, extortion, sexual violence and other severe crimes is presented to substantiate the use of the trafficking framework. The plight of Sinai survivors in Israel and Egypt is explained to illustrate the cyclical process of the trafficking practices especially endured by Eritreans, introduced as the Human Trafficking Cycle. The article concludes by setting out areas for further research.

  20. Linking Poverty, Irregular Migration and Human Trafficking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration literature suggests that poverty, irregular migration and human trafficking are causally linked. However, empirical studies linking these aspects of migration are scarce. This is because, as clandestine activities, data collection on these aspects of migration presents serious challenges. As a result of these ...

  1. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  2. Reflections on initiatives to address human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Bandana Pattanaik

    2006-01-01

    Many organisations, politicians and celebrities have joined the fight against human trafficking but have they stopped to consider the causes of the phenomenon and the human rights of those affected by it and/or by ill-judged actions to suppress it?

  3. Reflections on initiatives to address human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pattanaik

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Many organisations, politicians and celebrities have joined the fight against human trafficking but have they stopped to consider the causes of the phenomenon and the human rights of those affected by it and/or by ill-judged actions to suppress it?

  4. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  6. Human Trafficking, Globalisation and Transnational Feminist Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a historical overview of feminist frameworks for analysis and advocacy on human trafficking. It traces the major differences and similarities in the forms of knowledge produced since the Anti-White Slavery campaigns nearly two centuries ago. It highlights how

  7. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  8. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Project NO REST: Addressing Human Trafficking in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dean F

    Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking. Later, 5 communities were recruited to implement the plan at the local level. Their experiences will be used to develop a toolkit for future anti-trafficking efforts. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  10. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the Arsenal of Existing Law to Combat Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Oosthuizen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aving ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not enacted the required comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation. The question that now arises is if the absence of such anti-trafficking legislation poses an insurmountable obstacle to the prosecution of traffickers for trafficking-related activities. In asking this question the article examines the utilisation of existing crimes in order to prosecute and punish criminal activities committed during the human trafficking process. Firstly, a selection of existing common law and statutory crimes that may often be applicable to trafficking related activities is mapped out. Secondly, transitional trafficking provisions in the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 are discussed. Finally, since the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill B7 of 2010 will in all probability be enacted in the near future, the use of other criminal law provisions in human trafficking prosecutions, even after the passing of this bill into law, is reflected upon.

  11. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Gorceag, Viorel I; Hotineanu, Mihai A; Gorceag, Lilia; Trigub, Carolina; Abas, Melanie

    2012-07-26

    Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  12. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oram Siân

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months. Results Headaches (61.7%, stomach pain (60.9%, memory problems (44.2%, back pain (42.5%, loss of appetite (35%, and tooth pain (35% were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  13. Debate - Achievements of the Trafficking Protocol: Perspectives from the former UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy N Ezeilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 (Trafficking Protocol, is a watershed in galvanising the global movement against human trafficking. Thanks to the Protocol, international and regional bodies, along with civil society groups, have become involved in researching the issue and supporting anti-trafficking efforts; and states have begun to introduce new laws and policies aimed at criminalising trafficking, protecting victims and preventing future trafficking.[1] [1] J N Ezeilo, ‘First decade of the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children’, A/HRC/26/37, UN, 2014.

  14. Redistributive properties of the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfman, W.B.; Perrault, J. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The template for transcription of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genome consists of a negative-strand RNA (approximately 11 kb) tightly associated with approximately 1250 copies of the nucleocapsid or N protein (N-RNA template). The interaction between the virion-associated polymerase and this template was probed with a novel assay using purified N-RNA complexes added to detergent-disrupted uv-irradiated standard virions or unirradiated defective interfering (DI) particles. In contrast to the well-known stability of assembled cellular transcription complexes, the VSV polymerase copied exogenously added templates efficiently and yielded products indistinguishable from control virus transcription. Addition of uv-irradiated N-RNA templates to unirradiated virus effectively competed for transcription of endogenous template indicating that most or all of the polymerase can freely redistribute. Furthermore preincubation of virus and added templates at high ionic strength to solubilize L and NS polymerase proteins did not release additional active enzyme for redistribution. Pretranscription of virus also had little or no effect on redistributed activity indicating that polymerase complexes are capable of multiple rounds of synthesis beginning at the 3' end promoter. Unexpectedly, titration with saturating amounts of added N-RNA showed that active polymerase complexes are only in slight excess relative to template in standard or DI particles despite the large surplus of packaged L and NS polypeptides. Moreover, added standard virus templates competed equally well for the redistributing polymerase from DI particles or standard virus indicating no significant polymerase-binding preference for interfering templates. These findings bear important implications regarding mechanisms of VSV transcription and replication.

  15. Inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.J.; Wagner, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    DNA synthesis in mouse myeloma (MPC-11) cells and L cells was rapidly and progressively inhibited by infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). No significant difference in cellular DNA synthesis inhibition was noted between synchronized and unsynchronized cells, nor did synchronized cells vary in their susceptibility to VSV infection after release from successive thymidine and hydroxyurea blocks. Cellular RNA synthesis was inhibited to about the same extent as DNA synthesis, but cellular protein synthesis was less affected by VSV at the same multiplicity of infection. The effect of VSV on cellular DNA synthesis could not be attributed to degradation of existing DNA or to decreased uptake of deoxynucleoside triphosphates, nor were DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase activities significantly different in VSV-infected and uninfected cell extracts. Analysis by alkaline sucrose gradients of DNA in pulse-labeled uninfected and VSV-infected cells indicated that VSV infection did not appear to influence DNA chain elongation. Cellular DNA synthesis was not significantly inhibited by infection with the VSV polymerase mutant tsG114(I) at the restrictive temperature or by infection with defective-interfering VSV DI-011 (5' end of the genome), but DI-HR-LT (3' end of genome) exhibited initially rapid but not prolonged inhibition of MPC-11 cell DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis inhibitory activity of wild-type VSV was only slowly and partially inactivated by very large doses of UV irradiation. These data suggest that, as in the effect of VSV on cellular RNA synthesis inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by VSV requires transcription of a small segment of the viral genome.

  16. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  17. Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Szulczyńska-Gabor, Joanna; Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Szyfter-Harris, Joanna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. This type of cutaneous reaction is associated with inflammation manifesting with erythema, edema, and vesicles. A 27-year old female patient presented with a 3-day history of erythematous and vesicular lesions which developed 24 hours after cesarean section. Initially the lesions were localized in the area of surgery (mainly the abdomen and upper thighs) and on the next day progressed to the buttocks and lumbar area. The patient was referred to the Outpatient Clinic and was treated with antihistamines, but her dermatological state deteriorated rapidly. At the day of admission to the Department of Dermatology, numerous erythematous and vesicular lesions were present on the skin of the abdomen, thighs, and back (Figure 1, a), but the skin of the neck, chest, and extremities was also covered with erythematous and edematous patches. On the second day of hospitalization, we observed the evolution of lesions localized within the chest and extremities into an erythema multiforme-like targetoid eruption (Figure 1, b). Initially the patient was treated with intravenous injections of dexamethasone and ceftriaxone and orally with second-generation antihistamines (in four-fold doses), followed by intravenous metyloprednisolone pulse-therapy (total dose of 3 g). As the new vesicobullous lesions started to appear on the face and arms, we introduced cyclosporine A orally 400 mg daily. We could then observe gradual remission, but on the seventh day of hospitalization the patient developed a massive labial herpes simplex infection and had

  18. Getting out of the game: desistance from drug trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Howard; Hansen, Tobin

    2012-11-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border, the centre of the western hemispheric illicit drugs trade. It examines factors that encouraged or discouraged drug traffickers to "get out of the game" (a common slang reference to leaving the drug business). In-depth, life history interviews were conducted of thirty ex-traffickers in the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez area. Participants discussed their experiences exiting drug trafficking and their retrospective, often conflicted, feelings about the trade. Although leaving drug trafficking is a complex and multi-faceted process, the principle factors for study participants were (1) punishment (by authorities or other traffickers), (2) self-image and identity, (3) social ties, (4) life course changes and (5) drug use/abuse. Traffickers often want to quit, but their divided self-identities make it difficult to relinquish the power and exhilaration they derive from the illicit drugs business. Harm reduction policies are needed that address the embeddedness of trafficker identities in dense webs of family, community, street gangs and transnational cartels, and the larger society, as well as the seductive appeal of Hollywood and pro-cartel narco-media. Traffickers need pathways that allow them to exit the illicit drugs business without surrendering their identity. Prison sentences are not enough to encourage traffickers to stop-also needed are culturally sensitive policies that help traffickers get out of the game and stay out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drosophila VAMP7 regulates Wingless intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; He, Fang; Lin, Xinhua; Wu, Yihui

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells. Moreover, Wg puncta in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes were Dlp positive. We hypothesize that VAMP7 is required for Wg intracellular trafficking and the accumulation of Wg in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes might affect Wg signaling.

  20. Investigating Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Simon R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the interaction between cells and their extracellular environment is essential for the maintenance of appropriate physiological function. For G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), this regulation occurs through multiple mechanisms that provide spatial and temporal control...... for signal transduction. One of the major mechanisms for GPCR regulation involves their endocytic trafficking, which serves to internalize the receptors from the plasma membrane and thereby attenuate G protein-dependent signaling. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that GPCRs can signal...... independently of G proteins, as well as from intracellular compartments including endosomes. It is in this context that receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking have attracted renewed interest within the GPCR field. In this chapter, we will review the current understanding and methodologies...

  1. Incunabular Immunological Events in Prion Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Brady; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Johnson, Theodore; Ferguson, Adam; Wyckoff, Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Bender, Heather; Avery, Anne; Telling, Glenn; Dow, Steven; Zabel, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    While prions probably interact with the innate immune system immediately following infection, little is known about this initial confrontation. Here we investigated incunabular events in lymphotropic and intranodal prion trafficking by following highly enriched, fluorescent prions from infection sites to draining lymph nodes. We detected biphasic lymphotropic transport of prions from the initial entry site upon peripheral prion inoculation. Prions arrived in draining lymph nodes cell autonomously within two hours of intraperitoneal administration. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) required Complement for optimal prion delivery to lymph nodes hours later in a second wave of prion trafficking. B cells constituted the majority of prion-bearing cells in the mediastinal lymph node by six hours, indicating intranodal prion reception from resident DCs or subcapsulary sinus macrophages or directly from follicular conduits. These data reveal novel, cell autonomous prion lymphotropism, and a prominent role for B cells in intranodal prion movement. PMID:22679554

  2. Mechanisms of integrin activation and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margadant, Coert; Monsuur, Hanneke N; Norman, Jim C; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2011-10-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors are essential for the normal function of most multicellular organisms, and defective integrin activation or integrin signaling is associated with an array of pathological conditions. Integrins are regulated by conformational changes, clustering, and trafficking, and regulatory mechanisms differ strongly between individual integrins and between cell types. Whereas integrins in circulating blood cells are activated by an inside-out-induced conformational change that favors high-affinity ligand binding, β1-integrins in adherent cells can be activated by force or clustering. In addition, endocytosis and recycling play an important role in the regulation of integrin turnover and integrin redistribution in adherent cells, especially during dynamic processes such as cell migration and invasion. Integrin trafficking is strongly regulated by their cytoplasmic tails, and the mechanisms are now being identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Trafficking as Lever for Feminist Voices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, human trafficking has emerged as a central issue within the policy field of prostitution during the last decade. Taking a Foucauldian approach from a historical perspective, understanding the policy field of prostitution as a discursive terrain, the article analyses the thinking...... that lies behind policies on prostitution by identifying ruptures and discursive struggles which lead to transformations of the policy field. In particular, this article investigates how the problematisation of human trafficking has created space for a feminist discourse breakthrough within the policy field...... of prostitution during the last decade. Asking how/where this ‘problem’ has been produced, what ways of speaking are permissible, and what is silenced, the article discusses limitations and possibilities within this policy field....

  4. 'Trafficking' or 'personal use': do people who regularly inject drugs understand Australian drug trafficking laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas; Sindicich, Natasha

    2014-11-01

    Legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed 'trafficking' as opposed to 'personal use', are employed in all Australian states and territories excepting Queensland. In this paper, we explore the extent to which people who regularly inject drugs understand such laws. Participants from the seven affected states/territories in the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System (n = 823) were asked about their legal knowledge of trafficking thresholds: whether, if arrested, quantity possessed would affect legal action taken; and the quantities of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis that would constitute an offence of supply. Data were compared against the actual laws to identify the accuracy of knowledge by drug type and state, and sociodemographics, use and purchasing patterns related to knowledge. Most Illicit Drug Reporting System participants (77%) correctly said that quantity possessed would affect charge received. However, only 55.8% nominated any specific quantity that would constitute an offence of supply, and of those 22.6% nominated a wrong quantity, namely a quantity that was larger than the actual quantity for supply (this varied by state and drug). People who regularly inject drugs have significant gaps in knowledge about Australian legal thresholds for drug trafficking, particularly regarding the actual threshold quantities. This suggests that there may be a need to improve education for this population. Necessity for accurate knowledge would also be lessened by better design of Australian drug trafficking laws. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Trafficking in Persons Report 10th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    well-trained police force implementing proven and compassionate victim identification measures. Women continue to toil in sweatshop factories without...to forced labor in sweatshops , on farms, and increasingly in grocery stores and as street vendors. Child sex tourism is a problem, particularly in...254 raids on suspected commercial sex sites and sweatshops and rescued 421 trafficking victims: over three-quarters of these victims were adults. the

  6. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study: e0133508

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman Shrestha; Pramila Karki; Asha Suwal; Michael Copenhaver

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  7. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Suwal, Asha; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  8. Etiological Aspects of Human Trafficking in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Abdyli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious criminal offences, which is presented as a contemporary form of slavery and which implies the most brutal violation of basic human rights, which are guaranteed by international and law and national law. The phenomenon of human trafficking is present in many countries in transition (such as Kosovo, namely in those countries which were affected by internal political, economic, social, educational, etc. changes, and in such situations the perpetrators of this offense are in a very favorable position to victimize society. Therefore, this paper will focus on external criminogenic factors that influence the growth of this negative phenomenon, including the difficult economic situation, poverty and unemployment, poor housing, migration of people, domestic violence, the impact of mass media in society, lack of border control and insufficient effectiveness of institutions to deal with law enforcement. The paper is based on literature review, statistical data and interviews by treating the subject theoretically, legislatively and practically. To successfully fight against human trafficking, relevant authorities should more closely approach the etiological treatment of this negative phenomenon.

  9. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  10. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J J

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B51 using complement fixation and serum neutralization tests. Two isolates did not react with antisera to known vesicular agents of swine and failed to produce vesicles or clinical signs of disease upon inoculation in swine. One vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolate from tissue of equine origin was pathogenic for swine but produced limited vesiculation at the site of intradermalingual inoculation in the tongue of a pony infected experimentally. Type B51 virus was reisolated from lesions produced in the pony and the pony became seropositive for virus type B51. PMID:3651889

  11. Adapt, recycle and move on: proteostasis and trafficking mechanisms in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Demirsoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma has emerged as a paradigm of a highly aggressive and plastic cancer, capable to co-opt the tumour stroma in order to adapt to the hostile microenvironment, suppress immunosurveillance mechanisms and disseminate. In particular, oncogene- and aneuploidy-driven dysregulations of proteostasis in melanoma cells, impose a rewiring of central proteostatic processes, such as the heat shock and unfolded protein responses, autophagy and the endo-lysosomal system, to avoid proteotoxicity. Research over the past decade has indicated that alterations in key nodes of these proteostasis pathways act in conjunction with crucial oncogenic drivers to increase intrinsic adaptations of melanoma cells against proteotoxic stress, modulate the high metabolic demand of these cancer cells and the interface with other stromal cells, through the heightened release of soluble factors or exosomes. Here we overview and discuss how key proteostasis pathways and vesicular trafficking mechanisms are turned into vital conduits of melanoma progression, by supporting cancer cell’s adaptation to the microenvironment, limiting or modulating the ability to respond to therapy and fuelling melanoma dissemination.

  12. Quantitative Chemical Measurements of Vesicular Transmitters with Electrochemical Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchan; Dunevall, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G

    2016-10-18

    Electrochemical cytometry adds a new dimension to our ability to study the chemistry and chemical storage of transmitter molecules stored in nanometer vesicles. The approach involves the adsorption and subsequent rupture of vesicles on an electrode surface during which the electroactive contents are quantitatively oxidized (or reduced). The measured current allows us to count the number of molecules in the vesicles using Faraday's law and to correlate this to the amount of molecules released when single exocytosis events take place at communicating cells. The original format for this method involved a capillary electrophoresis separation step to singly address each vesicle, but we have more recently discovered that cellular vesicles tend to adsorb to carbon electrodes and spontaneously as well as stochastically rupture to give mostly single vesicle events. This approach, called impact electrochemical cytometry, even though the impact is perhaps not the important part of this process, has been studied and the vesicle rupture appears to be at the interface between the vesicle and the electrode and is probably driven by electroporation. The pore size and rate of content electrolysis are a function of the pore diameter and the presence of a protein core in the vesicles. In model liposomes with no protein, events appear extremely rapidly as the soft nanoparticles impact the electrode and the contents are oxidized. It appears that the proteins decorating the surface of the vesicle are important in maintaining a gap from the electrode and when this gap is closed electroporation takes place. Models of the event response times suggest the pores formed are small enough so we can carry out these measurements at nanotip electrodes and we have used this to quantify the vesicle content in living cells in a mode we call intracellular impact electrochemical cytometry. The development of electrochemical cytometry allows comparison between vesicle content and vesicular release and

  13. THE VICTIM HANDLING MODEL OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING THROUGH ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Trafficking is a modern trading of human slavery. Human Trafficking is also one of the worst forms of violation of human dignity that results in trauma to the victims. To that end, there should be a comprehensive treatment for victims. The problems that can be studied is whether a model that can be applied in the treatment of victims of trafficking in Cianjur and disseminating technical how models Handling of Victims of Human Trafficking in Cianjur. This study used normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. The results of this study are alternative models to handle victims of trafficking in Cianjur is a service model based on inter-institutional and economic empowerment through planting camelina sativa with socialization techniques involving local government, private sector, community leaders and students through legal counseling and advocacy. Keywords: human trafficking, the victim handling model, socialization

  14. Transaction Costs: Prosecuting child trafficking for illegal adoption in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A McCarthy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As primary implementers of laws on human trafficking, law enforcement helps construct how these laws are understood and applied. This article examines how this process has unfolded in Russia by looking at the phenomenon of and debates surrounding child trafficking for illegal adoption. It argues that pre-existing experience with trafficking laws and cultural narratives surrounding adoption have led law enforcement to focus on uncovering evidence of monetary transactions rather than exploitation when prosecuting trafficking cases. This construction of the meaning of trafficking comes with important trade-offs. While the emphasis on transactions helps law enforcement to be successful at prosecuting cases involving selling children for illegal adoption, a focus on transactions rather than exploitation results in a de facto prosecution policy that ignores the many forms of exploitation that occur in other trafficking cases.

  15. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Baldwin, Susie; Gaïgbé-Togbé, Bertille; Ndukwe, Nneka; Johnson, Pauline N; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to build the evidence base around human trafficking (HT) and health in the U.S. by employing a quantitative approach to exploring the notion that health care providers encounter this population. Furthermore, this study sought to describe the health care settings most frequented by victims of human trafficking. This was an anonymous, retrospective study of survivors of U.S.-based human trafficking. One hundred and seventy-three participants who endured U.S.-based human trafficking were surveyed. The majority (68%, n=117) of participants were seen by a health care provider while being trafficked. Respondents most frequently reported visiting emergency/urgent care practitioners (56%), followed by primary care providers, dentists, and obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs). While health care providers are serving this patient population, they do not consistently identify them as victims of human trafficking.

  17. Human Trafficking, Mental Illness, and Addiction: Avoiding Diagnostic Overshadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; MacGibbon, Marti; Stoklosa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness. Finally, the authors propose a trauma-informed, multidisciplinary response to potentially trafficked patients. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Barcoding of GPCR trafficking and signaling through the various trafficking roadmaps by compartmentalized signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahouth, Suleiman W; Nooh, Mohammed M

    2017-08-01

    Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes. Given the vast number of diverse sequences in GPCR, several trafficking mechanisms for endosomal GPCR have been described. The majority of recycling GPCR, are sorted out of endosomes in a "sequence-dependent pathway" anchored around a type-1 PDZ-binding module found in their C-tails. For a subset of these GPCR, a second "barcode" imprinted onto specific GPCR serine/threonine residues by compartmentalized kinase networks was required for their efficient recycling through the "sequence-dependent pathway". Mutating the serine/threonine residues involved, produced dramatic effects on GPCR trafficking, indicating that they played a major role in setting the trafficking itinerary of these GPCR. While endosomal SNX27, retromer/WASH complexes and actin were required for efficient sorting and budding of all these GPCR, additional proteins were required for GPCR sorting via the second "barcode". Here we will review recent developments in GPCR trafficking in general and the human β 1 -adrenergic receptor in particular across the various trafficking roadmaps. In addition, we will discuss the role of GPCR trafficking in regulating endosomal GPCR signaling, which promote biochemical and physiological effects that are distinct from those generated by the GPCR signal transduction

  19. International regulation of the ban on trafficking in women

    OpenAIRE

    Suská, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Resumé The theme of my diploma thesis is The International Regulations of Trafficking in Women. Trafficking in people, especially with women is very old and unfortunately still actual phenomenon. Nowadays it is a fastest-growing form of criminal industry in the world. People are in the position of commodity that is trafficked. Universal human rights of victims and fundamental principles of democratic societies are breached, particularly the principle of protection of life, human integrity and...

  20. ANTROPOLOGIS TENTANG TRAFFICKING TKW DI MALAYSIA: ANTARA ADA DAN TIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Marhaeni Pudji Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking has existed since the period of kingdoms in Java, going on to the colonialism period, andto the present time. Its meaning is broadening beyond human trading into the matters related to violence,blackmailing, and forcing. Trafficking happens not only within one specific area, but has crossed theborder of countries, indicating the existence of an international net. The mushrooming of trafficking isdue to weak law and political commitment of the concerning countries. Moreover, the bilateral talk tobanish trafficking has not been maximally conducted. The actors of trafficking vary from man-powerbrokers, agents, taxi drivers, and even officers (of transmigration and police offices. Trafficking happens invarious places ranging from luxurious spots or starred-hotels to plantations and areas which accommodatea lot of migrants. The victims are usually in so unfavorable bargaining positions that they are muchdependent on those traffickers. This dependency is the impact of imbalanced gender relation. Based onsome existing cases, it is indicated that the women’s lack of power, strength, information, and educationare often misused by the traffickers to take them as their preys. That is why empowering migrant womenis very crucial. One of the ways is empowering them through their realization that this need comes fromtheir own selves, not from any force outside. Besides, there should be strong commitment from the stateto seriously implement the law against any traffickers. Cooperation between the concerning countriesare also needed, for instance by issuing common regulations to banish trafficking.Keywords: Trafficking, migrant women, receiving country, sending country, trafficker

  1. Accountability and the Use of Raids to Fight Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ditmore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accountability in anti-trafficking efforts is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of deciding whether such efforts are truly rooted in a human rights framework. In a rush to help, and inspired by sensationalised views of what human trafficking is, many campaigns actually harm the very people they are supposed to assist. Law enforcement raids are one such effort, as they do not take into account the very different power dynamics between the actor engaging in the raid, and the person who is subject to the raid. Data from the United States suggests that raids conducted by local law enforcement agencies are an ineffective means of locating and identifying trafficked persons. Research also reveals that raids are all too frequently accompanied by violations of the human rights of trafficked persons and sex workers alike, and can therefore be counterproductive to the underlying goals of anti-trafficking initiatives. Findings suggest that a rights-based and “survivor-centred” approach to trafficking in persons requires the development and promotion of alternative methods of identifying and protecting the rights of trafficked persons which prioritise the needs, agency, and self-determination of trafficking survivors. They also indicate that preventative approaches, which address the circumstances that facilitate trafficking in persons, should be pursued over law enforcement based responses.

  2. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  3. Human Trafficking and Commercialization of Surrogacy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyali Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of India, In Baby Manji Yamada versus Union of India & Anr. [2008] INSC 1656, popularly known as Manji Case, declared that Commercial Surrogacy is legal in India. As we know that, India is a developing country and here, most of the peoples are very poor and illiterate. Recently, human trafficking was increase with an uncontrollable rate in the entire world. In addition, making Commercialization of Surrogacy legal had already give birth to a new form of trafficking. Where, illiterate women from poor section is trafficked to run the reproductive industry of the Surrogacy. As we know that the traffickers, they used to trafficked girls/women for prostitution but now after the legalization of Commercial Surrogacy, they will trafficked girl/women for the reproductive industry as a raw material. The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA, 1956 and Sections 366(A and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are the existing laws of India, which deals with human trafficking. However, none of these provisions contains any solution, to deal with this new serious issue of trafficking of women/girls for the purpose of Commercial Surrogacy in reproductive industries. These existing laws as well as the pending draft bill of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART Regulation Bill, 2010 needs an amendment to check this crime against women once again to protect the rights and health of the women.

  4. Prevention of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: Assessing The Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Shiferaw Woldemichael

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have indicated that both in-country trafficking (trafficking of individuals from rural areas to relatively affluent towns and cities and external trafficking (trafficking of individuals from a given country to foreign countries are prevalent in Ethiopia. In 2012, the government acceded to the Protocol to Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (The UN Trafficking Protocol, here after. With a view to giving effect to the requirements of this instrument, the government passed in to law Proclamation No. 909/2015 (The Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation, which is the most comprehensive of all laws adopted in Ethiopia to deal with human trafficking. Taking in to account the fact that human trafficking is exacerbated by the absence of regulatory framework on the employment of Ethiopian nationals in foreign countries, the govern-ment has also brought in to practice Proclamation No. 923/2016 (Ethiopia’s Overseas Employment Proclamation. This article has examined whether the above-mentioned laws of Ethiopia comply with international standards in dealing with prevention strategies.

  5. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  6. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    John Arboleda; Andrés Londoño; Víctor Quiroz; Carlos Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ) e Indiana (VSV-IN), afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar), bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos...

  7. Cytopathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis virus is regulated by the PSAP motif of M protein in a species-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an important vector-borne pathogen of bovine and equine species, causing a reportable vesicular disease. The matrix (M) protein of VSV is multifunctional and plays a key role in cytopathogenesis, apoptosis, host protein shut-off, and virion assembly/budding. Our ...

  8. Trafficking in Persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos O Brhane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the nature of trafficking in persons continues to manifest itself in myriad ways all over the world, interpretation of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol, should be broadened to include newly emerging practices that are similar in nature to those it has already embraced under its definition. The Protocol appears to encompass other forms of trafficking which are unnamed or unforeseen by the definition provided under Article 3. It is time to expand its spectrum. Northeast Africa is plagued by a unique form of trafficking in persons—trafficking in persons for ransom. This involves a practice where people are smuggled, abducted, kidnapped and tortured to compel their relatives and families to pay ransom money. Victims are nationals of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan. However, as Northeast Africa hosts particularly high numbers of Eritrean migrants and the largest Eritrean diaspora globally, Eritreans are very vulnerable to being targeted for trafficking for ransom. As trafficking for ransom is an emerging trend, legal ramifications have never been studied in full. Few reports try to address legal issues around the phenomenon, and those that do only give it a few paragraphs of attention. There is need for a closer look at this form of trafficking.

  9. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  10. Global Trafficking Prevalence Data Distorts Efforts to Stop Patterns of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For everyone engaged in efforts to stop the exploitation and harm associated with human trafficking, it always sounds helpful to know how many people are being exploited in particular places and where they come from. Finding out should help us assess whether efforts to cut down these numbers are effective or not.

  11. Domestic Sex Trafficking of Minors: Medical Student and Physician Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchen, Kanani E; Loo, Dyani; Berdan, Elizabeth; Rysavy, Mary Becker; Ng, Jessica J; Sharif, Iman

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to assess: (1) medical trainee and practicing physician awareness about domestic sex trafficking of minors; and (2) whether respondents believe that awareness of trafficking is important to their practice. We designed an anonymous electronic survey, and a convenience sample was collected from June through October 2013. Voluntary participants were 1648 medical students, residents, and practicing physicians throughout the United States. Data were analyzed for correlations between study cohort characteristics and: (1) agreement with the statement: "knowing about sex trafficking in my state is important to my profession"; (2) knowledge of national statistics regarding the sex trafficking of minors; and (3) knowledge of appropriate responses to encountering a trafficked victim. More practicing physicians than residents or medical students: (1) agreed or strongly agreed that knowledge about human trafficking was important to their practice (80.6%, 71.1%, and 69.2%, respectively; P = .0008); (2) correctly estimated the number of US trafficked youth according to the US Department of State data (16.1%, 11.7%, and 7.9%, respectively; P = .0011); and (3) were more likely to report an appropriate response to a trafficked victim (40.4%, 20.4%, and 8.9%, respectively; P = .0001). Although most medical trainees and physicians place importance on knowing about human trafficking, they lack knowledge about the scope of the problem, and most would not know where to turn if they encountered a trafficking victim. There exists a need for standardized trafficking education for physicians, residents, and medical students. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Loss-of-function of the ciliopathy protein Cc2d2a disorganizes the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane and indirectly affects Rab8-trafficking in zebrafish photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Naharros, Irene; Gesemann, Matthias; Mateos, José M; Barmettler, Gery; Forbes, Austin; Ziegler, Urs; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra

    2017-12-01

    Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors. The link between the TZ and upstream vesicle trafficking has been little explored to date. Moreover, the role of the small GTPase Rab8 in opsin-carrier vesicle (OCV) trafficking has been recently questioned in a mouse model. Using correlative light and electron microscopy and live imaging in zebrafish photoreceptors, we provide the first live characterization of Rab8-mediated trafficking in photoreceptors in vivo. Our results support a possibly redundant role for both Rab8a/b paralogs in OCV trafficking, based on co-localization of Rab8 and opsins in vesicular structures, and joint movement of Rab8-tagged particles with opsin. We further investigate the role of the TZ protein Cc2d2a in Rab8-mediated trafficking using cc2d2a zebrafish mutants and identify a requirement for Cc2d2a in the latest step of OCV trafficking, namely vesicle fusion. Progressive accumulation of opsin-containing vesicles in the apical portion of photoreceptors lacking Cc2d2a is caused by disorganization of the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane with mislocalization and loss of the t-SNAREs SNAP25 and Syntaxin3 and of the exocyst component Exoc4. We further observe secondary defects on upstream Rab8-trafficking with cytoplasmic accumulation of Rab8. Taken together, our results support participation of Rab8 in OCV trafficking and identify a novel role for the TZ protein Cc2d2a in fusion of incoming

  13. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Nguyen, Bac T.; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male’s position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Since prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. PMID:22017990

  14. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  15. Plant vacuole morphology and vacuolar trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential organelles for plant growth and development, and have multiple functions. Vacuoles are highly dynamic and pleiomorphic, and their size varies depending on the cell type and growth conditions. Vacuoles compartmentalize different cellular components such as proteins, sugars, ions and other secondary metabolites and play critical roles in plants response to different biotic/abiotic signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize the patterns of changes in vacuole morphology in certain cell types, our understanding of the mechanisms of plant vacuole biogenesis, and the role of SNAREs and Rab GTPases in vacuolar trafficking. PMID:25309565

  16. Experiences of exploitation and human trafficking among a sample of Indonesian migrant domestic workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANDREVSKI, Hannah; Lyneham, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Risk of abuse, exploitation and human trafficking amongst Indonesian migrant domestic workers - examination of data held in the International Organization for Migration's Counter Trafficking Module...

  17. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  18. Drug Trafficking and Violence in Central America and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between narcotics trafficking and violence in Central America. The first part of the paper addresses particular questions posed for the 2011 World Development Report and examines several competing hypothesis on the drivers of crime in Central America. A key finding is that areas exposed to intense narcotics trafficking in Central America suffer from hig...

  19. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods to ...

  20. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods ...

  1. CHDS Supports Fusion Centers Leaders in Child Sex Trafficking Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2013-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security News and Stories, PRESS RELEASES Fusion centers could serve as a central hub in assisting law enforcement fight child sex trafficking. That was one recommendation stemming from a joint meeting of IACP’s Child Sex Trafficking...

  2. USSOCOM’s Role in Addressing Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    trafficking (across global regions) occurred primarily when a wealthy, industrialized 12 House...nation law enforcement officials from Malaysia , Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam in ground and maritime interdiction skills.”54 While these...in Europe. Vienna, Austria: OSCE. 2001. Belser, Patrick. Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits. Geneva: International Labour

  3. Patterns and Processes of Recruitment and Trafficking into sex Work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using information gathered from Edo and Lagos States of Nigeria, through the use of Case studies, In-depth and key-Informant Interviews, this paper probes the strategies employed by the traffickers and activities that characterize the recruitment and trafficking into sex work. The study found the family to be both facilitators of ...

  4. Wasting opportunities : Prevention of illicit cross-border waste trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahramäki, Iina; Favarin, Serena; Mehlbaum, Shanna; Savona, Ernesto Ugo; Spapens, Antonius; Kankaanranta, Terhi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to construct a consolidated crime script of cross-border illicit waste trafficking by analysing similarities in modus operandi. In addition, factors enabling illicit waste trafficking were studied. Research questions were analysed from a situational crime prevention point of view by

  5. The Effective Business Practices of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    sustained success from illicit activities is challenging, but the Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) continue to adapt and innovate in an effort...enforcement designed to make them extinct? This thesis, through an analysis of the core activities of drug trafficking and money laundering, will attempt

  6. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  7. Trafficking in women and the politics of mobility in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrijasevic, R.

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation examines the topic of ‘trafficking’ in women for the sex sector in Europe. The term trafficking is usually intended to signify transportation of persons by means of coercion or deception into exploitative and slavery-like conditions. I approach the theme of trafficking from the

  8. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  9. Curbing Human Trafficking And The Seed Dispersal Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trafficking in human beings is a “cancerous” problem that has negative impacts on every aspect of the human society globally. This cancer has assumed alarming dimensions and has been attributed to various factors.The result of trafficking in humans is that people are dislocated from their culture, which can be likened to ...

  10. Human Sex Trafficking in America: What Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litam, Stacey Diane A.

    2017-01-01

    The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Counselors should…

  11. Child Trafficking: A Hindrance to the Girl-Child Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibangbe, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Child trafficking continues to pose a major hindrance to the freedom and educational development of the girl-child in Nigeria. Most of the girls trafficked are forced into prostitution, forced labour and in some cases as human sacrifice. Some families support this trend because they see it as a means to break the yoke of economic hardship. The…

  12. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  13. Increase in vesicular hand eczema after house dust mite inhalation provocation : a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Huizinga, Janneke; De Monchy, Jan G; Vermeulen, Karin M

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the respiratory tract is involved in eliciting or aggravating eczematous lesions in patients with vesicular hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the effect of inhalation of house dust mite (HDM) on vesicular hand eczema. METHODS: Eighteen patients with vesicular

  14. Detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Aguero, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. We have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET), for simultaneous...

  15. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present.

  16. TNF-mediated survival of CD169(+) cells promotes immune activation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain ...

  17. Toluene-induced, Ca2+-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952; Vijverberg, H.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068856474

    2002-01-01

    Acute effects of toluene on vesicular catecholamine release from intact PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells have been investigated using carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. The frequency of vesicles released is low under basal conditions and is enhanced by depolarization. Toluene causes an increase in

  18. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter expression in human temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liefferinge, J.; Jensen, C.J.; Albertini, G.; Bentea, E.; Demuyser, T.; Merckx, E.; Aronica, E.; Smolders, I.; Massie, A.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for loading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Altered VGLUT protein expression has been suggested to affect quantal size and glutamate release under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated mRNA and

  19. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating...

  20. [Seminal vesicular cysts associated with renal agenesis, ipsilateral ureter and hemitrigone. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis Mínguez, B; Ferrutxe Frau, J; Moreno Pardo, B; Baixauli Martínez, J M; Moreno Barrachina, E; Rodríguez Hernández, J H

    1979-01-01

    A case is presented of seminal vesicular cyst associated with kidney agenesia, ipsilateral ureter and hemitrigon; this is the 17th case presented in the world literature reviewed. A study is made of all the cases published and the authors recommend deferento-vesiculography as the best means of diagnosis and total excision of the cyst as the most effective treatment.

  1. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exists. (a) Swine vesicular disease is considered to exist in all regions of the world except Australia..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal..., the pork or pork products must be moved under Department seals or seals of the U.S. Customs Service...

  2. The development and significance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas as influenced by agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruissen, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of

  3. Nanoscale distribution of presynaptic Ca(2+) channels and its impact on vesicular release during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiro; Harada, Harumi; Kamasawa, Naomi; Matsui, Ko; Rothman, Jason S; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Silver, R Angus; DiGregorio, David A; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-07

    Synaptic efficacy and precision are influenced by the coupling of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) to vesicles. But because the topography of VGCCs and their proximity to vesicles is unknown, a quantitative understanding of the determinants of vesicular release at nanometer scale is lacking. To investigate this, we combined freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling of Cav2.1 channels, local [Ca(2+)] imaging, and patch pipette perfusion of EGTA at the calyx of Held. Between postnatal day 7 and 21, VGCCs formed variable sized clusters and vesicular release became less sensitive to EGTA, whereas fixed Ca(2+) buffer properties remained constant. Experimentally constrained reaction-diffusion simulations suggest that Ca(2+) sensors for vesicular release are located at the perimeter of VGCC clusters (<30 nm) and predict that VGCC number per cluster determines vesicular release probability without altering release time course. This "perimeter release model" provides a unifying framework accounting for developmental changes in both synaptic efficacy and time course. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trafficking of Estrella lausannensis in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Brigida; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-07-01

    Estrella lausannensis is a new member of the Chlamydiales order. Like other Chlamydia-related bacteria, it is able to replicate in amoebae and in fish cell lines. A preliminary study investigating the pathogenic potential of Chlamydia-related bacteria found a correlation between antibody response to E. lausannensis and pneumonia in children. To further investigate the pathogenic potential of E. lausannensis, we determined its ability to grow in human macrophages and its intracellular trafficking. The replication in macrophages resulted in viable E. lausannensis; however, it caused a significant cytopathic effect. The intracellular trafficking of E. lausannensis was analyzed by determining the interaction of the Estrella-containing inclusions with various endocytic markers as well as host organelles. The E. lausannensis inclusion escaped the endocytic pathway rapidly avoiding maturation into phagolysosomes by preventing both EEA-1 and LAMP-1 accumulation. Compared to Waddlia chondrophila, another Chlamydia-related bacteria, the recruitment of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was minimal for E. lausannensis inclusions. Estrella lausannensis appears to use a distinct source of nutrients and energy compared to other members of the Chlamydiales order. In conclusion, we hypothesize that E. lausannensis has a restricted growth in human macrophages, due to its reduced capacity to control programmed cell death. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. COMMD1-mediated ubiquitination regulates CFTR trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Drévillon

    Full Text Available The CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein is a large polytopic protein whose biogenesis is inefficient. To better understand the regulation of CFTR processing and trafficking, we conducted a genetic screen that identified COMMD1 as a new CFTR partner. COMMD1 is a protein associated with multiple cellular pathways, including the regulation of hepatic copper excretion, sodium uptake through interaction with ENaC (epithelial sodium channel and NF-kappaB signaling. In this study, we show that COMMD1 interacts with CFTR in cells expressing both proteins endogenously. This interaction promotes CFTR cell surface expression as assessed by biotinylation experiments in heterologously expressing cells through regulation of CFTR ubiquitination. In summary, our data demonstrate that CFTR is protected from ubiquitination by COMMD1, which sustains CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Thus, increasing COMMD1 expression may provide an approach to simultaneously inhibit ENaC absorption and enhance CFTR trafficking, two major issues in cystic fibrosis.

  6. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  7. Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol makes an easy target for attack. Its origins lie in an attempt to control a particularly exploitative form of migration that was challenging the ability of States to control their own borders. Its parent instrument is a framework agreement to address transnational organised crime. While paying fleeting attention to the rights of victims, the Protocol, with its emphasis on criminalisation and border protection is nowhere near being a human rights treaty. On top of all that it does not even have a credible enforcement mechanism, allowing states parties wide latitude in interpreting and applying their obligations. Strangely, these seemingly insurmountable flaws have not stopped the Protocol’s emergence as perhaps the single most important development in the fight against human trafficking. Without the Protocol, arguments around definitions would have continued to block the evolution of principles and rules. Without the Protocol it is likely that the human rights system would have continued its shameful tradition of sidelining issues such as forced labour, forced sex, forced marriage and the ritual exploitation of migrant workers through debt. Most critically, the Protocol provided the impetus and template for a series of legal and political developments that, over time, have served to ameliorate some of its greatest weaknesses, including the lack of human rights protections and of a credible oversight mechanism.

  8. Mast cell progenitor trafficking and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from the hematopoietic progenitors found in bone marrow and spleen. Committed mast cell progenitors are rare in bone marrow suggesting they are rapidly released into the blood where they circulate and move out into the peripheral tissues. This migration is controlled in a tissue specific manner. Basal trafficking to the intestine requires expression of α4β7 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR2 by the mast cell progenitors and expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the intestinal endothelium; and is also controlled by dendritic cells expressing the transcriptional regulatory protein T-bet. None of these play a role in basal trafficking to the lung. With the induction of allergic inflammation in the lung, there is marked recruitment of committed mast cell progenitors to lung and these cells must express α4β7 and α4β1 integrins. Within the lung there is a requirement for expression of VCAM-1 on the endothelium that is regulated by CXCR2, also expressed on the endothelium. There is a further requirement for expression of the CCR2/CCL2 pathways for full recruitment of the mast cell progenitors to the antigen-inflamed lung.

  9. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  10. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list.

  11. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  12. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L

    2018-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  15. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  16. The calcium-binding protein ALG-2 regulates protein secretion and trafficking via interactions with MISSL and MAP1B proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Terunao; Inoue, Kuniko; Arai, Yumika; Kuwata, Keiko; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2017-10-13

    Mobilization of intracellular calcium is essential for a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and vesicular trafficking. Several lines of evidence have suggested that apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2, also known as PDCD6), a calcium-binding protein, acts as a calcium sensor linking calcium levels with efficient vesicular trafficking, especially at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport step. However, how ALG-2 regulates these processes remains largely unclear. Here, we report that MAPK1-interacting and spindle-stabilizing (MISS)-like (MISSL), a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with ALG-2 in a calcium-dependent manner. Live-cell imaging revealed that upon a rise in intracellular calcium levels, GFP-tagged MISSL (GFP-MISSL) dynamically relocalizes in a punctate pattern and colocalizes with ALG-2. MISSL knockdown caused disorganization of the components of the ER exit site, the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and Golgi. Importantly, knockdown of either MISSL or ALG-2 attenuated the secretion of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a model secreted cargo protein, with similar reductions in secretion by single- and double-protein knockdowns, suggesting that MISSL and ALG-2 act in the same pathway to regulate the secretion process. Furthermore, ALG-2 or MISSL knockdown delayed ER-to-Golgi transport of procollagen type I. We also found that ALG-2 and MISSL interact with microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) and that MAP1B knockdown reverts the reduced secretion of SEAP caused by MISSL or ALG-2 depletion. These results suggest that a change in the intracellular calcium level plays a role in regulation of the secretory pathway via interaction of ALG-2 with MISSL and MAP1B. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Experiences of sex trafficking victims in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J G; Decker, M R; Gupta, J; Maheshwari, A; Patel, V; Willis, B M; Raj, A

    2007-06-01

    To explore mechanisms and contexts related to sex trafficking victimization among South Asian women and girls rescued from brothels in Mumbai, India. Records of residents at a major non-governmental organization providing rescue, shelter and care of minor girls and of women held against their will in brothels in Mumbai were systematically reviewed (n=160). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and demographic differences in trafficking mechanisms and pre-disposing contexts were explored. The majority of victims (51.9%) were trafficked as minors and by individuals previously known to them (59.7%). Traffickers most commonly lured victims via promises of economic opportunity (55.0%) or kidnapped individuals via use of drugs or force (26.3%). Victims were most often trafficked from public settings (e.g., markets, train stations; 50.9%) and via public transportation (94.9%). Almost half (49.4%) reported some type of family disruption as directly leading to their being trafficked; violence involving husbands or other family members (38.0%) and marital separation or abandonment (32.9%) were the most common forms of disruption reported. Differences in experiences of trafficking were identified based on age, nationality, education, and marital status; no differences were found based on religion. The interaction of poverty and gender-based mistreatment of women and girls in families heightens the risk of sex trafficking; further empirical research is needed on this critically understudied issue. Prevention efforts should work to improve economic opportunities and security for impoverished women and girls, educate communities regarding the tactics and identities of traffickers, as well as promote structural interventions to reduce trafficking.

  18. Relationships between suspects and victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic violence parallels in Dutch trafficking cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; van Gestel, B.; de Jong, D.; Kleemans, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what

  19. Trafficking and Trauma: Insight and Advice for the Healthcare System From Sex-trafficked Women Incarcerated on Rikers Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Anita; Pfeiffer, Megan R; Rosner, Zachary; Shea, Judy A

    2017-12-01

    Sex-trafficked persons experience significant trauma while exploited, resulting in complex health issues and barriers to health care. Incorporating survivor perspectives is critical in optimizing health care delivery for this population. We interviewed sex-trafficking survivors regarding their experiences with trauma while being trafficked and elicited advice about health care delivery. Qualitative interviews were conducted in New York City's Rikers Island jail from July to September 2015. In total, 21 English-speaking women who had experienced sex trafficking were the subjects of the study. Interview domains included: interpersonal violence, behavioral health, and health care delivery advice. Interviewees described experiencing severe and chronic trauma perpetrated by traffickers and sex buyers. Substance use was the primary method of coping with trauma. With regard to mental health, interviewees noted diagnoses of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, and challenges in intimate relationships. Health care delivery themes included approaches to discussing trafficking in health care settings, concerns regarding sexual assault examinations, and suggestions for improving direct-services and prevention programming. With this perspective into the complex intersection of trauma and behavioral health that sex-trafficked women can experience, health care providers can better understand the context and recommendations regarding trauma-informed care practices for this population. Our results also offer several avenues for future studies with regard to discussing trafficking in clinical settings and an opportunity for stakeholders to incorporate survivor-based input to improve health care for this population.

  20. Paromomycin affects translation and vesicle-mediated trafficking as revealed by proteomics of paromomycin -susceptible -resistant Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Increasing resistance towards antimonial drugs poses a great challenge in chemotherapy of VL. Paromomycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and is one of the drugs currently being used in the chemotherapy of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. To understand the mode of action of this antibiotic at the molecular level, we have investigated the global proteome differences between the wild type AG83 strain and a paromomycin resistant (PRr strain of L. donovani. Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC followed by quantitative mass spectrometry of the wild type AG83 strain and the paromomycin resistant (PRr strain identified a total of 226 proteins at ≥ 95% confidence. Data analysis revealed upregulation of 29 proteins and down-regulation of 21 proteins in the PRr strain. Comparative proteomic analysis of the wild type and the paromomycin resistant strains showed upregulation of the ribosomal proteins in the resistant strain indicating role in translation. Elevated levels of glycolytic enzymes and stress proteins were also observed in the PRr strain. Most importantly, we observed upregulation of proteins that may have a role in intracellular survival and vesicular trafficking in the PRr strain. Furthermore, ultra-structural analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated increased number of vesicular vacuoles in PRr strain when compared to the wild-type strain. Drug affinity pull-down assay followed by mass spectrometery identified proteins in L. donovani wild type strain that were specifically and covalently bound to paromomycin. These results provide the first comprehensive insight into the mode of action and underlying mechanism of resistance to paromomycin in Leishmania donovani.

  1. Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Eisenman, David P; Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery; Chuang, Kenneth S

    2011-07-14

    An estimated 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year from all over the world, and are forced into hard labor or commercial sex work. Despite their invisibility, some victims are known to have received medical care while under traffickers' control. Our project aimed to characterize trafficking victims' encounters in US health care settings. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with six Key Informants who work closely with trafficking victims (Phase I) and 12 female trafficking survivors (Phase II). All survivors were recruited through the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, an NGO in Los Angeles, and all were trafficked into Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and six other languages, with the assistance of professional interpreters. Using a framework analysis approach that focused on victims' encounters in health care settings, we assessed interview transcript content and coded for themes. We used an exploratory pile-sorting technique to aggregate similar ideas and identify overarching domains. The survivors came from 10 countries. Eight had experienced domestic servitude, three had survived sex trafficking, and one had experienced both. Half the survivors reported that they had visited a physician while in their traffickers' control, and another worked in a health care facility. All Key Informants described other victims who had received medical care. For domestic servants, medical visits were triggered by injury and respiratory or systemic illness, while sex trafficking victims were seen by health professionals for sexually transmitted infections and abortion. Trafficking victims were prevented from disclosing their status to health care providers by fear, shame, language barriers, and limited interaction with medical personnel, among other obstacles. This exploration of survivors' experiences in health care settings supports anecdotal reports that US health care providers may unwittingly encounter

  2. Fibronectin impedes "myelin" sheet-directed flow in oligodendrocytes : A role for a beta 1 integrin-mediated PKC signaling pathway in vesicular trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siskova, Zuzana; Baron, Wia; de Vries, H; Hoekstra, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation of oligodendrocytes results in the formation of the myelin sheath, a dramatic morphological alteration that accompanies cell specialization. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the extracellular micro environment may regulate these morphological changes by altering intracellular

  3. Queering the support for trafficked persons: LGBTQ communities and human trafficking in the Heartland

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Corinne; Britton, Hannah E.

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking justice centers on the “Three Ps” model of prevention, protection, and prosecution. While protection and prosecution efforts have been moderately successful, prevention remains elusive, as “upstream” structural fac-tors—class, gender, and sexuality inequalities—remain difficult to target. Individuals who are affected by these factors are not fully served within linear service frameworks. Based on a 12-month study in Kansas City, we find that service providers recognize the l...

  4. HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

  5. Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports. Sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of human trafficking: the odds of human trafficking was 2.52 times greater for girls who experienced sexual abuse, and there was a 8.21 times greater risk for boys who had histories of sexual abuse. Maltreated youths are more susceptible to exploitation in human trafficking. Sexual abuse in connection with high ACE scores may serve as a key predictor of exploitation in human trafficking for both boys and girls.

  6. Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Schwarz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking justice centers on the “Three Ps” model of prevention, protection, and prosecution. While protection and prosecution efforts have been moderately successful, prevention remains elusive, as “upstream” structural fac-tors—class, gender, and sexuality inequalities—remain difficult to target. Individuals who are affected by these factors are not fully served within linear service frameworks. Based on a 12-month study in Kansas City, we find that service providers recognize the limitations of a “one-size-fits all” approach. Using a public health model, our research team con-ducted a public health surveillance, explored risk and protective factors, and facilitated organizational self-assessments of services. Our findings support a prevention approach that supports a survivor-centered model, which creates new, non-linear or queered avenues of agency and community for trafficking survivors. This model allows survivors to make use of services in moments of vulnerability and opt out of others in moments of resilience. Given the systematic cuts in funding that have affected service providers, this research contends that prevention is cheaper, more effective, and more ethical than relying on prosecutions to curb trafficking. Developing a model that fosters survivor empowerment is a key step toward individual justice and survivor resilience for vulnerable and marginalized populations.

  7. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  8. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  9. Ricin Trafficking in Plant and Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Spooner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a heterodimeric plant protein that is potently toxic to mammalian and many other eukaryotic cells. It is synthesized and stored in the endosperm cells of maturing Ricinus communis seeds (castor beans. The ricin family has two major members, both, lectins, collectively known as Ricinus communis agglutinin ll (ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin l (RCA. These proteins are stored in vacuoles within the endosperm cells of mature Ricinus seeds and they are rapidly broken down by hydrolysis during the early stages of post-germinative growth. Both ricin and RCA traffic within the plant cell from their site of synthesis to the storage vacuoles, and when they intoxicate mammalian cells they traffic from outside the cell to their site of action. In this review we will consider both of these trafficking routes.

  10. Inhibitors of the Cellular Trafficking of Ricin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gillet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last decade, efforts to identify and develop effective inhibitors of the ricin toxin have focused on targeting its N-glycosidase activity. Alternatively, molecules disrupting intracellular trafficking have been shown to block ricin toxicity. Several research teams have recently developed high-throughput phenotypic screens for small molecules acting on the intracellular targets required for entry of ricin into cells. These screens have identified inhibitory compounds that can protect cells, and sometimes even animals against ricin. We review these newly discovered cellular inhibitors of ricin intoxication, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of chemical-genetics approaches, and address the issues to be resolved so that the therapeutic development of these small-molecule compounds can progress.

  11. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  12. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  13. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a serious federal crime with penalties of up to imprisonment for life. Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons." In short, human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Those who recruit minors into commercial sexual exploitation (or prostitution) violate federal anti-trafficking laws, even if there is no…

  14. 75 FR 11982 - Request for Information for the 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking. Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number... report and of the U.S government's anti-human trafficking policy. The Department prepares the TIP Report... Combat Human Trafficking (``AG Report''), mandated by the Trafficking TVPA, 22 U.S.C. 7103(d)(7). The TIP...

  15. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  16. Territorial sovereignty and trafficking in the Indonesia-Malaysia borderlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    , it documents how increased criminalization and the prevention of unauthorized flows of cross-border labour migrants have come to the foreground of national rhetoric concerning border development, territorial sovereignty and security. The chapter argues that the anti-trafficking discourse has had unintended......This chapter aims to explore the role that anti-trafficking initiatives have played in attempts by the Indonesian state to reclaim authority along its territorial borders. Drawing on data collected between 2002-2007 through personal interviews, government reports and newspaper clippings...... negative consequences along a border where the mundane practices of undocumented labour migration are often not distinguished from the more exploitative practices of human trafficking....

  17. War Zone Acapulco: Urban Drug Trafficking in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Acapulco epitomises the (insecurity of urban zones in the Americas whose geographical, political and economic divisions are exacerbated by the political economy and geopolitics of drug trafficking, as well as by militarised attempts to fight it. Various geographic, political, and economic factors in the Acapulco Metropolitan Zone (AMZ have impacted drug trafficking and organised crime and contributed to high levels of violence. As a result, Acapulco now ranks among the 50 most violent cities in the world. This article analyses the trends in drug trafficking and organised crime in the AMZ, and highlights the lessons for scholars and policy-makers.

  18. Human Trafficking as a Crime Against Humanity: An analysis of the legal potential to prosecute human trafficking in the International Criminal Court with reference to the trafficking of Rohingya Muslims in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the legal potential to prosecute human trafficking as a crime against humanity (CAH) in the International Criminal Court (ICC). Although the ICC has been equipped with the legal tools necessary to prosecute human trafficking, it has not yet brought a single trafficking case to the Court. In order to fully comprehend the bar for prosecution of human trafficking as a CAH at the ICC, the paper applies the CAH framework to the situation of the persecuted Rohingya minority in M...

  19. Endolysosomal membrane trafficking complexes drive nutrient-dependent TORC1 signaling to control cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Joanne M; Sen, Neelam D; Maeda, Tatsuya; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E

    2014-04-01

    The rapamycin-sensitive and endomembrane-associated TORC1 pathway controls cell growth in response to nutrients in eukaryotes. Mutations in class C Vps (Vps-C) complexes are synthetically lethal with tor1 mutations and confer rapamycin hypersensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a role for these complexes in TORC1 signaling. Vps-C complexes are required for vesicular trafficking and fusion and comprise four distinct complexes: HOPS and CORVET and their minor intermediaries (i)-CORVET and i-HOPS. We show that at least one Vps-C complex is required to promote TORC1 activity, with the HOPS complex having the greatest input. The vps-c mutants fail to recover from rapamycin-induced growth arrest and show low levels of TORC1 activity. TORC1 promotes cell growth via Sch9, a p70(S6) kinase ortholog. Constitutively active SCH9 or hyperactive TOR1 alleles restored rapamycin recovery and TORC1 activity of vps-c mutants, supporting a role for the Vps-C complexes upstream of TORC1. The EGO GTPase complex Exit from G0 Complex (EGOC) and its homologous Rag-GTPase complex convey amino acid signals to TORC1 in yeast and mammals, respectively. Expression of the activated EGOC GTPase subunits Gtr1(GTP) and Gtr2(GDP) partially suppressed vps-c mutant rapamycin recovery defects, and this suppression was enhanced by increased amino acid concentrations. Moreover, vps-c mutations disrupted EGOC-TORC1 interactions. TORC1 defects were more severe for vps-c mutants than those observed in EGOC mutants. Taken together, our results support a model in which distinct endolysosomal trafficking Vps-C complexes promote rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 activity via multiple inputs, one of which involves maintenance of amino acid homeostasis that is sensed and transmitted to TORC1 via interactions with EGOC.

  20. The cross-talk of LDL-cholesterol with cell motility: insights from the Niemann Pick Type C1 mutation and altered integrin trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Monira; Rentero, Carles; Conway, James R; Murray, Rachael Z; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is considered indispensible for the recruitment and functioning of integrins in focal adhesions for cell migration. However, the physiological cholesterol pools that control integrin trafficking and focal adhesion assembly remain unclear. Using Niemann Pick Type C1 (NPC) mutant cells, which accumulate Low Density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol in late endosomes (LE), several recent studies indicate that LDL-cholesterol has multiple roles in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Firstly, targeting of endocytosed LDL-cholesterol from LE to focal adhesions controls their formation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Other newly emerging literature suggests that this may be coupled to vesicular transport of integrins, Src kinase and metalloproteases from the LE compartment to focal adhesions. Secondly, our recent work identified LDL-cholesterol as a key factor that determines the distribution and ability of several Soluble NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP) Receptor (SNARE) proteins, key players in vesicle transport, to control integrin trafficking to the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. Collectively, dietary, genetic and pathological changes in cholesterol metabolism may link with efficiency and speed of integrin and ECM cell surface delivery in metastatic cancer cells. This commentary will summarize how direct and indirect pathways enable LDL-cholesterol to modulate cell motility.

  1. The United States drug problem and international trafficking. Part II. Denial of safe-havens to illicit drug traffickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, R S

    1977-12-01

    Excessive reliance on extradition as a means of acquiring prosecutional control over illicit drug traffickers is short-sighted. Informal arrangements, like expulsion, should be given more consideration. A method for developing a unified antitrafficker policy and for implementing that policy through existing diplomatic channels is demonstrated through the use of the safe-haven deprivation/deterrence model. This paper focuses on drug traffickers. Trafficking is a function of the availability of both suppliers and consumers. Other available forms of cooperation within the United States government to induce foreign states to assure that opium crops are either destroyed or controlled within licit user channels should not be overlooked.

  2. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  3. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals' contact with victims of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-08-20

    (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals' knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey. Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential victims of human trafficking, but lack knowledge and confidence in

  4. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...... to neuropathic pain we applied Chung's rodent pain model on BALB/c mice, and traced zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) proteins and zinc ions with immunohistochemistry and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Under anesthesia the left fifth lumbar spinal nerve was ligated in male mice in order to produced neuropathic...... gray matters of especially layer I-IV of the same segments. The transection-induced reduction of vesicular zinc in ZEN terminals of the dorsal horn was synchronic to reduced pain threshold, as measured by von Frey method. In a separate study, we observed intensive zinc selenite precipitation in somata...

  5. Exclusion of close linkage between the synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter locus and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persico, A.M.; Uhl, G.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhe Wu [Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The principal brain synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, thus contributing to determination of the size of releasable neurotransmitter vesicular pools. Potential involvement of VMAT2 gene variants in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders was tested using polymorphic VMAT2 gene markers in 156 subjects from 16 multiplex pedigrees with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, and schizotypal disorders and mood incongruent psychotic depression. Assuming genetic homogeneity, complete ({theta} = 0.0) linkage to the schizophrenia spectrum was excluded under both dominant and recessive models. Allelic variants at the VMAT2 locus do not appear to provide major genetic contributions to the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in these pedigrees. 16 refs.

  6. Vesicular noradrenaline stores in peripheral nerves of the rat and their modification by tranylcypromine.

    OpenAIRE

    Fillenz, M; Stanford, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    1 Vesicular noradrenaline stores were compared in the heart, salivary gland and vas deferens of the rat. 2 Noradrenaline storage vesicles in nerve terminals of different organs differed with respect to the amount of noradrenaline they contain in the endogenous store (content), the amount of exogenous noradrenaline they can take up from the circulation (uptake) and the amount of noradrenaline they contain when they are saturated (total storage capacity). 3 The data suggest that the vesicles in...

  7. Endoplasmosis and exoplasmosis: the evolutionary principles underlying endocytosis, exocytosis, and vesicular transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a multicompartmental structure with a?variety of organelles. Vesicular transport between these compartments requires membrane fusion events. Based on a?membrane topology view, we conclude that there are two basic mechanisms of membrane fusion, namely where the membranes first come in contact with the cis-side (the plasmatic phase of the lipid bilayer) or with the trans-side (the extra-plasmatic face). We propose to designate trans-membrane fusion ...

  8. Neurovirulence properties of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. Erik; Nasar, Farooq; Coleman, John W.; Price, Roger E; Javadian, Ali; Draper, Kenneth; Lee, Margaret; Reilly, Patricia A.; Clarke, David K.; Hendry, R. Michael; Udem, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known about VSV pathogenicity in non-human primates. To address this question, we measured VSV viremia, shedding, and neurovirulence in macaques. Following intranasal inoculation, macaques shed minimal recombinant VSV (rVSV) in nasal washes for one day post-inoculation; viremia was not detected. Following intranasal inoculation of macaques, wild type (wt) VSV, rVSV, and two ...

  9. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. Results In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the reco...

  10. Pseudotype formation of murine leukemia virus with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Emi, N; Friedmann, T; Yee, J K

    1991-01-01

    Mixed infection of a cell by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and retroviruses results in the production of progeny virions bearing the genome of one virus encapsidated by the envelope proteins of the other. The mechanism for the phenomenon of pseudotype formation is not clear, although specific recognition of a viral envelope protein by the nucleocapsid of an unrelated virus is presumably involved. In this study, we used Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retroviral vectors encoding...

  11. Production of vesicular stomatitis virus by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and continuous lymphoblastoid lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, M.; Feldman, J.D.; Kano, S.; Bloom, B.R.

    1973-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore at the ultrastructural level the nature of the cells engaged in the production of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in different lymphoid cell populations, particularly after stimulation with several different agents. Specifically, we have examined (a) lymph node cells from guinea pigs with delayed hypersensitivity activated by specific antigen, (b) murine spleen cells activated by selective B cell and T cell mitogens, and (c) cells of human and murine continuous lymphoblastoid or lymphoma lines.

  12. Efficacy study of vesicular gel containing methotrexate and menthol combination on parakeratotic rat skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Amrita; Goyal, Amit K; Kesarla, Rajesh; Murthy, Rayasa R

    2011-06-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, and disabling psoriasis. The oral or parenteral route of administration causes systemic toxicity. The topical route of delivery, though, reduces systemic toxicity and has limited applicability due to restricted permeability. Liposomal and niosomal MTX topical formulations have also been investigated with limited success to achieve drug localization in the skin. Menthol has been suggested in conditions of psoriasis, in addition to its skin-penetration-enhancing effect on drugs. The present work aimed at investigating the potential benefits of combining menthol with MTX in a vesicular gel base for not only improving the penetration and dermal availability of MTX, but also to render such a formulation more effective with greater patient acceptability. MTX liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration, and the vesicles were characterized for drug-entrapment efficiency, size, and morphology. These liposomal vesicles were incorporated in a gel base, and this vesicular gel was evaluated for transdermal drug permeation and extent of drug accumulation in the skin, using a rat skin ex vivo model. Skin histology studies were carried out to investigate any structural changes caused by the permeation enhancers. Antipsoriatic efficacy of the formulations was tested in vivo, using the rat tail model. The results indicated that the vesicular gel containing menthol could cause maximum drug retention in the skin. The skin treated with menthol had a disrupted epidermis and microcavities. The in vivo studies also ascertained the effectiveness of the formulation in inducing a normal pattern of differentiation in the rat tail skin that initially showed parakeratosis, which is also characteristic of psoriatic epidermis. These results show the potential of vesicular gel containing MTX and menthol to improve penetration into the skin and cause drug retention in skin appendages.

  13. Formation and Stability of Prebiotically Relevant Vesicular Systems in Terrestrial Geothermal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Manesh Prakash Joshi; Anupam Samanta; Gyana Ranjan Tripathy; Sudha Rajamani

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simula...

  14. Intracellular trafficking of new anticancer therapeutics: antibody–drug conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Muhammad; Chen, Jie; Wang, Shenghao; Lin, Caiyao; Ullah, Saif; Liang, Keying; Ding, Qian; Chen, Shuqing; Zhan, Jinbiao

    2017-01-01

    Antibody–drug conjugate (ADC) is a milestone in targeted cancer therapy that comprises of monoclonal antibodies chemically linked to cytotoxic drugs. Internalization of ADC takes place via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and pinocytosis. Conjugation strategies, endocytosis and intracellular trafficking optimization, linkers, and drugs chemistry present a great challenge for researchers to eradicate tumor cells successfully. This inventiveness of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking has given considerable momentum recently to develop specific antibodies and ADCs to treat cancer cells. It is significantly advantageous to emphasize the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking pathways efficiently and to design potent engineered conjugates and biological entities to boost efficient therapies enormously for cancer treatment. Current studies illustrate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of ADC, protein, and linker strategies in unloading and also concisely evaluate practically applicable ADCs. PMID:28814834

  15. Intracellular trafficking of new anticancer therapeutics: antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Muhammad; Chen, Jie; Wang, Shenghao; Lin, Caiyao; Ullah, Saif; Liang, Keying; Ding, Qian; Chen, Shuqing; Zhan, Jinbiao

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a milestone in targeted cancer therapy that comprises of monoclonal antibodies chemically linked to cytotoxic drugs. Internalization of ADC takes place via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and pinocytosis. Conjugation strategies, endocytosis and intracellular trafficking optimization, linkers, and drugs chemistry present a great challenge for researchers to eradicate tumor cells successfully. This inventiveness of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking has given considerable momentum recently to develop specific antibodies and ADCs to treat cancer cells. It is significantly advantageous to emphasize the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking pathways efficiently and to design potent engineered conjugates and biological entities to boost efficient therapies enormously for cancer treatment. Current studies illustrate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of ADC, protein, and linker strategies in unloading and also concisely evaluate practically applicable ADCs.

  16. GPCR Signaling and Trafficking: The Long and Short of It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, Nathan J; Friedman, Peter A

    2017-03-01

    Emerging findings disclose unexpected components of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and cell biology. Select GPCRs exhibit classical signaling, that is restricted to cell membranes, as well as newly described persistent signaling that depends on internalization of the GPCR bound to β-arrestins. Termination of non-canonical endosomal signaling requires intraluminal acidification and sophisticated protein trafficking machineries. Recent studies reveal the structural determinants of the trafficking chaperones. This review summarizes advances in GPCR signaling and trafficking with a focus on the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) as a prototype, and on the actin-sorting nexin 27 (SNX27)-retromer tubule (ASRT) complex, an endosomal sorting hub responsible for recycling and preservation of cell surface receptors. The findings are integrated into a model of PTHR trafficking with implications for signal transduction, bone growth, and mineral ion metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic colocalization microscopy to characterize intracellular trafficking of nanomedicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercauteren, Dries; Deschout, Hendrik; Remaut, Katrien; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Jones, Arwyn T.; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of intracellular processing of nanomedicines, we employed quantitative live-cell fluorescence colocalization microscopy to study endosomal trafficking of polyplexes in retinal pigment epithelium cells. A new, dynamic colocalization algorithm was developed, based on

  18. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  19. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  20. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Thatun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  1. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  2. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  3. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miko, Francis T

    2006-01-01

    Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community...

  4. The Role of Local Authorities in Addressing Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rossiter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, it is estimated that nearly 4 million people fall victim to people traffickers every year. Trafficking is carried out mainly by Organised Criminal Networks and the victims are forced into prostitution, illegal labour, domestic slavery and petty crime. ROSSITER & BENFIELD: The Role of Local Authorities in Addressing Human Trafficking CJLG May 2009 128 On 1 April 2009, the United Kingdom signed up to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.1 The Convention, which has to date been ratified by 20 European countries, is legally binding and aims to promote and protect the rights of victims who have been tricked or forced into leaving their homes, moved to another country, or within their own country, and then exploited. Whilst it is national governments who are signatories to the Council of Europe Convention, local authorities have a key role to play in its successful implementation.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small-azo-dyes as potent Vesicular Glutamate Transporters inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Besse, Franck-Cyril; Poirel, Odile; Bersot, Tiphaine; Kim-Grellier, Elodie; Daumas, Stephanie; El Mestikawy, Salah; Acher, Francine C; Pietrancosta, Nicolas

    2014-05-06

    Vesicular Glutamate Transporters (VGLUTs) allow the loading of presynapic glutamate vesicles and thus play a critical role in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. VGLUTs have proved to be involved in several major neuropathologies and directly correlated to clinical dementia in Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly VGLUT represent a key biological target or biomarker for neuropathology treatment or diagnostic. Yet, despite the pivotal role of VGLUTs, their pharmacology appears quite limited. Known competitive inhibitors are restricted to some dyes as Trypan Blue (TB) and glutamate mimics. This lack of pharmacological tools has heavily hampered VGLUT investigations. Here we report a rapid access to small molecules that combine benefits of TB and dicarboxylic quinolines (DCQs). Their ability to block vesicular glutamate uptake was evaluated. Several compounds displayed low micromolar inhibitory potency when size related compounds are thirty to forty times less potent (i.e. DCQ). We then confirmed the VGLUT selectivity by measuring the effect of the series on vesicular monoamine transport and on metabotropic glutamate receptor activity. These inhibitors are synthesized in only two steps and count among the best pharmacological tools for VGLUTs studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P ethosomes produced a significant (P ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  8. Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Sluder

    Full Text Available The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.

  9. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Cabrera, Ingrid; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Veciana, Jaume; Stamou, Dimitrios; Ventosa, Nora

    2012-02-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating two membrane dyes were prepared by either a compressed fluid (CF)-based method (DELOS-susp) or a conventional film hydration procedure. They were subsequently immobilized and imaged individually using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Two integrated fluorescence intensities, I(dye1) and I(dye2), were assigned to each tracked vesicle, and their ratio, I(dye1)/I(dye2), was used for quantifying the degree of membrane inhomogeneity between individual vesicles within each sample. A distribution of I(dye1)/I(dye2) values was obtained for all the studied vesicular systems, indicating intrasample heterogeneity. The degree of inhomogeneity (DI) was similar for Chol/DOPC vesicles prepared by both procedures. In contrast, DI was more than double for the hydration method compared to the CF-based method in the case of Chol/CTAB vesicles, which can suffer from lipid demixing during film formation. These findings reveal a more homogeneous vesicle formation path by CFs, which warranted good homogeneity of the vesicular system, independently of the lipid mixture used. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Marketing communication practices of public organizations to prevent human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze marketing communicative measures against human trafficking which were implemented by public organizations in 15 regions of Ukraine in 2011-2012. There are following research objectives: to investigate what kind of campaign or program of preventing the potential victims of human trafficking has been used by Ukrainian public organizations during 2011-2012; to determine whether marketing communicative measures have been implement...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing a better understanding of the aspects and the conditions that facilitate human traffick in a full transition society, such as the Romanian society. To highlight the characteristics of human trafficking and the actual dimensions of this phenomenon in Romania, the paper used both quantitative methods involving interpretation of statistics compiled by the competent institutions and the qualitative research methods, involving the analysis of reports, articles or case studies presented in the literature.

  12. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International Human Trafficking: Measuring Clandestinity by the Structural Equation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Rudolph; Friedrich Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide human trafficking (HT) is the third most often registered international criminal activity, ranked only after drug and weapon trafficking. The aim of the paper is to measure the extent of HT inflows to destination countries. It proposes the application of the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) structural equation model in order to include potential causes and indicators in one model and generate an index of the intensity of HT in destination countries. Thus, we account for t...

  14. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines human trafficking within Southeast Asia to identify the similarities and differences between the causes of labor and sex trafficking. The thesis also analyzes how three case study countries have tailored their antitrafficking policies to causes present in their country. The causes examined are divided into two distinct categories, universal and specific. The universal causes studied are large-scale social issues af...

  15. Trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for marriage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Kiss, Ligia; Koehler, Jobst; Dong, Dung Thuy; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Bride-trafficking has been a growing phenomenon in Southeast Asia, particularly in China, where one-child policies have resulted in demographic imbalances favoring males. Yet, empirical evidence about women and girls sold into marriage in China remains sparse. This study describes the experiences of 51 Vietnamese women and girls as young as 14 in post-trafficking services who were sold into marriage in China. A consecutive sample of individuals from five services in Vietnam were invited to be interviewed within the first 2 weeks of admission. It is part of a wider dataset for research on the health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the largest study to date on human trafficking and health. We calculated proportions for all variables and conducted bivariate analyses using Fisher Exact Tests for their associations with mental health disorders symptoms. Before leaving home, 31% ( n  = 15) participants were married. Participants reported high levels of sexual violence ( n  = 43; 86%) while trafficked and59% ( n  = 30) spent time in detention before returning to Vietnam. Once in post-trafficking care 52.9% ( n  = 27) reported probable depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), two women (4%) attempted suicide in the past month and 38 (75%) remained afraid of their trafficker. Ten (22%) became pregnant while trafficked, and seven (16%) were pregnant at the interview. The cross-border bride trade between Vietnam and China raises complex policy issues, including questions about detention and immigration rights and strategies for supported return processes, including maternal and child health services. As the repercussions of China's absent female population will persist, Vietnam and China must grapple with the political and social conditions to implement prevention strategies, and resources for women who fall prey to this cross-border bride trade.

  16. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe González

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations.

  17. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations.

  18. Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fr James

    2017-11-01

    Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings and behavior may arise post-trafficking in individuals, although this does not appear to be mentioned thus far in the literature. Here, we are most likely dealing with a type of "pseudo-lesbianism" post-trauma. The trafficking survivor can be helped to understand some of the likely roots of her feelings such as anti-male sentiments following abuse. She needs to be patiently, and expertly, accompanied to process the trauma she has experienced, and learn how to meet her genuine needs for female affection and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways. Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing for such young women involves helping them to process their traumatic experiences, as well as patiently accompanying them as they seek to develop healthy, chaste friendships with other females and males.

  19. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis ...

  20. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  1. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  2. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sarah J; Iqbal, Mudassar; Jabbari, Sara; Stekel, Dov; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes). By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  3. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  4. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  5. Public Discourse on Human Trafficking in International Issue Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Meriläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to better understand how the complex problem of human trafficking is addressed in international debates. How the discussion about human trafficking develops and how it is debated ultimately influences how the decision-making process unfolds. In order to understand the formation of public policy and laws, therefore, it is important to study the debate that occurs prior to decision making. This analysis focuses on the narratives used by major, well-established human rights and political actors that argue for necessary actions to be undertaken—such as the formation of new policies and laws in the European Union—as an attempt to protect citizens of the EU and other regions in the world from becoming victims of trafficking networks. Our research examines how the topic of human trafficking is framed and how this framework is intertwined in the debate with other social problems. We focus on how human trafficking is discussed by two well-established human rights Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs, Amnesty International (Amnesty and Human Rights Watch (HRW, in addition to the European Parliament (EP. The research questions for this study include: (1 In what context is human trafficking discussed by the three actors? (2 How do these actors frame the definition of human trafficking in their presentations? To answer these questions, we have conducted a systematic content analysis of documents that include official statements and research reports of the NGOs, as well as resolutions and recommendations of the EP. Altogether, 240 documents were analyzed in detail. These findings indicate that the two human rights organizations, Amnesty and Human Rights Watch, along with the European Parliament, all address human trafficking as an important social problem, albeit to varying degrees. Each actor has a different method of correlating human trafficking with many other social problems, thereby emphasizing different causes and

  6. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  7. Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    Human trafficking is an international crime renowned for extreme forms of violence against women, men and children. Although trafficking-related violence has been well-documented, the health of trafficked persons has been a largely neglected topic. For people who are trafficked, health risks and consequences may begin before they are recruited into the trafficking process, continue throughout the period of exploitation and persist even after individuals are released. Policy-making, service provision and research often focus narrowly on criminal violations that occur during the period of exploitation, regularly overlooking the health implications of trafficking. Similarly, the public health sector has not yet incorporated human trafficking as a health concern. We present a conceptual model that highlights the migratory and exploitative nature of a multi-staged trafficking process, which includes: 'recruitment', travel-transit', 'exploitation' and 'integration' or 'reintegration', and for some trafficked persons, 'detention' and 're-trafficking' stages. Trafficked persons may suffer from physical, sexual and psychological harm, occupational hazards, legal restrictions and difficulties associated with being marginalised or stigmatised. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from a theoretical approach that conceptualizes trafficking and health as a multi-staged process of cumulative harm. To address a health risk such as trafficking, which spans geographical boundaries and involves multiple sectors, including immigration and law enforcement, labour, social and health services, interventions must be coordinated between nations and across sectors to promote the protection and recovery of people who are trafficked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human trafficking: Role of oral health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolese, E

    2014-11-30

    Trafficking in human beings is a modern form of slavery and is a well-known phenomenon throughout the European Union and beyond. After drug dealing and the weapons industry, human trafficking is the second largest criminal activity in the world today and it is a growing crime. The aim of governmental and non-governmental agencies, which are either directly or indirectly involved in combating trafficking in human beings, is the identification and referral of victims of trafficking and also to encourage self-referrals. Identification is the most important step to provide protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. Victims often have a variety of physical and mental health needs, including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, head and neck trauma, sexually transmitted infections and other gynaecological problems, dental/oral problems and have poor nutrition. The author's experience in the field of community dentistry in presented within. Volunteer dental services are offered to non-European Union patients held in a centre for asylum seekers in Bari (Italy). Dental professionals can, in fact, contribute to the identification, assistance and protection of trafficked persons, as well as offering forensic services to assist the police investigation in order to identify crimes and find the criminal organizations behind them. As for domestic violence and child abuse cases, there are ethical concerns involved in the identification and protection of the trafficked persons, as well as the need for interdisciplinary work and awareness. Adequate training in behavioural science and intercultural learning is paramount in order to avoid misunderstandings and increase sensitivity.

  9. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and argues that the newly promulgated Kenyan constitution in chapter three on citizenship has a provision that can be interpreted as encouraging child trafficking.

  10. Human Trafficking in Areas of Conflict: Health Care Professionals' Duty to Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Christina; Morris, Rikki E; Chisolm-Straker, Makini

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Reported human traffickers' profiles: a key step in the prevention of trafficking in persons through HIV and AIDS interventions in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Kazaura, Method R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Fimbo, Benett

    2011-06-01

    a gap in comprehensive knowledge of trafficking in persons and the traffickers exists globally and in Tanzania in particular. Consequently, information on the profiles of human traffickers in the country is tremendously scanty. we conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania Mainland using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data in to inform anti-human trafficking health interventions and programs to be implemented in the country. Study participants included the national, regional and district Community Development Officers, District Medical Officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. different individuals or groups, knowingly or ignorantly, contribute to trafficking in persons and their roles differ at the places of origin, transit and destinations. Traffickers are males or females with varied age, marital status, relationships with victims, socio-economic status, experience and occupations. active traffickers at many stages of this crime rarely come into contact with the law enforcement system; fled or rescued victims may not be willing or unable to testify against their traffickers and coercing victims to do so could further traumatize them. Further research in needed to generate knowledge on human traffickers' profiles to inform trafficking in persons control programs through HIV and AIDS interventions in Tanzania.

  12. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussed and written on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, as well as the importance of early access to this type of learning. But how can entrepreneurship education train and inspire the next generation of anti-trafficking leaders? How can entrepreneurship also be a driver for prevention and a source of economic stability for those at-risk and survivors of human trafficking? At present, there are entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs-in-training at multiple age levels coming from a variety of backgrounds, incomes, and circumstances who will develop groundbreaking strategies and solutions in the fight against trafficking. These current and future entrepreneurs can also provide fresh perspectives to those in government and business while building more effective tri-sector coalitions and partnerships that address human trafficking. This article explores how and why entrepreneurship can be a key vehicle for social change and innovations in combating human trafficking, along with providing a multi-ingredient recipe of prosperity for those most vulnerable.

  13. Regulation of GPCR Anterograde Trafficking by Molecular Chaperones and Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Wertman, Jaime; Dupré, Denis J

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up a superfamily of integral membrane proteins that respond to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli, giving them an important role in cell function and survival. They have also proven to be valuable targets in the fight against various diseases. As such, GPCR signal regulation has received considerable attention over the last few decades. With the amplitude of signaling being determined in large part by receptor density at the plasma membrane, several endogenous mechanisms for modulating GPCR expression at the cell surface have come to light. It has been shown that cell surface expression is determined by both exocytic and endocytic processes. However, the body of knowledge surrounding GPCR trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, commonly known as anterograde trafficking, has considerable room for growth. We focus here on the current paradigms of anterograde GPCR trafficking. We will discuss the regulatory role of both the general and "nonclassical private" chaperone systems in GPCR trafficking as well as conserved motifs that serve as modulators of GPCR export from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Together, these topics summarize some of the known mechanisms by which the cell regulates anterograde GPCR trafficking. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt bridge integrates GPCR activation with protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Conn, P Michael

    2010-03-02

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play central roles in almost all physiological functions; mutations in GPCRs are responsible for more than 30 disorders. There is a great deal of information about GPCR structure but little information that directly relates structure to protein trafficking or to activation. The gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, because of its small size among GPCRs, is amenable to preparation of mutants and was used in this study to establish the relation among a salt bridge, protein trafficking, and receptor activation. This bridge, between residues E(90) [located in transmembrane segment (TM) 2] and K(121) (TM3), is associated with correct trafficking to the plasma membrane. Agonists, but not antagonists, interact with residue K(121), and destabilize the TM2-TM3 association of the receptor in the plasma membrane. The hGnRHR mutant E(90)K has a broken salt bridge, which also destabilizes the TM2-TM3 association and is typically retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that this mutant, if rescued to the plasma membrane by either of two different means, has constitutive activity and shows modified ligand specificity, revealing a role for the salt bridge in receptor activation, ligand specificity, trafficking, and structure. The data indicate that destabilizing the TM2-TM3 relation for receptor activation, while requiring an intact salt bridge for correct trafficking, provides a mechanism that protects the cell from plasma membrane expression of constitutive activity.

  15. Intracellular trafficking of new anticancer therapeutics: antibody–drug conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalim M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Kalim,1 Jie Chen,1 Shenghao Wang,1 Caiyao Lin,1 Saif Ullah,1 Keying Liang,1 Qian Ding,1 Shuqing Chen,2 Jinbiao Zhan1 1Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibody–drug conjugate (ADC is a milestone in targeted cancer therapy that comprises of monoclonal antibodies chemically linked to cytotoxic drugs. Internalization of ADC takes place via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and pinocytosis. Conjugation strategies, endocytosis and intracellular trafficking optimization, linkers, and drugs chemistry present a great challenge for researchers to eradicate tumor cells successfully. This inventiveness of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking has given consi­derable momentum recently to develop specific antibodies and ADCs to treat cancer cells. It is significantly advantageous to emphasize the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking pathways efficiently and to design potent engineered conjugates and biological entities to boost efficient therapies enormously for cancer treatment. Current studies illustrate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of ADC, protein, and linker strategies in unloading and also concisely evaluate practically applicable ADCs. Keywords: antibody–drug conjugate, antibody, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, clathrin

  16. Biochemical analysis of secretory trafficking in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Protein trafficking within the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is amenable to analysis by biochemical methods. This can be achieved by monitoring posttranslational modifications that occur naturally within the secretory pathway, or by measuring the delivery of cargo to the cell surface or extracellular medium. These approaches can be combined with additional manipulations such as specific temperature blocks that permit analysis of distinct trafficking steps. Biochemical analysis is advantageous in that it permits both a sensitive and quantitative measure of trafficking along the pathway. The methods discussed in this chapter permit the analysis of trafficking of both endogenous cargo proteins and ectopically expressed model cargos, which can be followed using either Western blotting or metabolic pulse-chase approaches. These methods are relatively straightforward and suitable for use in most modern cell biology laboratories. In addition to the well-established methods that we describe here in detail, we also refer to the development of more recent tailored approaches that add further to the arsenal of tools that can be used to assess trafficking in the secretory pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  19. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a neurotransmitter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S; Greer, Christina L; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M; Nguyen, Bac T; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J Steven; Krantz, David E

    2011-10-20

    Vesicular transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male's position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Because prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation inactivation analysis of fusion and hemolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine the size of the functional unit responsible for fusion of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with cardiolipin or phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine (1:1) liposomes, and for VSV-induced hemolysis. When radiation-insensitive background values were subtracted, the calculated functional units for all three activities were similar, ranging from 866 to 957 kDa, equivalent to about 15 G protein molecules. This is in striking contrast to results of similar studies with influenza and Sendai viruses, in which the functional unit corresponded in size to a single fusion protein monomer, and suggests that VSV fusion may occur by a different mechanism.

  1. Initiation and Direction of RNA Transcription by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Virion Transcriptase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Polly; Bishop, D. H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The initiation of RNA transcription by the virion-bound RNA transcriptase of vesicular stomatitis virus has been examined. Multiple initiation sequences have been observed, two of which have been characterized (pppApCpGp... and pppGpCp...) suggestive of a transcription process which can start at different sites along the template RNA. By the use of sequential labeling techniques and exonucleases, it has been determined that there is a 5′ to 3′ direction of product RNA synthesis. PMID:4349490

  2. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection......D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV...

  3. ANTICUERPOS CONTRA EL VIRUS DE ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR EN HUANGANAS (Tayassu pecari) EN MADRE DE DIOS, PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Carruitero H., Susan; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Rivera G., Hermelinda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Ramírez V., Mercy; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; More B., Juan; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Zúñiga H., Alfonso; Proyecto ÁREAS–Amazonía de la World Wildlife Fund (WWF-Peru); Romero S., Mónica; Proyecto ÁREAS–Amazonía de la World Wildlife Fund (WWF-Peru)

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra los serotipos New Jersey (NJ) e Indiana subtipo 1 (IND-1) del virus Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV) en huanganas (Tayassu pecari) de vida libre de las localidades de Boca de Manu (n=30), Concesión para la Conservación Los Amigos (n=10) y La Reserva Nacional Tambopata/Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (n=48) en el departamento de Madre de Dios. La presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV fue determinado me...

  4. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UNA VACUNA OLEOSA CONTRA ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR BIVALENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeláez, Gustavo; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra. 7 Nº 43 - 82, Bogotá; Mondragón, Nestor; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Turriago, Clara; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Mora, Nelson; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Méndez, María; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio calculó diferentes MI (Multiplicidad de Infección) para la producción de cultivos industriales de virus de Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) y evaluó el efecto de la cantidad de glicoproteína G en la inducción de respuesta de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus de EV en cobayos inmunizados con una vacuna oleosa bivalente (Indiana (I) y New Jersey (NJ)). Al establecer el MI más eficiente se logró mejorar la cinética de infección de los cultivos industriales disminuyendo los...

  5. The Effects of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on the Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIĞŞAR, Sibel; Sari, Nebahat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae on plant growth of cucumber. Yayla F 1 seeds were sown in sterile and non-sterile growing medium (organic manure:soil:mix of sand; v:v:v 1:1:1). The mix inoculum of Glomus mosseaand Glomus fasciculatumspores (10 g/plant) was placed 5 cm below the cucumber seed before sowing. In order to investigate the effects of VA mycorrhizae on plant growth, plant height, diameter, number of nodes were measured ...

  6. Phosphoinositides, Major Actors in Membrane Trafficking and Lipid Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan-Owen De Craene

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides are lipids involved in the vesicular transport of proteins and lipids between the different compartments of eukaryotic cells. They act by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins and thus are involved in regulating various cellular functions, such as vesicular budding, membrane fusion and cytoskeleton dynamics. Although detected in small concentrations in membranes, their role is essential to cell function, since imbalance in their concentrations is a hallmark of many cancers. Their synthesis involves phosphorylating/dephosphorylating positions D3, D4 and/or D5 of their inositol ring by specific lipid kinases and phosphatases. This process is tightly regulated and specific to the different intracellular membranes. Most enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis are conserved between yeast and human, and their loss of function leads to severe diseases (cancer, myopathy, neuropathy and ciliopathy.

  7. Perspectives on Human Trafficking and Modern Forms of Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration, technology, law, and measurement are each among the most topical areas of enquiry in the global human trafficking field, with much work remaining to be done in these and other areas. Beneath these particular intersections lies a crucial truth—slavery is a global business that thrives on the callous exploitation of the labor activity of a vast and highly vulnerable subclass of people whose brutalization is tacitly accepted by every participant in the global economy, from corporations to consumers. I am deeply gratified to edit Social Inclusion’s second issue on human trafficking and modern slavery. The level of scholarly interest in these topics continues to grow, and in this issue the authors explore some of the most pressing manifestations of human trafficking around the world.

  8. Cadherin Trafficking for Tissue Morphogenesis: Control and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Junior J; Harris, Tony J C

    2016-12-01

    Cadherin-based adherens junctions are critical for connecting cells in tissues. Regulated cadherin trafficking also makes these complexes amazingly dynamic, with permissive and instructive consequences on multicellular development. Here, we review how cadherin trafficking affects various forms of tissue morphogenesis from Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans to zebrafish, Xenopus and mouse. We describe how core trafficking machinery (such as clathrin, dynamin, Rab small G proteins and the exocyst complex) integrates with other molecular systems (transcriptional factors, signaling pathways, microtubules, actin networks, apico-basal polarity proteins and planar cell polarity proteins) to control cadherin endocytosis, exocytosis and recycling. This control can occur at all cell-cell contacts or specific junctions for distinct effects on tissue morphogenesis during animal development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Terrorism, Drug Trafficking, and the Globalization of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hernández

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzes the diversification of both terrorist groups and drug traffickers and the convergence between the two types of organizations in recent decades. As financial markets have become globalized, so have opportunities for illicit groups to transact with each other. The article builds on the collapse of Lebanese Canadian Bank in 2011 after its designation by the U.S. Treasury Department as a money-laundering financial institution tied to global drug trafficking and to Hezbollah. It follows the trajectory of two Hezbollah-associated drug kingpins: Ayman Joumaa, who facilitated trade between Hezbollah and the Zetas, and Maroun Saade, who was apprehended attempting to connect Hezbollah to the Taliban. In its analysis of the histories, motivations, and relationships among these three groups, the article reflects on relationships currently in existence between terrorist and drug-trafficking organizations, and on the implications of the possible directions these relationships might take in the future.

  10. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners.

  11. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Regulation of dopamine transporter trafficking by intracellular amphetamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlig, Kristopher M; Lute, Brandon J; Wei, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    -induced cell surface DAT redistribution may result in long-lasting changes in DA homeostasis. The molecular mechanism by which AMPH induces trafficking is not clear. Because AMPH is a substrate, we do not know whether extracellular AMPH stimulates trafficking through its interaction with DAT and subsequent...... alteration in DAT function, thereby triggering intracellular signaling or whether AMPH must be transported and then act intracellularly. In agreement with our previous studies, extracellular AMPH caused cytosolic redistribution of the wild-type human DAT (WT-hDAT). However, AMPH did not induce cytosolic...... redistribution in an uptake-impaired hDAT (Y335A-hDAT) that still binds AMPH. The divalent cation zinc (Zn(2+)) inhibits WT-hDAT activity, but it restores Y335A-hDAT uptake. Coadministration of Zn(2+) and AMPH consistently reduced WT-hDAT trafficking but stimulated cytosolic redistribution of Y335A...

  13. Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Risk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2017-04-01

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake. Responsibility to prevent and fight trafficking should be explicitly included in the mandate of relief and rehabilitation mechanisms set up at the national level to coordinate the disaster relief response, serving to support populations in both rural and urban areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:153-154).

  14. A replication and methodological critique of the study "Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob; Branwen, Gwern

    2016-01-01

    .... Dolliver's 2015 article "Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the Sequel" addresses this theme by evaluating drug trafficking on one of the most well-known cryptomarkets, Silk Road 2.0...

  15. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-01-01

    .... Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels...

  16. Making Suffering Into A Cause. Human Trafficking as an Emerging Issue in the Public Arena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakšić, Milena

    2013-01-01

    .... Grounded on an analysis of the normative frames through which human trafficking is comprehended, it shows that the establishment of human trafficking as a political cause rested almost entirely...

  17. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Claire M

    2007-01-01

    .... The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. According to the most recent Department of State estimates, roughly 800,000 people are trafficked across borders each year...

  18. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R; Siskin, Alison

    2008-01-01

    .... The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. According to the most recent Department of State estimates, roughly 800,000 people are trafficked across borders each year...

  19. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Identification and Management of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Lisa M; Phillippi, Julia C

    Health care practitioners serve an important role in identification and assistance of human trafficking victims. Advanced practice registered nurses, including certified nurse midwives, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse practitioners, are in a unique position to interact with persons trafficked and seen in the clinical setting, yet they require knowledge to identify the signs of human trafficking. Lack of training and education has been identified as a barrier for health care professionals to recognize human trafficking victims and implement needed health care services (; ). Barriers to identification and management include gap in knowledge about the process to screen for trafficking, to assist victims, and to make referrals. A patient-centered, trauma-informed approach can provide a safe environment to sensitively screen patients for human trafficking. Advanced practice registered nurses should be able to assess for trafficking indicators, collaborate with multidisciplinary service providers, and ensure understanding and availability of federal, state, and local resources to manage the care of victims of trafficking.

  1. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  2. Human trafficking of Amerindian women in Guyana: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, L

    2008-09-01

    This human-interest article aims to increase awareness of the root causes of Guyanese Amerindian vulnerability. In 2000, while working among the Wai Wai, Makushi and Wapishana tribes in the Rupununi, the author made a promise to a tribal Captain never to forget his people. Not only are the Amerindian people remembered, but their plight is being recognized and shared in an effort to end the exploitation of Guyanese Amerindian women. Every year, international humanitarian teams gain permission to provide health care and health education in Amerindian villages in Guyana. Ensuring that international health teams are informed about current Amerindian issues is vital to mission success. Lack of indigenous awareness with regard to human trafficking is evidence that Guyana's trafficking awareness campaign did not effectively reach the interior and therefore, international teams can be instrumental in bringing awareness to those most vulnerable to human traffickers. Improving indigenous and international awareness has the potential to reduce vulnerability, and to reduce the risk of humanitarian teams unknowingly sending silent victims back into a life of forced labour and sexual exploitation. Emphasis is placed on discriminatory institutional and cultural factors impacting on young indigenous women increasing the likelihood of exploitation by human traffickers. Policy and service activities are examined to ascertain Guyana's current capacity to address human trafficking and meet the needs of victims. Building institutional and community capacity, and empowering indigenous peoples to take ownership for individual, family and community awareness and action against human trafficking are important steps to take in reducing vulnerability, ending human rights violations and improving the status of indigenous women.

  3. General Aspects Regarding the Crime of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Draghici

    2016-01-01

    Thus, according to article 210 of the Penal Code, the crime of human trafficking involves„recruiting, transportation, sheltering or receiving of a person with the purpose of exploiting.Forthe offense of human trafficking there may exist preparatory acts, but the law does not incriminatethese acts as crimes and does not punish them. The attempt is punished according to article 217 ofthe Penal Code, stating that the attempt to the offenses stipulated at articles 209- 211 and article213 paragraph 2 of the Penal Code shall be punished.

  4. The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an eco- nomic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in coun...

  5. TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND GIRLS FOR THE SEX TRADE: THE CASE OF GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Emke-Poulopoulos, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Trafficking in women and children for the commercial sex industry and pornography exists in all societies. Greece is an important destination and to a lesser degree transit country. After presenting estimates and statistics on legal and undocumented status, nationality, age, educational and family status, this paper analyses the causes of trafficking in the countries of origin and destination as well as the role of the traffickers. Trafficking is examined as a) a violation of fundamental huma...

  6. A Business Of Security: Applying An Economic Model To Human Trafficking In Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Thereto,” United Nations, accessed November 2, 2015, https://www.unodc.org/documents/middleeastandnorthafrica/ organised -crime...trafficking academia. Though much has been explored about human trafficking, the consensus is that human trafficking is a global issue and that numerous...The Organisation of Human Trafficking: A Study of Criminal Involvement in Sexual Exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Estonia, Report no. 2008:21

  7. The Health of Trafficked Women: A Survey of Women Entering Posttrafficking Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Yun, Katherine; Gajdadziev, Vasil; Guzun, Natalia; Tchomarova, Maria; Ciarrocchi, Rosa Angela; Johansson, Anna; Kefurtova, Anna; Scodanibbio, Stefania; Motus, Maria Nenette; Roche, Brenda; Morison, Linda; Watts, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Trained counselors interviewed 192 women who had been trafficked and sexually exploited about abuse and evaluated their physical and mental health status within 14 days of entry into posttrafficking services. Most reported physical or sexual violence while trafficked (95%), pre-trafficking abuse (59%), and multiple posttrafficking physical and psychological problems. Newly identified trafficked women require immediate attention to address posttrauma symptoms and adequate recovery time before making decisions about participating in prosecutorial or immigration proceedings or returning home. PMID:18048781

  8. Human trafficking in the Sinai Desert : A case study of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebrai, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009 thousands of Eritreans, as well as other, sub-Saharan migrants have become victims of human trafficking in the Sinai Peninsula. These occurrences are linked to the newly coined notion of “Sinai Trafficking” which has been labeled as a new form of human trafficking. According to reports, released or escaped victims have disclosed information regarding collusion between traffickers and Egyptian security forces. Further, there have been reports that trafficking victims from the Sinai ...

  9. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Korea to drug trafficking . Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and...trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies in combating international drug trafficking . The challenge to policy makers...country’s chronic food shortages. Another issue of rising concern is the degree to which profits from any North Korean drug trafficking , counterfeiting

  10. International news coverage of human trafficking arrests and prosecutions: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings is a growing phenomenon with an expanding body of literature. However, a gap is evident in this body of literature: original research focusing on specific incidents of human trafficking. At this time, the human trafficking literature is permeated with discussions of the sex trade, sexual exploitation, organized crime, global socioeconomic problems and human rights. While these issues are all pertinent to the human trafficking debate, the literature requires maturat...

  11. IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES OF THE CONVERGENCE OF COUNTER-TRAFFICKING RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita H. Mece

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional response to combat it. This paper aims at examining challenges faced by the Western Balkan countries to converge anti-trafficking response while facing increased irregular migratory waves. Using secondary data it illustrates various disparities and differences among them concluding that a well-coordinated, multi-faceted and integrated regional response is needed to combat this humanitarian problem.

  12. Ethosomes: versatile vesicular carriers for efficient transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vikas; Golhani, Dilip; Shukla, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Delivery across skin is attractive due to its easy accessibility. However, drug delivery across skin is still a challenge in biomedical sciences. Over the past few decades, various successful novel devices and techniques have emerged to optimize drug delivery across skin whose obstructing behavior constricts entry of most of the therapeutic agents. Inability of various conventional vesicular formulations, e.g. liposomes to pass through the tapered (>30 nm) intercellular channels of stratum corneum, rendered invention of some lipid based vesicular carrier systems such as ethosomes which consist of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomes are non-invasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. In spite of their sophistication in conceptuality, they are exemplified by easiness in their preparation, safety and efficacy - a combination that can highly inflate their application. This review attempts to describe all aspects of ethosomes including roles and upshots of different excipients, various methods of preparation and characterizations, research reports on various drug deliveries, patent reports and future prospects.

  13. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: Amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-04

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least 3 different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD uses an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport. 1 Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site. 2.

  14. Vesicular calcium regulates coat retention, fusogenicity, and size of pre-Golgi intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Marvin; Nycz, Deborah C; Joglekar, Ashwini; Fertschai, Ismene; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F; Hay, Jesse C

    2010-03-15

    The significance and extent of Ca(2+) regulation of the biosynthetic secretory pathway have been difficult to establish, and our knowledge of regulatory relationships integrating Ca(2+) with vesicle coats and function is rudimentary. Here, we investigated potential roles and mechanisms of luminal Ca(2+) in the early secretory pathway. Specific depletion of luminal Ca(2+) in living normal rat kidney cells using cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) resulted in the extreme expansion of vesicular tubular cluster (VTC) elements. Consistent with this, a suppressive role for vesicle-associated Ca(2+) in COPII vesicle homotypic fusion was demonstrated in vitro using Ca(2+) chelators. The EF-hand-containing protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2), previously implicated in the stabilization of sec31 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites, inhibited COPII vesicle fusion in a Ca(2+)-requiring manner, suggesting that ALG-2 may be a sensor for the effects of vesicular Ca(2+) on homotypic fusion. Immunoisolation established that Ca(2+) chelation inhibits and ALG-2 specifically favors residual retention of the COPII outer shell protein sec31 on pre-Golgi fusion intermediates. We conclude that vesicle-associated Ca(2+), acting through ALG-2, favors the retention of residual coat molecules that seem to suppress membrane fusion. We propose that in cells, these Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms temporally regulate COPII vesicle interactions, VTC biogenesis, cargo sorting, and VTC maturation.

  15. Vibrio tapetis isolated from vesicular skin lesions in Dover sole Solea solea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Soetaert, M; Lasa, A; Romalde, J L; Polet, H; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2015-06-29

    Vibrio tapetis is primarily known as the causative agent for brown ring disease in bivalves, although it has been isolated from cultivated fish during mortalities on farms. Here we describe the first isolation of V. tapetis from wild-caught and subsequently captive-held Dover sole Solea solea. Pathological features consisted of multifocal circular greyish-white skin discolourations evolving into vesicular lesions and subsequent ulcerations on the pigmented side. On the non-pigmented side, multiple circular lesions-white at the center and red at the edges-were evident. Histological examination of the vesicular lesions revealed dermal fluid-filled spaces, collagen tissue necrosis and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, with large numbers of small rod-shaped bacteria. In the deep skin lesions, loss of scales and dermal connective tissue, with degeneration and fragmentation of the myofibres bordering the ulceration, were noted. Serotyping, DNA-DNA hybridization and REP- and ERIC-PCR techniques showed that the retrieved isolates displayed a profile similar to the representative strain of genotype/serotype O2 which originally was isolated from carpet-shell clam Venerupis decussata and to which isolates obtained from wedge sole Dicologoglossa cuneata were also closely related.

  16. Orf virus interferes with MHC class I surface expression by targeting vesicular transport and Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV, a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep. Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity. These immune modulating and immune evading properties are still unexplained. Results Here, we describe that ORFV infection of permissive cells impairs the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules (MHC I as a result of structural disruption and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Depending on the duration of infection, we observed a pronounced co-localization of MHC I and COP-I vesicular structures as well as a reduction of MHC I surface expression of up to 50%. These subversion processes are associated with early ORFV gene expression and are accompanied by disturbed carbohydrate trimming of post-ER MHC I. The MHC I population remaining on the cell surface shows an extended half-life, an effect that might be partially controlled also by late ORFV genes. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that ORFV down-regulates MHC I surface expression in infected cells by targeting the late vesicular export machinery and the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, which might aid to escape cellular immune recognition.

  17. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses ...ularsaboteurs. Hajjar DP, Haberland ME. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 12;272(37):22975-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Lipoprotein traf...ficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID

  18. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics,

  19. 77 FR 74045 - Request for Information for the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... smuggling, visa fraud, or child abuse, unless such conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking... any act of sex trafficking involving force, fraud, coercion, or in which the victim of sex trafficking... to reduce the demand for (A) commercial sex acts; and (B) participation in international sex tourism...

  20. 76 FR 82028 - Request for Information for the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... smuggling, visa fraud, or child abuse, unless such conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking... any act of sex trafficking involving force, fraud, coercion, or in which the victim of sex trafficking... to reduce the demand for (A) commercial sex acts; and (B) participation in international sex tourism...

  1. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  2. Reported human traffickers' profiles: a key step in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: a gap in comprehensive knowledge of trafficking in persons and the traffickers exists globally and in Tanzania in particular. Consequently, information on the profiles of human traffickers in the country is tremendously scanty. Methods: we conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania ...

  3. 77 FR 1005 - National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... January 6, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8772--National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention... December 30, 2011 National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the... intolerable yoke of modern slavery. During National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, we stand...

  4. 76 FR 1660 - Request for Information for the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking. Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number... report and of the U.S government's anti-human trafficking policy. The Department prepares the TIP Report... vigorous investigation and prosecution of acts of such trafficking, as well as with the protection of human...

  5. 75 FR 82215 - National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A.... During National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, we rededicate ourselves to preventing and ending human trafficking, and we recognize all who continue to fight this serious human rights violation...

  6. 78 FR 76183 - Request for Information for the 2014; Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... smuggling, visa fraud, or child abuse, unless such conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking... General's Report to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Human Trafficking... vigorous investigation and prosecution of acts of such trafficking, as well as with the protection of human...

  7. 78 FR 59325 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Further Implementation of Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Government has a longstanding zero-tolerance policy against human trafficking in Federal supply chains... ensure their employees do not engage in, or become complicit to, human trafficking in their supply chain... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Further Implementation of Trafficking in Persons Policy AGENCY...

  8. Fístula colecistoduodenal, complicación infrecuente de litiasis vesicular: nuestra experiencia en su manejo quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    F. Aguilar-Espinosa; R. Maza-Sánchez; F. Vargas-Solís; G.A. Guerrero-Martínez; J.L. Medina-Reyes; P.I. Flores-Quiroz

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Las fístulas bilioentéricas son la comunicación anormal entre el sistema biliar y el tracto gastrointestinal, que ocurre de manera espontánea y en la mayoría de los casos es una complicación rara de la litiasis vesicular no tratada. Pueden provocar consecuencias clínicas diversas que, en algunas situaciones, ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Objetivo: Identificar la incidencia de fístula bilioentérica en pacientes con litiasis vesicular, su presentación clínica, diagnóst...

  9. Didelphis marsupialis como un reservorio potencial u hospedero amplificador del virus de la estomatitis vesicular, serotipo new jersey en Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    John Arboleda; Carlos Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad viral, aguda
    y autolimitante que afecta principalmente bovinos, equinos y
    porcinos. Es producida por el virus de estomatitis vesicular (VEV), serotipos New Jersey (VEV-NJ) e Indiana (VEV-IN), que son los as importantes epidemiológicamente (1). Los estudios serológicos demuestran que VEV-NJ y VEV-IN infectan en forma natural una gran variedad de animales silvestres, que están posiblemente implicados en la  coepizoot...

  10. Time-dependent uptake and trafficking of vesicles capturing extracellular S100B in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Eva; Galland, Fabiana; Vardjan, Nina; Šribar, Jernej; Križaj, Igor; Leite, Marina Concli; Zorec, Robert; Stenovec, Matjaž

    2016-10-01

    Astrocytes, the most heterogeneous glial cells in the central nervous system, contribute to brain homeostasis, by regulating a myriad of functions, including the clearance of extracellular debris. When cells are damaged, cytoplasmic proteins may exit into the extracellular space. One such protein is S100B, which may exert toxic effects on neighboring cells unless it is removed from the extracellular space, but the mechanisms of this clearance are poorly understood. By using time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled S100B (S100B-Alexa 488 ) and fluorescent dextran (Dextran 546 ), a fluid phase uptake marker, we examined the uptake of fluorescently labeled S100B-Alexa 488 from extracellular space and monitored trafficking of vesicles that internalized S100B-Alexa 488 . Initially, S100B-Alexa 488 and Dextran 546 internalized with distinct rates into different endocytotic vesicles; S100B-Alexa 488 internalized into smaller vesicles than Dextran 546 . At a later stage, S100B-Alexa 488 -positive vesicles substantially co-localized with Dextran 546 -positive endolysosomes and with acidic LysoTracker-positive vesicles. Cell treatment with anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody, which binds to RAGE, a 'scavenger receptor', partially inhibited uptake of S100B-Alexa 488 , but not of Dextran 546 . The dynamin inhibitor dynole 34-2 inhibited internalization of both fluorescent probes. Directional mobility of S100B-Alexa 488 -positive vesicles increased over time and was inhibited by ATP stimulation, an agent that increases cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). We conclude that astrocytes exhibit RAGE- and dynamin-dependent vesicular mechanism to efficiently remove S100B from the extracellular space. If a similar process occurs in vivo, astroglia may mitigate the toxic effects of extracellular S100B by this process under pathophysiologic conditions. This study reveals the vesicular clearance mechanism of extracellular S100

  11. Endomembrane Cation Transporters and Membrane Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, Heven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics

    2017-04-01

    fertilization. Based on localization and mutant analyses, we conclude that CHXs modulate the ion balance, pH or both in micro-regions of endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes and prevacuolar compartment (PVC), and so influence membrane trafficking and signaling resulting in proper osmoregulation in guard cells and seed formation. We also demonstrated for the first time that AtKEA2 associates with chloroplasts, especially at the two poles of developing plastids. These results show that AtKEA1 and AtKEA2 transporters in specific microdomains of the inner envelope link local osmotic, ionic, and pH homeostasis to plastid division and thylakoid membrane formation. The first 3-D structure model of AtCHX was generated, and architecture-directed mutagenesis identified critical residues of the transport core giving insights to the transport mode of this family. Thus we have revealed for the first time crucial roles of an unknown K+/H+ transport family on plant growth (KEA), gas exchange, pollen cell wall, and different phases of reproduction (CHXs). The dynamic endomembrane of plant cells is integral to cytokinesis, cell expansion, defense, and cell wall formation, thus these studies are directly relevant to the mission of the Department of Energy and to a better understanding of determinants for enhancing plant biomass and plant tolerance to abiotic stress.

  12. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine.

  13. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  14. Combating the Menace of Transnational Human Trafficking in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savage neo-slave trade appears a befitting name for the current trafficking in persons which had dehumanized the homo-sapien. This is more savagery than its progeny, in which slaves were chained on their legs and necks and bound together in a convoy through Trans-Atlantic route to the white-man\\'s country. The new ...

  15. CLIC4 regulates cell adhesion and β1 integrin trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Margadant, Coert; Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Janssen, Hans; Jalink, Kees; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2014-12-15

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4) exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms, and is implicated in diverse cellular processes, ranging from ion channel formation to intracellular membrane remodeling. CLIC4 is rapidly recruited to the plasma membrane by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and serum, suggesting a possible role for CLIC4 in exocytic-endocytic trafficking. However, the function and subcellular target(s) of CLIC4 remain elusive. Here, we show that in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells, CLIC4 knockdown decreases cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading and integrin signaling, whereas it increases cell motility. LPA stimulates the recruitment of CLIC4 to β1 integrin at the plasma membrane and in Rab35-positive endosomes. CLIC4 is required for both the internalization and the serum- or LPA-induced recycling of β1 integrin, but not for EGF receptor trafficking. Furthermore, we show that CLIC4 suppresses Rab35 activity and antagonizes Rab35-dependent regulation of β1 integrin trafficking. Our results define CLIC4 as a regulator of Rab35 activity and serum- and LPA-dependent integrin trafficking. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Gender issues in human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria | Osezua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the predominance of human trafficking within a social cultural milieu in Nigeria, by taking into account gender issues that have reinforced the phenomenon in the region. The paper relied on primary data generated from an anthropological fieldwork conducted in the affected area. A total of 120 ...

  17. Human Trafficking in Edo State (Nigeria): A Socio- Economic Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay is derived from a field study executed in 2009. Its focus is on. Benin City inhabited mostly by the Bini group although other groups like the Ishan, Etsako, Akoko-Edo, and Owan are also well represented. It is generally believed that Bini girls/women dominate the sex export to. Europe through human trafficking.

  18. Consequences of Women Trafficking as Perceived by Working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated consequences of women trafficking as perceived by working class people in Edo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was employed to select 500 workers who were sampled from government workers from the various federal government ministries, self employed and traders. Six local ...

  19. A global bioethical perspective on organ trafficking: Discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there is no national or global declaration that rejects organ trafficking because of the discriminatory and stigmatising results of the medical practice involved. The Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) addresses the ...

  20. Cell biology symposium: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, membrane trafficking is a broad group of processes where proteins and other large molecules are distributed throughout the cell as well as adjacent extracellular spaces. Whereas signal transduction is a process where signals are transmitted through a series of chemical or molecular event...

  1. In Vivo Imaging of Natural Killer Cell Trafficking in Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Rapisarda, Anna Serafina; Stabile, Helena; Malviya, Gaurav; Manni, Isabella; Bonanno, Elena; Piaggio, Giulia; Gismondi, Angela; Santoni, Angela; Signore, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells (NKs) are important effectors of the innate immune system, with marked antitumor activity. Imaging NK trafficking in vivo may be relevant to following up the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches aiming at increasing tumor-infiltrating NKs (TINKs). The specific aims of present

  2. Human trafficking: a variant of the historic slave trade in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... described as a 'baby factory' in Nigeria. This paper therefore examines some recent issues on kidnapping as well as factors responsible for this criminal act in Nigeria. Sequel to findings, this paper made some recommendations. Keywords: Human trafficking, Human right, Sex workers, Slave trade, Smuggling of people ...

  3. Scaffolding proteins in membrane trafficking : the role of ELKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, K.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370719565

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking is an essential cellular process that involves cooperation of many factors such as scaffolding proteins, GTPases and SNAREs. These proteins work together to ensure proper delivery of different membrane-enclosed cargoes to specific cellular destinations. In this

  4. Implications Of Child Trafficking: Illegal Employment And Labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    182) called for urgent action on the worst forms of child labour which includes “all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery such as, sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict”. These types of ...

  5. Styles Of Parenting And Human Trafficking In Africa | Maliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The act of parenting is the bedrock upon which a child\\'s future behaviour and what the child eventually becomes depend. Various styles of parenting exists and the efficacy of any depends on whether it is able to shape the child towards a useful living or pushes him into the path of trafficking. This article therefore, deals with ...

  6. “Diving for dope” : Controlling underwater drug trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eski, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will offer an ethnographic account of the everyday reality of controlling illegal underwater drug trafficking in the global Port of Rotterdam (PoR). In so doing, it will explore what it means for customs diving officers to do drug inspections under challenging circumstances in order to

  7. Drug trafficking, use, and HIV risk: The need for comprehensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in communication and transportation between Africa and other continents as well as the erosion of social fabric attended by poverty, ethnic conflicts, and civil wars has led to increased trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs. Cannabis dominates illicit trade and accounts for as much as 40% of global ...

  8. Human Trafficking: A Security Challenge in Nigeria. | Tor-Anyiin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines human trafficking, which is today rated as the third world organized crime after drugs and arms. The concept of the trade, which crosses internal and international borders, has also been discussed. The factors that facilitate the trade like poverty, personal and social are equally identified and discussed.

  9. Factors Contributing to Human Trafficking, Contexts of Vulnerability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking has recently emerged as an exceedingly intricate international crime. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most vulnerable region from which a substantial amount of victims has been recruited for both continental and intercontinental transaction. This also holds true for Ethiopian men, women and children who have ...

  10. Combating Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely believed that indigenous culture and tradition are at the root of the human trafficking and forced labour problem in Africa. Adherents to this viewpoint also claim that endogenous as opposed to exogenous forces impede efforts to eradicate the problem. This study employed a loglinear regression model to test the ...

  11. Galectin-3 guides intracellular trafficking of some human serotransferrin glycoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Carl Michael; Bengtson, Per; Cucak, Helena

    2013-01-01

    these transferrin glycoforms differently after preloading with exogenously added galectin-3. In all, this study provides the first evidence of a functional role for transferrin glycans, in intracellular trafficking after uptake. Moreover, the galectin-3 bound glycoform increased in cancer, suggesting...

  12. Human Trafficking: A Call for Counselor Awareness and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Edward L., Jr.; Ramey, Luellen

    2009-01-01

    The counseling profession has given little attention to human trafficking, a form of modern slavery that is one of the most damaging forms of social injustice that exists today. Focusing on victims within the United States, the authors provide advocacy suggestions, treatment recommendations, and directions for research for this population.

  13. Factors Sustaining Human Trafficking In The Contemporary Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors sustaining human trafficking in the contemporary society were investigated. One hundred and forty participants were used in generating the items that formed the questionnaire. While four hundred participants were used for the main study, seven leading factors were endorsed by majority of the participants as ...

  14. Women trafficking and forced prostitution: The Nigerian experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the causes of women trafficking and forced prostitution in. Nigeria. The paper was unambiguous in respect of the superiority of the argument that these are as a result of the general level of poverty within the economy even though the problem is a social one. After an analysis of Nigeria's experience at

  15. Evaluasi Hasil Implementasi the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking Sub-regional Plan of Action (Commit Spa) Dalam Menangani Human Trafficking Di Thailand Periode 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmahwati, Isti Nur; Windiani, Reni; Putranti, Ika Riswanti

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, China, Vietnam, and Cambodia createdCOMMIT and COMMIT SPA. During COMMIT SPAimplementation period 2011-2013, the number of human traffickingincreased in Thailand. Most of human trafficking victims in Thailandare exploited into sexual exploitation and forced labor. The studyaims to analyze causes of human trafficking increased duringCOMMIT SPA implementation. The study result is the increase ofhuman trafficking is caused by Thailand's interests by using sextrafficking ...

  16. Mandatory Reporting of Human Trafficking: Potential Benefits and Risks of Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care. States' experience in implementing child abuse laws can be useful in assessing the potential risks and benefits of mandatory reporting of human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Rapid glutamate receptor 2 trafficking during retinal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yanhua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa (RP, are characterized by photoreceptor loss and anomalous remodeling of the surviving retina that corrupts visual processing and poses a barrier to late-stage therapeutic interventions in particular. However, the molecular events associated with retinal remodeling remain largely unknown. Given our prior evidence of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR reprogramming in retinal degenerations, we hypothesized that the edited glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2 subunit and its trafficking may be modulated in retinal degenerations. Results Adult albino Balb/C mice were exposed to intense light for 24 h to induce light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD. We found that prior to the onset of photoreceptor loss, protein levels of GluR2 and related trafficking proteins, including glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1 and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, were rapidly increased. LIRD triggered neuritogenesis in photoreceptor survival regions, where GluR2 and its trafficking proteins were expressed in the anomalous dendrites. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed interaction between KIF3A and GRIP1 as well as PSD-95, suggesting that KIF3A may mediate transport of GluR2 and its trafficking proteins to the novel dendrites. However, in areas of photoreceptor loss, GluR2 along with its trafficking proteins nearly vanished in retracted retinal neurites. Conclusions All together, LIRD rapidly triggers GluR2 plasticity, which is a potential mechanism behind functionally phenotypic revisions of retinal neurons and neuritogenesis during retinal degenerations.

  18. A geographical analysis of trafficking on a popular darknet market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Morelato, Marie; Staehli, Ludovic; Rossy, Quentin

    2017-08-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces, located on the darknet, that facilitate the trading of a variety of illegal goods, mostly drugs. While the literature essentially focus on drugs, various other goods and products related to financial or identity fraud, firearms, counterfeit goods, as well as doping products are also offered on these marketplaces. Through the analysis of relevant data collected on a popular marketplace in 2014-2015, Evolution, this research provides an analysis of the structure of trafficking (types and proportions of products, number of vendors and shipping countries). It also aims at highlighting geographical patterns in the trafficking of these products (e.g. trafficking flows, specialisation of vendors and assessment of their role in the distribution chain). The analysis of the flow of goods between countries emphasises the role of specific countries in the international and domestic trafficking, potentially informing law enforcement agencies to target domestic mails or international posts from specific countries. The research also highlights the large proportion of licit and illicit drug listings and vendors on Evolution, followed by various fraud issues (in particular, financial fraud), the sharing of knowledge (tutorials) and finally goods, currencies and precious metals (principally luxury goods). Looking at the shipping country, there seems to be a clear division between digital and physical products, with more specific information for physical goods. This reveals that the spatial analysis of trafficking is particularly meaningful in the case of physical products (such as illicit drugs) and to a lesser extent for digital products. Finally, the geographical analysis reveals that spatial patterns on Evolution tend to reflect the structure of the traditional illicit market. However, regarding illicit drugs, country-specificity has been observed and are presented in this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interview - Human Trafficking in Brazil: Between crime-based and human rights-based governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Wiecko V. de Castilho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This interview with Ela Wiecko V. de Castilho, Vice-Prosecutor General of the Republic in Brazil, looks at the development of anti-trafficking law and agendas since Brazil’s ratification of the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol. Castilho looks at how the externally-imposed concept of anti-trafficking gained momentum in the country and details debates and tensions in the subsequent development of national policy. Brazilian criminal law has significant conceptual differences with the Trafficking Protocol, particularly around consent and internal trafficking. Castilho discusses unresolved issues on rights of sex workers and migrants and points to a data collection methodology that was recently established and will allow for analysis of whether victims’ situations meet the international definition of human trafficking. If they do not, she suggests that this definition may not need to be maintained in Brazil.

  20. Trafficking in women in Serbia and neighboring countries: Scope, characteristics and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper scope, characteristics and causes of sex trafficking in women are analyzed. The analysis considers trafficking in women in Serbia and in its direct and indirect surrounding. Available data about distribution and channels of trafficking in women, as well as about methods of recruitment, transfer and victimization of women are analyzed. Also, some of characteristics of traffickers are considered. The special chapter deals with factors that contribute to sex trafficking in women. These factors are classified in three groups: push factors, pull factors and facilitating factors. In the conclusion, the author points out the importance of data exposed in this paper for building efficient system of struggle against as well as prevention of trafficking of human beings in general, and, of sex trafficking in women, in particular.

  1. Preventing trafficking in women and children in Asia: issues and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the issues and options in the prevention of trafficking of women and children in Asia. Studies revealed a higher prevalence of trafficking in Asian countries such as Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand. This is due to a huge population, growing urbanization, and poverty. Several programs by the government and nongovernmental organizations have been developed to address the trafficking problem. In Nepal, the Maiti program was organized to help trafficking victims return to their home country, while occupational alternatives and awareness campaigns were organized for young women vulnerable to trafficking. In Thailand, greater penalties were imposed to customers as compared to the sellers so as to discourage the continuance and decrease the prevalence of trafficking. Other strategies have also been identified, such as prosecution of procurers, community awareness through campaigns, poverty alleviation, and gender equalization to address the trafficking problem.

  2. Seventeen years of human trafficking research in social work: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David; Choi, Y Joon; Elkins, Jennifer; Burns, Abigail C

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons around the world is a serious violation of human rights and manifestation of social injustice. It disproportionately affects women and children worldwide. Given the values of the social work profession and the prevalence of trafficking, it is essential to understand the current literature on human trafficking in social work journals. Using the PRISMA method, this systematic review (n = 94 articles) of human trafficking in social work journals found the following: more focus on sex trafficking than other forms of trafficking; a lack of a clear conceptualization and definition on the entire spectrum of trafficking; a lack of evidence-informed empirical research to inform programs, practice, and policy; and a dearth of recommendations for social work education. Specific implications for social work policy, research, practice, and education are highlighted and discussed.

  3. Carbon fiber ultramicrodic electrode electrodeposited with over-oxidized polypyrrole for amperometric detection of vesicular exocytosis from pheochromocytoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Huiren; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Xu, Shengwei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-06

    Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells' communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM(-1)·µm(-2) using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research.

  4. Oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is nonpathogenic and non-transmissible in pigs, a natural host of VSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a negative stranded RNA virus that naturally causes disease in agricultural livestock including horses, cattle and pigs. The two main identified VSV strains are the New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana (VSIV) strains. VSV is a rapidly replicating, potently immunogenic v...

  5. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells’ communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE, which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM−1·µm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax and the released charge (Q of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research.

  6. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of dexamphetamine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, S.; Aono, Y.; Fusa, K.; Takada, K.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Systemic administration of high doses of dexamphetamine induces a dopamine efflux that has its intracellular origin in both the vesicular, reserpine-sensitive dopamine pool and the cytosolic, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-sensitive, newly synthesized dopamine pool. It remains unknown whether locally

  7. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigusa, T.; Aono, Y.; Sekino, R.; Uchida, T.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular

  8. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    Cucumber was grown in a partially sterilized sand-soil mixture with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum or left uninoculated. Fresh soil extract was places in polyvinyl chloride tubes without propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Root tips and root segments...

  9. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Huiren; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Xu, Shengwei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells' communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 μm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 μA·μM−1·μm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ∼562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research. PMID:25569759

  10. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  11. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene polymorphism and white matter integrity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eunsoo; Han, Kyu-Man; Kang, June; Kim, Aram; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Chang, Hun Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Min-Soo; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-07-03

    The genetic variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1) has been suggested to be associated with monoaminergic signaling and neural circuit activity related to emotion processing. We aimed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and examined the interaction effect between VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) polymorphism and MDD on white matter integrity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) genotyping were performed on 103 patients diagnosed with MDD and 83 healthy control participants. DTI was used to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts in patients compared to healthy controls. The possible interaction effect between rs1390938 and MDD on white matter integrity was also assessed. Patients with MDD exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the forceps major (pdepression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polysaccharide nano-vesicular multidrug carriers for synergistic killing of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic efficacies against cancer cells. Here, we report dual delivery polysaccharide nano-vesicles that are capable of loading and delivering both water soluble and water insoluble drugs together in a single polymer scaffold. The selective rupture of the nano-vesicular assembly under intracellular enzyme conditions allowed the simultaneous delivery of a hydrophobic drug camptothecin (CPT) and hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) supporting their synergistic killing of breast and colon cancer cells. The polysaccharide nano-vesicles have allowed us to address a few important questions regarding the need for multiple drug administration in cancer cells including (a) the role of simultaneous drug release, (b) antagonistic versus synergistic effects of drug combinations and (c) how these are affected by the ratio of drugs. Further, evaluation of the role of caveolae in endocytosis of these polymer scaffolds was also made. The vesicular scaffolds were found to preserve and deliver DOX resulting in 50-60% better killing of cancer cells than the free drug. Additionally, dual loaded nano-vesicles when compared to drug cocktails with individual drugs in separate nano-vesicles (at comparable molar ratios) suggest the relative drug concentration following release and mode of delivery to be both important in cancer cell killing. Results from these experiments have revealed newly developed polysaccharide nano-vesicles loaded with DOX and CPT drugs as potential candidates for improved breast cancer cell killing. Thus, these custom-designed polysaccharide nano-vesicles provide a new perspective on multi-anticancer drug delivery systems and their efficacy.Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic

  13. LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelshtein, Danit; Werman, Ariel; Novick, Daniela; Barak, Sara; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits a remarkably robust and pantropic infectivity, mediated by its coat protein, VSV-G. Using this property, recombinant forms of VSV and VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors are being developed for gene therapy, vaccination, and viral oncolysis and are extensively used for gene transduction in vivo and in vitro. The broad tropism of VSV suggests that it enters cells through a highly ubiquitous receptor, whose identity has so far remained elusive. Here we show that the LDL receptor (LDLR) serves as the major entry port of VSV and of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in human and mouse cells, whereas other LDLR family members serve as alternative receptors. The widespread expression of LDLR family members accounts for the pantropism of VSV and for the broad applicability of VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors for gene transduction. PMID:23589850

  14. Impact of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus M Proteins on Different Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Redondo

    Full Text Available Three different matrix (M proteins termed M1, M2 and M3 have been described in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. Individual expression of VSV M proteins induces an evident cytopathic effect including cell rounding and detachment, in addition to a partial inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, likely mediated by an indirect mechanism. Analogous to viroporins, M1 promotes the budding of new virus particles; however, this process does not produce an increase in plasma membrane permeability. In contrast to M1, M2 and M3 neither interact with the cellular membrane nor promote the budding of double membrane vesicles at the cell surface. Nonetheless, all three species of M protein interfere with the transport of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and also modulate the redistribution of the splicing factor. The present findings indicate that all three VSV M proteins share some activities that interfere with host cell functions.

  15. Spectrum of Text Information Content in the RNA Sequence of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyukov, Alexander A.

    A new strategy to recognize patterns in the DNA sequences with functional significance is proposed. The strategy is based on the general definition of any individual organism as a Gibbsian ensemble of identical personal DNA molecules. This approach provides application of the methods of statistical thermodynamics of irreversible steady processes to genome informatics. The random processes theory and its Markov chains approximation lead in this approach directly to the definition of the generalized concept of evolution entropy and to the genuine measure of text information content in the sequences. Computer-assisted proofs of the existence of the nonequilibrium steady state conditions in genome molecule were obtained by investigation of the special type balance relations in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA sequence. The main maxima of the text information content were decoded and denominated. The established coding principles are connected with deviations from equilibrium conditions and from equipartition.

  16. Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

    2014-08-01

    Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSVΔG) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. `Full fusion' is not ineluctable during vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters by endocrine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Alexander; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is an essential and ubiquitous process in neurons and endocrine cells by which neurotransmitters are released in synaptic clefts or extracellular fluids. It involves the fusion of a vesicle loaded with chemical messengers with the cell membrane through a nanometric fusion pore. In endocrine cells, unless it closes after some flickering (`Kiss-and-Run' events), this initial pore is supposed to expand exponentially, leading to a full integration of the vesicle membrane into the cell membrane-a stage called `full fusion'. We report here a compact analytical formulation that allows precise measurements of the fusion pore expansion extent and rate to be extracted from individual amperometric spike time courses. These data definitively establish that, during release of catecholamines, fusion pores enlarge at most to approximately one-fifth of the radius of their parent vesicle, hence ruling out the ineluctability of `full fusion'.

  18. The Dynamic Control of Kiss-And-Run and Vesicular Reuse Probed with Single Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Yulong; Tsien, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Vesicular secretion of neurotransmitter is essential for neuronal communication. Kiss-and-run is a mode of membrane fusion and retrieval without the full collapse of the vesicle into the plasma membrane and de novo regeneration. The significance of kiss-and-run during efficient neurotransmission has remained in doubt. We developed an approach for loading individual synaptic vesicles with single quantum dots. Their size and pH-dependent photoluminescence change allowed us to distinguish kiss-and-run from full-collapse fusion and to track single vesicles through multiple rounds of kiss-and-run and reuse, without perturbing vesicle cycling. Kiss-and-run dominated at the beginning of stimulus trains, reflecting the preference of vesicles with high release probability. Its incidence was increased by rapid firing, a response appropriate to meet the dynamic demands of neurotransmission. PMID:19213879

  19. Unusual armadillo fold in the human general vesicular transport factor p115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available The golgin family gives identity and structure to the Golgi apparatus and is part of a complex protein network at the Golgi membrane. The golgin p115 is targeted by the GTPase Rab1a, contains a large globular head region and a long region of coiled-coil which forms an extended rod-like structure. p115 serves as vesicle tethering factor and plays an important role at different steps of vesicular transport. Here we present the 2.2 A-resolution X-ray structure of the globular head region of p115. The structure exhibits an armadillo fold that is decorated by elongated loops and carries a C-terminal non-canonical repeat. This terminal repeat folds into the armadillo superhelical groove and allows homodimeric association with important implications for p115 mediated multiple protein interactions and tethering.

  20. Cutting Edge: Innate Immune Augmenting Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing Zika Virus Proteins Confers Protective Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Dillon; de Queiroz, Nina M G P; Xia, Tianli; Ahn, Jeonghyun; Barber, Glen N

    2017-04-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models. We also demonstrated maternal protective immunity in challenged newborn mice born to female mice vaccinated with VSVm-ZENV containing the transmembrane domain. Our data indicate that rVSVm may be a suitable strategy for the design of effective vaccines against ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Pesquisaje de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Yera Abreus; Mercedes Cárdenas Drake; Angel Gutiérrez Rojas

    1997-01-01

    Se hace un estudio de frecuencia de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana, en el que se encontró una frecuencia de la afección de un 6,2 %, el predominio de las personas de la raza blanca sobre las de la raza negra fue de sólo 1,8:1; la afección es mucho más frecuente en el sexo femenino que en el masculino (proporción de 9:1) y en personas mayores de 40 años (60 %) con sobrepeso u obesas (85 %), y puede cursar de forma totalmente asintomática en el 50 % de los casos...

  2. Targeted disruption of core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1 induces apical endocytic trafficking in human corneal keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposed mucosal surfaces limit constitutive endocytosis under physiological conditions to prevent uptake of macromolecules and pathogens and, therefore, cellular damage. It is now accepted that cell surface mucins, a group of high molecular weight glycoproteins on the epithelial glycocalyx, defined by their extensive O-glycosylation, play a major role in maintaining barrier function in these surfaces, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we utilized a stable tetracycline-inducible RNA interfering system targeting the core 1 ß1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1 or T-synthase, a critical galactosyltransferase required for the synthesis of core 1 O-glycans, to explore the role of mucin-type carbohydrates in apical endocytic trafficking in human corneal keratinocytes. Using cell surface biotinylation and subcellular fractionation, we found increased accumulation of plasma membrane protein in endosomes after C1galt1 depletion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorometry revealed increased translocation of negatively charged fluorescent nanospheres after C1galt1 knockdown sustained by an active transport process and largely independent of apical intercellular junctions. Internalization of nanospheres could be blocked by dynasore, nocodazole, chlorpromazine, and hyperosmotic sucrose, suggesting a mechanism for clathrin-coated pit budding and vesicular trafficking. This possibility was supported by experiments showing nanosphere colocalization with clathrin heavy chain in the cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, the data suggest that core 1 O-glycans contribute to maintenance of apical barrier function on exposed mucosal surfaces by preventing clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  3. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  4. Topical vesicular formulations of Curcuma longa extract on recuperating the ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2011-12-01

      Ultraviolet radiations generate reactive oxygen species, leading to adverse effects on skin properties. Botanical extracts are multifunctional in nature having various properties like photoprotection, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, and antimicrobial activity.   The aim of this study was to formulate creams having Curcuma longa extract loaded novel vesicular systems (liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes) and study their photoprotective effect by assessment of skin hydration (Cutometer) and sebum content (Sebumeter).   The alcoholic C. longa extract loaded liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes having 0.5-2.0% w/w extract were prepared, evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency, and incorporated into the cream. Their long-term interaction with skin (6 weeks) was compared in terms of their effects on skin hydration and sebum content.   Vesicular size obtained was in the range 167.3 ± 3.0 to 262.4 ± 2.4 nm with low polydispersity index (0.2-0.3) and high entrapment efficiency. The efficacy was in the order C. longa extract loaded transfersomal creams > C. longa extract loaded ethosomal creams > C. longa extract loaded liposomal creams > C. longa extract loaded creams > Empty transfersome loaded cream > Empty ethosome loaded cream > Empty liposome loaded cream > Base cream.   The photoprotective properties of the constituents of C. longa extract and hydrant, moisturizing lipid components of nano vesicles with better skin penetration resulted in improvement in skin properties like skin hydration and sebum content. The herbal extract loaded nano vesicles incorporated in cream could be used as photoprotective formulations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  6. Motor dysfunction in cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific vesicular GABA transporter knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko eKayakabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian central nervous system and plays modulatory roles in neural development. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT is an essential molecule for GABAergic neurotransmission due to its role in vesicular GABA release. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs are GABAergic projection neurons that are indispensable for cerebellar function. To elucidate the significance of VGAT in cerebellar PCs, we generated and characterized PC-specific VGAT knockout (L7-VGAT mice. VGAT mRNAs and proteins were specifically absent in the 40-week-old L7-VGAT PCs. The morphological charactereistics, such as lamination and foliation of the cerebellar cortex, of the L7-VGAT mice were similar to those of the control littermate mice. Moreover, the protein expression levels and patterns of pre- (calbindin and parvalbumin and postsynaptic (GABA-A receptor α1 subunit (GABAARα1 and gephyrin molecules between the L7-VGAT and control mice were similar in the deep cerebellar nuclei that receive PC projections. However, the L7-VGAT mice performed poorly in the accelerating rotarod test and displayed ataxic gait in the footprint test. The L7-VGAT mice also exhibited severer ataxia as VGAT deficits progressed. These results suggest that VGAT in cerebellar Purkinje cells is not essential for the rough maintenance of cerebellar structure, but does play an important role in motor coordination. The L7-VGAT mice are a novel model of ataxia without PC degeneration, and would also be useful for studying the role of Purkinje cells in cognition and emotion.

  7. Developing ultra deformable vesicular transportation of a bioactive alkaloid in pursuit of vitiligo therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod KR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop transfersomal formulation integrated with piperine intended for vitiligo. Methods: Film hydration technique was employed in the preparation of transfersomes. Modified diffusion cell, consistency tester were fabricated for ex vivo diffusion studies and spreadability studies respectively while tape stripping method was integrated with tissue extraction in the determination of tissue drug concentration. Results: When film hydration technique was used for, ultradeformable vesicles (transfersomes of piperine in soabean phosphatidylcholine was formed with (67.11依0.22 to (70.55依3.62 and (60.12依1.04 to (80.43依0.14 mean size (毺 m and entrapment efficiency (% respectively. Transfersomes are capable of crossing the pores in permeability barriers extremely efficient even if the transfersome radius (tr is much greater than the pore size (rpore ie., tr/rpore曒0.25 the driven flux rate depends on the transdermal osmotic gradient. The vesicles describes elasto-mechanical character of vesicles while penetrating through the pores. The proviso is that the vesicular membrane elasticity is dynamically to the local stress by the external. Diffusion and Spreadability studies showed maximum diffusion when the lipid was kept minimum. Tape stripping and tissue extraction method for the tissue drug retention showed that (75.25依1.72% drug was retained in the dermis. Conclusions: Span 80 was preferred over tween 80 in terms of dermal retention. Size and encapsulation was slightly altered by phosphatidylcholine concentration. The kinetics, efficiency and the transfersome mediated transport can be tailored for trans-epidermal, deep tissues and systemic depending on the vesicular composition, dose and form. Thus we have offered a successful drug delivery of piperine targeting the deep epidermis.

  8. Pathogenesis of experimental vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) infection in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, T E; Stallknecht, D E; Brown, C C; Seal, B S; Howerth, E W

    2001-07-01

    The pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection has not been investigated previously in native New World rodents that may have a role in the epidemiology of the disease. In the present study, 45 juvenile and 80 adult deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were inoculated intranasally with VSV New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) and examined sequentially over a 7-day period. Virus was detected by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in all tissues containing histologic lesions. Viral antigen and mRNA were observed initially in olfactory epithelium neurons, followed by olfactory bulbs and more caudal olfactory pathways in the brain. Virus also was detected throughout the ventricular system in the brain and central canal of the spinal cord. These results support both viral retrograde transneuronal transport and viral spread within the ventricular system. Other tissues containing viral antigen included airway epithelium and macrophages in the lungs, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages in cervical lymph nodes. In a second experiment, 15 adult, 20 juvenile, and 16 nestling deer mice were inoculated intradermally with VSV-NJ. Adults were refractory to infection by this route; however, nestlings and juveniles developed disseminated central nervous system infections. Viral antigen also was detected in cardiac myocytes and lymph node macrophages in these animals. Viremia was detected by virus isolation in 35/72 (49%) intranasally inoculated juvenile and adult mice and in 17/36 (47%) intradermally inoculated nestlings and juveniles from day 1 to day 3 postinoculation. The documentation of viremia in these animals suggests that they may have a role in the epidemiology of vector-borne vesicular stomatitis.

  9. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The Ancestral Gene for Transcribed, Low-Copy Repeats in the Prader-Willi/Angleman Region Encodes a Large Protein Implicated in Protein Trafficking that is Deficient in Mice with Neuromuscular and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Transcribed, low-copy repeat elements are associated with the breakpoint regions of common deletions in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. We report here the identification of the ancestral gene ( HERC2 ) and a family of duplicated, truncated copies that comprise these low-copy repeats. This gene encodes a highly conserved giant protein, HERC2, that is distantly related to p532 (HERC1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) implicated in vesicular trafficking. The mouse genome contains a single Herc2 locus, located in the jdf2 (juvenile development and fertility-2) interval of chromosome 7C. We have identified single nucleotide splice junction mutations in Herc2 in three independent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced jdf2 mutant alleles, each leading to exon skipping with premature termination of translation and/or deletion of conserved amino acids. Therefore, mutations in Herc2 lead to the neuromuscular secretory vesicle and sperm acrosome defects, other developmental abnormalities and juvenile lethality of jdf2 mice. Combined, these findings suggest that HERC2 is an important gene encoding a GEF involved in protein trafficking and degradation pathways in the cell.

  11. HIV prevalence and predictors of infection in sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Maheshwari, Ayonija; Willis, Brian M; Raj, Anita

    2007-08-01

    Sex trafficking of girls and women is widespread across South Asia and is recognized as both a violent gender-based crime and major human rights violation. Inadequate empirical data exist to characterize this phenomenon and its related health consequences, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among repatriated sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women and to identify trafficking-related predictors of such infection. Medical and case records of 287 repatriated girls and women reporting being trafficked from Nepal for sexual exploitation and receiving rehabilitative services between January 1997 and December 2005 at a major nongovernmental organization were systematically reviewed in January 2006. Major Nepalese nongovernmental organization providing shelter and care to repatriated survivors of sex trafficking. Prevalence of and risk for HIV based on demographic characteristics and on trafficking- and prostitution-related experiences. Among 287 repatriated Nepalese sex-trafficked girls and women, 109 (38.0%) tested positive for HIV. Among those with complete documentation of trafficking experiences (n = 225), median age at time of trafficking was 17.0 years, with 33 (14.7%) trafficked prior to age 15 years. Compared with those trafficked at 18 years or older, girls trafficked prior to age 15 years were at increased risk for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-10.34), with 20 of 33 (60.6%) infected among this youngest age group. Additional factors associated with HIV positivity included being trafficked to Mumbai (AOR, 4.85; 95% CI, 2.16-10.89) and longer duration of forced prostitution (AOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; indicating increased risk per additional month of brothel servitude). In post hoc analyses, girls trafficked prior to age 15 years had increased odds of having been detained in multiple brothels (odds ratio [OR], 5.03; 95% CI, 1.96-12.93) and in brothels for a

  12. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-01-01

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues. PMID:18817576

  13. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008 and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009 highlight social occurrences and how they contribute to the spread of girl trafficking in Africa. It also explores how both men and women are partners in trafficking, forming trafficking networks that lure girls from Nigeria to Europe and make huge profits from their misery. These pimps use ‘juju magic’ and rituals as a threat to exert complete control over the girls and also to ensure their compliance. The trafficked girls share their life experiences by telling their tales of woes exposing the shame that accompanies the sex trade and the stigmatization they suffer in the society. Their experiences are presented by the authors to highlight the trafficked girls′ pains, misery and struggle for freedom in order to appeal to everybody in the society to fight against human trafficking. The paper also examines how these exploited and depressed trafficked girls that have lost their self-esteem can still live fulfilled lives if government agencies and nongovernmental organizations come to their rescue.

  14. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia Harleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  15. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-09-25

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  16. Drug trafficking and drug use among urban African-American adolescents: a causal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Feigelman, S; Stanton, B; Galbraith, J; Huang, W

    1998-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that involvement in drug trafficking leads to illicit drug use among urban African-American adolescents. Self-reports of substance use, illicit drug use, and drug trafficking were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 24 months from 383 African-American early adolescents. Transitions between involvement in drug trafficking and illicit drug use over time were examined. Path analysis was conducted to examine the causal relation between drug trafficking and drug use. Among the 35 youth who were initially involved only in drug trafficking, 22 (67%) subsequently used illicit drugs. Of the 53 youth who were initially involved only in illicit drug use, only 19 (42%) continued using drugs at later waves (p drug trafficking had a strong effect on subsequent drug trafficking and drug use, whereas baseline drug use did not have an effect on subsequent drug use or drug trafficking. Initiation of drug trafficking by adolescents appears to lead to sustained involvement in drug-related activities, including continued drug trafficking and drug use. By contrast, initiation of drug use does not necessarily lead to continued involvement in drug-related behaviors.

  17. Human trafficking: an evaluation of Canadian medical students' awareness and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Hong, Jonathan; Leung, Pearl; Yin, Penny; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.

  18. Lipids: architects and regulators of membrane dynamics and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Patrick

    2007-05-01

    We have recently shown that an inhibition of sterol synthesis by fenpropimorph leads to an accumulation of sterol precursors, hydroxypalmitic acid-containing glucosylceramides and detergent resistant membranes in the Golgi bodies instead of the plasma membrane, suggesting that the individual molecules or the microdomains were blocked in the Golgi. These results and others from several eukaryotic models link lipid metabolism with membrane morphodynamics that are involved in membrane trafficking. Focus has been expanded to other lipid families, and numerous evidences are given showing lipids and lipid-modifying enzymes as key regulators of membrane homeostasis which can strongly regulate membrane morphodynamics and therefore trafficking. Beside protein-based machineries, lipid-based machineries are also shown as crucial regulatory forces involved in protein transport and sorting.

  19. Evidence for CALM in directing VAMP2 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Asaff; Wu, Fangbai; Mattson, Mark P; Morris, Christa M; Yao, Pamela J

    2008-03-01

    Clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM) is a clathrin assembly protein with a domain structure similar to the neuron-specific assembly protein AP180. We have previously found that CALM is expressed in neurons and present in synapses. We now report that CALM has a neuron-related function: it facilitates the endocytosis of the synaptic vesicle protein VAMP2 from the plasma membrane. Overexpression of CALM leads to the reduction of cell surface VAMP2, whereas knockdown of CALM by RNA interference results in the accumulation of surface VAMP2. The AP180 N-terminal homology (ANTH) domain of CALM is required for its effect on VAMP2 trafficking, and the ANTH domain itself acts as a dominant-negative mutant. Thus, our results reveal a role for CALM in directing VAMP2 trafficking during endocytosis.

  20. A Review of 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an account of journalist Anne Elizabeth Moore’s short comics, co-authored with the Ladydrawers collective, relating to the fashion industry and global apparel and sex trades, and that have been recently collected together in book form. The review argues that the resulting book, 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex & Trafficking' (2016, is evidence of the ability of the comics form to document social justice issues with nuance, yet without losing sight of the politically imperative calls for change that those issues demand.   'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking', by The Ladydrawers and Anne Elizabeth Moore, Portland: Microcosm Publishing, 2016. Paperback, 160 pages, 6 x 8, 2 colour interior (8.1 oz, Published May 3, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-62106-739-9

  1. Glycerolipid synthesis and lipid trafficking in plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Prinz, William A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2017-02-01

    Lipid trafficking between mitochondria and other organelles is required for mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and signaling. This lipid exchange occurs by poorly understood nonvesicular mechanisms. In yeast and mammalian cells, this lipid exchange is thought to take place at contact sites between mitochondria and the ER or vacuolar membranes. Some proteins involved in the tethering between membranes or in the transfer of lipids in mitochondria have been identified. However, in plants, little is known about the synthesis of mitochondrial membranes. Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis is particularly important and noteworthy in plants as the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes is dramatically changed during phosphate starvation and other stresses. This review focuses on the principal pathways involved in the synthesis of the most abundant mitochondrial glycerolipids in plants and the lipid trafficking that is required for plant mitochondria membrane biogenesis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Investigative Journalism and Human Trafficking in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Gyuracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigative journalism that aims to prise out information that the state or certain businesses want to keep undisclosed has been unthinkable under many postcolonial African regimes. However, since the promulgation of democratic constitutions, a generation of ambitious investigative journalists has grown up in Africa. In order to show how journalism has changed, the paper brings Anas Aremeyaw Anas’s activities into focus. Anas’s single-minded mission to bring justice has targeted organisations involved in human trafficking, smuggling, and forced labour in West African countries since 2010. Although his team’s way of gathering information raises moral concerns about undercover journalism, their efforts illustrate that human trafficking is widespread among the countries of West and Central Africa. Therefore, the author suggests that both the AU and ECOWAS must create a more stable legal environment for investigative journalists, as their reports can help these institutions and national governments protect human rights.

  3. Groupthink: How Should Clinicians Respond to Human Trafficking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, William Polk

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping. Despite these inhibiting influences, even in apparently futile situations, medical professionals have unique opportunities to be a force for good. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Regulation of Insulin Receptor Trafficking by Bardet Biedl Syndrome Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D Starks

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and its receptor are critical for the regulation of metabolic functions, but the mechanisms underlying insulin receptor (IR trafficking to the plasma membrane are not well understood. Here, we show that Bardet Biedl Syndrome (BBS proteins are necessary for IR localization to the cell surface. We demonstrate that the IR interacts physically with BBS proteins, and reducing the expression of BBS proteins perturbs IR expression in the cell surface. We show the consequence of disrupting BBS proteins for whole body insulin action and glucose metabolism using mice lacking different BBS genes. These findings demonstrate the importance of BBS proteins in underlying IR cell surface expression. Our data identify defects in trafficking and localization of the IR as a novel mechanism accounting for the insulin resistance commonly associated with human BBS. This is supported by the reduced surface expression of the IR in fibroblasts derived from patients bearing the M390R mutation in the BBS1 gene.

  5. Retrograde trafficking of AB₅ toxins: mechanisms to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Linstedt, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial AB5 toxins are a clinically relevant class of exotoxins that include several well-known members such as Shiga, cholera, and pertussis toxins. Infections with toxin-producing bacteria cause devastating human diseases that affect millions of individuals each year and have no definitive medical treatment. The molecular targets of AB5 toxins reside in the cytosol of infected cells, and the toxins reach the cytosol by trafficking through the retrograde membrane transport pathway that avoids degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Focusing on Shiga toxin as the archetype member, we review recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the retrograde trafficking of AB5 toxins and highlight how these basic science advances are leading to the development of a promising new therapeutic approach based on inhibiting toxin transport.

  6. Intracellular trafficking of MDR transporters and relevance of SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Letizia; Lemos, Clara; Peters, Godefridus J; Paradiso, Angelo; Azzariti, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) frequently contributes to the failure of chemotherapeutic treatments in cancer patients. Mechanisms underlying the development of MDR have been extensively studied and are considered multifactorial. Among them, the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) family of proteins plays a pivotal role. Processes of cellular distribution and subcellular localization of MDR-ABC proteins are not yet well explored and to enlighten these topics could be crucial to understand cellular drug uptake and retention. In this review, we analysed literature data concerning i) intracellular trafficking of MDR-ABC proteins (BCRP, P-gp and MRP1) and ii) mechanisms altering their cellular localization and trafficking. Moreover, we describe single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that have been reported for some multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters, such as BCRP and P-gp, emphasizing their ability to affect the expression, function and localization of the transporters, with implications on drug resistance phenotypes.

  7. Human trafficking and legalized prostitution in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel Dina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On 1 October 2000, the Netherlands became the first European country to legalize prostitution as a profession, with its rights and duties. On the other hand, this new Dutch law excluded those sex workers, who come from outside the EU. The majority of women working in the sex industry, who are considered illegal migrants in the Netherlands, had two choices: either leaving the country or disappearing into the illegal criminal circuit. For law enforcement and assistant services, it became extremely difficult to control the sector. In this paper, the consequences of the 'Brothel Law' are presented. What happens with illegal non-European sex workers in the Netherlands, how the problem of human trafficking is constructed in Dutch media and combated in the country, what could be learned from the 'Dutch case'? The paper aims to answer these questions and contribute to the general study on human trafficking and voluntary prostitution in Europe.

  8. Systematic investigation on the intracellular trafficking network of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxie; Chang, Danfeng; Yang, Yao; Zhang, Xudong; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Lijuan; Liang, Xin; Tsai, Hsiangi; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2017-03-02

    Polymeric nanoparticles such as PLGA-based nanoparticles are emerging as promising carriers for controlled drug delivery. However, little is known about the intracellular trafficking network of polymeric nanoparticles. Here, more than 30 Rab proteins were used as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy to investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathways of PLGA nanoparticles. We observed that coumarin-6-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through caveolin and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated macropinocytosis. Then the PLGA nanoparticles were transported to early endosomes (EEs), late endosomes (LEs), and finally to lysosomes. Two novel transport pathways were identified in our research: the macropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LE (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and the EE-liposome (Rab18)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the slow (Rab11 and Rab35 positive), fast (Rab4 positive) and apical (Rab20 and Rab25 positive) endocytic recycling endosome pathways could transport the PLGA nanoparticles to lysosomes. The PLGA nanoparticles were transported out of the cells by GLUT4 transport vesicles (Rab8, Rab10 positive), classic secretory vesicles (Rab3, Rab27 positive vesicles) and melanosomes (Rab32, Rab38 positive vesicles). Besides, the PLGA nanoparticles were observed in autophagosomes (LC3 positive), which means that the nanoparticles can be delivered by the autophagy pathway. Multiple cross-talk pathways were identified connecting autophagy and endocytosis or exocytosis by screening the co-localization of the Rab proteins with the LC3 protein. Degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes can be blocked by autophagy inhibitors (3 MA and CQ). A better understanding of intracellular trafficking mechanisms involved in polymeric nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a prerequisite to clinical application.

  9. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    November 2014, http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced- labour/lang--en/index.htm; Walk of Freedom Foundation, Global Slavery Index 2014 ( Australia : Hope...for Children Organization Australia , 2014), 1, accessed 28 November 2014, http://d3mj66ag90b5fy.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Global_... homeless youth lack a strong support network and run to unfamiliar environments where trafficking flourishes.85 A study in Chicago found that seventy-two

  10. Dynamic Glycosylation Governs the Vertebrate COPII Protein Trafficking Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nathan J; Unlu, Gokhan; Bisnett, Brittany J; Meister, Thomas R; Condon, Brett M; Luo, Peter M; Smith, Timothy J; Hanna, Michael; Chhetri, Abhishek; Soderblom, Erik J; Audhya, Anjon; Knapik, Ela W; Boyce, Michael

    2018-01-09

    The COPII coat complex, which mediates secretory cargo trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a key control point for subcellular protein targeting. Because misdirected proteins cannot function, protein sorting by COPII is critical for establishing and maintaining normal cell and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, mutations in COPII genes cause a range of human pathologies, including cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD), which is characterized by collagen trafficking defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and skeletal dysmorphology. Detailed knowledge of the COPII pathway is required to understand its role in normal cell physiology and to devise new treatments for disorders in which it is disrupted. However, little is known about how vertebrates dynamically regulate COPII activity in response to developmental, metabolic, or pathological cues. Several COPII proteins are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a dynamic form of intracellular protein glycosylation, but the biochemical and functional effects of these modifications remain unclear. Here, we use a combination of chemical, biochemical, cellular, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that site-specific O-GlcNAcylation of COPII proteins mediates their protein-protein interactions and modulates cargo secretion. In particular, we show that individual O-GlcNAcylation sites of SEC23A, an essential COPII component, are required for its function in human cells and vertebrate development, because mutation of these sites impairs SEC23A-dependent in vivo collagen trafficking and skeletogenesis in a zebrafish model of CLSD. Our results indicate that O-GlcNAc is a conserved and critical regulatory modification in the vertebrate COPII-dependent trafficking pathway.

  11. Ragulator-a multifaceted regulator of lysosomal signaling and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaço, Alexandria; Jäättelä, Marja

    2017-12-04

    The lysosomal Ragulator complex regulates cell metabolism and growth by coordinating the activities of metabolic signaling pathways with nutrient availability. In this issue, Filipek et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201703061) and Pu et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201703094) introduce a role for Ragulator in growth factor- and nutrient-regulated lysosomal trafficking. © 2017 Colaço and Jäättelä.

  12. Ubiquilin 1 modulates amyloid precursor protein trafficking and Abeta secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Mikko; Lu, Alice; Thomas, Anne V; Romano, Donna M; Kim, Minji; Jones, Phill B; Xie, Zhongcong; Kounnas, Maria Z; Wagner, Steven L; Berezovska, Oksana; Hyman, Bradley T; Tesco, Giuseppina; Bertram, Lars; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2006-10-27

    Ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) is a ubiquitin-like protein, which has been shown to play a central role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of various proteins, including the presenilins. We recently reported that DNA variants in UBQLN1 increase the risk for Alzheimer disease, by influencing expression of this gene in brain. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of UBQLN1 on the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). For this purpose, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate UBQLN1 in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate that down-regulation of UBQLN1 accelerates the maturation and intracellular trafficking of APP, while not interfering with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-secretase levels or activity. UBQLN1 knockdown increased the ratio of APP mature/immature, increased levels of full-length APP on the cell surface, and enhanced the secretion of sAPP (alpha- and beta-forms). Moreover, UBQLN1 knockdown increased levels of secreted Abeta40 and Abeta42. Finally, employing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we show that UBQLN1 and APP come into close proximity in intact cells, independently of the presence of the presenilins. Collectively, our findings suggest that UBQLN1 may normally serve as a cytoplasmic "gatekeeper" that may control APP trafficking from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. These findings suggest that changes in UBQLN1 steady-state levels affect APP trafficking and processing, thereby influencing the generation of Abeta.

  13. Are kinesins required for organelle trafficking in plant cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero eCai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells exhibit active movement of membrane-bounded materials, which is more pronounced in large cells but is also appreciable in medium-sized cells and in tip-growing cells (such as pollen tubes and root hairs. Trafficking of organelles (such as Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and mitochondria and vesicles is essential for plant cell physiology and allows a more or less homogeneous distribution of the cell content. It is well established that the long-range trafficking of organelles is dependent essentially on the network of actin filaments and is powered by the enzyme activity of myosins. However, some lines of evidence suggest that microtubules and members of the kinesin microtubule-based motor superfamily might have a role in the positioning and/or short-range movement of cell organelles and vesicles. Data collected in different cells (such as trichomes and pollen tubes, in specific stages of the plant cell life cycle (for example during phragmoplast development and for different organelle classes (mitochondria, Golgi bodies and chloroplasts encourage the hypothesis that microtubule-based motors might play subtle yet unclarified roles in organelle trafficking. In some cases, this function could be carried out in cooperation with actin filaments according to the model of functional cooperation by which motors of different families are associated with the organelle surface. Since available data did not provide an unambiguous conclusion with regard to the role of kinesins in organelle transport, here we want to debate such hypothesis.

  14. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2016-05-17

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L.; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

  16. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Haas

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  17. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  18. Perspectives on Human Trafficking and Modern Forms of Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When I first began researching human trafficking and modern forms of slavery fifteen years ago, there was very limited awareness of these offences, and even less scholarship. While non-profit organizations, activists, and charitable foundations have worked assiduously to raise awareness of human trafficking and to tackle root causes, investment by the academic community to analyze the nature, scale, and functioning of the phenomena has been slower to evolve. Indeed, much of the confusion relating to basic terms and concepts on the topic of modern forms of slavery has been due, in large part, to the lack of scholarly analysis of the issues. Following on this gap has been a dearth of robust, first-hand field research that can guide scholarship, investment, and activism, and help frame the complex questions relating to law, economics, human rights, gender, poverty, corruption, migration, the rights of children and minorities, and many other issues that are fundamental to our understanding of human trafficking.

  19. ASIAN PUBLIC INTELLECTUALS’ ROLES IN COMBATTING TRAFFICKING IN ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community which facilitates free movement of people among ASEAN countries may cause a more progressive migration. One of the unintended consequences of migration is human trafficking. This paper suggests that there should be a collaborative measure taken by public intellectuals of ASEAN countries to combat human trafficking. Public intellectuals from receiving and sending countriesin ASEAN should share their information, knowledge, roles, responsibilities, resources, and services. This paper emphasizes that Asian public intellectuals as the member community in curbing human trafficking in the ASEAN region should involve government agencies, NGOs and communities.   Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN yang menfasilitasi kebebasan penduduk negara anggota ASEAN untuk berpindah dapat menyebabkan terjadinya suatu migrasi besar-besaran. Salah satu konsekwensi yang tidak dikehendaki dari migrasi adalah perdagangan orang. Makalah ini menyarankan perlunya suatu langkah kerjasama yang dilakukan oleh intelektual publik di negara ASEAN untuk memerangi perdagangan orang. Intelektual publik dari negara penerima dan pengirim di ASEAN perlu untuk membagi informasi, pengetahuan, peranan, tanggung jawab, sumber daya, dan pelayanan mereka. Makalah ini menekankan bahwa intelektual publik Asia perlu melibatkan pemerintah, LSM and warga masyarakat.

  20. ASIAN PUBLIC INTELLECTUALS’ ROLES IN COMBATTING TRAFFICKING IN ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community which facilitates free movement of people among ASEAN countries may cause a more progressive migration. One of the unintended consequences of migration is human trafficking. This paper suggests that there should be a collaborative measure taken by public intellectuals of ASEAN countries to combat human trafficking. Public intellectuals from receiving and sending countriesin ASEAN should share their information, knowledge, roles, responsibilities, resources, and services. This paper emphasizes that Asian public intellectuals as the member community in curbing human trafficking in the ASEAN region should involve government agencies, NGOs and communities. Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN yang menfasilitasi kebebasan penduduk negara anggota ASEAN untuk berpindah dapat menyebabkan terjadinya suatu migrasi besar-besaran. Salah satu konsekwensi yang tidak dikehendaki dari migrasi adalah perdagangan orang. Makalah ini menyarankan perlunya suatu langkah kerjasama yang dilakukan oleh intelektual publik di negara ASEAN untuk memerangi perdagangan orang. Intelektual publik dari negara penerima dan pengirim di ASEAN perlu untuk membagi informasi, pengetahuan, peranan, tanggung jawab, sumber daya, dan pelayanan mereka. Makalah ini menekankan bahwa intelektual publik Asia perlu melibatkan pemerintah, LSM and warga masyarakat.

  1. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  2. Ungendering and Regendering Shelters for Survivors of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Hacker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on intensive fieldwork in the two Israeli shelters designated for victims of human trafficking and slavery. The shelters, one for women and one for men, are a refuge for survivors of sex trafficking; labor migrants subjected to severe exploitation by their employers; and asylum seekers who arrived in Israel after experiencing severe physical and emotional abuse at the hands of kidnappers and smugglers en route to Israel. The study included interviews with policy makers and professionals, and with women and men who resided at the shelters, as well as an analysis of the relevant legislation and official reports. The article explores the problematic gendered differentiations between the two shelters. Most significantly, while support for residents of the shelter for women is anchored by emotional and psychological rehabilitation, residents of the shelter for men do not receive any therapeutic support. At the same time, while staff in the shelter for men put significant effort into the reintegration of the men into the labor force, the women’s employment prospects receive less attention. Based on these and other findings, the article cautions against gender-biased rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and slavery, and calls for a gender-sensitive rehabilitation theory and practice.

  3. Components of Golgi-to-vacuole trafficking are required for nitrogen- and TORC1-responsive regulation of the yeast GATA factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyadkazan, Mohammad; Tate, Jennifer J; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Cooper, Terrance G; Dubois, Evelyne; Georis, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is the regulatory pathway through which Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to the available nitrogen status and selectively utilizes rich nitrogen sources in preference to poor ones. Expression of NCR-sensitive genes is mediated by two transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1, in response to provision of a poorly used nitrogen source or following treatment with the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin. During nitrogen excess, the transcription activators are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent fashion. Here, we show that Vps components are required for Gln3 localization and function in response to rapamycin treatment when cells are grown in defined yeast nitrogen base but not in complex yeast peptone dextrose medium. On the other hand, Gat1 function was altered in vps mutants in all conditions tested. A significant fraction of Gat1, like Gln3, is associated with light intracellular membranes. Further, our results are consistent with the possibility that Ure2 might function downstream of the Vps components during the control of GATA factor-mediated gene expression. These observations demonstrate distinct media-dependent requirements of vesicular trafficking components for wild-type responses of GATA factor localization and function. As a result, the current model describing participation of Vps system components in events associated with translocation of Gln3 into the nucleus following rapamycin treatment or growth in nitrogen-poor medium requires modification. PMID:24644271

  4. International law, national policymaking, and the health of trafficked people in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Zimmerman, Cathy; Adams, Brad; Busza, Joanna

    2011-12-15

    Human trafficking has been recognized both by the international community and many individual states around the world as a serious violation of human rights. Trafficking is associated with extreme violence and a range of physical, mental, and sexual health consequences. Despite the extreme nature of the harm caused by human trafficking, harm is not a concept that is integrated in the definition of trafficking or in policies to address the health of trafficked people. This paper examines the United Kingdom's response to human trafficking as a case study to explore national policy responses to the health needs of trafficked people and assess the willingness of UK authorities to implement international and regional law in securing trafficked people's health rights. Between 2007 and 2010, data on the development of the UK response to trafficking were obtained through 46 interviews with key trafficking policy stakeholders and health care providers, participant observation at 41 policy-relevant events, and document collection. Framework analysis was used to analyze the data. International and regional instruments specifically protect the health rights of trafficked people. Yet, UK engagement with trafficked people's health rights has been limited to granting, under certain circumstances, free access to health care services. Changes to trafficked people's entitlements to free health care occurred following the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings, but had limited impact on trafficked people's access to medical care. International and regional instruments that provide specific or mandated instruction about states' health care obligations can be effective in furthering the health rights of vulnerable migrant groups. The UK government has demonstrated limited appetite for exceeding its minimum obligations to provide for the health of trafficked people, however, and key principles for promoting the health rights of

  5. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Howard C; Wilson, John P; Charron, Guillaume

    2011-09-20

    Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide-alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogues, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation. Notably, the

  7. Human trafficking education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    Human trafficking is a crime resulting in serious negative health outcomes for the victims. To provide optimal care, thus improving health outcomes, healthcare providers must be able to identify victims as they seek care for acute and chronic physical illness, communicable diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and mental health disorders (Lederer and Wetzel, 2014; Oram et al., 2012). Unfortunately, healthcare providers lack appropriate knowledge of clues that would lead to victim identification. This may result in a failure to identify victims (Beck et al., 2015; Ross et al., 2015; Konstantopoulos et al., 2013; Chisolm-Straker et al., 2012). Increasing the number of healthcare providers able to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking for further care is imperative. The study evaluated the knowledge level of student nurse practitioners enrolled in an adult, family, or pediatric clinical course. Knowledge domains included the definitions, laws, prevalence, identification, treatment, and community and social service resources. The study was designed as a non-probability sampling of adult, family, and pediatric nurse practitioner students (n=73). Participants included students enrolled in the Adult & Older Adult I or the Primary Care of the Child & Adolescent I course at a large public university. The study was designed as a one hour educational intervention intended for presentation in a lecture-style format. The educational intervention included a PowerPoint lecture and embedded videos. The pre-survey, designed as a paper survey, contained a demographic section followed by six survey questions covering the six domains of interest. Following the intervention, participants completed the post-survey prior to leaving the classroom. Pre-survey results pinpointed knowledge gaps across all six domains under investigation. Post-survey results revealed an increase in knowledge across all six domains of interest. The educational intervention increased knowledge

  8. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  9. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Selma H.; Rosa E.C. Linhares; Nozawa,Carlos M.; Ricardo Montalván; Paccola-Meirelles,Luzia D.

    2001-01-01

    Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai) were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae) and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA). The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficie...

  10. Changes in Susceptibility to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus during Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanmeng; Puckett, Shelby; Antinozzi, Peter A; Cramer, Scott D; Lyles, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    A major challenge to oncolytic virus therapy is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, even when these cancers arise from the same tissue type. Variability in response may arise due to differences in the initial genetic lesions leading to cancer development. Alternatively, susceptibility to viral oncolysis may change during cancer progression. These hypotheses were tested using cells from a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Primary cultures from murine cancers derived from prostate-specific Pten deletion contained a mixture of cells that were susceptible and resistant to VSV. Castration-resistant cancers contained a higher percentage of susceptible cells than cancers from noncastrated mice. These results indicate both susceptible and resistant cells can evolve within the same tumor. The role of Pten deletion was further investigated using clonal populations of murine prostate epithelial (MPE) progenitor cells and tumor-derived Pten(-/-) cells. Deletion of Pten in MPE progenitor cells using a lentivirus vector resulted in cells that responded poorly to interferon and were susceptible to VSV infection. In contrast, tumor-derived Pten(-/-) cells expressed higher levels of the antiviral transcription factor STAT1, activated STAT1 in response to VSV, and were resistant to VSV infection. These results suggest that early in tumor development following Pten deletion, cells are primarily sensitive to VSV, but subsequent evolution in tumors leads to development of cells that are resistant to VSV infection. Further evolution in castration-resistant tumors leads to tumors in which cells are primarily sensitive to VSV. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of replication-competent viruses that kill cancer cells (oncolytic viruses). However, a major problem is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, even when these cancers arise from the

  11. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arboleda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ e Indiana (VSV-IN, afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar, bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos de los cascos; hay pérdida de peso y decrecimiento en la producción de leche. Está clasificada en la Lista A de la Organización Internacional de Epizootias, debido a su gran poder de difusión, a las graves consecuencias socioeconómicas y a las restricciones comerciales. Además, clínicamente la EV es indistinguible de la Fiebre Aftosa (FA (1.
    La enfermedad se presenta por ciclos estacionales; la mayoría
    de ellos ocurre en las épocas de transición de los períodos de lluvias a los de verano y viceversa (2. Estudios serológicos realizados en áreas endémicas han demostrado que VSV-NJ y VSV-IN infectan en forma natural una amplia variedad de animales silvestres, los cuales están posiblemente implicados en la ecozootiología de la EV, bien como hospederos portadores, amplificadores o reservorios. Igualmente, dos especies de artrópodos, Lutzomyia shannoni y Simulium vittatum son infectados naturalmente, replican y transmiten experimentalmente
    el VSV, convirtiéndolos en posibles vectores y/o reservorios.
    Sin embargo, en ningún animal se produce la viremia necesaria para infectar los artrópodos hematófagos. El reservorio natural nunca ha sido encontrado entre los animales domésticos y silvestres investigados (3.

    El objetivo es identificar los factores ecológicos (cobertura
    vegetal, temperatura promedio, pluviosidad y humedad relativa, los vectores artrópodos y los mamíferos reservorios asociados con el antenimiento y transmisión de la VSV en

  12. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.

  13. Unpacking Mobility, Sex Trafficking, and HIV Vulnerability in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg, Shira Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sex trafficking is a human rights abuse that carries particularly negative health and social consequences, including HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While HIV/STI infection and sex trafficking have been linked in Asia, the context of these associations and their applicability in Mexico is poorly understood.Aims: Aims of this dissertation were to (1) Critically review evidence linking mobility, trafficking, and HIV vulnerability in Mexico and Central America; (2) Ex...

  14. Evaluation of the Department of Defense Combating Trafficking in Persons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    a report alleging that women trafficked from the Philippines, Russia, and Eastern Europe were forced into prostitution in bars in South Korea...statute are “. . . to combat trafficking in persons (CTIP), a contemporary manifestation of slavery whose victims are predominantly women and children ...Public Law 113-4, “Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013,” signed on March 17, 2013, included Title XII, “ Trafficking Victims

  15. The securitization of sex trafficking: a comparative case study of Sweden and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Ainsley Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex trafficking is a form of transnational organized crime, which may pose security threats to nation states. This project examines the roles that Sweden and the United States (US) played as global leaders in securitizing sex trafficking. This comparative case study identifies and analyzes both states' securitization processes according to the Copenhagen School's securitization framework. This project argues that both states securitized sex trafficking in the early 1990s through to 2009 in a ...

  16. A Formidable Task: Reflections on obtaining legal empirical evidence on human trafficking in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hayli Millar; Tamara O'Doherty; Katrin Roots

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the experiences, challenges and findings of two empirical research studies examining Canada’s legal efforts to combat human trafficking. The authors outline the methodologies of their respective studies and reflect on some of the difficulties they faced in obtaining empirical data on human trafficking court cases and legal proceedings. Ultimately, the authors found that Canadian trafficking case law developments are in their early stages with very few convictions, despit...

  17. Relevant Etiological Factors Involved in Human Trafficking in order to Practice Prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Boroi

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims) are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures) tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know ...

  18. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature

    OpenAIRE

    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu; Nwachukwu Chukwuka Ogbu

    2017-01-01

    Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008) and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009) highlight social occ...

  19. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics, pour water on these claims, by subjecting them to basic social scientific tests of validity, reliability and representativity. Yet, the same critics proffer few ways of developing valid generaliza...

  20. Mental health service responses to human trafficking: a qualitative study of professionals' experiences of providing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoney, Jill; Howard, Louise M; Abas, Melanie; Broadbent, Matthew; Oram, Sian

    2015-11-17

    Human trafficking is a global crime and human rights violation. Although research has demonstrated a high prevalence of mental disorder among trafficked people and that trafficked people are in contact with mental health services, little is known about mental health professionals' experiences of identifying and providing care for trafficked people. This study aimed to understand how people are identified as trafficked within mental health services and the challenges professionals experience in responding to trafficked people's mental health needs. Qualitative study of electronic health records of trafficked people in contact with secondary mental health services in South East London, England. Comprehensive clinical electronic health records for over 200,000 patients in contact with secondary mental health services in South London were searched and retrieved to identify trafficked patients. Content analysis was used to establish how people were identified as trafficked, and thematic analysis was used to explore the challenges experienced in responding to mental health needs. The sample included 130 trafficked patients, 95 adults and 35 children. In 43 % (41/95) of adult cases and 63 % (22/35) child cases, mental health professionals were informed that their patient was a potential victim of trafficking by another service involved in their patient's care. Cases were also identified through patients disclosing their experiences of exploitation and abuse. Key challenges faced by staff included social and legal instability, difficulties ascertaining history, patients' lack of engagement, availability of services, and inter-agency working. Training to increase awareness, encourage helpful responses, and inform staff about the available support options would help to ensure the mental health needs of trafficked people are met. Further research is needed to establish if these challenges are similar in other health settings.