WorldWideScience

Sample records for vesicular monoamine transport

  1. Exclusion of close linkage between the synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter locus and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persico, A.M.; Uhl, G.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhe Wu [Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The principal brain synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, thus contributing to determination of the size of releasable neurotransmitter vesicular pools. Potential involvement of VMAT2 gene variants in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders was tested using polymorphic VMAT2 gene markers in 156 subjects from 16 multiplex pedigrees with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, and schizotypal disorders and mood incongruent psychotic depression. Assuming genetic homogeneity, complete ({theta} = 0.0) linkage to the schizophrenia spectrum was excluded under both dominant and recessive models. Allelic variants at the VMAT2 locus do not appear to provide major genetic contributions to the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in these pedigrees. 16 refs.

  2. Emulating proton-induced conformational changes in the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 by mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Dana; Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Forrest, Lucy R; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2016-11-22

    Neurotransporters located in synaptic vesicles are essential for communication between nerve cells in a process mediated by neurotransmitters. Vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), a member of the largest superfamily of transporters, mediates transport of monoamines to synaptic vesicles and storage organelles in a process that involves exchange of two H(+) per substrate. VMAT transport is inhibited by the competitive inhibitor reserpine, a second-line agent to treat hypertension, and by the noncompetitive inhibitor tetrabenazine, presently in use for symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic disorders. During the transport cycle, VMAT is expected to occupy at least three different conformations: cytoplasm-facing, occluded, and lumen-facing. The lumen- to cytoplasm-facing transition, facilitated by protonation of at least one of the essential membrane-embedded carboxyls, generates a binding site for reserpine. Here we have identified residues in the cytoplasmic gate and show that mutations that disrupt the interactions in this gate also shift the equilibrium toward the cytoplasm-facing conformation, emulating the effect of protonation. These experiments provide significant insight into the role of proton translocation in the conformational dynamics of a mammalian H(+)-coupled antiporter, and also identify key aspects of the mode of action and binding of two potent inhibitors of VMAT2: reserpine binds the cytoplasm-facing conformation, and tetrabenazine binds the lumen-facing conformation.

  3. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene polymorphism and white matter integrity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eunsoo; Han, Kyu-Man; Kang, June; Kim, Aram; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Chang, Hun Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Min-Soo; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-07-03

    The genetic variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1) has been suggested to be associated with monoaminergic signaling and neural circuit activity related to emotion processing. We aimed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and examined the interaction effect between VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) polymorphism and MDD on white matter integrity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) genotyping were performed on 103 patients diagnosed with MDD and 83 healthy control participants. DTI was used to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts in patients compared to healthy controls. The possible interaction effect between rs1390938 and MDD on white matter integrity was also assessed. Patients with MDD exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the forceps major (pdepression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Romero-Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanism by which the brain's histamine content is regulated remains unclear. In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine and other monoamines. We have studied the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster in which histamine is the primary neurotransmitter released from photoreceptor cells. We report here that a novel mRNA splice variant of Drosophila VMAT (DVMAT-B is expressed not in neurons but rather in a small subset of glia in the lamina of the fly's optic lobe. Histamine contents are reduced by mutation of dVMAT, but can be partially restored by specifically expressing DVMAT-B in glia. Our results suggest a novel role for a monoamine transporter in glia that may be relevant to histamine homeostasis in other systems.

  5. Decreased platelet vesicular monoamine transporter density in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toren, Paz; Rehavi, Moshe; Luski, Anat; Roz, Netta; Laor, Nathaniel; Lask, Michal; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) density in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder involving monoaminergic dysregulation. It was hypothesized that the hypoactivity of monoaminergic neurotransmission related to ADHD could be associated with an under-expression of VMAT2. We assessed high affinity [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine [TBZOH] binding to platelet VMAT2 in untreated male ADHD children and adolescents (n=11) as compared to age-matched controls (n=14), as well as the correlation between VMAT2 density and the severity of ADHD symptoms as measured by the clinician-administered DSM-IV ADHD Scale (DAS) and the parent-administered Abbreviated Conners' Rating Scale (ACPRS). The [3H]TBZOH binding capacity (Bmax) was significantly lower (17%) in the ADHD group as compared to the controls. There was no difference between the two groups in the affinity (Kd value) of [3H]TBZOH to its binding site. An inverse correlation was found between the ADHD symptom scales and the Bmax values. It remains unclear whether the under-expression of platelet VMAT2 in ADHD children is reflective of a parallel change in the brain, and whether it is primary or an epiphenomenon of ADHD.

  6. Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I; Bate, G W; Henry, J; Djali, P; Dimaline, R; Dockray, G J; Varro, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce biogenic amines which are transported into secretory vesicles by one of two proton-amine exchangers, vesicular monoamine transporters type 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and 2). We report here the presence of VMAT1 in rat gastrin (G) cells and the relevance of VMAT1 function for the modulation of progastrin processing by biogenic and dietary amines. In immunocytochemical studies VMAT1, but not VMAT2, was localized to subpopulations of G cells and enterochromaffin (EC) cells; neither was found in antral D cells. The expression of VMAT1 in antral mucosa was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which revealed an mRNA band of approximately 3.2 kb, and by Western blot analysis, which revealed a major protein of 55 kDa. In pulse-chase labelling experiments, the conversion of the amidated gastrin G34 to G17 was inhibited by biogenic amine precursors (L-DOPA and 5-hydroxytryptophan). This inhibition was stereospecific and sensitive to reserpine (50 nM), which blocks VMAT1 and VMAT2, but resistant to tetrabenazine, which is a selective inhibitor of VMAT2. Dietary amines such as tyramine and tryptamine also inhibited G34 cleavage. This effect was associated with a loss of the electron-dense core of G cell secretory vesicles. It was not stereospecific or reserpine sensitive, but was correlated with hydrophobicity. Thus rat antral G cells can express VMAT1; transport of biogenic amines into secretory vesicles by VMAT1 is associated with inhibition of G34 cleavage, perhaps by raising intravesicular pH. Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH. PMID:10332097

  7. Preliminary evidence of apathetic-like behavior in aged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Baumann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is considered to be a core feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD and has been associated with a variety of states and symptoms of the disease, such as increased severity of motor symptoms, impaired cognition, executive dysfunction, and dementia. Apart from the high prevalence of apathy in PD, which is estimated to be about 40%, the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood and current treatment approaches are unspecific and proved to be only partially effective. In animal models, apathy has been sub-optimally modeled, mostly by means of pharmacological and stress-induced methods, whereby concomitant depressive-like symptoms could not be ruled out. In the context of PD only a few studies on toxin-based models (i.e. 6-OHDA or MPTP claimed to have determined apathetic symptoms in animals. The assessment of apathetic symptoms in more elaborated and multifaceted genetic animal models of PD could help to understand the pathophysiological development of apathy in PD and eventually advance specific treatments for afflicted patients. Here we report the presence of behavioral signs of apathy in 12 months old mice that express only ~5% of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2. Apathetic-like behavior in VMAT2 deficient (LO mice was evidenced by impaired burrowing and nest building skills, and a reduced preference for sweet solution in the saccharin preference test, while the performance in the forced swimming test was normal. Our preliminary results suggest that VMAT2 deficient mice show an apathetic-like phenotype that might be independent of depressive-like symptoms. Therefore VMAT2 LO mice could be a useful tool to study of the pathophysiological substrates of apathy and to test novel treatment strategies for apathy in the context of PD.

  8. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 mRNA levels are reduced in platelets from patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Gessica; Brighina, Laura; Saracchi, Enrico; Fermi, Silvia; Riva, Chiara; Carrozza, Veronica; Pirovano, Marta; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    Despite advances in neuroimaging, the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains clinical. The identification of biological markers for an early diagnosis is of great interest to start a neuroprotective therapy aimed at slowing, blocking or reversing the disease progression. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) sequesters cytoplasmic dopamine into synaptic vesicles for storage and release. Thus, VMAT2 impairment can regulate intra- and extracellular dopamine levels, influencing oxidative stress and neuronal death. Because in vivo imaging studies have demonstrated a VMAT2 reduction in PD patients greater than would be explained by neuronal loss alone, as an exploratory study we assessed VMAT2 mRNA and protein levels in platelets from 39 PD patients, 39 healthy subjects and 10 patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP) to identify a possible peripheral biomarker for PD. A significant reduction (p platelets. Although further studies in a greater number of cases are needed to confirm our data, the reduction in VMAT2 mRNA in platelets from PD patients suggests the existence of a systemic impairment of this transporter possibly contributing to PD pathology.

  9. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter binding during early abstinence in human methamphetamine users: Is VMAT2 a stable dopamine neuron biomarker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Wilkins, Diana; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; Guttman, Mark; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; Wilson, Alan A; Kish, Stephen J

    2008-09-24

    Animal data indicate that methamphetamine can damage striatal dopamine terminals. Efforts to document dopamine neuron damage in living brain of methamphetamine users have focused on the binding of [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, as a stable dopamine neuron biomarker. Previous PET data report a slight decrease in striatal [(11)C]DTBZ binding in human methamphetamine users after prolonged (mean, 3 years) abstinence, suggesting that the reduction would likely be substantial in early abstinence. We measured striatal VMAT2 binding in 16 recently withdrawn (mean, 19 d; range, 1-90 d) methamphetamine users and in 14 healthy matched-control subjects during a PET scan with (+)[(11)C]DTBZ. Unexpectedly, striatal (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding was increased in methamphetamine users relative to controls (+22%, caudate; +12%, putamen; +11%, ventral striatum). Increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding in caudate was most marked in methamphetamine users abstinent for 1-3 d (+41%), relative to the 7-21 d (+15%) and >21 d (+9%) groups. Above-normal VMAT2 binding in some drug users suggests that any toxic effect of methamphetamine on dopamine neurons might be masked by an increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding and that VMAT2 radioligand binding might not be, as is generally assumed, a "stable" index of dopamine neuron integrity in vivo. One potential explanation for increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding is that VMAT2 binding is sensitive to changes in vesicular dopamine storage levels, presumably low in drug users. If correct, (+)[(11)C]DTBZ might be a useful imaging probe to correlate changes in brain dopamine stores and behavior in users of methamphetamine.

  10. In vivo assessment of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in dementia with lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemagne, Victor L; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Pejoska, Svetlana; Drago, John; Mulligan, Rachel S; Chételat, Gaël; Ackermann, Uwe; O'Keefe, Graeme; Jones, Gareth; Gong, Sylvia; Tochon-Danguy, Henry; Kung, Hank F; Masters, Colin L; Skovronsky, Daniel M; Rowe, Christopher C

    2011-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic potential of imaging striatal monoaminergic terminal integrity with the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) radioligand (18)F 9-fluropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]AV-133) and positron emission tomography to distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer disease (AD). Nine patients with DLB, 10 patients with AD, 20 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects underwent [(18)F]AV-133 positron emission tomography studies. VMAT2 density was calculated through normalized tissue uptake value ratios at 120 to 140 minutes postinjection using the primary visual cortex as the reference region. Comparison of the tissue ratio for [(18)F]AV-133 between the different clinical diagnostic groups. Lower VMAT2 densities were observed in patients with DLB when compared with patients with AD especially in the posterior putamen (caudate: mean [SD], 1.24 [0.6] vs 2.83 [0.9]; P < .001; effect size = 2.1; anterior putamen: mean [SD], 0.90 [0.5] vs 3.01 [0.9]; P < .001; effect size = 2.9; posterior putamen: mean [SD], 0.62 [0.5] vs 2.87 [0.8]; P < .001; effect size = 3.4). Compared with healthy controls, [(18)F]AV-133 tissue ratios were significantly lower by 88% and 74% in the posterior putamen, 74% and 65% in the anterior putamen, and 53% and 51% in the caudate nucleus of patients with PD and DLB, respectively. In contrast to patients with PD and DLB, no reductions were observed in patients with AD. [(18)F]AV-133 allows assessment of nigrostriatal degeneration in Lewy body diseases. [(18)F]AV-133 can robustly detect reductions of dopaminergic nigrostriatal afferents in patients with DLB and assist in the differential diagnosis from AD.

  11. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Narendran

    Full Text Available Studies in rodents indicate that diets deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA lower dopamine neurotransmission as measured by striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2 density and amphetamine-induced dopamine release. This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and release, and improve dopamine-dependent cognitive functions such as working memory. To investigate this mechanism in humans, positron emission tomography (PET was used to measure VMAT2 availability pre- and post-supplementation of n-3 PUFA in healthy individuals. Healthy young adult subjects were scanned with PET using [(11C]-(+-α-dihydrotetrabenzine (DTBZ before and after six months of n-3 PUFA supplementation (Lovaza, 2 g/day containing docosahexaenonic acid, DHA 750 mg/d and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA 930 mg/d. In addition, subjects underwent a working memory task (n-back and red blood cell membrane (RBC fatty acid composition analysis pre- and post-supplementation. RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in [(11C]DTBZ binding potential (BP(ND in striatum and its subdivisions were observed after supplementation with n-3 PUFA. No correlation was evident between n-3 PUFA induced change in RBC DHA or EPA levels and change in [(11C]DTBZ BP(ND in striatal subdivisions. However, pre-supplementation RBC DHA levels was predictive of baseline performance (i.e., adjusted hit rate, AHR on 3-back on the n-back task (y = 0.19+0.07, r(2 = 0.55, p = 0.009. In addition, subjects AHR performance improved on 3-back post-supplementation (pre 0.65±0.27, post 0.80±0.15, p = 0.04. The correlation between n-back performance, and DHA levels are consistent with reports in which higher DHA levels is related to improved cognitive performance. However, the lack of change in [(11C]DBTZ BP(ND indicates that

  12. Binding characteristics of 9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenzazine (AV-133) to the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, H.-H. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Juang, J.-H. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chung Gung University and Chung Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: kungmp@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2010-05-15

    The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) is highly expressed in pancreatic {beta}-cells and thus has been proposed to be a potential target for measuring {beta}-cell mass (BCM) by molecular imaging. C-11- and F-18-labeled tetrabenazine derivatives targeting VMAT2 have shown some promising results as potential biomarkers for BCM. In the present study, we examined the binding characteristics of 9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenzazine ([{sup 18}F]AV-133), a potential PET tracer for BCM imaging, in rat pancreas and rat brain. Methods: Pancreatic exocrine cells and pancreatic islet cells were isolated and purified from Sprague-Dawley rats. Membrane homogenates, prepared from both pancreatic exocrine and islet cells as well as from brain striatum and hypothalamus regions, were used for in vitro binding studies. In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography studies with [{sup 18}F]AV-133 were performed on rat brain and rat pancreas sections. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed to confirm the distribution of VMAT2 on islet {beta}-cells. Results: Excellent binding affinities of [{sup 18}F]AV-133 were observed in rat striatum and hypothalamus homogenates with K{sub d} values of 0.19 and 0.25 nM, respectively. In contrast to single-site binding observed in rat striatum homogenates, rat islet cell homogenates showed two saturable binding sites (site A: K{sub d}=6.76 nM, B{sub max}=60 fmol/mg protein; site B: K{sub d}=241 nM, B{sub max}=1500 fmol/mg protein). Rat exocrine pancreas homogenates showed only a single low-affinity binding site (K{sub d}=209 nM), which was similar to site B in islet cells. In vitro autoradiography of [{sup 18}F]AV-133 using frozen sections of rat pancreas showed specific labeling of islets, as evidenced by co-localization with anti-insulin antibody. Ex vivo VMAT2 pancreatic autoradiography in the rat, however, was not successful, in contrast to the excellent ex vivo autoradiography of VMAT2 binding sites in the brain. In vivo/ex vivo islet

  13. Fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethylpiperidine and piperazine derivatives: Potent and selective inhibitors of [3H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankosky, Emily R; Joolakanti, Shyam R; Nickell, Justin R; Janganati, Venumadhav; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2017-12-15

    A small library of fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethyl piperidine and fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethyl piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT), [3H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake at the serotonin transporter (SERT), and [3H]dofetilide binding at the human-ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. The majority of the compounds exhibited potent inhibition of [3H]DA uptake at VMAT2, Ki changes in the nanomolar range (Ki = 0.014-0.073 µM). Compound 15d exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 0.014 µM) at VMAT2, and had 160-, 5-, and 60-fold greater selectivity for VMAT2 vs. DAT, SERT and hERG, respectively. Compound 15b exhibited the greatest selectivity (>60-fold) for VMAT2 relative to all the other targets evaluated, and 15b had high affinity for VMAT2 (Ki = 0.073 µM). Compound 15b was considered the lead compound from this analog series due to its high affinity and selectivity for VMAT2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Argon blocks the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine through antagonism at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and mu-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H N; Dhilly, M; Degoulet, M; Poisnel, G; Meckler, C; Vallée, N; Blatteau, J-É; Risso, J-J; Lemaire, M; Debruyne, D; Abraini, J H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the noble gas argon on the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in dopamine release and mu-opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. We found (1) argon blocked the increase in carrier-mediated dopamine release induced by amphetamine in brain slices, but, in contrast, potentiated the decrease in KCl-evoked dopamine release induced by amphetamine, thereby suggesting that argon inhibited the vesicular monoamine transporter-2; (2) argon blocked the expression of locomotor and mu-opioid neurotransmission sensitization induced by repeated amphetamine administration in a short-term model of sensitization in rats; (3) argon decreased the maximal number of binding sites and increased the dissociation constant of mu-receptors in membrane preparations, thereby indicating that argon is a mu-receptor antagonist; (4) argon blocked the expression of locomotor sensitization and context-dependent locomotor activity induced by repeated administration of amphetamine in a long-term model of sensitization. Taken together, these data indicate that argon could be of potential interest for treating drug addiction and dependence. PMID:26151922

  15. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  16. Another Imaginary World: The ICER Claims for the Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness and Pricing of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2 Inhibitors in Tardive Dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Langley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently released value assessment of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 inhibitors in tardive dyskinesia by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER relies upon a long-term modeling exercise to support recommendations for what the ICER sees as the appropriate pricing for these products if prices are to be judged ‘cost-effective’. In this case, the recommendations are for a substantive price reduction of some 90% over WAC. Needless to say, this recommendation is unlikely to be welcomed with open arms by the respective manufacturers of valbenazine and deutetrabenazine. Unfortunately, as has been argued in a number of commentaries published over the past 18 months in INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy, the ICER endorsed health technology assessment methodology that underpins this exercise in building a modeled imaginary world to justify product pricing recommendations is fatally flawed: it does not meet the standards of normal science. Rather than addressing the issue of claims validation for VMAT2 products, the question of generating modeled evaluable claims, among others, for clinical, quality of life and resource utilization outcomes, the analysis focuses on claims that are neither credible nor evaluable and, of course, non-replicable. A more positive and useful approach would be for ICER to focus on a framework where claims could be assessed in the short term to provide feedback to health system decision makers, physicians and patients. Instead, we are asked to believe that we can model 20 or 30 years into the future to establish non-evaluable claims for pricing and, ultimately, access. Conflict of Interest: None   Type: Commentary

  17. Coexpression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, GTP Cyclohydrolase I, Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase, and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 from a Helper Virus-Free Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Vector Supports High-Level, Long-Term Biochemical and Behavioral Correction of a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, MEI; KONG, LINGXIN; WANG, XIAODAN; HOLMES, COURTNEY; GAO, QINGSHENG; ZHANG, GUO-RONG; PFEILSCHIFTER, JOSEF; GOLDSTEIN, DAVID S.; GELLER, ALFRED I.

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is due to the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Consequently, many therapeutic strategies have focused on restoring striatal dopamine levels, including direct gene transfer to striatal cells, using viral vectors that express specific dopamine biosynthetic enzymes. The central hypothesis of this study is that coexpression of four dopamine biosynthetic and transporter genes in striatal neurons can support the efficient production and regulated, vesicular release of dopamine: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts tyrosine to l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l -DOPA), GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTP CH I) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the cofactor for TH, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) converts l -DOPA to dopamine, and a vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT-2) transports dopamine into synaptic vesicles, thereby supporting regulated, vesicular release of dopamine and relieving feedback inhibition of TH by dopamine. Helper virus-free herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors that coexpress the three dopamine biosynthetic enzymes (TH, GTP CH I, and AADC; 3-gene-vector) or these three dopamine biosynthetic enzymes and the vesicular monoamine transporter (TH, GTP CH I, AADC, and VMAT-2; 4-gene-vector) were compared. Both vectors supported production of dopamine in cultured fibroblasts. These vectors were microinjected into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These vectors carry a modified neurofilament gene promoter, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neuron-specific gene expression was maintained for 14 months after gene transfer. The 4-gene-vector supported higher levels of correction of apomorphine-induced rotational behavior than did the 3-gene-vector, and this correction was maintained for 6 months. Proximal to the injection sites, the 4-gene-vector, but not the 3-gene-vector, supported extracellular levels of dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) that were similar to those observed in

  18. Are vesicular neurotransmitter transporters potential treatment targets for temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri eVan Liefferinge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3, the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT, the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA transporter (VGAT in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies.

  19. Protons Regulate Vesicular Glutamate Transporters through an Allosteric Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Chang, Roger; McGregor, Matt; Silm, Katlin; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Edwards, Robert H

    2016-05-18

    The quantal nature of synaptic transmission requires a mechanism to transport neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles without promoting non-vesicular efflux across the plasma membrane. Indeed, the vesicular transport of most classical transmitters involves a mechanism of H(+) exchange, which restricts flux to acidic membranes such as synaptic vesicles. However, vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate depends primarily on membrane potential, which would drive non-vesicular efflux, and the role of protons is unclear. Adapting electrophysiology to record currents associated with the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), we characterize a chloride conductance that is gated by lumenal protons and chloride and supports glutamate uptake. Rather than coupling stoichiometrically to glutamate flux, lumenal protons and chloride allosterically activate vesicular glutamate transport. Gating by protons serves to inhibit what would otherwise be substantial non-vesicular glutamate efflux at the plasma membrane, thereby restricting VGLUT activity to synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sialic acid cotransporter, is present in hippocampal synaptic vesicles and pineal SLMVs. RNA interference of sialin expression decreased exocytosis of aspartate and glutamate in pinealocytes. Proteoliposomes containing purified sialin actively accumulated aspartate and glutamate to a similar extent when inside positive membrane potential is imposed as the driving force. Sialin carrying a mutation found in people suffering from Salla disease (R39C) was completely devoid of aspartate and glutamate transport activity, although it retained appreciable H+/sialic acid cotransport activity. These results strongly suggest that sialin possesses dual physiological functions and acts as a vesicular aspartate/glutamate transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose aspartergic (and also the associated glutamatergic) neurotransmission, and this could provide an explanation for why Salla disease causes severe neurological defects. PMID:18695252

  1. Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Fumito; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Iida, Tomomitsu; Harada, Ryuichi; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Miura, Yamato; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters should be immediately removed from the synaptic cleft to avoid excessive neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes and neurons are involved in monoamine removal. However, the mechanism of monoamine transport by astrocytes is not entirely clear. We aimed to elucidate the transporters responsible for monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. First, we confirmed that 1321N1 cells transported dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Kinetics analysis suggested the involvement of low-affinity monoamine transporters, such as organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 and 3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). Monoamine transport in 1321N1 cells was not Na(+) /Cl(-) dependent but was inhibited by decynium-22, an inhibitor of low-affinity monoamine transporters, which supported the importance of low-affinity transporters. RT-PCR assays revealed that 1321N1 cells expressed OCT3 and PMAT but no other neurotransmitter transporters. Another human astrocytoma-derived cell line, U251MG, and primary human astrocytes also exhibited the same gene expression pattern. Gene-knockdown assays revealed that 1321N1 and primary human astrocytes could transport monoamines predominantly through PMAT and partly through OCT3. These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Hinz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects ­simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined.1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small-azo-dyes as potent Vesicular Glutamate Transporters inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Besse, Franck-Cyril; Poirel, Odile; Bersot, Tiphaine; Kim-Grellier, Elodie; Daumas, Stephanie; El Mestikawy, Salah; Acher, Francine C; Pietrancosta, Nicolas

    2014-05-06

    Vesicular Glutamate Transporters (VGLUTs) allow the loading of presynapic glutamate vesicles and thus play a critical role in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. VGLUTs have proved to be involved in several major neuropathologies and directly correlated to clinical dementia in Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly VGLUT represent a key biological target or biomarker for neuropathology treatment or diagnostic. Yet, despite the pivotal role of VGLUTs, their pharmacology appears quite limited. Known competitive inhibitors are restricted to some dyes as Trypan Blue (TB) and glutamate mimics. This lack of pharmacological tools has heavily hampered VGLUT investigations. Here we report a rapid access to small molecules that combine benefits of TB and dicarboxylic quinolines (DCQs). Their ability to block vesicular glutamate uptake was evaluated. Several compounds displayed low micromolar inhibitory potency when size related compounds are thirty to forty times less potent (i.e. DCQ). We then confirmed the VGLUT selectivity by measuring the effect of the series on vesicular monoamine transport and on metabotropic glutamate receptor activity. These inhibitors are synthesized in only two steps and count among the best pharmacological tools for VGLUTs studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sia...

  5. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  6. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in Rat Odontoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Erina; Goto, Tetsuya; Gunjigake, Kaori; Kuroishi, Kayoko; Ueda, Masae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Seta, Yuji; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding pain transmission mechanisms in tooth. However, the exact signaling mechanism from odontoblasts to pulp nerves remains to be clarified. Recently, ATP-associated pain transmission has been reported, but it is unclear whether ATP is involved in tooth pain transmission. In the present study, we focused on the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a transporter of ATP into vesicles, and examined whether VNUT was involved in ATP release from odontob...

  7. Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Randy D.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The regulated exocytosis that mediates chemical signaling at synapses requires mechanisms to coordinate the immediate response to stimulation with the recycling needed to sustain release. Two general classes of transporter contribute to release, one located on synaptic vesicles that loads them with transmitter, and a second at the plasma membrane that both terminates signaling and serves to recycle transmitter for subsequent rounds of release. Originally identified as the target of psychoactive drugs, these transport systems have important roles in transmitter release, but we are only beginning to understand their contribution to synaptic transmission, plasticity, behavior, and disease. Recent work has started to provide a structural basis for their activity, to characterize their trafficking and potential for regulation. The results indicate that far from the passive target of psychoactive drugs, neurotransmitter transporters undergo regulation that contributes to synaptic plasticity. PMID:22199021

  8. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  9. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  10. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders and are t......The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders...... and are targets for drugs of abuse such as cocaine, amphetamine and ecstasy as well as anxiolytics and antidepressants. The transporters undergo a series of concerted conformational changes in order to harness the driving force of co-transported cations to translocate the neurotransmitter across the neuronal...... membrane. The rate-limiting step in monoamine reuptake is the return of the empty transporter from an inward-facing to an outward-facing conformation without neurotransmitter and sodium bound. The molecular mechanism underlying this important conformational transition has not been described. Crystal...

  11. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in Rat Odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Erina; Goto, Tetsuya; Gunjigake, Kaori; Kuroishi, Kayoko; Ueda, Masae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Seta, Yuji; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-02-27

    Several theories have been proposed regarding pain transmission mechanisms in tooth. However, the exact signaling mechanism from odontoblasts to pulp nerves remains to be clarified. Recently, ATP-associated pain transmission has been reported, but it is unclear whether ATP is involved in tooth pain transmission. In the present study, we focused on the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a transporter of ATP into vesicles, and examined whether VNUT was involved in ATP release from odontoblasts. We examined the expression of VNUT in rat pulp by RT-PCR and immunostaining. ATP release from cultured odontoblast-like cells with heat stimulation was evaluated using ATP luciferase methods. VNUT was expressed in pulp tissue, and the distribution of VNUT-immunopositive vesicles was confirmed in odontoblasts. In odontoblasts, some VNUT-immunopositive vesicles were colocalized with membrane fusion proteins. Additionally P2X3, an ATP receptor, immunopositive axons were distributed between odontoblasts. The ATP release by thermal stimulation from odontoblast-like cells was inhibited by the addition of siRNA for VNUT. These findings suggest that cytosolic ATP is transported by VNUT and that the ATP in the vesicles is then released from odontoblasts to ATP receptors on axons. ATP vesicle transport in odontoblasts seems to be a key mechanism for signal transduction from odontoblasts to axons in the pulp.

  12. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Bac T. Nguyen; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila...

  13. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT): appearance of an actress on the stage of purinergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hiasa, Miki; Sakamoto, Shohei; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi

    2017-06-14

    Vesicular storage of ATP is one of the processes initiating purinergic chemical transmission. Although an active transport mechanism was postulated to be involved in the processes, a transporter(s) responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP remained unidentified for some time. In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP. VNUT transports various nucleotides in a membrane potential-dependent fashion and is expressed in the various ATP-secreting cells. Mice with knockout of the VNUT gene lose vesicular storage and release of ATP from neurons and neuroendocrine cells, resulting in blockage of the initiation of purinergic chemical transmission. Thus, VNUT plays an essential role in the vesicular storage and release of ATP. The VNUT knockout mice exhibit resistance for neuropathic pain and a therapeutic effect against diabetes by way of increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, VNUT inhibitors and suppression of VNUT gene expression may be used for therapeutic purposes through suppression of purinergic chemical transmission. This review summarizes the studies to date on VNUT and discusses what we have learned about the relevance of vesicular ATP release as a potential drug target.

  15. A kinome wide screen identifies novel kinases involved in regulation of monoamine transporter function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorenpää, Anne Elina; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Jorgensen, Trine N.

    2016-01-01

    in regulation of monoamine transporter function and surface expression. A primary screen in HEK 293 cells stably expressing DAT or SERT with siRNAs against 573 human kinases revealed 93 kinases putatively regulating transporter function. All 93 hits, which also included kinases previously implicated...... in monoamine transporter regulation, such as Protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), were validated with a new set of siRNAs in a secondary screen. In this screen we assessed both changes in uptake and surface expression leading to selection of 11 kinases for further evaluation...

  16. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Nguyen, Bac T.; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male’s position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Since prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. PMID:22017990

  17. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter expression in human temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liefferinge, J.; Jensen, C.J.; Albertini, G.; Bentea, E.; Demuyser, T.; Merckx, E.; Aronica, E.; Smolders, I.; Massie, A.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for loading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Altered VGLUT protein expression has been suggested to affect quantal size and glutamate release under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated mRNA and

  18. Endoplasmosis and exoplasmosis: the evolutionary principles underlying endocytosis, exocytosis, and vesicular transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a multicompartmental structure with a?variety of organelles. Vesicular transport between these compartments requires membrane fusion events. Based on a?membrane topology view, we conclude that there are two basic mechanisms of membrane fusion, namely where the membranes first come in contact with the cis-side (the plasmatic phase of the lipid bilayer) or with the trans-side (the extra-plasmatic face). We propose to designate trans-membrane fusion ...

  19. Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Sluder

    Full Text Available The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.

  20. GLTP mediated non-vesicular GM1 transport between native membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lauria

    Full Text Available Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are emerging as key players in lipid homeostasis by mediating non-vesicular transport steps between two membrane surfaces. Little is known about the driving force that governs the direction of transport in cells. Using the soluble LTP glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP, we examined GM1 (monosialotetrahexosyl-ganglioside transfer to native membrane surfaces. With artificial GM1 donor liposomes, GLTP can be used to increase glycolipid levels over natural levels in either side of the membrane leaflet, i.e., external or cytosolic. In a system with native donor- and acceptor-membranes, we find that GLTP balances highly variable GM1 concentrations in a population of membranes from one cell type, and in addition, transfers lipids between membranes from different cell types. Glycolipid transport is highly efficient, independent of cofactors, solely driven by the chemical potential of GM1 and not discriminating between the extra- and intracellular membrane leaflet. We conclude that GLTP mediated non-vesicular lipid trafficking between native membranes is driven by simple thermodynamic principles and that for intracellular transport less than 1 µM GLTP would be required in the cytosol. Furthermore, the data demonstrates the suitability of GLTP as a tool for artificially increasing glycolipid levels in cellular membranes.

  1. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: Amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-04

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least 3 different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD uses an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport. 1 Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site. 2.

  2. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a neurotransmitter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S; Greer, Christina L; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M; Nguyen, Bac T; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J Steven; Krantz, David E

    2011-10-20

    Vesicular transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male's position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Because prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [THE INFLUENCE OF SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER AND MONOAMINE OXIDASE A GENES POLYMORPHISM ON PSYCHO-EMOTION AND KARYOLOGICAL STABILITY OF ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaev, V N; Nechaeva, M S; Korneeva, O S; Cherenkov, D A

    2015-11-01

    The influence of polymorphism of the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes, associated with man's aggressiveness on the psycho-emotional state and karyological status of single combat athletes. It was revealed that the carriers of less active ("short"), monoamine oxidase A gene variant have a high motivation to succeed and less rigidity and frustrated, compared to the carriers of more active ("long") version of the gene. Heterozygote carriers of less active ("short") variant of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTL had more physical aggression, guilt and were less frustrated compared with carriers of two long alleles. It has been revealed the association of studied genes with the karyological status of athletes. So fighters who are carriers of the short and long alleles of the serotonin transporter gene had more cells with nuclear abnormalities in the buccal epithelium than single combat athletes which both alleles were long.

  4. Monoamine transporter availability in Parkinson's disease patients with or without depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Meyer, Philipp M.; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Strecker, Karl; Wegner, Florian; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Schwarz, Johannes [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Oehlwein, Christian [Specialized Parkinson' s Disease Outpatient Centre, Gera (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Depression is a common symptom in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and markedly reduces their quality of life. As post-mortem studies have shown, its presence may reflect extensive cell loss in the midbrain and brainstem with imbalances in monoaminergic neurotransmitters. However, in vivo evidence of specific monoaminergic deficits in depressed PD patients is still sparse. Therefore, we studied PD patients with depression (PD+D) and without depression (PD-D) using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the monoamine transporter marker [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. A magnetic resonance imaging-based region-of-interest analysis was applied to quantify the specific-to-nondisplaceable [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding coefficient V{sub 3}'' in the striatum, thalamus and midbrain/brainstem regions. PD+D patients had significantly lower V{sub 3}'' compared with PD-D patients in the striatum (p<0.001), thalamus (p=0.002), and midbrain/brainstem (p=0.025). Only PD+D patients without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment showed lower thalamic and midbrain V{sub 3}'' than controls (p<0.001, p=0.029). In a small sub-group of SSRI-treated PD+D patients neither thalamic V{sub 3}'' nor midbrain/brainstem V{sub 3}'' differed from those in PD-D patients (p=0.168, p=0.201) or controls (p=0.384, p=0.318). Our data indicate that depression in PD is associated with a more pronounced loss of striatal dopamine transporter availability that is most likely secondary to increased dopaminergic degeneration. In addition, depressed PD patients have a lower availability of midbrain/brainstem monoamine transporters than nondepressed PD patients. These findings provide in vivo evidence in support of the known post-mortem data demonstrating more extensive nerve cell loss in PD with depression and indicate that SPECT imaging can help to identify pathophysiological changes underlying nonmotor

  5. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Seifert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD model systems. BDNF and APP colocalized with low incidence in vesicular structures. Anterograde as well as retrograde transport of BDNF vesicles was reduced and these effects were mediated by factors released from hippocampal neurons into the extracellular medium. Transport of BDNF was altered at a very early time point after onset of human APP expression or after acute amyloid-beta(1-42 treatment, while the activity-dependent release of BDNF remained unaffected. Taken together, extracellular cleavage products of APP induced rapid changes in anterograde and retrograde transport of BDNF-containing vesicles while release of BDNF was unaffected by transgenic expression of mutated APP. These early transport deficits might lead to permanently impaired brain functions in the adult brain.

  6. Orf virus interferes with MHC class I surface expression by targeting vesicular transport and Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV, a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep. Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity. These immune modulating and immune evading properties are still unexplained. Results Here, we describe that ORFV infection of permissive cells impairs the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules (MHC I as a result of structural disruption and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Depending on the duration of infection, we observed a pronounced co-localization of MHC I and COP-I vesicular structures as well as a reduction of MHC I surface expression of up to 50%. These subversion processes are associated with early ORFV gene expression and are accompanied by disturbed carbohydrate trimming of post-ER MHC I. The MHC I population remaining on the cell surface shows an extended half-life, an effect that might be partially controlled also by late ORFV genes. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that ORFV down-regulates MHC I surface expression in infected cells by targeting the late vesicular export machinery and the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, which might aid to escape cellular immune recognition.

  7. Vesicular glutamate transporters use flexible anion and cation binding sites for efficient accumulation of neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobraschenski, Julia; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Jahn, Reinhard

    2014-12-17

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) accumulate the neurotransmitter glutamate in synaptic vesicles. Transport depends on a V-ATPase-dependent electrochemical proton gradient (ΔμH+) and requires chloride ions, but how chloride acts and how ionic and charge balance is maintained during transport is controversial. Using a reconstitution approach, we used an exogenous proton pump to drive VGLUT-mediated transport either in liposomes containing purified VGLUT1 or in synaptic vesicles fused with proton-pump-containing liposomes. Our data show that chloride stimulation can be induced at both sides of the membrane. Moreover, chloride competes with glutamate at high concentrations. In addition, VGLUT1 possesses a cation binding site capable of binding H+ or K+ ions, allowing for proton antiport or K+ / H+ exchange. We conclude that VGLUTs contain two anion binding sites and one cation binding site, allowing the transporter to adjust to the changing ionic conditions during vesicle filling without being dependent on other transporters or channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unusual armadillo fold in the human general vesicular transport factor p115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available The golgin family gives identity and structure to the Golgi apparatus and is part of a complex protein network at the Golgi membrane. The golgin p115 is targeted by the GTPase Rab1a, contains a large globular head region and a long region of coiled-coil which forms an extended rod-like structure. p115 serves as vesicle tethering factor and plays an important role at different steps of vesicular transport. Here we present the 2.2 A-resolution X-ray structure of the globular head region of p115. The structure exhibits an armadillo fold that is decorated by elongated loops and carries a C-terminal non-canonical repeat. This terminal repeat folds into the armadillo superhelical groove and allows homodimeric association with important implications for p115 mediated multiple protein interactions and tethering.

  9. Genetic variation in the monoamine oxidase A and serotonin transporter genes in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdal, Siri H; Vege, Åshild; Rognum, Torleiv O

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate common polymorphisms in the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in Norwegian cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This was done to further elucidate the role of genetic variation in these genes and SIDS. A variable number of tandem repeat area in the promoter of the MAOA gene and rs25531 in the promoter region of the gene encoding 5-HTT were investigated in 193 SIDS cases and 335 controls. The methods used were polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment analysis and gel electrophoresis. There were no differences between SIDS cases and controls for any of the investigated polymorphisms. This was also true when male and female SIDS cases were analysed separately. This article indicates that neither the VNTR in the promoter of the MAOA gene, nor rs25531 in the gene encoding 5-HTT, is involved in SIDS. However, as medullary serotonergic abnormalities most likely contribute to the death in at least some SIDS cases, it is important to investigate these genes, as well as other genes involved in the serotonergic network, in more detail. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Motor dysfunction in cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific vesicular GABA transporter knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko eKayakabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian central nervous system and plays modulatory roles in neural development. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT is an essential molecule for GABAergic neurotransmission due to its role in vesicular GABA release. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs are GABAergic projection neurons that are indispensable for cerebellar function. To elucidate the significance of VGAT in cerebellar PCs, we generated and characterized PC-specific VGAT knockout (L7-VGAT mice. VGAT mRNAs and proteins were specifically absent in the 40-week-old L7-VGAT PCs. The morphological charactereistics, such as lamination and foliation of the cerebellar cortex, of the L7-VGAT mice were similar to those of the control littermate mice. Moreover, the protein expression levels and patterns of pre- (calbindin and parvalbumin and postsynaptic (GABA-A receptor α1 subunit (GABAARα1 and gephyrin molecules between the L7-VGAT and control mice were similar in the deep cerebellar nuclei that receive PC projections. However, the L7-VGAT mice performed poorly in the accelerating rotarod test and displayed ataxic gait in the footprint test. The L7-VGAT mice also exhibited severer ataxia as VGAT deficits progressed. These results suggest that VGAT in cerebellar Purkinje cells is not essential for the rough maintenance of cerebellar structure, but does play an important role in motor coordination. The L7-VGAT mice are a novel model of ataxia without PC degeneration, and would also be useful for studying the role of Purkinje cells in cognition and emotion.

  11. Developing ultra deformable vesicular transportation of a bioactive alkaloid in pursuit of vitiligo therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod KR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop transfersomal formulation integrated with piperine intended for vitiligo. Methods: Film hydration technique was employed in the preparation of transfersomes. Modified diffusion cell, consistency tester were fabricated for ex vivo diffusion studies and spreadability studies respectively while tape stripping method was integrated with tissue extraction in the determination of tissue drug concentration. Results: When film hydration technique was used for, ultradeformable vesicles (transfersomes of piperine in soabean phosphatidylcholine was formed with (67.11依0.22 to (70.55依3.62 and (60.12依1.04 to (80.43依0.14 mean size (毺 m and entrapment efficiency (% respectively. Transfersomes are capable of crossing the pores in permeability barriers extremely efficient even if the transfersome radius (tr is much greater than the pore size (rpore ie., tr/rpore曒0.25 the driven flux rate depends on the transdermal osmotic gradient. The vesicles describes elasto-mechanical character of vesicles while penetrating through the pores. The proviso is that the vesicular membrane elasticity is dynamically to the local stress by the external. Diffusion and Spreadability studies showed maximum diffusion when the lipid was kept minimum. Tape stripping and tissue extraction method for the tissue drug retention showed that (75.25依1.72% drug was retained in the dermis. Conclusions: Span 80 was preferred over tween 80 in terms of dermal retention. Size and encapsulation was slightly altered by phosphatidylcholine concentration. The kinetics, efficiency and the transfersome mediated transport can be tailored for trans-epidermal, deep tissues and systemic depending on the vesicular composition, dose and form. Thus we have offered a successful drug delivery of piperine targeting the deep epidermis.

  12. The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Petra; Nørregaard, Lene; Singer, Ernst A

    2002-01-01

    and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). Mutation of the Zn2+ coordinating residue His(193) to Lys (the corresponding residue in hNET) eliminated the effect of Zn2+ on efflux. Conversely, the reciprocal mutation (K189H) conferred Zn2+ sensitivity to hNET. The intracellular [3H]MPP+ concentration was varied to generate......-diffusion and support the concept that inward and outward transport represent discrete operational modes of the transporter. In addition, they indicate a physiological role of Zn2+, because Zn2+ also facilitated transport reversal of DAT in rat striatal slices....

  13. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shen

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia is designed to optimize pain relief by coadministering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action or by combining multiple pharmacologies within a single molecule. In clinical settings, combinations of monoamine reuptake inhibitors and opioid receptor agonists have been explored and one currently available analgesic, tapentadol, functions as both a µ-opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the combination of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and µ-receptor agonism achieves an optimal antinociceptive synergy. In this study, we assessed the pharmacodynamic interactions between morphine and monoamine reuptake inhibitors that possess different affinities and selectivities for norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Using the rat formalin model, in conjunction with measurements of ex vivo transporter occupancy, we show that neither the norepinephrine-selective inhibitor, esreboxetine, nor the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produce antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Atomoxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher levels of norepinephrine than serotonin transporter occupancy, exhibited robust antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Similarly, a fixed-dose combination of esreboxetine and fluoxetine which achieves comparable levels of transporter occupancy potentiated the antinociceptive response to morphine. By contrast, duloxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher serotonin than norepinephrine transporter occupancy, failed to potentiate the antinociceptive response to morphine. However, when duloxetine was coadministered with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, potentiation of the antinociceptive response to morphine was revealed. These results support the notion that inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters is required for monoamine reuptake inhibitor and opioid

  14. Endoplasmosis and exoplasmosis: the evolutionary principles underlying endocytosis, exocytosis, and vesicular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Johannes A

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a multicompartmental structure with a variety of organelles. Vesicular transport between these compartments requires membrane fusion events. Based on a membrane topology view, we conclude that there are two basic mechanisms of membrane fusion, namely where the membranes first come in contact with the cis-side (the plasmatic phase of the lipid bilayer) or with the trans-side (the extra-plasmatic face). We propose to designate trans-membrane fusion processes as "endoplasmosis" as they lead to uptake of a compartment into the plasmatic phase. Vice versa we suggest the term "exoplasmosis" (as already suggested in a 1964 publication) for cis-membrane fusion events, where the interior of a vesicle is released to an extraplasmatic environment (the extracellular space or the lumen of a compartment). This concept is supported by the fact that all cis- and all trans-membrane fusions, respectively, exhibit noticeable similarities implying that they evolved from two functionally different mechanisms.

  15. Genomic convergence analysis of schizophrenia: mRNA sequencing reveals altered synaptic vesicular transport in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Mudge

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a common, disabling mental illness with high heritability but complex, poorly understood genetic etiology. As the first phase of a genomic convergence analysis of SCZ, we generated 16.7 billion nucleotides of short read, shotgun sequences of cDNA from post-mortem cerebellar cortices of 14 patients and six, matched controls. A rigorous analysis pipeline was developed for analysis of digital gene expression studies. Sequences aligned to approximately 33,200 transcripts in each sample, with average coverage of 450 reads per gene. Following adjustments for confounding clinical, sample and experimental sources of variation, 215 genes differed significantly in expression between cases and controls. Golgi apparatus, vesicular transport, membrane association, Zinc binding and regulation of transcription were over-represented among differentially expressed genes. Twenty three genes with altered expression and involvement in presynaptic vesicular transport, Golgi function and GABAergic neurotransmission define a unifying molecular hypothesis for dysfunction in cerebellar cortex in SCZ.

  16. Regulation of monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 by cAMP dependent vesicular trafficking in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhernik, Amy L; Li, Lun; LaVoy, Nathan; Velasquez, Micah J; Smith, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a detailed characterization of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter-1 (Mct1) in cytoplasmic vesicles of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells shows them to be a diverse population of endosomes intrinsic to the regulation of the transporter by a brief 25 to 30 minute exposure to the membrane permeant cAMP analog, 8Br-cAMP. The vesicles are heterogeneous in size, mobility, internal pH, and co-localize with discreet markers of particular types of endosomes including early endosomes, clathrin coated vesicles, caveolar vesicles, trans-golgi, and lysosomes. The vesicular localization of Mct1 was not dependent on its N or C termini, however, the size and pH of Mct1 vesicles was increased by deletion of either terminus demonstrating a role for the termini in vesicular trafficking of Mct1. Using a novel BCECF-AM based assay developed in this study, 8Br-cAMP was shown to decrease the pH of Mct1 vesicles after 25 minutes. This result and method were confirmed in experiments with a ratiometric pH-sensitive EGFP-mCherry dual tagged Mct1 construct. Overall, the results indicate that cAMP signaling reduces the functionality of Mct1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by facilitating its entry into a highly dynamic vesicular trafficking pathway that appears to lead to the transporter's trafficking to autophagosomes and lysosomes.

  17. (E)-[{sup 125}I]-5-AOIBV: a SPECT radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Patrick [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France); Mavel, Sylvie [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France)], E-mail: sylvie.mavel@univ-tours.fr; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France); Kassiou, Michael [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2050 (Australia); School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garreau, Lucette; Bodard, Sylvie; Drossard, Marie-Laure; Chalon, Sylvie; Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France)

    2007-11-15

    The premise that, over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in the levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) occur in parallel with changes to other cholinergic marker proteins provides the basis for the applicability of benzovesamicol derivatives as radioligands for AD studies by single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography. We report the synthesis of enantiopure benzovesamicol derivatives: (R,R) or (S,S)-(E)-2-hydroxy-5-(3-iodoprop-2-en-1-oxy)-3- (4-phenylpiperidino)tetralin [(R,R)-AOIBV: K{sub d}=0.45 nM or (S,S)-5-AOIBV: K{sub d}=4.3 nM] and their corresponding tributyltin precursors for radioiodination. (R,R or S,S)-5-AOIBV was labeled with iodine-125 from their corresponding n-tributyltin precursors. Both compounds were obtained with radiochemical and optical purity greater than 97% and in radiochemical yields ranging 34-36%. To determine if these compounds could provide an advantage when compared to [{sup 125}I]-iodo benzovesamicol (IBVM), IBVM was also labeled and used as the reference compound in all ex vivo experiments. Ex vivo biodistribution experiments in rats revealed that [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV displayed the most suitable pharmacological profile as the radioactivity distribution corresponded well with the known VAChT brain density. Moreover, pre-injection of vesamicol prevented the uptake of [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV in striatum, cortex and hippocampus, demonstrating selectivity for the VAChT. However, even if time activity curves of [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV confirmed that this compound could be used to visualize the VAChT in vivo, at each point of the kinetic study, [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV showed a lower specific binding compared to [{sup 125}I]-IBVM. These results made [{sup 125}I]-( R,R)-5-AOIBV inferior to [{sup 125}I]-IBVM for the VAChT exploration in vivo.

  18. Novel monoamine transporter ligands reduce cocaine-induced enhancement of brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, M; Pimentel, P; Stellar, J R; Hanson, R N; Choi, S W; Elmaleh, D R; Zhang, J; Prakash, K R; Tamiz, A P; Kozikowski, A P; Johnson, K M; Smith, M P; Babich, J W

    2001-01-01

    Six novel monoamine reuptake inhibitors were screened for their intrinsic effects on brain stimulation reward (BSR), as well as for their potential to reduce cocaine-induced reward-enhancement in that paradigm. Two of the compounds, nocaine-3B and 5-ara-74A (disubstituted piperidines) significantly reduced locus of rise (LOR), threshold measure of reward, at some doses. One compound, 1-RV-96A (a hybrid of the GBR and WIN-like agents) significantly reduced reward (increased LOR), but only at the highest dose tested. No effect of dose was found for MC9-20 (a GBR-like acyclic analogue of the N-bisarylmethoxyethyl-N'-phenylpropyl piperazine), nocaine-250B or 4-ara-42C (disubstituted piperidines). When cocaine (10 mg/kg, ip) and selected, hedonically neutral doses of novel compounds were combined, the following findings were obtained: MC9-20 (2.5 mg/kg, ip) showed a significant increase in cocaine-induced reward enhancement (0.2 log units or 53%). In contrast, nocaine-250B and 1-RV-96A (both at 10 mg/kg, ip) demonstrated a significant reduction (0.13 log units or 41%) in cocaine-induced reward enhancement (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively), as measured by changes in LOR. There were no differences in the maximum behavioral output (MAX) at either dose of each of the six drugs, or when selected doses were combined with cocaine. These results indicate that nocaine-250B and 1-RV-96A constitute two potential anticocaine compounds worthy of further behavioral and biochemical evaluation.

  19. A P-gp vesicular transport inhibition assay - optimization and validation for drug-drug interaction testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Palm, Johan E; Andersson, Tommy B; Pál, Ákos; Méhn, Dóra; Fekete, Zsolt; Beéry, Erzsébet; Jakab, Katalin Tauberné; Jani, Márton; Krajcsi, Peter

    2013-07-16

    Accurate determination of potential drug-drug interaction mediated by efflux transporters (tDDI) is crucial to assess the risk of pharmacokinetic interaction and toxicity of drugs. Passive permeability and uptake transporter mediated transport are important covariates of cell-based inhibition assays that need to be taken into consideration when performing kinetic analysis of data. Vesicular uptake inhibition has been considered by regulatory agencies as a viable alternative for testing tDDI potential of low passive permeability drugs in particular. Membranes prepared from a P-gp overexpressing human cell line has superior transport properties over membranes prepared from Sf9 cells and cholesterol enriched Sf9 membranes. P-gp expressed in this membrane effluxes N-methyl-quinidine (NMQ) with high affinity (K(m) is 3.65 μM) and a high rate (V(max) is 656 pmol/mg protein/min). Digoxin, vinblastine and paclitaxel, established P-gp substrates inhibited transport of NMQ with estimated K(i) values of 250, 0.1 and 0.6 μM, respectively. A panel of 11 drugs that have been listed by regulatory agencies as reference inhibitors were used to validate the assay to predict clinical inhibition potential. All the drugs that have been implicated in P-gp mediated DDI were found to be inhibitors in a relevant concentration range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA-fragments are transcytosed across CaCo-2 cells by adsorptive endocytosis and vesicular mediated transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene E Johannessen

    Full Text Available Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB. After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >10(3 fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system.

  1. An interaction between the norepinephrine transporter and monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms, and novelty-seeking personality traits in Korean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boung-Chul; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, So-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2008-01-01

    The personality traits associated with the noradrenergic system have not yet been clearly established. In the present study, we investigated the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), which are major components of the adrenergic system, to elucidate their relationship with personality. A total of 245 normal female Koreans (age 23.05+/-3.07 years, mean+/-SD) volunteered to take part in this study. They filled out a Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and were genotyped for the NET and MAOA-VNTR; the NET T-182C and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms were checked. We found significant main effect of NET genotype on novelty seeking (NS) score (F=5.43, p=0.021) and significant interaction between the NET and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms on NS score (F=11.06, p=0.001). However, there were no relationship between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and NS score, and no association with other temperamental dimensions and these two polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that this functional polymorphism in the noradrenergic gene is associated with novelty seeking in Korean females.

  2. The N terminus of monoamine transporters is a lever required for the action of amphetamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucic, Sonja; Dallinger, Stefan; Zdrazil, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates neurotransmission by removing serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In addition, it is the site of action of antidepressants (which block the transporter) and of amphetamines (which induce substrate efflux). We explored the functional importance of the N...... terminus in mediating the action of amphetamines by focusing initially on the highly conserved threonine residue at position 81, a candidate site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type SERT, compared with its mutations SERT(T81A) and SERT(T81D), suggested......, SERT(T81A) (and the homologous mutations in noradrenaline and dopamine) failed to support amphetamine-induced efflux, and this was not remedied by aspartate at this position. Amphetamine-induced currents through SERT(T81A) were comparable with those through the wild type transporter. Both abundant Na...

  3. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect "fades out" the levamisole/aminorex effect "kicks in". Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Bianca; Eckenstaler, Robert; R?nicke, Raik; Leschik, Julia; Lutz, Beat; Reymann, Klaus; Lessmann, Volkmar; Brigadski, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD...

  5. Vesicular glutamate transporters play a role in neuronal differentiation of cultured SVZ-derived neural precursor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo H Sánchez-Mendoza

    Full Text Available The role of glutamate in the regulation of neurogenesis is well-established, but the role of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs and excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs in controlling adult neurogenesis is unknown. Here we investigated the implication of VGLUTs in the differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs. Our results show that NPCs express VGLUT1-3 and EAAT1-3 both at the mRNA and protein level. Their expression increases during differentiation closely associated with the expression of marker genes. In expression analyses we show that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are preferentially expressed by cultured SVZ-derived doublecortin+ neuroblasts, while VGLUT3 is found on GFAP+ glial cells. In cultured NPCs, inhibition of VGLUT by Evans Blue increased the mRNA level of neuronal markers doublecortin, B3T and MAP2, elevated the number of NPCs expressing doublecortin protein and promoted the number of cells with morphological appearance of branched neurons, suggesting that VGLUT function prevents neuronal differentiation of NPCs. This survival- and differentiation-promoting effect of Evans blue was corroborated by increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced MAPK phosphorylation. Thus, under physiological conditions, VGLUT1-3 inhibition, and thus decreased glutamate exocytosis, may promote neuronal differentiation of NPCs.

  6. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jennifer A; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E; Beckett, Alison J; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A; Prior, Ian A; Lomas, David A; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2016-12-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.-Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. © The Author(s).

  7. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  8. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jennifer A.; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E.; Beckett, Alison J.; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S.; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A.; Prior, Ian A.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.—Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. PMID:27601439

  9. Histamine elimination from the cerebrospinal fluid across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: involvement of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Takuya; Nakazawa, Ayumi; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2016-11-01

    The elimination of histamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter, from the brain/CSF across the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) was investigated using Wistar rats, which were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. An in vivo intracerebral microinjection study suggested that there was only partial efflux of [3 H]histamine from the rat brain across the blood-brain barrier. The [3 H]histamine elimination clearance from the rat CSF was 3.8-fold greater than that of a CSF bulk flow marker, and the elimination of [3 H]histamine was significantly inhibited by the co-administration of unlabeled histamine, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process in histamine elimination from the CSF. The uptake study of [3 H]histamine by the isolated rat choroid plexus revealed histamine elimination from the CSF across the BCSFB. The [3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells, a model cell line for the BCSFB, exhibited temperature-dependent and saturable kinetics, suggesting the involvement of carrier-mediated transport of histamine at the BCSFB. In the inhibition study, [3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells was significantly inhibited by substrates and/or inhibitors of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4), but not affected by substrates of organic cation transporters. These results suggest the elimination of histamine from the CSF via plasma membrane monoamine transporter at the BCSFB. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the rat dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion following inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Yang

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that peripheral glutamate signaling mechanism is involved in the nociceptive transmission during pathological conditions. However, little is known about the glutamate signaling mechanism and related specific type of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT in the dental pulp following inflammation. To address this issue, we investigated expression and protein levels of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion (TG following complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA application to the rat dental pulp by light microscopic immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.The density of VGLUT2- immunopositive (+ axons in the dental pulp and the number of VGLUT2+ soma in the TG increased significantly in the CFA-treated group, compared to control group. The protein levels of VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and TG were also significantly higher in the CFA-treated group than control group by Western blot analysis. The density of VGLUT1+ axons in the dental pulp and soma in the TG remained unchanged in the CFA-treated group.These findings suggest that glutamate signaling that is mediated by VGLUT2 in the pulpal axons may be enhanced in the inflamed dental pulp, which may contribute to pulpal axon sensitization leading to hyperalgesia following inflammation.

  11. Auxin immunolocalization implicates vesicular neurotransmitter-like mode of polar auxin transport in root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Markus; Strnad, Miroslav; Scanlon, Michael J; Mancuso, Stefano; Hochholdinger, Frank; Palme, Klaus; Volkmann, Dieter; Menzel, Diedrik; Baluska, Frantisek

    2006-05-01

    Immunolocalization of auxin using a new specific antibody revealed, besides the expected diffuse cytoplasmic signal, enrichments of auxin at end-poles (cross-walls), within endosomes and within nuclei of those root apex cells which accumulate abundant F-actin at their end-poles. In Brefeldin A (BFA) treated roots, a strong auxin signal was scored within BFA-induced compartments of cells having abundant actin and auxin at their end-poles, as well as within adjacent endosomes, but not in other root cells. Importantly, several types of polar auxin transport (PAT) inhibitors exert similar inhibitory effects on endocytosis, vesicle recycling, and on the enrichments of F-actin at the end-poles. These findings indicate that auxin is transported across F-actin-enriched end-poles (synapses) via neurotransmitter-like secretion. This new concept finds genetic support from the semaphore1, rum1 and rum1/lrt1 mutants of maize which are impaired in PAT, endocytosis and vesicle recycling, as well as in recruitment of F-actin and auxin to the auxin transporting end-poles. Although PIN1 localizes abundantly to the end-poles, and they also fail to support the formation of in these mutants affected in PAT, auxin and F-actin are depleted from their end-poles which also fail to support formation of the large BFA-induced compartments.

  12. Super-resolution microscopy reveals functional organization of dopamine transporters into cholesterol and neuronal activity-dependent nanodomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Lycas, Matthew D.; Erlendsson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    to cholesterol depletion. Live photoactivated localization microscopy shows a similar dopamine transporter membrane organization in live heterologous cells. In neurons, dual-color dSTORM shows that tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 are distinctively localized adjacent to......, but not overlapping with, the dopamine transporter nanodomains. The molecular organization of the dopamine transporter in nanodomains is reversibly reduced by short-term activation of NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors, implicating dopamine transporter nanodomain distribution as a potential mechanism...

  13. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  14. Familial Dysautonomia (FD Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lefler

    Full Text Available A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD, affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD.

  15. Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Sharon; Cohen, Malkiel A; Kantor, Gal; Cheishvili, David; Even, Aviel; Birger, Anastasya; Turetsky, Tikva; Gil, Yaniv; Even-Ram, Sharona; Aizenman, Einat; Bashir, Nibal; Maayan, Channa; Razin, Aharon; Reubinoff, Benjamim E; Weil, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC) while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing) promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD.

  16. Resolving lubrication layers in immersed boundary method simulations of vesicular transport in dendritic spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas; Kusters, Remy; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how neuronal connections in the brain are maintained and reorganized is being revolutionized by new experimental and computational techniques. Existing high-resolution 3D images show that neuronal axons often terminate onto micron-sized structures known as dendritic spines, which are characterized by their thin necks and bulbous heads. Vesicles containing membrane receptors must deform significantly to squeeze into the bulbous heads of the spines, but more quantitative estimates of the force and energy required are still lacking. We have used three-dimensional immersed boundary method simulations to capture the fluid dynamics of vesicle transport into spines. We vary the applied force and neck geometry to identify the region in phase space in which the vesicle can squeeze into the spine. These results are compared to pass-stuck diagrams computed previously in the case of vesicles squeezing through open channels with rigid walls. The resulting force estimates are found to be consistent with the physiological density of motor proteins. Resolving the thin lubricating layers between the vesicles and spine poses significant numerical challenges, and we have used elements from lubrication theory to help resolve these boundary layers.

  17. Whole-Retina Reduced Electrophysiological Activity in Mice Bearing Retina-Specific Deletion of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Jake; Martyn, Amanda C; Li, Anson K C; Dolinar, Eric A; McDonald, Ian S; Coupland, Stuart G; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A; Hill, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Despite rigorous characterization of the role of acetylcholine in retinal development, long-term effects of its absence as a neurotransmitter are unknown. One of the unanswered questions is how acetylcholine contributes to the functional capacity of mature retinal circuits. The current study investigates the effects of disrupting cholinergic signalling in mice, through deletion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the developing retina, pigmented epithelium, optic nerve and optic stalk, on electrophysiology and structure of the mature retina. A combination of electroretinography, optical coherence tomography imaging and histological evaluation assessed retinal integrity in mice bearing retina- targeted (embryonic day 12.5) deletion of VAChT (VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox) and littermate controls at 5 and 12 months of age. VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice did not show any gross changes in nuclear layer cellularity or synaptic layer thickness. However, VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice showed reduced electrophysiological response of the retina to light stimulus under scotopic conditions at 5 and 12 months of age, including reduced a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potential (OP) amplitudes and decreased OP peak power and total energy. Reduced a-wave amplitude was proportional to the reduction in b-wave amplitude and not associated with altered a-wave 10%-90% rise time or inner and outer segment thicknesses. This study used a novel genetic model in the first examination of function and structure of the mature mouse retina with disruption of cholinergic signalling. Reduced amplitude across the electroretinogram wave form does not suggest dysfunction in specific retinal cell types and could reflect underlying changes in the retinal and/or extraretinal microenvironment. Our findings suggest that release of acetylcholine by VAChT is essential for the normal electrophysiological response of the mature mouse retina.

  18. Whole-Retina Reduced Electrophysiological Activity in Mice Bearing Retina-Specific Deletion of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Bedore

    Full Text Available Despite rigorous characterization of the role of acetylcholine in retinal development, long-term effects of its absence as a neurotransmitter are unknown. One of the unanswered questions is how acetylcholine contributes to the functional capacity of mature retinal circuits. The current study investigates the effects of disrupting cholinergic signalling in mice, through deletion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT in the developing retina, pigmented epithelium, optic nerve and optic stalk, on electrophysiology and structure of the mature retina.A combination of electroretinography, optical coherence tomography imaging and histological evaluation assessed retinal integrity in mice bearing retina- targeted (embryonic day 12.5 deletion of VAChT (VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox and littermate controls at 5 and 12 months of age. VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice did not show any gross changes in nuclear layer cellularity or synaptic layer thickness. However, VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice showed reduced electrophysiological response of the retina to light stimulus under scotopic conditions at 5 and 12 months of age, including reduced a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potential (OP amplitudes and decreased OP peak power and total energy. Reduced a-wave amplitude was proportional to the reduction in b-wave amplitude and not associated with altered a-wave 10%-90% rise time or inner and outer segment thicknesses.This study used a novel genetic model in the first examination of function and structure of the mature mouse retina with disruption of cholinergic signalling. Reduced amplitude across the electroretinogram wave form does not suggest dysfunction in specific retinal cell types and could reflect underlying changes in the retinal and/or extraretinal microenvironment. Our findings suggest that release of acetylcholine by VAChT is essential for the normal electrophysiological response of the mature mouse retina.

  19. Increased gene expression of selected vesicular and glial glutamate transporters in the frontal cortex in rats exposed to voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graban, J; Hlavacova, N; Jezova, D

    2017-10-01

    Though positive effects of exercise on mood and well being are well recognised, the central regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood. The present study was aimed to testing the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running activates the gene expression of glutamate transporters in the brain cortex of rats. The animals were assigned to the control and voluntary wheel running groups. Voluntary wheel running rats had free access to a stainless steel activity wheel for 3 weeks. The daily running distance gradually increased to 6.21 ± 1.05 km by day 21. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were significantly elevated in the group of running animals compared to the values in sedentary controls, while the expression of other vesicular transporters were unchanged. The concentrations of mRNA coding for glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), but not glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were increased by running. Voluntary wheel running resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone and increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the frontal cortex. In conclusion, chronic voluntary wheel running results in increased gene expression of VGLUT3 and GLT-1 in the brain cortex without changes in other glutamate transporter subtypes.

  20. Topography of cerebral monoamine transporter availability in families with SCA2 mutations: a voxel-wise [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Boesch, Sylvia M.; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Weirich-Schwaiger, Helga [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Biology and Human Genetics, Innsbruck (Austria); Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the monoamine transporter status of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine throughout the brain in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). To this end, nine patients were studied with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT. Data were compared with ten age-matched healthy control subjects and ten patients with young-onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD), matched for age. Parametric SPECT images of the specific-to-non-displaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (V{sub 3}{sup ''}), which is proportional to the receptor density (B{sub max}), were generated. In order to objectively localise focal changes in {beta}-CIT uptake throughout the brain volume without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to their location, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to SPECT images. Data clusters revealed by SPM, showing significant differences in V{sub 3}{sup ''} values between groups, were transformed onto the individual V{sub 3}{sup ''} image to obtain mean regional uptake values. Both SCA2 and YOPD patients showed significant decreases in striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT uptake when compared with controls. However, in SCA2 patients, additional reductions in caudate/anterior putamen, midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake were localised with SPM. Voxel-wise analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT revealed more widespread decline of monoamine transporter availability in SCA2 than in YOPD, reflecting differences in the underlying pathology. We suggest that the quantification of midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT signal is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients presenting with clinical features of both SCA2 and YOPD at initial investigation. (orig.)

  1. Coexpression of glutamate vesicular transporter (VGLUT1) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) proteins in fetal rat hippocampal neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Neelima; Das, Mainak; Edwards, Darin; Stancescu, Maria; Kang, Jung-Fong; Hickman, James J

    2010-09-01

    A very small population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive cells is observed in all layers of the adult hippocampus. This is the intrinsic source of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, in addition to the well-established septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection. This study aimed at quantifying and identifying the origin of this small population of ChAT-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus at early developmental stages, by culturing the fetal hippocampal neurons in serum-free culture and on a patternable, synthetic silane substrate N-1 [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] diethylenetriamine. Using this method, a large proportion of glutamatergic (glutamate vesicular transporter, VGLUT1-immunoreactive) neurons, a small fraction of GABAergic (GABA-immunoreactive) neurons, and a large proportion of cholinergic (ChAT-immunoreactive) neurons were observed in the culture. Interestingly, most of the glutamatergic neurons that expressed glutamate vesicular transporter (VGLUT1) also co-expressed ChAT proteins. On the contrary, when the cultures were double-stained with GABA and ChAT, colocalization was not observed. Neonatal and adult rat hippocampal neurons were also cultured to verify whether these more mature neurons also co-express VGLUT1 and ChAT proteins in culture. Colocalization of VGLUT1 and ChAT in these relatively more mature neurons was not observed. One possible explanation for this observation is that the neurons have the ability to synthesize multiple neurotransmitters at a very early stage of development and then with time follows a complex, combinatorial strategy of electrochemical coding to determine their final fate.

  2. Phospholipase dzeta2 drives vesicular secretion of auxin for its polar cell-cell transport in the transition zone of the root apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano; Marras, Anna Maria; Mugnai, Sergio; Schlicht, Markus; Zársky, Viktor; Li, Gang; Song, Li; Xue, Hong-Wei; Baluska, Frantisek

    2007-07-01

    Auxin (IAA) is versatile signalling molecule of plants, currently classified as plant hormone. But there are data suggesting that auxin is acting also as plant-specific morphogen, electric-responses inducing transmitter, and as general signalling molecule used for plant-bacteria communication. Our previous data revealed that auxin is associated with secretory endosomes and also highly enriched within cell walls of cells active in transcellular auxin transport. Our present data, based on in vivo non-invasive auxin flux recordings, reveal that auxin is secreted out of synaptic-like domains specialized for efflux of auxin in root apex cells highly active in polar cell-cell transport of auxin. We obtained both genetic and pharmacological evidence that phospholipase Dzeta2 drives vesicular secretion of auxin for its polar transcellular transport in the transition zone of the root apex. Secretion of auxin via secretory vesicles has far-reaching consequences not only for our understanding of cell-cell auxin transport but also for plant sciences as a whole.

  3. Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify oestradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, J; Michopoulos, V; Reding, K M; Wilson, M E; Toufexis, D

    2013-04-01

    Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to the disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that sex-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the aetiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Oestradiol (E2 ) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to the ability of E2 to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation as a result of the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence the ability of E2 to modulate behaviour and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2 -induced changes in behaviour and physiology. The present study used ovariectomised adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using cerobrospinal fluid sampling. We further assessed how E2 -induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females, although this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasise how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress

  4. Elucidation of Structural Elements for Selectivity across Monoamine Transporters: Novel 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (Modafinil) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okunola-Bakara, Oluyomi; Cao, Jianjing; Kopajtic, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil, (±)-1) is a unique dopamine uptake inhibitor that binds the dopamine transporter (DAT) differently than cocaine and may have potential for the treatment of psychostimulant abuse. To further investigate structural requirements for this divergent...

  5. Patchy distributions of myelin and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 align with cytochrome oxidase blobs and interblobs in the superficial layers of the primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockoff, Emily C; Balaram, Pooja; Kaas, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    Blobs are a modular component of the primary visual cortex (area 17) of all primates, but not of other mammals closely related to primates. They are characterized as an even distribution of patches, puffs, or blobs of dense cytochrome oxidase (CO) expression in layer III of area 17, and are now known to differ from surrounding, nonblob cortex in thalamic, intrinsic, and extrastriate connections. Previous studies have also recognized a blob-like pattern of myelin-dense patches in layer III of area 17 of primates, and more recently the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-2 isoform of the VGLUT family has been found to selectively distribute to layer III patches in a similar blob-like pattern. Here, we sought to determine if the blob-like patterns all identify the same modular structures in area 17 of primates by staining alternate brain sections cut parallel to the surface of area 17 of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii) for CO, myelin, and VGLUT2. By aligning the sections from the three preparations, we provide clear evidence that the three preparations all identify the same modular blob structures. The results provide a further understanding of the functional nature of the blobs by demonstrating that their higher level of CO activity is related to thalamic inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus that use VGLUT2 as their main glutamate transporter, and via myelinated axons. PMID:26097384

  6. Autosomal Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease - Muc1 Type: Differential Proteomics Suggests that Mutated Muc1(Insc) Affects Vesicular Transport in Renal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Simon; Wenzel, Andrea; Beck, Bodo B; Rinschen, Markus M; Müller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2018-02-13

    Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease associated to the MUC1 gene (ADTKD-MUC1; formerly MCKD1) belongs to a heterogenous group of rare hereditary kidney diseases that is prototypically caused by frameshift mutations in the MUC1 repeat domain. The mutant MUC1(insC) lacks the transmembrane domaine, exhibits aberant cellular topology and hence might gain a function during the pathological process. To get insight into potential pathomechanisms we performed differential proteomics of extracellular vesicles shed by renal epithelia into the urine of patients. The study was based on three ADTKD patients and individual controls applying iTRAQ/LC-MS/MS. A total of 796 proteins were identified across all biological and technical replicates, and 298 proteins were quantified. A proportion of 47 proteins were fold-changed species. GO Term Enrichment analysis revealed proteins with significantly changed expression in ADTKD-associated extracellular vesicles as vesicular transport-associated proteins. Among these VTA1 is involved in the endosomal multivesicular body (MVB) pathway associated with transport to lysosomes or export via exosomes. VTA1 is also claimed to play roles as a cofactor of the AAA ATPases VPS4A and VPS4B in the disassembly of ESCRT III. Protein interaction databases list VPS4B, CHMP2A and IST1 as VTA1 binding partners. (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008389.) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Essential roles of aspartate aminotransferase 1 and vesicular glutamate transporters in β-cell glutamate signaling for incretin-induced insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Murao

    Full Text Available Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS that requires two critical processes: 1 generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2 glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1, a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively, which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles. Got1 knockout (KO β-cell lines were defective in cytosolic glutamate production from glucose and showed impaired IIIS. Unexpectedly, different from the previous finding that global Slc17a7 KO mice exhibited impaired IIIS from pancreatic islets, β-cell specific Slc17a7 KO mice showed no significant impairment in IIIS, as assessed by pancreas perfusion experiment. Single Slc17a7 KO β-cell lines also retained IIIS, probably due to compensatory upregulation of Slc17a6. Interestingly, triple KO of Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8 diminished IIIS, which was rescued by exogenously introduced wild-type Slc17a7 or Slc17a6 genes. The present study provides direct evidence for the essential roles of AST1 and VGLUTs in β-cell glutamate signaling for IIIS and also shows the usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for studying β-cells by simultaneous disruption of multiple genes.

  8. Decreased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and complexin II mRNAs in schizophrenia: further evidence for a synaptic pathology affecting glutamate neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S L; Harrison, P J

    2005-03-01

    Synaptic protein gene expression is altered in schizophrenia. In the hippocampal formation there may be particular involvement of glutamatergic neurons and their synapses, but overall the profile remains unclear. In this in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) study, we examined four informative synaptic protein transcripts: vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2, complexin I, and complexin II, in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), superior temporal cortex (STC), and hippocampal formation, in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 18 controls. In these areas, VGLUT1 and complexin II are expressed primarily by excitatory neurons, whereas complexin I is mainly expressed by inhibitory neurons. In schizophrenia, VGLUT1 mRNA was decreased in hippocampal formation and DPFC, complexin II mRNA was reduced in DPFC and STC, and complexin I mRNA decreased in STC. Hippocampal VGLUT1 mRNA declined with age selectively in the schizophrenia group. VGLUT2 mRNA was not quantifiable due to its low level. The data provide additional evidence for a synaptic pathology in schizophrenia, in terms of a reduced expression of three synaptic protein genes. In the hippocampus, the loss of VGLUT1 mRNA supports data indicating that glutamatergic presynaptic deficits are prominent, whereas the pattern of results in temporal and frontal cortex suggests broadly similar changes may affect inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The impairment of synaptic transmission implied by the synaptic protein reductions may contribute to the dysfunction of cortical neural circuits that characterises the disorder.

  9. Kinetic modeling of [18 F]VAT, a novel radioligand for PET imaging vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in nonhuman primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Liu, Hui; Han, Junbin; Flores, Hubert; Su, Yi; Parsons, Stanley M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2018-01-06

    Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution (VT ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques. Using the cerebellum-hemispheres as the reference region with data from seven macaques, three additional models were compared: reference tissue model (RTM), simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), and Logan graphic analysis (LoganREF). Model selection criterion (MSC) indicated that a) 2TCM and SRTM were the most appropriate kinetics models for [18 F]VAT; and b) SRTM was strongly correlated with 2TCM (Pearson's coefficients r > 0.93, p VAT has good reproducibility and reliability (TRV 0.72). These studies demonstrate [18 F]VAT is a promising VAChT PET tracer for quantitative assessment of VAChT levels in the brain of living subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Patchy distributions of myelin and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 align with cytochrome oxidase blobs and interblobs in the superficial layers of the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockoff EC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emily C Rockoff,1 Pooja Balaram,1 Jon H Kaas1,2 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Blobs are a modular component of the primary visual cortex (area 17 of all primates, but not of other mammals closely related to primates. They are characterized as an even distribution of patches, puffs, or blobs of dense cytochrome oxidase (CO expression in layer III of area 17, and are now known to differ from surrounding, nonblob cortex in thalamic, intrinsic, and extrastriate connections. Previous studies have also recognized a blob-like pattern of myelin-dense patches in layer III of area 17 of primates, and more recently the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT-2 isoform of the VGLUT family has been found to selectively distribute to layer III patches in a similar blob-like pattern. Here, we sought to determine if the blob-like patterns all identify the same modular structures in area 17 of primates by staining alternate brain sections cut parallel to the surface of area 17 of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii for CO, myelin, and VGLUT2. By aligning the sections from the three preparations, we provide clear evidence that the three preparations all identify the same modular blob structures. The results provide a further understanding of the functional nature of the blobs by demonstrating that their higher level of CO activity is related to thalamic inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus that use VGLUT2 as their main glutamate transporter, and via myelinated axons. Keywords: columns, modules, visual cortex, primates, prosimians

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Syntaxin 6 Is Required for Vesicular Transport Between Endosomal-Like Compartments and the Golgi Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison J; Clucas, Caroline; Mamczur, Nicola J; Ferguson, David J; Meissner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that invade the host cell in an active process that relies on unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules) localized at the apical tip of these highly polarized eukaryotes. In order for the contents of these specialized organelles to reach their final destination, these proteins are sorted post-Golgi and it has been speculated that they pass through endosomal-like compartments (ELCs), where they undergo maturation. Here, we characterize a Toxoplasma gondii homologue of Syntaxin 6 (TgStx6), a well-established marker for the early endosomes and trans Golgi network (TGN) in diverse eukaryotes. Indeed, TgStx6 appears to have a role in the retrograde transport between ELCs, the TGN and the Golgi, because overexpression of TgStx6 results in the development of abnormally shaped parasites with expanded ELCs, a fragmented Golgi and a defect in inner membrane complex maturation. Interestingly, other organelles such as the micronemes, rhoptries and the apicoplast are not affected, establishing the TGN as a major sorting compartment where several transport pathways intersect. It therefore appears that Toxoplasma has retained a plant-like secretory pathway. PMID:23962112

  12. Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Philippe; Fox, Susan H.; Brotchie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are secondary to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. However, the degenerative process in PD is not limited to the dopaminergic system and also affects serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Because they can increase monoamine levels throughout the brain, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAUIs) represent potential therapeutic agents in PD. However, they are seldom used in clinical practice other than as antidepressants and wake-promoting agents. This review article summarises all of the available literature on use of 50 MAUIs in PD. The compounds are divided according to their relative potency for each of the monoamine transporters. Despite wide discrepancy in the methodology of the studies reviewed, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) selective serotonin transporter (SERT), selective noradrenaline transporter (NET), and dual SERT/NET inhibitors are effective against PD depression; (2) selective dopamine transporter (DAT) and dual DAT/NET inhibitors exert an anti-Parkinsonian effect when administered as monotherapy but do not enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); (3) dual DAT/SERT inhibitors might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA without worsening dyskinesia; (4) triple DAT/NET/SERT inhibitors might exert an anti-Parkinsonian action as monotherapy and might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, though at the expense of worsening dyskinesia. PMID:25810948

  13. Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) improved novel object recognition task and increased cerebral vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 in sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyabhan, Pritsana; Wannasiri, Supaporn; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn

    2016-12-01

    Reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) indicate glutamatergic hypofunction leading to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, VGLUT3 involvement in cognitive dysfunction has not been reported in schizophrenia. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) might be a new treatment and prevention for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia by acting on cerebral VGLUT3 density. We aimed to study cognitive enhancement- and neuroprotective-effects of Brahmi on novel object recognition and cerebral VGLUT3 immunodensity in sub-chronic (2 mg/kg, Bid, ip) phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Rats were assigned to three groups for cognitive enhancement effect study: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, PCP+Brahmi. A neuroprotective-effect study was also carried out. Rats were again assigned to three groups: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, Brahmi+PCP. Discrimination ratio (DR) representing cognitive ability was obtained from a novel object recognition task. VGLUT3 immunodensity was measured in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cornu ammonis fields 1-3 (CA1-3) using immunohistochemistry. We found reduced DR in the PCP group, which occurred alongside VGLUT3 reduction in all brain areas. PCP+Brahmi showed higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Brahmi+PCP group showed a higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. We concluded that reduced cerebral VGLUT3 was involved in cognitive deficit in PCP-administrated rats. Receiving Brahmi after PCP restored cognitive deficit by increasing VGLUT3 in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Receiving Brahmi before PCP prevented cognitive impairment by elevating VGLUT3 in prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. Therefore, Brahmi could be a new frontier of restoration and prevention of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modifies the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Mathieu; Carcenac, Carole; Drui, Guillaume; Boulet, Sabrina; El Mestikawy, Salah; Savasta, Marc

    2013-12-05

    It has been suggested that glutamatergic system hyperactivity may be related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) import glutamate into synaptic vesicles and are key anatomical and functional markers of glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 have been identified as definitive markers of glutamatergic neurons, but VGLUT 3 is also expressed by non glutamatergic neurons. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are thought to be expressed in a complementary manner in the cortex and the thalamus (VL/VM), in glutamatergic neurons involved in different physiological functions. Chronic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the neurosurgical therapy of choice for the management of motor deficits in patients with advanced PD. STN-HFS is highly effective, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study examines the effect of STN-HFS on VGLUT1-3 expression in different brain nuclei involved in motor circuits, namely the basal ganglia (BG) network, in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Here we report that: 1) Dopamine(DA)-depletion did not affect VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 expression but significantly decreased that of VGLUT2 in almost all BG structures studied; 2) STN-HFS did not change VGLUT1-3 expression in the different brain areas of normal rats while, on the contrary, it systematically induced a significant increase of their expression in DA-depleted rats and 3) STN-HFS reversed the decrease in VGLUT2 expression induced by the DA-depletion. These results show for the first time a comparative analysis of changes of expression for the three VGLUTs induced by STN-HFS in the BG network of normal and hemiparkinsonian rats. They provide evidence for the involvement of VGLUT2 in the modulation of BG cicuits and in particular that of thalamostriatal and thalamocortical pathways suggesting their key role in its therapeutic effects for alleviating PD motor symptoms.

  15. Synthesis, resolution, and in vitro evaluation of three vesicular acetylcholine transporter ligands and evaluation of the lead fluorine-18 radioligand in a nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xuyi; Jin, Hongjun; Liu, Hui; Luo, Zonghua; Zhang, Xiang; Kaneshige, Kota; Flores, Hubert P; Perlmutter, Joel S; Parsons, Stanley M; Tu, Zhude

    2017-06-21

    The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a reliable biomarker for assessing cholinergic dysfunction associated with dementia. We recently reported three new potent and selective carbon-11 labeled VAChT radiotracers. Herein, we report the resolution with a Chiralcel OD column of three additional fluorine containing VAChT ligands in which a fluoroethoxy or fluoroethylamino moiety was substituted for the methoxy group. An in vitro competitive binding assay showed that (-)-7 had high potency for VAChT (Ki-VAChT = 0.31 ± 0.03 nM) and excellent selectivity for VAChT versus σ receptors (Ki-σ1 = 1870 ± 250 nM, Ki-σ2 = 5480 ± 140 nM). Three different radiolabeling approaches were explored; the radiosynthesis of (-)-[18F]7 was successfully accomplished via a stepwise two-pot, three-step method with moderate yield (11 ± 2%) and high radiochemical purity (>98%). PET imaging studies in a nonhuman primate indicated that (-)-[18F]7 rapidly entered the brain and accumulated in the VAChT-enriched striatum. The uptake of (-)-[18F]7 in the target striatal area peaked at 10 min and displayed improved clearance kinetics compared to the VAChT tracer [18F]VAT, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for first-in-man studies. These studies justify further investigation of (-)-[18F]7 and exploration of the structure-activity relationships of these fluoroethoxy and fluoroethylamino analogs.

  16. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, res...

  18. Monoamine neurotransmitter disorders--clinical advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanne; Papandreou, Apostolos; Heales, Simon J; Kurian, Manju A

    2015-10-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are important genetic syndromes that cause disturbances in catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline) and serotonin homeostasis. These disorders result in aberrant monoamine synthesis, metabolism and transport. The clinical phenotypes are predominantly neurological, and symptoms resemble other childhood neurological disorders, such as dystonic or dyskinetic cerebral palsy, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and movement disorders. As a consequence, monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are under-recognized and often misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders requires detailed clinical assessment, cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter analysis and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is paramount, as many are responsive to treatment. The treatment is usually mechanism-based, with the aim to reverse disturbances of monoamine synthesis and/or metabolism. Therapeutic intervention can lead to complete resolution of motor symptoms in some conditions, and considerably improve quality of life in others. In this Review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and management of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders, and consider novel concepts, the latest advances in research and future prospects for therapy.

  19. The monoamine oxidase A inhibitor clorgyline is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of fungal ABC and MFS transporter efflux pump activities which reverses the azole resistance of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ann R; Keniya, Mikhail V; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Monk, Brian C; Lamping, Erwin; Sklar, Larry A; Cannon, Richard D

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to the commonly used azole antifungal fluconazole (FLC) can develop due to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) plasma membrane transporters. An approach to overcoming this resistance is to identify inhibitors of these efflux pumps. We have developed a pump assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) that uses recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains hyperexpressing individual transporters from the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The recombinant strains possess greater resistance to azoles and other pump substrates than the parental host strain. A flow cytometry-based HTS, which measured increased intracellular retention of the fluorescent pump substrate rhodamine 6G (R6G) within yeast cells, was used to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library (PCL) of 1,200 marketed drugs. Nine compounds were identified as hits, and the monoamine oxidase A inhibitor (MAOI) clorgyline was identified as an inhibitor of two C. albicans ABC efflux pumps, CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p. Secondary in vitro assays confirmed inhibition of pump-mediated efflux by clorgyline. Clorgyline also reversed the FLC resistance of S. cerevisiae strains expressing other individual fungal ABC transporters (Candida glabrata Cdr1p or Candida krusei Abc1p) or the C. albicans MFS transporter Mdr1p. Recombinant strains were also chemosensitized by clorgyline to other azoles (itraconazole and miconazole). Importantly, clorgyline showed synergy with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates and a C. glabrata strain and inhibited R6G efflux from a FLC-resistant C. albicans clinical isolate. Clorgyline is a novel broad-spectrum inhibitor of two classes of fungal efflux pumps that acts synergistically with azoles against azole-resistant C. albicans and C. glabrata strains.

  20. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  1. Further structure-activity relationship studies on 8-substituted-3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidenyl)]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives at monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cararas, Shaine A; Izenwasser, Sari; Wade, Dean; Housman, Amy; Verma, Abha; Lomenzo, Stacey A; Trudell, Mark L

    2011-12-15

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 8-substituted-3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidenyl)]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives were investigated at the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET). The rigid ethylidenyl-8-azabicyclic[3.2.1]octane skeleton imparted modestly stereoselective binding and uptake inhibition at the DAT. Additional structure-activity studies provided a transporter affinity profile that was reminiscent of the structure-activity of GBR 12909. From these studies, the 8-cyclopropylmethyl group has been identified as a unique moiety that imparts high SERT/DAT selectivity. In this study the 8-cyclopropylmethyl derivative 22e (DAT K(i) of 4.0 nM) was among the most potent compounds of the series at the DAT and was the most DAT selective ligand of the series (SERT/DAT: 1060). Similarly, the 8-chlorobenzyl derivative 22g (DAT K(i) of 3.9 nM) was found to be highly selective for the DAT over the NET (NET/DAT: 1358). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C. [Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  3. Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-01-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species...

  4. Molecular characterization of transport lectin vesicular integral membrane protein 36 kDa (VIP36) in the life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Alice Maria de M; de Paula, Renato G; Morais, Enyara R; Magalhães, Lizandra G; da Silva, Annielle M B; Gomes, Matheus S; de Castro-Borges, William; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2017-10-01

    VIP36 is a protein described as an L-type lectin in animals, responsible for the intracellular transport of glycoproteins within the secretory pathway, and also localized on the plasma membrane. Schistosoma mansoni has a complex system of vesicles and protein transport machinery to the cell surface. The excreted/secreted products of the larvae and eggs are known to be exposed to the host immune system. Hence, characterizing the role and action of SmVIP36 in the S. mansoni life cycle is important for a better understanding of the parasite-host relationship. To this purpose, we firstly performed in silico analysis. Analysis of SmVIP36 in silico revealed that it contains a lectin leg-like domain with a jellyroll fold as seen by its putative 3D tertiary structure. Additionally, it was also observed that its CRD contains calcium ion-binding amino acids, suggesting that the binding of SmVIP36 to glycoproteins is calcium-dependent. Finally, we observed that the SmVIP36 predicted amino acid sequence relative to its orthologs was conserved. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that SmVIP36 follows species evolution, forming a further cluster with its definitive host Homo sapiens. Moreover, q-PCR analysis in the S. mansoni life cycle points to a significant increase in gene expression in the eggs, schistosomulae, and female adult stages. Similarly, protein expression increased in eggs, cercariae, schistosomulae, and adult worm stages. These results suggest that SmVIP36 might participate in the complex secretory activity within the egg envelope and tegument proteins, both important for the stages of the parasite that interact with the host.

  5. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  6. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  7. Influenza infection modulates vesicular trafficking and induces Golgi complex disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vibha; Panganiban, Antonito T; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Voss, Thomas G

    2016-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi. Also, we carried out complementary studies to determine the effect of IFV on intracellular membranes. Inhibition of the CRM1 and TAP-P15 nuclear transport pathways by DRB and LB blocked completely the export of virus. Inhibition of vesicular trafficking by BFA, NOC, and ZWEHD also affected influenza infection. Interestingly, IFV infection induced fragmentation of the Golgi complex resulting in diffuse distribution of large and small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. Live-cell microscopy revealed expansion of Golgi localization signals indicating progressive dispersion of Golgi positive structures, resulting in the disassembly of the Golgi ribbon structure. Other vesicular components (Rab1b, ARF1 and GBF1) were also found to be required for IFV infection. Furthermore, the exact step at which IFV infection disrupts vesicle trafficking was identified as the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. These findings suggest that IFV NP is trafficked from the nucleus via the CRM1 and TAP pathways. IFV modulates vesicular trafficking inducing disruption of the Golgi complex. These studies provide insight on the ways in which IFV affects intracellular trafficking of different host proteins and will facilitate identification of useful pharmaceutical targets to abrogate virus

  8. Vascular dysfunction associated with major depression-like symptoms: monoamine homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Andresen, Jørgen; Wiborg, Ove

    . Anhedonic rats have decreased cardiac output and unchanged blood pressure, suggesting increased total peripheral resistance. Small mesenteric and femoral arteries from CMS and non-stressed rats responded similarly to noradrenaline (NA) under control conditions but inhibition of neuronal reuptake...... with cocaine increased NA sensitivity stronger in anhedonic than in resilient and non-stressed groups. In contrast, corticosterone-sensitive extra-neuronal monoamine uptake was diminished in rats exposed to CMS. These changes in monoamine homeostasis were associated with upregulation neuronal NA transporter...

  9. Metabolism of monoamines in invertebrates: the relative importance of monoamine oxidase in different phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloley, B Duff

    2004-01-01

    A review of the occurrence of monoamine oxidase activity in invertebrates is presented. In contrast to vertebrates, invertebrates use a variety of enzymatic routes to metabolise monoamines. These routes include N-acetylation, gamma-glutamyl conjugation, sugar conjugation, sulphation, beta-alanyl conjugation as well as oxidative deamination. Some of these enzymatic routes appear to be strictly catabolic whereas others result in metabolites used for structural and pigmentation purposes. The development of the various catabolic routes for monoamines in different groups of invertebrates may be dependent on the physical requirements of the diverse excretory organs used by these animals.

  10. Vesicular secretion of auxin: Evidences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin is secreted in root apices via phospholipase Dzeta2 (PLDzeta2) activity which produces specific population of phosphatidic acid that stimulates secretion of vesicles enriched with auxin. These vesicles were reported to be localized at plant synapses which are active in auxin secretion, especially at the transition zone of the root apex. There are several implications of this vesicular secretion of auxin. In root apices, auxin emerges as plant neurotransmitter-like signal molecule which coordinates activities of adjacent cells via electric and chemical signaling. Putative quantal release of auxin after electrical stimulation, if confirmed, would be part of neuronal communication between plant cells. As auxin transport across plant synapses is tightly linked with integrated sensory perception of environment, especially of omnipresent gravity and light, this process is proposed to mediate the plant perception of environment. These neuronal features allow sessile plants to integrate multitude of sensory signals into the adaptive behavior of whole plants and the animal-like exploratory behavior of growing roots.

  11. Laminar and Cellular Distribution of Monoamine Receptors in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Santana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively, the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC. In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons. The reciprocal connectivity between PFC and monoamine cell groups is of interest to study the pathophysiology and treatment of severe psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and schizophrenia, inasmuch as antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs target monoamine receptors/transporters expressed in these areas. Here we review previous reports examining the presence of monoamine receptors in pyramidal and GABAergic neurons of the PFC using double in situ hybridization. Additionally, we present new data on the quantitative layer distribution (layers I, II–III, V, and VI of monoamine receptor-expressing cells in the cingulate (Cg, prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL subfields of the medial PFC (mPFC. The receptors examined include serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT3, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, and α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-adrenoceptors. With the exception of 5-HT3 receptors, selectively expressed by layers I–III GABA interneurons, the rest of monoamine receptors are widely expressed by pyramidal and GABAergic neurons in intermediate and deep layers of mPFC (5-HT2C receptors are also expressed in layer I. This complex distribution suggests that monoamines may modulate the communications between PFC and cortical/subcortical areas through the activation of receptors expressed by neurons in intermediate (e.g., 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, α1D-adrenoceptors, dopamine D1 receptors and deep

  12. Pharmacological and behavioral analysis of the effects of some bivalent ligand-based monoamine reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiz, A P; Bandyopadhyay, B C; Zhang, J; Flippen-Anderson, J L; Zhang, M; Wang, C Z; Johnson, K M; Tella, S; Kozikowski, A P

    2001-05-10

    Novel piperidine-based bivalent ligands were prepared in enantiomerically pure form and evaluated for their ability to inhibit reuptake of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) into rat brain nerve endings (synaptosomes). In this study, we have succeeded in using (1) the length of the linking chain connecting the two piperidine-based monomer units and (2) the absolute configuration of the piperidine monomer as a means to tailor activity and selectivity at the three monoamine transporters tested. In this series, the bivalent ligand 16, comprised of two (+)-trans-piperidine units linked by a pentamethylene spacer, exhibits a combination of high DA transporter (DAT) and 5-HT transporter (SERT) activity (K(i) = 39 nM and 7 nM, respectively). Piperidine 16 is capable of reducing cocaine's locomotor effects in mice while not having any effect on locomotion when tested alone. Additionally, compound 16 (1-10 mg/kg) does not substitute for cocaine in drug discrimination studies in rats. However, the analogous bivalent ligand 15 comprised of two (-)-trans-piperidine units, which is SERT selective, was less effective in antagonizing cocaine's locomotor stimulant activity. The piperidine-based bivalent inhibitors described herein constitute a new class of monoamine reuptake inhibitors that exhibit varying levels of monoamine transporter activity and selectivity, and these ligands may serve as lead candidates in the discovery of new therapeutics to treat a range of neurological disorders including cocaine addiction.

  13. Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes and their relationship to personality traits measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samochowiec, Jerzy; Syrek, Szymon; Michał, Parus; Ryzewska-Wódecka, Aneta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Horodnicki, Jan; Zakrzewska, Marzena; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    The associations between 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTT-LPR), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)-LPR and the dimensions of temperament evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were studied. One hundred healthy volunteers (without psychiatric disorders) were recruited to represent a cross-section of the population of Szczecin (Poland) in terms of sex, age and education. No associations between 5-HTT-LPR and the TCI harm avoidance dimension and between 5-HTT-LPR and the NEO-FFI neuroticism dimension were found. Males carrying the 3-VNTR MAOA gene variant (209 bp) had significantly lower values on the NEO-FFI openness dimension (p = 0.039) and obtained higher scores on the subdimension 3 of the TCI reward dependence (RD3), i.e. attachment vs. detachment (p = 0.005). Individuals carrying the 'short' variant of 5-HTT-LPR had lower values on the reward dependence dimension and the RD4 subdimension (dependence vs. independence) than individuals not carrying the 'short' variant (p = 0.039 and p = 0.011, respectively). Females carrying the 'short' variant had lower values on NS1 (exploratory excitability vs. stoic rigidity) and RD4 (dependence vs. independence) than those not carrying the variant (p = 0.042 and 0.043, respectively). The obtained level of significance with respect to the observed associations between 5-HTT-LPR and the reward dependence scales and subscales and between 5-HTT-LPR and the NS1 subscale are too weak for further interpretation. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis that there is a simple correlation between single gene polymorphisms and a personality trait measured by the TCI and NEO-FFI scales.

  14. Process characterization of a monoamine oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Redox biocatalysis is currently gaining focus because it offers exquisite selectivity using mild oxidants, such as oxygen (which is environmentally benign). However, it is often challenging to implement oxidative reactions at scale due to the low activity and stability of the biocatalyst under in...... biocatalytic process using a monoamine oxidase to synthesise an intermediate in the manufacture of a drug for treating Hepatitis C (Telaprevir)....

  15. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  16. Vascular dysfunction in Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) induced depression model in rats: monoamine homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    decreased cardiac output and unchanged blood pressure, suggesting increased total peripheral resistance. Small mesenteric and femoral arteries from CMS and non-stressed rats responded similarly to noradrenaline (NA) under control conditions but inhibition of neuronal reuptake with cocaine increased NA...... sensitivity stronger in anhedonic than in resilient and non-stressed groups. In contrast, corticosterone-sensitive extra-neuronal monoamine uptake was diminished in rats exposed to CMS. These changes in monoamine homeostasis were associated with upregulation neuronal NA transporter and reduced expression...

  17. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  18. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  19. Clinical features and pharmacotherapy of childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J; Heales, S J R; Kurian, M A

    2014-08-01

    Childhood neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognised as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes. They are caused by disturbance in synthesis, metabolism, and homeostasis of the monoamine neurotransmitters, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine neurotransmission will lead to neurological symptoms that often overlap with clinical features of other childhood neurological disorders (such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, other movement disorders, and paroxysmal conditions); consequently, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is made through detailed clinical assessment, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Early and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are amenable to therapeutic intervention. The principles of treatment for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are mainly directly derived from understanding these metabolic pathways. In disorders characterized by enzyme deficiency, we aim to increase monoamine substrate availability, boost enzyme co-factor levels, reduce monoamine breakdown, and replace depleted levels of monoamines with pharmacological analogs as clinically indicated. Most monoamine neurotransmitter disorders lead to reduced levels of central dopamine and/or serotonin. Complete amelioration of motor symptoms is achievable in some disorders, such as Segawa's syndrome, and, in other conditions, significant improvement in quality of life can be attained with pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features and current treatment strategies for childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

  20. Effects of human placental extract on brain monoamines and monoamine oxidase activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, K K; Bishayee, A; Chatterjee, M

    1995-05-01

    Human placental extract, an agent clinically used world-wide in a number of physiological anomalies, has been claimed to be effective in children of slow learners. Since the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems in the brain play an important role in the processes of learning and memory, we examined the effects of human placental extract on the levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonine in rat brain as an attempt to evaluate the possible underlying biochemical mechanism of action of the extract. We also determined the changes of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity following placental extract treatment. The results showed that subchronic (5, 10, 15 or 20) administration of placental extract (2-4 ml/kg/day) had the effect of increasing all the monoamines and decreasing the MAO activity which could be the possible mode of action of the extract in slow learners.

  1. Expression, sorting and transport studies for the orphan carrier SLC10A4 in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines and in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephanie; Moncada, Marcela; Burger, Simone; Geyer, Joachim

    2015-06-19

    SLC10A4 belongs to the solute carrier family SLC10 whose founding members are the Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2). These carriers maintain the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids between the liver and the gut. SLC10A4 was identified as a novel member of the SLC10 carrier family with the highest phylogenetic relationship to NTCP. The SLC10A4 protein was detected in synaptic vesicles of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system, suggesting a transport function for any kind of neurotransmitter. Therefore, in the present study, we performed systematic transport screenings for SLC10A4 and also aimed to identify the vesicular sorting domain of the SLC10A4 protein. We detected a vesicle-like expression pattern of the SLC10A4 protein in the neuronal cell lines SH-SY5Y and CAD. Differentiation of these cells to the neuronal phenotype altered neither SLC10A4 gene expression nor its vesicular expression pattern. Functional transport studies with different neurotransmitters, bile acids and steroid sulfates were performed in SLC10A4-transfected HEK293 cells, SLC10A4-transfected CAD cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. For these studies, transport by the dopamine transporter DAT, the serotonin transporter SERT, the choline transporter CHT1, the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, the organic cation transporter Oct1, and NTCP were used as positive control. SLC10A4 failed to show transport activity for dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, acetylcholine, choline, acetate, aspartate, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, pregnenolone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrone-3-sulfate, and adenosine triphosphate, at least in the transport assays used. When the C-terminus of SLC10A4 was replaced by the homologous sequence of NTCP, the SLC10A4-NTCP chimeric protein revealed clear plasma membrane expression in CAD and HEK

  2. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. Methods American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. Results For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. Conclusion This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast. PMID:29385198

  3. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  4. Monoamine oxidase and agitation in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Podobnik, Josip; Kozumplik, Oliver; Vlatkovic, Suzana; Pivac, Nela

    2016-08-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of platelet MAO-B activity, MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism and MAOA uVNTR polymorphism with severe agitation in 363 subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. The results demonstrated significant association of severe agitation and smoking, but not diagnosis or age, with platelet MAO-B activity. Higher platelet MAO-B activity was found in subjects with severe agitation compared to non-agitated subjects. Platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism. These results suggested the association between increased platelet MAO-B activity and severe agitation. No significant association was found between severe agitation and MAOA uVNTR or MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism, revealing that these individual polymorphisms in MAO genes are not related to severe agitation in subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. As our study included 363 homogenous Caucasian male subjects, our data showing this negative genetic association will be a useful addition to future meta-analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ether modifications to 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503): effects on binding affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors and monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A; Peterson, Ryan M; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A; Lever, John R; Lever, Susan Z

    2015-01-01

    Two series of novel ether analogs of the sigma (σ) receptor ligand 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503) have been prepared. In one series, the alkyl portion of the 4-methoxy group was replaced with allyl, propyl, bromoethyl, benzyl, phenethyl, and phenylpropyl moieties. In the second series, the 3,4-dimethoxy was replaced with cyclic methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy groups. These ligands, along with 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, were evaluated for σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity, and compared to SA4503 and several known ether analogs. SA4503 and a subset of ether analogs were also evaluated for dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) affinity. The highest σ1 receptor affinities, Ki values of 1.75-4.63 nM, were observed for 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, SA4503 and the methylenedioxy analog. As steric bulk increased, σ1 receptor affinity decreased, but only to a point. Allyl, propyl and bromoethyl substitutions gave σ1 receptor Ki values in the 20-30 nM range, while bulkier analogs having phenylalkyl, and Z- and E-iodoallyl, ether substitutions showed higher σ1 affinities, with Ki values in the 13-21 nM range. Most ligands studied exhibited comparable σ1 and σ2 affinities, resulting in little to no subtype selectivity. SA4503, the fluoroethyl analog and the methylenedioxy congener showed modest six- to fourteen-fold selectivity for σ1 sites. DAT and SERT interactions proved much more sensitive than σ receptor interactions to these structural modifications. For example, the benzyl congener (σ1Ki=20.8 nM; σ2Ki=16.4 nM) showed over 100-fold higher DAT affinity (Ki=121 nM) and 6-fold higher SERT affinity (Ki=128nM) than the parent SA4503 (DAT Ki=12650 nM; SERT Ki=760 nM). Thus, ether modifications to the SA4503 scaffold can provide polyfunctional ligands having a broader spectrum of possible pharmacological actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Cintia; Furuichi, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Ryu, Heungjin; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor gene (AR), monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ), AR glycine repeat (ARG), MAOA intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MAin2) and MAOB intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MBin2) in 32 wild bonobos, Pa...

  7. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigusa, T.; Aono, Y.; Sekino, R.; Uchida, T.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular

  8. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of heterocyclic chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minders, Corné; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U

    2015-11-15

    Studies have shown that natural and synthetic chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones) possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activities. Of particular importance to the present study is a report that a series of furanochalcones acts as MAO-B selective inhibitors. Since the effect of heterocyclic substitution, other than furan (and more recently thiophene, piperidine and quinoline) on the MAO inhibitory properties of the chalcone scaffold remains unexplored, the aim of this study was to synthesise and evaluate further heterocyclic chalcone analogues as inhibitors of the human MAOs. For this purpose, heterocyclic chalcone analogues that incorporate pyrrole, 5-methylthiophene, 5-chlorothiophene and 6-methoxypyridine substitution were examined. Seven of the nine synthesised compounds exhibited IC50 values chalcones are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors. 4h, however, may exhibit tight-binding to MAO-B, a property linked to its thiophene moiety. We conclude that high potency chalcones such as 4h represent suitable leads for the development of MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  10. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...... to neuropathic pain we applied Chung's rodent pain model on BALB/c mice, and traced zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) proteins and zinc ions with immunohistochemistry and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Under anesthesia the left fifth lumbar spinal nerve was ligated in male mice in order to produced neuropathic...... gray matters of especially layer I-IV of the same segments. The transection-induced reduction of vesicular zinc in ZEN terminals of the dorsal horn was synchronic to reduced pain threshold, as measured by von Frey method. In a separate study, we observed intensive zinc selenite precipitation in somata...

  11. Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsi, Livia; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence increasing with age. Oxidative stress and glutamate toxicity are involved in its pathomechanism. There are still many unmet needs of PD patients, including the alleviation of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, and the development of therapies with neuroprotective potential. To give an overview of the pharmacological properties, the efficacy and safety of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors in the treatment of PD, with special focus on the results of randomized clinical trials. A literature search was conducted in PubMed for 'PD treatment', 'MAO-B inhibitors', 'selegiline', 'rasagiline', 'safinamide' and 'clinical trials' with 'MAO-B inhibitors' in 'Parkinson' disease'. MAO-B inhibitors have a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, improve the dopamine deficient state and may have neuroprotective properties. Safinamide exhibits an anti-glutamatergic effect as well. When applied as monotherapy, MAO-B inhibitors provide a modest, but significant improvement of motor function and delay the need for levodopa. Rasagiline and safinamide were proven safe and effective when added to a dopamine agonist in early PD. As add-on to levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors significantly reduced off-time and were comparable in efficacy to COMT inhibitors. Improvements were achieved as regards certain non-motor symptoms as well. Due to the efficacy shown in clinical trials and their favorable side-effect profile, MAO-B inhibitors are valuable drugs in the treatment of PD. They are recommended as monotherapy in the early stages of the disease and as add-on therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. The inhibition of monoamine oxidase by esomeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzer, A; Pienaar, A; Petzer, J P

    2013-09-01

    Virtual screening of a library of drugs has suggested that esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, may possess binding affinities for the active sites of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B enzymes. Based on this finding, the current study examines the MAO inhibitory properties of esomeprazole. Using recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B, IC50 values for the inhibition of these enzymes by esomeprazole were experimentally determined. To examine the reversibility of MAO inhibition by esomeprazole, the recoveries of the enzymatic activities after dilution of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes were evaluated. In addition, reversibility of inhibition was also examined by measuring the recoveries of enzyme activities after dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures. Lineweaver-Burk plots were constructed to evaluate the mode of MAO inhibition and to measure Ki values. The results document that esomeprazole inhibits both MAO-A and MAO-B with IC50 values of 23 µM and 48 µM, respectively. The interactions of esomeprazole with MAO-A and MAO-B are reversible and most likely competitive with Ki values for the inhibition of the respective enzymes of 8.99 µM and 31.7 µM. Considering the available pharmacokinetic data and typical therapeutic doses of esomeprazole, these inhibitory potencies are unlikely to be of pharmacological relevance in humans. The MAO inhibitory effects of esomeprazole should however be taken into consideration when using this drug in animal experiments where higher doses are often administered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Fluorescent Probes for Analysis and Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dokyoung; Jun, Yong Woong; Ahn, Kyo Han [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and amine neurotransmitters, and assist in maintaining the homeostasis of the amine neurotransmitters in the brain. Dysfunctions of these enzymes can cause neurological and behavioral disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To understand their physiological roles, efficient assay methods for monoamine oxidases are essential. Reviewed in this Perspective are the recent progress in the development of fluorescent probes for monoamine oxidases and their applications to enzyme assays in cells and tissues. It is evident that still there is strong need for a fluorescent probe with desirable substrate selectivity and photophysical properties to challenge the much unsolved issues associated with the enzymes and the diseases.

  14. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  15. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  16. Molecular imaging of acetylcholine vesicular transporter (VAChT) in demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by IBVM-SPECT; Imagerie moleculaire du transporteur vesiculaire de l'acetylcholine (VACh) par le [123I]-5-iodobenzovezamicol dans la demence de type Alzheimer (DTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetu, F.; Prunier, C.; Pogam, L.; Hommet, C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Tours, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Faculte de Medecine de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Tamagnan, G.; Allard, M. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Seibyl, J. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (A.D.) is characterized by a premature decline of cholinergic neurons. The 5-I.B.V.M. is an analogue of the Vesamicol that binds to the presynaptic vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). The exploration of this target should be useful to make an early diagnosis of A.D.. Our first aim was to propose a method of non invasive VAChT quantification according to 5-I.B.V.M. kinetic. 5-I.B.V.M. was injected to four A.D. patients (age = 77 {+-} 3.9 years and M.M.S.E. = 24.5 {+-} 1.02) were included in this methodological study. The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained at five, 20, 35 and 50 minutes, at then at three, five and 22 hours after intravenous injection of 5-I.B.V.M. (185 MBq). The time activity curves were obtained after SPECT images co registration on a MRI masque. Specific volume of interest (S.P.E. SPEcific) were manually drawn on striatum, pons, thalamus and para-hippocampic gyrus including hippocampus; reference volumes of interest (R.E.F. = REFerence) were drawn on frontal and occipital cerebral cortex. On the basis of uptake kinetic, two modeling approaches were considered: transient equilibrium model for reversible ligand (binding potential (B.P.) (S.P.E. - R.E.F.)/R.E.F.) and Patlak graphical analysis for irreversible tracers (slope given by Ki/DVref where Ki is the influx constant and DVref is the distribution volume of the reference region). We observed an inflection or a steady state of the activity curves in the different regions studied between 250 and 1400 minutes, what seems to confirm that the tracer is little reversible. B.P. values obtained at 21 hours with occipital areas as reference and Ki/DVref values were respectively 4.62 {+-} 0.42 and 0.07 {+-} 0.01. The S.P.E. classification according to B.P. and Ki/DVref values were similar to the classification according to the compartmental analysis (Kuhl 1994). The transient equilibrium model with late acquisition seems the more

  17. Tratamiento actual de la litiasis vesicular Current treatment of vesicular lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento quirúrgico de la litiasis vesicular ha cambiado en los últimos años. La incorporación de las nuevas conductas en la práctica médica diaria no siempre es inmediata. Se argumentan las razones relativas a cuándo operar a un paciente con cálculos en la vesícula biliar, y se documenta cómo este procedimiento se reserva fundamentalmente para los pacientes sintomáticos, considerando el dolor como el síntoma por excelencia. También se expone cómo se ha enfrentado este cambio.Surgical treatment of vesicular lithiasis has changed in past years. The addition of the new techniques in daily medical practice not always is immediate. Reasons relative to when to operate a patient presenting with gall bladder calculi are argued and documenting how this procedure is mainly reserved for symptomatic patients where pain is considered as a symptom par excellence . Also, it is exposed how this change has been faced.

  18. Monoamine oxidase in amphistomes and its role in worm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, S M; Nizami, W A

    2000-12-01

    The quantitative assay of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity revealed a higher enzyme level in Explanatum explanatum than Gastrothylax crumenifer. The specific MAO inhibitors, chlorgyline, pargyline, deprenyl and nialamide produced different degrees of interspecific inhibition. The differential effects on enzyme activity of chlorgyline and deprenyl suggests the possible existence of polymorphic forms of the enzyme, MAO-A and MAO-B, in amphistomes. These specific inhibitors also had a differential influence on the in vitro motility of amphistomes, further indicating the involvement of different forms of MAO in the oxidative deamination of biogenic monoamines which might be partly responsible for neuromuscular coordination in amphistomes. The experimental procedures used in this study could be conveniently used for quick screening and evaluation of some of the qualitative effects of anthelmintic drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Tratamiento actual de la litiasis vesicular Current treatment of vesicular lithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar García Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El tratamiento quirúrgico de la litiasis vesicular ha cambiado en los últimos años. La incorporación de las nuevas conductas en la práctica médica diaria no siempre es inmediata. Se argumentan las razones relativas a cuándo operar a un paciente con cálculos en la vesícula biliar, y se documenta cómo este procedimiento se reserva fundamentalmente para los pacientes sintomáticos, considerando el dolor como el síntoma por excelencia. También se expone cómo se ha enfrentado este cambio.Surgical t...

  20. Neural basis of major depressive disorder: Beyond monoamine hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Toda, Hiroyuki; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2018-01-01

    The monoamine hypothesis has been accepted as the most common hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) for a long period because of its simplicity and understandability. Actually, most currently used antidepressants have been considered to act based on the monoamine hypothesis. However, an important problem of the monoamine hypothesis has been pointed out as follows: it fails to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. In addition, many patients with MDD have remained refractory to currently used antidepressants. Therefore, monoamine-alternate hypotheses are required to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. Such hypotheses have been expected to contribute to identifying hopeful new therapeutic targets for MDD. Past studies have revealed that the volume of the hippocampus is decreased in patients with MDD, which is likely caused by the failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and following elevation of glucocorticoids. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the volume of the hippocampus: (i) the neuroplasticity hypothesis; and (ii) the neurogenesis hypothesis. The neuroplasticity hypothesis explains how the hippocampal volume is decreased by the morphological changes of hippocampal neurons, such as the shortening length of dendrites and the decreased number and density of spines. The neurogenesis hypothesis explains how the hippocampal volume is decreased by the decrease of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These hypotheses are able to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. In this review, we first overview how the neuroplasticity and neurogenesis hypotheses have been developed. We then describe the details of these hypotheses. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of Sar/Arf GTPases in vesicular trafficking in yeast and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Small GTPase proteins play essential roles in the regulation of vesicular trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells. Two types of small GTPases, secretion-associated Ras-related protein (Sar) and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf), act in the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Sar/Arf GTPases function as molecular switches by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound forms, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. Activated Sar/Arf GTPases undergo a conformational change, exposing the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix for insertion into membranes. The process triggers the recruitment and assembly of coat proteins to the membranes, followed by coated vesicle formation and scission. In higher plants, Sar/Arf GTPases also play pivotal roles in maintaining the dynamic identity of organelles in the secretory pathway. Sar1 protein strictly controls anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the recruitment of plant COPII coat components onto membranes. COPII vesicle transport is responsible for the organization of highly conserved polygonal ER networks. In contrast, Arf proteins contribute to the regulation of multiple trafficking routes, including transport through the Golgi complex and endocytic transport. These transport systems have diversified in the plant kingdom independently and exhibit several plant-specific features with respect to Golgi organization, endocytic cycling, cell polarity and cytokinesis. The functional diversification of vesicular trafficking systems ensures the multicellular development of higher plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of Sar/Arf GTPases, highlighting the molecular details of GTPase regulation in vesicle formation in yeast and advances in knowledge of the characteristics of vesicle trafficking in plants.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of Sar/Arf GTPases in vesicular trafficking in yeast and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eYorimitsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPase proteins play essential roles in the regulation of vesicular trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells. Two types of small GTPases, secretion-associated Ras-related protein (Sar and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf, act in the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Sar/Arf GTPases function as molecular switches by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound forms, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. Activated Sar/Arf GTPases undergo a conformational change, exposing the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix for insertion into membranes. The process triggers the recruitment and assembly of coat proteins to the membranes, followed by coated vesicle formation and scission. In higher plants, Sar/Arf GTPases also play pivotal roles in maintaining the dynamic identity of organelles in the secretory pathway. Sar1 GTPase strictly controls anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER through the recruitment of plant COPII coat components onto membranes. COPII vesicle transport is responsible for the organization of highly conserved polygonal ER networks. In contrast, Arf GTPases contribute to the regulation of multiple trafficking routes, including transport through the Golgi complex and endocytic transport. These transport systems have diversified in the plant kingdom independently and exhibit several plant-specific features with respect to Golgi organization, endocytic cycling, cell polarity and cytokinesis. The functional diversification of vesicular trafficking systems ensures the multicellular development of higher plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of Sar/Arf GTPases, highlighting the molecular details of GTPase regulation in vesicle formation in yeast and advances in knowledge of the characteristics of vesicle trafficking in plants.

  3. Revisiting the monoamine hypothesis of depression: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joel S; Bell, Clifton E; Pollard, David A

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of depression increases, depression continues to inflict additional suffering to individuals and societies and better therapies are needed. Based on magnetic resonance spectroscopy and laboratory findings, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be intimately involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The isoelectric point of GABA (pI = 7.3) closely approximates the pH of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). This may not be a trivial observation as it may explain preliminary spectrophotometric, enzymatic, and HPLC data that monoamine oxidase (MAO) deaminates GABA. Although MAO is known to deaminate substrates such as catecholamines, indoleamines, and long chain aliphatic amines all of which contain a lipophilic moiety, there is very good evidence to predict that a low concentration of a very lipophilic microspecies of GABA is present when GABA pI = pH as in the CSF. Inhibiting deamination of this microspecies of GABA could explain the well-established successful treatment of refractory depression with MAO inhibitors (MAOI) when other antidepressants that target exclusively levels of monoamines fail. If further experimental work can confirm these preliminary findings, physicians may consider revisiting the use of MAOI for the treatment of non-intractable depression because the potential benefits of increasing GABA as well as the monoamines may outweigh the risks associated with MAOI therapy.

  4. Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Cintia; Furuichi, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Ryu, Heungjin; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-12-01

    Androgen receptor gene (AR), monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ), AR glycine repeat (ARG), MAOA intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MAin2) and MAOB intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MBin2) in 32 wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, and compared them with those of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and humans. We found that bonobos were polymorphic on the four loci examined. Both loci MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos showed a higher diversity than in chimpanzees. Because monoamine oxidase influences aggressiveness, the differences between the polymorphisms of MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos and chimpanzees may be associated with the differences in aggression between the two species. In order to understand the evolution of these loci and AR, MAOA and MAOB in humans and non-human primates, it would be useful to conduct future studies focusing on the potential association between aggressiveness, and other personality traits, and polymorphisms documented in bonobos.

  5. Behavioral effects of bidirectional modulation of brain monoamines by reserpine and d-amphetamine in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Kyzar, Evan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Landsman, Samuel; Collins, Christopher; Gebhardt, Michael; Robinson, Kyle; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2013-01-01

    Brain monoamines play a key role in the regulation of behavior. Reserpine depletes monoamines, and causes depression and hypoactivity in humans and rodents. In contrast, d-amphetamine increases brain monoamines’ levels, and evokes hyperactivity and anxiety. However, the effects of these agents on behavior and in relation to monoamine levels remain poorly understood, necessitating further experimental studies to understand their psychotropic action. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging...

  6. Beyond Monoamines-Novel Targets for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblat, Christian; McIntyre, Roger S.; Alves, Gilberto S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Carvalho, Andr? F.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Current first line therapies target modulation of the monoamine system. A large variety of agents are currently available that effectively alter monoamine levels; however, approximately one third of MDD patients remain treatment refractory after adequate trials of multiple monoamine based therapies. Therefore, patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) may require modulation of pathways outside of the classic ...

  7. Coxiella burnetii effector protein subverts clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking for pathogen vacuole biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Successful macrophage colonization by Coxiella burnetii, the cause of human Q fever, requires pathogen-directed biogenesis of a large, growth-permissive parasitophorous vacuole (PV) with phagolysosomal characteristics. The vesicular trafficking pathways co-opted by C. burnetii for PV development are poorly defined; however, it is predicted that effector proteins delivered to the cytosol by a defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm) type 4B secretion system are required for membrane recruitment. Here, we describe involvement of clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking in PV generation and the engagement of this pathway by the C. burnetii type 4B secretion system substrate Coxiella vacuolar protein A (CvpA). CvpA contains multiple dileucine [DERQ]XXXL[LI] and tyrosine (YXXΦ)-based endocytic sorting motifs like those recognized by the clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP1, AP2, and AP3. A C. burnetii ΔcvpA mutant exhibited significant defects in replication and PV development, confirming the importance of CvpA in infection. Ectopically expressed mCherry-CvpA localized to tubular and vesicular domains of pericentrosomal recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and transferrin receptor, and CvpA membrane interactions were lost upon mutation of endocytic sorting motifs. Consistent with CvpA engagement of the endocytic recycling system, ectopic expression reduced uptake of transferrin. In pull-down assays, peptides containing CvpA-sorting motifs and full-length CvpA interacted with AP2 subunits and clathrin heavy chain. Furthermore, depletion of AP2 or clathrin by siRNA treatment significantly inhibited C. burnetii replication. Thus, our results reveal the importance of clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking in C. burnetii infection and define a role for CvpA in subverting these transport mechanisms. PMID:24248335

  8. Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Szulczyńska-Gabor, Joanna; Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Szyfter-Harris, Joanna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2016-12-01

    reading procedure was difficult due to patient's skin reactivity toward a plaster mounting Finn chambers. Literature data suggests that erythema multiforme may occasionally occur in conjunction with allergic contact dermatitis to various non-related substances including chemicals (epoxy-based compound, fragrances, epichlorydrine, bromofluorene), medications (antibiotics, acetaminophen, triamcinolone, bufexamac), plant-derived allergens (poison ivy, tea tree oil, red cedar essential oil), but also rubber ingredients and nickel. The severity of the reaction varies from mild erythema to generalized erythema multiforme or even toxic epidermal necrolysis (1,2,3,4). Lesions characteristic for erythema multiforme may appear during the episode of acute contact dermatitis or may follow a nearly resolving vesicular eczematous eruption. The pathomechanism Patomechanism of an erythema multiforme-like eruption developing in association with allergic contact dermatitis still remains unclear. Immune complex-mediated and T-cell-mediated reactions have been proposed as the cause. However, T-cell-mediated cellular mechanisms seems to be more likely, since generalized erythema multiforme often follows contact dermatitis, which is a type IV allergic reaction mediated by T cells (5,6). According to Bushkell et al. (7), an allergen penetration through the skin may result in a type III hypersensitivity reaction, with involvement of circulating immune complexes, and to confirm that, IgM, IgA, C3, and fibrin deposits are detected in some cases of targetoid lesions in erythema multiforme. On the other hand, Wiedemeyer et al. (8) suggest that contact allergens (i.e. paraphenylenodiamine) may be transported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the area of initial skin contact even to distant sites. According to Shiohara et al. (9) and Gonzalez-Delgado et al. (10), epidermal expression of adhesion molecule - 1 (ICAM-1) and the number of CD4+ T cells is increased within the iris lesions of

  9. Vesicular signalling and immune modulation as hedonic fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christina F; Bak, Steffen; Christensen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    ) differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The majority of the proteins we identified were enzymes involved in different metabolic activities. Additional proteins were functionally classified as vesicular proteins and immune system proteins. Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor...

  10. Formulation and evaluation of a transfersomal vesicular carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AF1 was investigated. NIPRD-AF1 is a phytomedicine derived from the leaves of an indigenous plant, for use in the treatment of fungal infections. A transfersomal vesicular carrier system of NIPRD-AF1 was formulated and evaluated for topical ...

  11. Effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The symbiotic association between certain plants and microorganisms plays an important role in soil fertilization, and improves their growth and mineral nutrition. The symbiotic association between vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and roots provides a significant contribution to plant nutrition and growth.

  12. The vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis | Quilambo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi are associated with the majority ot the terrestrial plants. Their function ranges from stress alleviation to bioremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals. However, our knowledge about this symbiosis is still limited. For the semi-arid tropics, where some african countries are located, ...

  13. Influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to find out the effect of biofertilizers, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM), and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) individually and in combination on growth and physiological attributing properties of Marsdenia volubilis plant under nursery conditions. The plant seedlings were ...

  14. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na+ ion release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Noer, Pernille Rimmer; Grouleff, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions and subst......Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions...... and substrates are still largely unknown. Structural knowledge of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is much awaited for understanding the mechanistic details of substrate translocation and binding of antidepressants and drugs of abuse. The publication of the crystal structure of the homologous leucine...

  15. Enzymatic oxidation of substituted tryptamines catalysed by monoamine oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragulska Sylwia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic deamination of 5-fl uorotryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, catalysed by enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A, EC 1.4.3.4 was investigated using the kinetic (KIE and solvent (SIE isotope effects methods. The numerical values of deuterium isotope effects in the (1R positions of 5-F-tryptamine were determined using non-competitive spectrophotomeric method. Isotopologue 5-F-[(1R- -2H]-tryptamine, needed for kinetic studies was obtained by enzymatic decarboxylation of 5´-fl uoro-L-tryptophan, 5´-F-L-Trp, in fully deuteriated medium.

  16. The antioxidant anethole dithiolethione inhibits monoamine oxidase-B but not monoamine oxidase A activity in extracts of cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukarch, B; Flier, J; Jongenelen, C A M; Andringa, G; Schoffelmeer, A N M

    2006-05-01

    Anethole dithiolethione (ADT) is a clinically available, pluripotent antioxidant proposed as a neuroprotectant for Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, using extracts from cultured astrocytes, containing both monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B activity, we demonstrate that ADT concentration-dependently inhibits MAO-B activity in a clinically relevant concentration range (0.03-30 microM, IC-50 = 0.5 microM) without affecting MAO A activity. Considering the alleged contribution of MAO activity in general, and MAO-B in particular, to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in PD, our data further support the neuroprotective potential of ADT.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE USHER PROTEIN COMPLEXES FROM A VESICULAR SUBFRACTION OF TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Sisson, Joseph H.; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the major cause of deaf/blindness in the world. It is a genetic heterogeneous disorder, with nine genes already identified as causative for the disease. We noted expression of all known Usher proteins in bovine tracheal epithelial cells, and exploited this system for large-scale biochemical analysis of Usher protein complexes. The dissected epithelia were homogenized in non-detergent buffer, and sedimented on sucrose gradients. At least two complexes were evident after the first gradient: one formed by specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR-1, and a different one at the top of the gradient that included all the Usher proteins and rab5, a transport vesicle marker. TEM analysis of these top fractions found them enriched in 100–200 nm vesicles, confirming a vesicular association of the Usher complex(es). Immunoisolation of these vesicles confirmed some of the associations already predicted and identified novel interactions. When the vesicles are lysed in the presence of phenylbutyrate, most of the Usher proteins co-sediment into the gradient at a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 50S, correlating with a predicted molecular mass of 2 × 106 Daltons. Although it is still unclear whether there is only one complex or several independent complexes that are trafficked within distinct vesicular pools, this work shows for the first time that native Usher proteins complexes occur in vivo. This complex(es) is present primarily in transport vesicles at the apical pole of tracheal epithelial cells, predicting that Usher proteins may be directionally transported as complexes in hair cells and photoreceptors. PMID:20058854

  18. Sleep apneas are increased in mice lacking monoamine oxidase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline; Popa, Daniela; Seif, Isabelle; Callebert, Jacques; Launay, Jean-Marie; Adrien, Joëlle; Escourrou, Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Alterations in the serotonin (5-HT) system have been suggested as a mechanism of sleep apnea in humans and rodents. The objective is to evaluate the contribution of 5-HT to this disorder. We studied sleep and breathing (whole-body plethysmography) in mutant mice that lack monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and have increased concentrations of monoamines, including 5-HT. Compared to wild-type mice, the mutants showed similar amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), but exhibited a 3-fold increase in SWS and REMS apnea indices. Acute administration of the MAOA inhibitor clorgyline decreased REMS amounts and increased the apnea index in wild-type but not mutant mice. Parachlorophenylalanine, a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor, reduced whole brain concentrations of 5-HT in both strains, and induced a decrease in apnea index in mutant but not wild-type mice. Our results show that MAOA deficiency is associated with increased sleep apnea in mice and suggest that an acute or chronic excess of 5-HT contributes to this phenotype.

  19. 2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legoabe LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lesetja J Legoabe,1 Anél Petzer,1 Jacobus P Petzer1,21Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South AfricaAbstract: Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15 and related compounds (two were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure–activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.Keywords: monoamine oxidase, MAO, inhibition, 2-acetylphenol, structure–activity relationship

  20. Dopamine transporter PET in normal aging: dopamine transporter decline and its possible role in preservation of motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, André R; Schulzer, Michael; de la Fuente-Fernandez, Raul; Mak, Edwin; McKenzie, Jess; Sossi, Vesna; McCormick, Siobhan; Ruth, Thomas J; Stoessl, A Jon

    2010-02-01

    To determine the impact of age-related decline in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression on motor function in the elderly. About 33 normal individuals of a wide age range were scanned with PET employing d-threo-[(11)C]-methylphenidate (MP, a marker of DAT) and [(11)C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ, that binds to the vesicular monoamine transporter Type 2). Motor function was assessed using the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPB). We analyzed the relationship between [(11)C]-MP and motor performance. Age ranged from 27- to 77-year old (mean +/- SD, 54.75 +/- 14.14). There was no age-related decline in binding potentials (BP) for [(11)C]-DTBZ. In contrast, [(11)C]-MP BP was inversely related to age in all striatal regions analyzed (caudate: reduction of 11.2% per decade, P < 0.0001, r = -0.86; putamen: reduction of 10.5% per decade, P < 0.0001, r = -0.80). A differential effect of [(11)C]-MP on PPB could be observed according to age group. There was a positive relation between the PPB and [(11)C]-MP in young individuals (coefficient = 13.56), whereas in individuals greater than 57 years this relationship was negative (coefficient = -19.53, P = 0.031). Our findings confirm prior observations of age-related DAT decline and suggest that this phenomenon is independent of changes in VMAT2. After the fifth decade of life, this reduction in DAT binding is associated with a motor performance comparable to mid-adult life. These findings imply that biochemical processes associated with healthy aging may offset the naturaldecline in motor function observed in the elderly.

  1. [Vesicular and pronuclear glycoproteins in the pathogenesis of cholesterol lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Smíd, F; Marecek, Z

    1998-01-26

    Several biliary proteins have been known to accelerate fusion of cholesterol rich phospholipid vesicles. Some of them are present in vesicular membrane, localisation of other proteins is unknown. Biliary glycoprotein has not been studied in consequence with pathogenesis of cholesterol lithiasis. Low molecular extravesicular proteins were separated from vesicles by gel filtration on a 1200mm column of Sephacryl S-300 HR. Immunoglobulins IgM, IgA, haptoglobin, biliary glycoprotein I (BGP I) and nonspecific crossreactive antigen were eluted along with vesicles. Albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein were eluted later and must be extravesicular. Fact that BGP I (85 kDa membrane glycoprotein) eluted along with vesicles and not in albumin fraction suggests that it might be bound in vesicular membrane. As a known adhesion molecule it could thus play an important role in pathogenesis of cholesterol cholelithiasis.

  2. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Valery Z Grdzelishvili

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV’s broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV’s neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a sa...

  3. Impact of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus M Proteins on Different Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Redondo

    Full Text Available Three different matrix (M proteins termed M1, M2 and M3 have been described in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. Individual expression of VSV M proteins induces an evident cytopathic effect including cell rounding and detachment, in addition to a partial inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, likely mediated by an indirect mechanism. Analogous to viroporins, M1 promotes the budding of new virus particles; however, this process does not produce an increase in plasma membrane permeability. In contrast to M1, M2 and M3 neither interact with the cellular membrane nor promote the budding of double membrane vesicles at the cell surface. Nonetheless, all three species of M protein interfere with the transport of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and also modulate the redistribution of the splicing factor. The present findings indicate that all three VSV M proteins share some activities that interfere with host cell functions.

  4. Past and present of antiobesity agents: focus on monoamine modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorassani, Farah E; Misher, Anne; Garris, Shauna

    2015-05-01

    A review of recently approved antiobesity medications, including their neuropharmacology, efficacy data from clinical trials, and important patient safety considerations, is presented. Obesity affects roughly 34% of Americans and is associated with increased risks of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, as well as increased mortality and healthcare costs. Most pharmacologic agents used to treat obesity work by modulating monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Since the U.S. market withdrawal of agents such as fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, and sibutramine due to safety concerns, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three monoamine modulators for long-term obesity management: the serotonergic agent lorcaserin (approved by FDA in 2012), a combination product containing phentermine and extended-release (ER) topiramate (also approved in 2012), and another combination product consisting of ER naltrexone and ER bupropion (approved in late 2014). In Phase III trials of the three products, mean weight reductions ranging from 4.7 to 10.2 kg over periods of one and two years were reported, with substantial percentages of patients achieving weight loss of ≥5%. Adverse effects reported among clinical trial participants were generally mild; however, as the trials excluded patients with significant cardiovascular risks (e.g., uncontrolled hypertension, valvular heart disease), cautious patient selection and monitoring are advised. Recently approved medications for long-term management of obesity include lorcaserin, phentermine-topiramate, and naltrexone-bupropion. When these drugs are used to facilitate weight loss, pharmacists can play an important role in helping to ensure appropriate patient selection and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B...

  6. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoamine Oxidase and Dopamine ?-Hydroxylase Inhibitors from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to determine what components of Gardenia jasminoides play a major role in inhibiting the enzymes related antidepressant activity of this plant. In our previous research, the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminosides fruits inhibited the activities of both monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), and oral administration of the ethanolic extract slightly increased serotonin concentrations in the brain tissues of rats and decreased MAO-B activity. I...

  8. Glycaemic control by monoamine oxidase inhibition in a patient with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Hamlin; Mizrahi, Neptune

    2017-03-01

    We present clinical, electroencephalographic and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography data that support combined treatment with insulin and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in a patient with type 1 diabetes. We suggest that brain imaging data can identify a subgroup of patients who are likely to benefit from an insulin regimen and monoamine oxidase inhibition to improve glycaemic control, cardiovascular function, normalize the circadian rhythm and restore perception of glycaemic awareness.

  9. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  10. Endobronchial tuberculosis presented as multiple endobronchial vesicular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Idrees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB is a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbiological and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. EBTB commonly presents as acute or insidious onset cough, wheeze, low grade fever, and constitutional symptoms. In elderly patients, other differentials like malignancy and pneumonia may lead to misdiagnosis. Hence, bronchoscopy is essential for confirmation of EBTB. Here we report a rare presentation of EBTB in a 65 year old patient who presented with 3 months history of fever and cough and have multiple endobronchial vesicular lesions on bronchoscopy.

  11. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...... in fumigated plots, although both it and P uptake were increased by adding P fertilizer. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. A supplementary survey on infection development at five other field sites showed that peas are extensively colonized by VAM fungi, even in soils where a standard...

  12. Pathogenesis of experimental vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) infection in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, T E; Stallknecht, D E; Brown, C C; Seal, B S; Howerth, E W

    2001-07-01

    The pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection has not been investigated previously in native New World rodents that may have a role in the epidemiology of the disease. In the present study, 45 juvenile and 80 adult deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were inoculated intranasally with VSV New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) and examined sequentially over a 7-day period. Virus was detected by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in all tissues containing histologic lesions. Viral antigen and mRNA were observed initially in olfactory epithelium neurons, followed by olfactory bulbs and more caudal olfactory pathways in the brain. Virus also was detected throughout the ventricular system in the brain and central canal of the spinal cord. These results support both viral retrograde transneuronal transport and viral spread within the ventricular system. Other tissues containing viral antigen included airway epithelium and macrophages in the lungs, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages in cervical lymph nodes. In a second experiment, 15 adult, 20 juvenile, and 16 nestling deer mice were inoculated intradermally with VSV-NJ. Adults were refractory to infection by this route; however, nestlings and juveniles developed disseminated central nervous system infections. Viral antigen also was detected in cardiac myocytes and lymph node macrophages in these animals. Viremia was detected by virus isolation in 35/72 (49%) intranasally inoculated juvenile and adult mice and in 17/36 (47%) intradermally inoculated nestlings and juveniles from day 1 to day 3 postinoculation. The documentation of viremia in these animals suggests that they may have a role in the epidemiology of vector-borne vesicular stomatitis.

  13. Genetic Inactivation of COPI Coatomer Separately Inhibits Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Entry and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdeinick-Kerr, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Viruses coopt cellular membrane transport to invade cells, establish intracellular sites of replication, and release progeny virions. Recent genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens revealed that genetically divergent viruses require biosynthetic membrane transport by the COPI coatomer complex for efficient replication. Here we found that disrupting COPI function by RNAi inhibited an early stage of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. To dissect which replication stage(s) was affected by coatomer inactivation, we used visual and biochemical assays to independently measure the efficiency of viral entry and gene expression in hamster (ldlF) cells depleted of the temperature-sensitive ε-COP subunit. We show that ε-COP depletion for 12 h caused a primary block to virus internalization and a secondary defect in viral gene expression. Using brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inhibitor of COPI function, we demonstrate that short-term (1-h) BFA treatments inhibit VSV gene expression, while only long-term (12-h) treatments block virus entry. We conclude that prolonged coatomer inactivation perturbs cellular endocytic transport and thereby indirectly impairs VSV entry. Our results offer an explanation of why COPI coatomer is frequently identified in screens for cellular factors that support cell invasion by microbial pathogens. PMID:22072764

  14. Synaptic vesicles are capable of synthesizing the VGLUT substrate glutamate from α-ketoglutarate for vesicular loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kouji; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Takahashi, Kento; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    2012-04-01

    Synaptic vesicle loading of glutamate is a pivotal step in glutamate synaptic transmission. The molecular machinery responsible for this step is comprised of v-type proton-pump ATPase and a vesicular glutamate transporter. Recent evidence indicates that synaptic vesicles are endowed with glycolytic ATP-synthesizing enzymes, providing energy for immediate use by vesicle-bound proton-pump ATPase. In this study, we provide evidence that synaptic vesicles are also capable of synthesizing the vesicular glutamate transporter substrate glutamate, from α-ketoglutarate and l-aspartate (as the amino group donor); glutamate thus produced is taken up into vesicles. We also report a finding that α-ketoglutarate-derived glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles and aspartate aminotransferase are inhibited by 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate. Evidence is given that this is a selective inhibitor for aspartate aminotransferase. These observations provide insight into understanding the nerve endings' mechanism for high efficiency in glutamate transmission. Finding this inhibitor may have implications for further experimentation on the role of α-ketoglutarate-derived glutamate in glutamate transmission. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Antidepressant stimulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis does not require monoamine reuptake inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboukhatwa Marwa A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies demonstrate that diverse antidepressant agents increase the cellular production of the nucleolipid CDP-diacylglycerol and its synthetic derivative, phosphatidylinositol, in depression-relevant brain regions. Pharmacological blockade of downstream phosphatidylinositide signaling disrupted the behavioral antidepressant effects in rats. However, the nucleolipid responses were resistant to inhibition by serotonin receptor antagonists, even though antidepressant-facilitated inositol phosphate accumulation was blocked. Could the neurochemical effects be additional to the known effects of the drugs on monoamine transmitter transporters? To examine this question, we tested selected agents in serotonin-depleted brain tissues, in PC12 cells devoid of serotonin transporters, and on the enzymatic activity of brain CDP-diacylglycerol synthase - the enzyme that catalyzes the physiological synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol. Results Imipramine, paroxetine, and maprotiline concentration-dependently increased the levels of CDP-diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositides in PC12 cells. Rat forebrain tissues depleted of serotonin by pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine showed responses to imipramine or maprotiline that were comparable to respective responses from saline-injected controls. With fluoxetine, nucleolipid responses in the serotonin-depleted cortex or hippocampus were significantly reduced, but not abolished. Each drug significantly increased the enzymatic activity of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase following incubations with cortical or hippocampal brain tissues. Conclusion Antidepressants probably induce the activity of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase leading to increased production of CDP-diacylglycerol and facilitation of downstream phosphatidylinositol synthesis. Phosphatidylinositol-dependent signaling cascades exert diverse salutary effects in neural cells, including facilitation of BDNF signaling and neurogenesis. Hence

  16. Vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs experimentally infected with Senecavirus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, has been infrequently associated with cases of idiopathic vesicular disease (IVD) in pigs in the US and Canada since 1988. In 2014 and 2015 there was surge of IVD cases in Brazil and US, respectively. SVA was identified in serum, vesicular fluid, an...

  17. H-aggregation of azobenzene-substituted amphiphiles in vesicular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, JM; Engberts, JBFN

    2004-01-01

    Photochemical switching has been studied of double-tailed phosphate amphiphiles containing azobenzene units in both tails in aqueous vesicular dispersions and in mixed vesicular systems with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Since the ease of switching depends on the strength of the

  18. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Alcohol and violence: neuropeptidergic modulation of monoamine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A; DeBold, Joseph F; Hwa, Lara S; Newman, Emily L; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2015-09-01

    Neurobiological processes underlying the epidemiologically established link between alcohol and several types of social, aggressive, and violent behavior remain poorly understood. Acute low doses of alcohol, as well as withdrawal from long-term alcohol use, may lead to escalated aggressive behavior in a subset of individuals. An urgent task will be to disentangle the host of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors in individuals who are predisposed to engage in escalated aggressive behavior. The modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine impulse flow by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, acting via distinct ionotropic and metabotropic receptor subtypes in the dorsal raphe nucleus during alcohol consumption, is of critical significance in the suppression and escalation of aggressive behavior. In anticipation and reaction to aggressive behavior, neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, and vasopressin interact with monoamines, GABA, and glutamate to attenuate and amplify aggressive behavior in alcohol-consuming individuals. These neuromodulators represent novel molecular targets for intervention that await clinical validation. Intermittent episodes of brief social defeat during aggressive confrontations are sufficient to cause long-lasting neuroadaptations that can lead to the escalation of alcohol consumption. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Alcohol and violence: neuropeptidergic modulation of monoamine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; DeBold, Joseph F.; Hwa, Lara S.; Newman, Emily L.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological processes underlying the epidemiologically-established link between alcohol and several types of social, aggressive, and violent behavior remain poorly understood. Acute low doses of alcohol, as well as withdrawal from long-term alcohol use, may lead to escalated aggressive behavior in a subset of individuals. An urgent task will be to disentangle the host of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors in individuals that are predisposed to engage in escalated aggressive behavior. The modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine impulse flow by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, acting via distinct ionotropic and metabotropic receptor subtypes in the dorsal raphe nucleus during alcohol consumption, is of critical significance in the suppression and escalation of aggressive behavior. In anticipation and reaction to aggressive behavior, neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, and vasopressin interact with monoamines, GABA, and glutamate to attenuate and amplify aggressive behavior in alcohol-consuming individuals. These neuromodulators represent novel molecular targets for intervention that await clinical validation. Intermittent episodes of brief social defeat during aggressive confrontations are sufficient to cause long-lasting neuroadaptations that can lead to the escalation of alcohol consumption. PMID:26285061

  1. A rational approach to elucidate human monoamine oxidase molecular selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Alberga, Domenico; Pisani, Leonardo; Gadaleta, Domenico; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Farina, Roberta; Carotti, Andrea; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Catto, Marco; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2017-04-01

    Designing highly selective human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) inhibitors is a challenging goal on the road to a more effective treatment of depression and anxiety (inhibition of hMAO-A isoform) as well as neurodegenerative diseases (inhibition of hMAO-B isoform). To uncover the molecular rationale of hMAOs selectivity, two recently prepared 2H-chromene-2-ones, namely compounds 1 and 2, were herein chosen as molecular probes being highly selective toward hMAO-A and hMAO-B, respectively. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) studies on four different complexes, cross-simulating one at a time the two hMAO-isoforms (dimer embedded in a lipid bilayer) with the two considered probes. Our comparative analysis on the obtained 100ns trajectories discloses a stable H-bond interaction between 1 and Gln215 as crucial for ligand selectivity toward hMAO-A whereas a water-mediated interaction might explain the observed hMAO-B selectivity of compound 2. Such hypotheses are further supported by binding free energy calculations carried out applying the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method and allowing us to evaluate the contribution of each residue to the observed isoform selectivity. Taken as whole, this study represents the first attempt to explain at molecular level hMAO isoform selectivity and a valuable yardstick for better addressing the design of new and highly selective MAO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Launay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT, a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE, further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations.

  3. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diermen, Daphne; Marston, Andrew; Bravo, Juan; Reist, Marianne; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2009-03-18

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is traditionally used in Eastern Europe and Asia to stimulate the nervous system, enhance physical and mental performance, treat fatigue, psychological stress and depression. In order to investigate the influence of Rhodiola rosea L. roots on mood disorders, three extracts were tested against monoamine oxidases (MAOs A and B) in a microtitre plate bioassay. Methanol and water extracts gave the highest inhibitory activity against MAOs. Twelve compounds were then isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using chromatographic methods. The structures were determined by 1H, 13C NMR and HR-MS. The methanol and water extracts exhibited respectively inhibitions of 92.5% and 84.3% on MAO A and 81.8% and 88.9% on MAO B, at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The most active compound (rosiridin) presented an inhibition over 80% on MAO B at a concentration of 10(-5) M (pIC50=5.38+/-0.05). The present investigation demonstrates that Rhodiola rosea L. roots have potent anti-depressant activity by inhibiting MAO A and may also find application in the control of senile dementia by their inhibition of MAO B.

  4. Salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function in Reye's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, B A; Caplan, D; Lolies, P; Buchanan, C

    1987-06-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity isolated from blood of two patients with Reye's syndrome. Comparative studies were made with hospitalized children without Reye's syndrome (n = 27) and healthy children (n = 19) serving as controls. Platelet MAO was measured by a radioenzymatic technique with [14C]tyramine as a substrate. The results of this study showed that salicylate (1.0 mM) caused an appreciable inhibition of the platelet MAO activity of patients with Reye's syndrome at the onset of the illness. This was demonstrated by a greater than 50% reduction in enzyme maximum velocity (Vmax) value. The salicylate MAO-inhibitory effect was maintained throughout the duration of the illness. Salicylate had only a minimal MAO-inhibitory effect on platelets isolated from blood of recovered Reye's syndrome patients, healthy controls, and non-Reye's hospitalized children, and no apparent effect on enzyme Vmax values. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate-induced mitochondrial injury may affect MAO function in children with Reye's syndrome.

  5. Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendu, Francine; Peoc’h, Katell; Berlin, Ivan; Thomas, Daniel; Launay, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT), a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE), further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations. PMID:21318020

  6. Serotonin transporters in dopamine transporter imaging: a head-to-head comparison of dopamine transporter SPECT radioligands 123I-FP-CIT and 123I-PE2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Holm-Hansen, Signe; Thomsen, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Current SPECT radioligands available for in vivo imaging of the dopamine transporter (DAT) also show affinity for monoamine transporters other than DAT, especially the serotonin transporter (SERT). The effect of this lack of selectivity for in vivo imaging is unknown. In this study, we compared...

  7. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  8. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Fumiko; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, Kanako

    2007-03-22

    We developed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale method for determining the re-uptake and release of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine) using rat brain synaptosomes. These assays were then applied to study the effects of different kinds of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine re-uptake and release. The phenethylamine derivatives, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 2-methylamino-3,4-methylene-dioxy-propiophenone (methylone), 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB), and N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), had strong inhibitory effects on the re-uptake of dopamine, 5-HT and norepinephrine. 4-Fluoroamphetamine, methylone and BDB also strongly increased the release of the three monoamines, but MBDB increased 5-HT and norepinephrine release, but had little effect on dopamine release. However, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) and 2,4,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-6), which are methoxylated phenethylamine derivatives, slightly influenced the re-uptake and release of monoamines. Alpha-metyltryptamine (AMT), a tryptamine derivative, was one of the strongest re-uptake inhibitors and releasers of the three monoamines. The tryptamine derivative, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), also strongly inhibited re-uptake and increased the release of the three monoamines. N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) inhibited monoamine re-uptake, but had a few effects on monoamine release. 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP) and 1-(methoxyphenyl)piperazine (4MPP), which are piperazine derivatives, inhibited monoamine re-uptake and accelerated their release. The results suggest that some designer drugs strongly act on the central nerve system to the same

  9. A new role for human dyskerin in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Nunzia; Vicidomini, Rosario; Angrisani, Alberto; Belli, Valentina; Furia, Maria; Turano, Mimmo

    2017-10-01

    Dyskerin is an essential, conserved, multifunctional protein found in the nucleolus, whose loss of function causes the rare genetic diseases X-linked dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. To further investigate the wide range of dyskerin's biological roles, we set up stable cell lines able to trigger inducible protein knockdown and allow a detailed analysis of the cascade of events occurring within a short time frame. We report that dyskerin depletion quickly induces cytoskeleton remodeling and significant alterations in endocytic Ras-related protein Rab-5A/Rab11 trafficking. These effects arise in different cell lines well before the onset of telomere shortening, which is widely considered the main cause of dyskerin-related diseases. Given that vesicular trafficking affects many homeostatic and differentiative processes, these findings add novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlining the pleiotropic manifestation of the dyskerin loss-of-function phenotype.

  10. 3-Coumaranone derivatives as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyk AS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adriaan S Van Dyk,1,2 Jacobus P Petzer,1,2 Anél Petzer,1 Lesetja J Legoabe1 1Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Abstract: The present study examines the monoamine oxidase (MAO inhibitory properties of a series of 20 3-coumaranone [benzofuran-3(2H-one] derivatives. The 3-coumaranone derivatives are structurally related to series of α-tetralone and 1-indanone derivatives, which have recently been shown to potently inhibit MAO, with selectivity for MAO-B (in preference to the MAO-A isoform. 3-Coumaranones are similarly found to selectively inhibit human MAO-B with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.004–1.05 µM. Nine compounds exhibited IC50<0.05 µM for the inhibition of MAO-B. For the inhibition of human MAO-A, IC50 values ranged from 0.586 to >100 µM, with only one compound possessing an IC50<1 µM. For selected 3-coumaranone derivatives, it is established that MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition are reversible since dialysis of enzyme–inhibitor mixtures almost completely restores enzyme activity. On the basis of the selectivity profiles and potent action, it may be concluded that the 3-coumaranone derivatives are suitable leads for the development of selective MAO-B inhibitors as potential treatment for disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Keywords: benzofuran-3(2H-one, MAO, inhibition, reversible, competitive, Parkinson’s disease 

  11. In Vitro Effects of Cognitives and Nootropics on Mitochondrial Respiration and Monoamine Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2017-10-01

    Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracetam) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synthase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), oxygen consumption rate, and hydrogen peroxide production of pig brain mitochondria. Complex I activity was decreased by galantamine, donepezil, and memantine; complex II + III activity was increased by galantamine. None of the tested drugs caused significant changes in the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, even at high concentrations. Except galantamine, all tested drugs were selective MAO-A inhibitors. Latrepirdine, donepezil, and 7-MEOTA were found to be the most potent MAO-A inhibitors. Succinate-induced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was not significantly affected by the drugs tested. The direct effect of cognitives and nootropics used in the treatment of AD on mitochondrial respiration is relatively small. The safest drugs in terms of disturbing mitochondrial function appear to be piracetam and rivastigmine. The MAO-A inhibition by cognitives and nootropics may also participate in mitochondrial neuroprotection. The results support the future research aimed at measuring the effects of currently used drugs or newly synthesized drugs on mitochondrial functioning in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  12. Catalytic Amine Oxidation under Ambient Aerobic Conditions: Mimicry of Monoamine Oxidase B**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander T; Dowley, Myles J H; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Fielding, Alistair J; Tuna, Floriana; Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; John, Matthew P; Carbery, David R

    2015-01-01

    The flavoenzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) regulates mammalian behavioral patterns by modulating neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and serotonin. The mechanistic basis which underpins this enzyme is far from agreed upon. Reported herein is that the combination of a synthetic flavin and alloxan generates a catalyst system which facilitates biomimetic amine oxidation. Mechanistic and electron paramagnetic (EPR) spectroscopic data supports the conclusion that the reaction proceeds through a radical manifold. This data provides the first example of a biorelevant synthetic model for monoamine oxidase B activity. PMID:26087676

  13. Vesicular stomatitis virus infection promotes immune evasion by preventing NKG2D-ligand surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Jensen

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport was not involved, as the VSV mutant strain, VSV(ΔM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV and chemotherapeutic drugs.

  14. Development of new radiopharmaceuticals for imaging monoamine oxidase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdev, Neil, E-mail: neil.vasdev@utoronto.ca; Sadovski, Oleg; Moran, Matthew D.; Parkes, Jun; Meyer, Jeffrey H.; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A.

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Imaging monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in the central nervous system with PET is an important goal for psychiatric studies. We here report an improved and automated radiosynthesis of N-(6-[{sup 18}F]-fluorohexyl)-N-methylpropargylamine ([{sup 18}F]FHMP; [{sup 18}F]-1), as well as the radiosynthesis of two new promising candidates for imaging cerebral MAO-B, namely, carbon-11-labeled 3-(4-[{sup 11}C]-methoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one ([{sup 11}C]-2) and N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl)-N-[{sup 11}C]-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine ([{sup 11}C]-3). Methods: Fluorine-18-labeled 1 was prepared via a tosyloxy precursor in 29%{+-}5% uncorrected radiochemical yield, relative to [{sup 18}F]-fluoride. Both carbon-11-labeled compounds were prepared with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I using the 'LOOP' method in 11% and 18% uncorrected radiochemical yields, respectively, relative to starting [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}. All radiotracers had specific activities >37 GBq/{mu}mol and were >98% radiochemically pure at end of synthesis (<40 min). All radiotracers were evaluated by ex vivo biodistribution studies in conscious rodents. Results: A major radioactive metabolite in the rodent brain was observed following administration of [{sup 18}F]-1. While [{sup 11}C]-2 had moderate brain penetration and good clearance from normal brain tissue, distribution of radioactivity in brain was indicative of free and nonspecific binding. Good brain uptake was observed with [{sup 11}C]-3 (0.8%-1.4% injected dose per gram at 5 min postinjection), binding appeared to be reversible and distribution conformed with regional distribution of MAO-B in the rat brain. Preinjection of 3 or L-deprenyl showed a modest reduction (up to 25%) of brain activity. Conclusion: Carbon-11-labeled 3 was found to have the most favorable properties of the radiotracers evaluated; however, the signal-to-noise ratio was too low to warrant further in vivo imaging studies. Alternative radiotracers for imaging MAO

  15. Monoamine oxidase A is highly expressed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei Chuan; Siddiqi, Imran N; Mottok, Anja; Loo, Eric Y; Wu, Chieh Hsi; Cozen, Wendy; Steidl, Christian; Shih, Jean Chen

    2017-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and dietary amines and produces H2 O2 . It facilitates the progression of gliomas and prostate cancer, but its expression and functional relevance have not been studied in lymphoma. Here, we evaluated MAOA in 427 cases of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and in a spectrum of reactive lymphoid tissues by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. MAOA was expressed by Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in the majority of classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHLs) (181/241; 75%), with 34.8% showing strong expression. Weak MAOA was also noted in a minority of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas (8/47; 17%) and in a mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma. In contrast, no MAOA was found in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues, nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL; 0/8) or any other non-Hodgkin lymphomas studied (0/123). MAOA was more common in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative compared to EBV-positive cHL (p lymphoma specimens, most cHL-derived cell lines displayed MAOA activity, whereas non-Hodgkin-lymphoma-derived cell lines did not. The MAOA inhibitor clorgyline reduced the growth of L1236 cells and U-HO1 cells, and shRNA knockdown of MAOA reduced the growth of L1236 cells. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of MAOA increased the growth of MAOA-negative HDLM2 cells. Combined treatment with clorgyline and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) was more effective in reducing cell growth than either regimen alone. In summary, MAOA is highly expressed in cHL and may reflect the distinct biology of this lymphoma. Further studies on the potential utility of MAOA as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley

  16. Lassa-vesicular stomatitis chimeric virus safely destroys brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N; Cepko, Connie; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2015-07-01

    High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We tested a series of

  17. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV’s broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV’s neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a safe vector. Therefore, it is very important to understand the determinants of VSV tropism and develop strategies to alter it. VSV glycoprotein (G) and matrix (M) protein play major roles in its cell tropism. VSV G protein is responsible for VSV broad cell tropism and is often used for pseudotyping other viruses. VSV M affects cell tropism via evasion of antiviral responses, and M mutants can be used to limit cell tropism to cell types defective in interferon signaling. In addition, other VSV proteins and host proteins may function as determinants of VSV cell tropism. Various approaches have been successfully used to alter VSV tropism to benefit basic research and clinically relevant applications. PMID:23796410

  18. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Jeffery; Tang, Xiaolin; Landesman, Michael B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Ruedas, John B. [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Ghimire, Anil [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Gudheti, Manasa V. [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Perrault, Jacques [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Jorgensen, Erik M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Gerton, Jordan M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Utah (United States); Saffarian, Saveez, E-mail: saffarian@physics.utah.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter.

  19. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2013-09-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV's broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV's neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a safe vector. Therefore, it is very important to understand the determinants of VSV tropism and develop strategies to alter it. VSV glycoprotein (G) and matrix (M) protein play major roles in its cell tropism. VSV G protein is responsible for VSV broad cell tropism and is often used for pseudotyping other viruses. VSV M affects cell tropism via evasion of antiviral responses, and M mutants can be used to limit cell tropism to cell types defective in interferon signaling. In addition, other VSV proteins and host proteins may function as determinants of VSV cell tropism. Various approaches have been successfully used to alter VSV tropism to benefit basic research and clinically relevant applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular architecture of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmeh, Amal A; Schenk, Andreas D; Danek, Eric I; Kranzusch, Philip J; Liang, Bo; Walz, Thomas; Whelan, Sean P J

    2010-11-16

    Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell a highly specialized RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein and associated with the viral polymerase. The catalytic core of this protein-RNA complex is a 250-kDa multifunctional large (L) polymerase protein that contains enzymatic activities for nucleotide polymerization as well as for each step of mRNA cap formation. Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of NNS RNA viruses, we used negative stain electron microscopy (EM) to obtain a molecular view of L, alone and in complex with the viral phosphoprotein (P) cofactor. EM analysis, combined with proteolytic digestion and deletion mapping, revealed the organization of L into a ring domain containing the RNA polymerase and an appendage of three globular domains containing the cap-forming activities. The capping enzyme maps to a globular domain, which is juxtaposed to the ring, and the cap methyltransferase maps to a more distal and flexibly connected globule. Upon P binding, L undergoes a significant rearrangement that may reflect an optimal positioning of its functional domains for transcription. The structural map of L provides new insights into the interrelationship of its various domains, and their rearrangement on P binding that is likely important for RNA synthesis. Because the arrangement of conserved regions involved in catalysis is homologous, the structural insights obtained for VSV L likely extend to all NNS RNA viruses.

  1. [Safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in complicated vesicular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Alfonso; Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Díaz-Blanco, Fernando; Martínez-Fernández, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the experience and safety of cholecystectomy through laparoscopic approach in patients with complicated biliary gallbladder disease who were attended at the Hospital Español, Veracruz, Mexico, during a 10-year period. A prospective, longitudinal, comparative study with a control group was designed. We studied a group of patients with complicated cholelithiasis disease (Group I) and compared them with patients without complicated diseases. We analyzed the following variables: age, gender, risk factors, associated trans-operative pathology and accidents, surgical time, rate of conversion to open procedure, length of hospital stay, complications and evolution. During the 10-year period, 733 cholecystectomies were performed, 245 (33.42%) to treat complicated cholelithiasis and 488 (66.58%) uncomplicated. There were no differences regarding gender, age, risk factors, hospital stay, complications, morbidity and mortality, and iatrogenic lesions of the biliary tree, postoperative morbidity and mortality. In all patients of Group I (245), we found complications of cholelithiasis (acute cholecystitis, choledochal gallstones, vesicular adherences, and cholecystocolonic fistula). Surgical time was longer in Group I and surgical accidents made the surgical procedure more difficult. The overall results established that laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our institution is a safe procedure in patients with complicated gallbladder disease and can be performed by experienced surgeons.

  2. Influence of monoamine oxidase inhibitor on contractility of isolated rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1962-01-01

    Following the suggestion that monoamine oxidase inhibitor might interfere with potentiation of cardiac contractions, the influence of 1-iso-nicotinyl-2-isopropyl-hydrazide and 1-pivaloyl-2-benzyl-hydrazine on postextrasystolic increase of isotonic contractions in isolated perfused rat hearts was

  3. High activity of monoamine oxidase A is associated with externalizing behaviour in maltreated and nonmaltreated adoptees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, E.J. van der; Oostra, B.A.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Ende, J.J. van den; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in a functional polymorphism of the promoter of the Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene might partly explain the increased vulnerability of maltreated children for externalizing behaviour. A sample of 239 internationally adopted boys was studied. Adoptive parents provided the

  4. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  5. Human platelet monoamine oxidase activity in health and disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, M; Reveley, M A; Glover, V

    1981-03-01

    The most readily available source of monoamine oxidase in man is the platelet, although only the B form of the enzyme is represented in this site. Platelet activity is higher in women than in men. The enzyme activity is generally stable and is partly under genetic control. There is some evidence that individuals with low activity have a higher psychiatric morbidity than those with high activity. Despite some negative studies, the consensus of publication dealing with schizophrenia, migraine, and alcoholism find that mean platelet monoamine oxidase activity in the patient group is lower than in the controls. Values are raised in unipolar depression. Technical differences, or patient or control group heterogeneity, might well account for the absence of unanimity in the literature. A considerable degree of overlap between patient and control values, whatever the clinical diagnosis, appears to be the standard finding. Apart from these neuropsychiatric disturbances, platelet monoamine oxidase activity is raised in megaloblastic anaemia and reduced in iron deficiency anaemia. Although altered enzyme activity values may be linked to abnormal platelet populations in some of the haematological disorders discussed, in general the causes of abnormal platelet monoamine oxidase activity are unknown.

  6. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Sivasaravanaparan, Mithula

    2012-01-01

    The calmodulin/calcium-activated K(+) channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether...... genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice....

  7. Effect of dietary T-2 toxin on biogenic monoamines in discrete areas of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Fitzpatrick, D W; Wilson, J R

    1993-03-01

    Acute T-2 toxin treatments alter biogenic monoamine concentrations in the brain; however, these perturbations have not been well documented or demonstrated in feeding trials. In this study, the effect of dietary T-2 toxin on regional brain concentrations of biogenic monoamines and their metabolites was investigated in male rats fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0, 2.5 or 10 ppm T-2 toxin for either 7 or 14 days. Reduction in feed consumption, feed efficiency and weight gain was observed in rats fed either 2.5 or 10 ppm T-2 toxin. This effect was transient in animals fed the 10 ppm T-2 toxin diet, with feed consumption, feed efficiency and weight gain improving significantly during wk 2. T-2 toxin affected brain biogenic monoamine concentrations. In the nucleus raphe magnus, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid and norepinephrine increased in a dose-dependent manner, and dopamine increased transiently. In the substantia nigra of rats fed 10 ppm T-2, epinephrine increased after 7 days and norepinephrine decreased after 14 days, when compared with controls. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus and medial forebrain bundle were lower in T-2 toxin-treated rats than in control animals. The observed effects of T-2 toxin on brain monoamines and the resulting neurochemical imbalance may account for the physiological manifestation of trichothecene intoxication.

  8. An adrenal mass and increased catecholamines: monoamine oxidase or pheochromocytoma effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; Wentholt, Iris M.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal evaluation in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma can be difficult in patients with comorbidities or in patients using interfering drugs. We present a case of a 54-year-old man who was evaluated for an adrenal mass. The medical history reported treatment with a monoamine oxidase (MAO)

  9. Amphetamines take two to tango: an oligomer-based counter-transport model of neurotransmitter transport explores the amphetamine action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Stefan; Singer, Ernst A; Just, Herwig; Farhan, Hesso; Scholze, Petra; Kudlacek, Oliver; Holy, Marion; Koppatz, Karl; Krivanek, Peter; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H

    2005-01-01

    Amphetamine congeners [e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA), or "ecstasy"] are substrates for monoamine transporters (i.e., the transporters for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine); however, their in vivo-action relies on their ability to promote monoamine efflux. The mechanistic basis for this counter transport remains enigmatic. We tested the hypothesis that outward transport is contingent on the oligomeric nature of neurotransmitter transporters by creating a concatemer of the serotonin transporter and the amphetamine-resistant GABA transporter. In cells expressing the concatemer, amphetamine analogs promoted GABA efflux and blunted GABA influx. In contrast, the natural substrates serotonin and GABA only cause mutual inhibition of influx via the other transporter moiety in the concatemer. GABA efflux through the concatemer that was promoted by amphetamine analogs was blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitors GF109203X (bisindoylmaleimide I) and Go6983 (2-[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-5-methoxyindol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)maleimide). Thus, based on our observations, we propose that, in the presence of amphetamine analogs, monoamine transporters operate as counter-transporters; influx and efflux occur through separate but coupled moieties. Influx and efflux are coupled via changes in the ionic gradients, but these do not suffice to account for the action of amphetamines; the activity of a protein kinase C isoform provides a second stimulus that primes the inward facing conformation for outward transport.

  10. Redistributive properties of the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfman, W.B.; Perrault, J. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The template for transcription of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genome consists of a negative-strand RNA (approximately 11 kb) tightly associated with approximately 1250 copies of the nucleocapsid or N protein (N-RNA template). The interaction between the virion-associated polymerase and this template was probed with a novel assay using purified N-RNA complexes added to detergent-disrupted uv-irradiated standard virions or unirradiated defective interfering (DI) particles. In contrast to the well-known stability of assembled cellular transcription complexes, the VSV polymerase copied exogenously added templates efficiently and yielded products indistinguishable from control virus transcription. Addition of uv-irradiated N-RNA templates to unirradiated virus effectively competed for transcription of endogenous template indicating that most or all of the polymerase can freely redistribute. Furthermore preincubation of virus and added templates at high ionic strength to solubilize L and NS polymerase proteins did not release additional active enzyme for redistribution. Pretranscription of virus also had little or no effect on redistributed activity indicating that polymerase complexes are capable of multiple rounds of synthesis beginning at the 3' end promoter. Unexpectedly, titration with saturating amounts of added N-RNA showed that active polymerase complexes are only in slight excess relative to template in standard or DI particles despite the large surplus of packaged L and NS polypeptides. Moreover, added standard virus templates competed equally well for the redistributing polymerase from DI particles or standard virus indicating no significant polymerase-binding preference for interfering templates. These findings bear important implications regarding mechanisms of VSV transcription and replication.

  11. Inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.J.; Wagner, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    DNA synthesis in mouse myeloma (MPC-11) cells and L cells was rapidly and progressively inhibited by infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). No significant difference in cellular DNA synthesis inhibition was noted between synchronized and unsynchronized cells, nor did synchronized cells vary in their susceptibility to VSV infection after release from successive thymidine and hydroxyurea blocks. Cellular RNA synthesis was inhibited to about the same extent as DNA synthesis, but cellular protein synthesis was less affected by VSV at the same multiplicity of infection. The effect of VSV on cellular DNA synthesis could not be attributed to degradation of existing DNA or to decreased uptake of deoxynucleoside triphosphates, nor were DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase activities significantly different in VSV-infected and uninfected cell extracts. Analysis by alkaline sucrose gradients of DNA in pulse-labeled uninfected and VSV-infected cells indicated that VSV infection did not appear to influence DNA chain elongation. Cellular DNA synthesis was not significantly inhibited by infection with the VSV polymerase mutant tsG114(I) at the restrictive temperature or by infection with defective-interfering VSV DI-011 (5' end of the genome), but DI-HR-LT (3' end of genome) exhibited initially rapid but not prolonged inhibition of MPC-11 cell DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis inhibitory activity of wild-type VSV was only slowly and partially inactivated by very large doses of UV irradiation. These data suggest that, as in the effect of VSV on cellular RNA synthesis inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by VSV requires transcription of a small segment of the viral genome.

  12. Vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana 2 serotype as experimental model to study acute encephalitis – morphological features Vírus da estomatite vesicular (sorotipo indiana 2 como modelo experimental para o estudo de encefalite aguda – aspectos morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcanti Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV is a Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that infects mammals and causes vesicular lesions similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease. VSV experimental encephalitis can be induced in rodents and the symptoms are similar to those observed in rabies. However, the lesions observed in the animals´ encephalon are different. Inclusion bodies are not observed. There is necrosis, particularly in the region of the olfactory bulb, and, in some cases, ventriculitis. It was observed that the time pattern of VSV dissemination and the morphological aspects of the lesions are similar to those described in literature. The virus seems to be disseminated through the brain ventricles, being multiplied in the ependyma cells and in the neurons, besides using retrograde and anterograde transport. It was noticed that, due to the facility of virus manipulation, this experimental model has been used in innumerable research studies in several fields. If, on the one hand there are plenty of reports on the infection pathogenesis, on the other hand there are many gaps involving, for instance, aspects about virus transmission, recovery of infected animals and participation of glial cells in the acute as well as in the recovery phases.   O vírus da estomatite vesicular (VEV é um Vesiculovírus da família Rhabdoviridae que infecta mamíferos e causa lesões vesiculares semelhantes às observadas na febre aftosa. A encefalite experimental pode ser induzida em roedores e os sintomas são semelhantes aos observados na raiva; entretanto, as lesões observadas no encéfalo dos animais são diferentes. Corpúsculos de inclusão não são observados, há necrose especialmente da região do bulbo olfatório e em alguns casos, ventriculite. Observamos que o padrão temporal de disseminação do VEV e os aspectos morfológicos das lesões são similares aos descritos na literatura. O vírus parece se disseminar através dos ventr

  13. Non-dioxin-like PCBs inhibit [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, M B; Stenberg, M; Walaas, S I; Fonnum, F; Andersson, P L

    2013-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are neurotoxic compounds with known effects at the dopaminergic system in the brain. In a previous study we demonstrated that NDL-PCBs inhibit uptake of dopamine into rat brain synaptosomes, an effect most likely mediated by inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, using the cocaine analogue [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding assay and synaptosomes, we directly investigate whether NDL-PCBs act via DAT and explore the structure-activity relationship of this effect. In total, thirty PCBs were investigated, including a previously selected training set of twenty PCBs covering the structural variation within tri- to hepta-chlorinated NDL-PCBs, and an additional set of ten NDL-PCB congeners selected to validate the structure-activity pattern of neurotoxic PCBs. Since previous work has demonstrated that NDL-PCBs can also inhibit the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), we additionally examined whether some PCB congeners favour an effect on VMAT2 and others on DAT. Our results show that NDL-PCBs are potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to DAT. In fact, we identify a PCB congener (PCB 110) with similar potency for [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding inhibition as cocaine. All active congeners were ortho-chlorinated PCBs, and in particular, tetra- and penta-chlorinated with 2-3 chlorine atoms in the ortho position were potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding. Notably, the most active PCBs are highly prevalent in commercial mixtures of PCBs (Aroclor 1242, 1254 and 1260), which indicates that DAT inhibition could be one of the factors contributing to behavioural effects after Aroclor exposure. Derived data correlated well with the recently derived neurotoxic equivalency factors (NEQs), indicating the generality and applicability of the NEQ scheme in risk assessments of PCBs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  15. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J J

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B51 using complement fixation and serum neutralization tests. Two isolates did not react with antisera to known vesicular agents of swine and failed to produce vesicles or clinical signs of disease upon inoculation in swine. One vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolate from tissue of equine origin was pathogenic for swine but produced limited vesiculation at the site of intradermalingual inoculation in the tongue of a pony infected experimentally. Type B51 virus was reisolated from lesions produced in the pony and the pony became seropositive for virus type B51. PMID:3651889

  16. Interation of mRNA with proteins in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.; Dreyfuss, G.

    1986-02-01

    The interaction of mRNA with proteins in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells was studied by photochemical cross-linking in intact cells. The major (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins which became cross-linked by UV light to mRNA in uninfected and in VSV-infected HeLa cells were similar and had apparent mobilities in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis corresponding to 135, 93, 72, 68, 53, 50, 43, and 36 kilodaltons. The proteins which were cross-linked in vivo specifically to the five mRNAs of VSV were labeled through radioactive nucleotides incorporated only into VSV mRNAs under conditions in which only VSV mRNAs are labeled. The same major mRNP proteins that became cross-linked to host mRNAs also became cross-linked to VSV mRNAs, although several quantitative differences were detected. Photochemical cross-linking and immunoblotting of cross-linked mRNPs with VSV antiserum demonstrated that in addition to host proteins VSV mRNAs also became cross-linked to the VSV-encoded N protein. The poly(A) segment of both host and VSV mRNAs was associated in vivo selectively with the 72-kilodalton polypeptide. The major proteins of mRNA-ribonucleoprotein complexes are therefore ubiquitous and common to different mRNAs. Furthermore, since the major messenger ribonucleoproteins interact also with VSV mRNAs even though these mRNAs are transcribed in the cytoplasm, it appears that nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic transport are not necessary for mRNA to interact with these proteins.

  17. Cellular proteins associated with the interior and exterior of vesicular stomatitis virus virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; Hwang, Sun-Il; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2014-01-01

    Virus particles (virions) often contain not only virus-encoded but also host-encoded proteins. Some of these host proteins are enclosed within the virion structure, while others, in the case of enveloped viruses, are embedded in the host-derived membrane. While many of these host protein incorporations are likely accidental, some may play a role in virus infectivity, replication and/or immunoreactivity in the next host. Host protein incorporations may be especially important in therapeutic applications where large numbers of virus particles are administered. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus and a candidate vaccine, gene therapy and oncolytic vector. Using mass spectrometry, we previously examined cell type dependent host protein content of VSV virions using intact ("whole") virions purified from three cell lines originating from different species. Here we aimed to determine the localization of host proteins within the VSV virions by analyzing: i) whole VSV virions; and ii) whole VSV virions treated with Proteinase K to remove all proteins outside the viral envelope. A total of 257 proteins were identified, with 181 identified in whole virions and 183 identified in Proteinase K treated virions. Most of these proteins have not been previously shown to be associated with VSV. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the most overrepresented categories were proteins associated with vesicles, vesicle-mediated transport and protein localization. Using western blotting, the presence of several host proteins, including some not previously shown in association with VSV (such as Yes1, Prl1 and Ddx3y), was confirmed and their relative quantities in various virion fractions determined. Our study provides a valuable inventory of virion-associated host proteins for further investigation of their roles in the replication cycle, pathogenesis and immunoreactivity of VSV.

  18. Cellular proteins associated with the interior and exterior of vesicular stomatitis virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moerdyk-Schauwecker

    Full Text Available Virus particles (virions often contain not only virus-encoded but also host-encoded proteins. Some of these host proteins are enclosed within the virion structure, while others, in the case of enveloped viruses, are embedded in the host-derived membrane. While many of these host protein incorporations are likely accidental, some may play a role in virus infectivity, replication and/or immunoreactivity in the next host. Host protein incorporations may be especially important in therapeutic applications where large numbers of virus particles are administered. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the prototypic rhabdovirus and a candidate vaccine, gene therapy and oncolytic vector. Using mass spectrometry, we previously examined cell type dependent host protein content of VSV virions using intact ("whole" virions purified from three cell lines originating from different species. Here we aimed to determine the localization of host proteins within the VSV virions by analyzing: i whole VSV virions; and ii whole VSV virions treated with Proteinase K to remove all proteins outside the viral envelope. A total of 257 proteins were identified, with 181 identified in whole virions and 183 identified in Proteinase K treated virions. Most of these proteins have not been previously shown to be associated with VSV. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the most overrepresented categories were proteins associated with vesicles, vesicle-mediated transport and protein localization. Using western blotting, the presence of several host proteins, including some not previously shown in association with VSV (such as Yes1, Prl1 and Ddx3y, was confirmed and their relative quantities in various virion fractions determined. Our study provides a valuable inventory of virion-associated host proteins for further investigation of their roles in the replication cycle, pathogenesis and immunoreactivity of VSV.

  19. Vesicle transport and photoreceptor death: fishing for molecular links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2013-06-10

    Intracellular vesicle transport defects can induce retinal degeneration and photoreceptor cell death, but the molecular connections between these processes remains poorly understood. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Nishiwaki et al. (2013) suggest that a vesicle fusion cis-SNARE complex component translates vesicular transport defects into photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Chemical Measurements of Vesicular Transmitters with Electrochemical Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchan; Dunevall, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G

    2016-10-18

    Electrochemical cytometry adds a new dimension to our ability to study the chemistry and chemical storage of transmitter molecules stored in nanometer vesicles. The approach involves the adsorption and subsequent rupture of vesicles on an electrode surface during which the electroactive contents are quantitatively oxidized (or reduced). The measured current allows us to count the number of molecules in the vesicles using Faraday's law and to correlate this to the amount of molecules released when single exocytosis events take place at communicating cells. The original format for this method involved a capillary electrophoresis separation step to singly address each vesicle, but we have more recently discovered that cellular vesicles tend to adsorb to carbon electrodes and spontaneously as well as stochastically rupture to give mostly single vesicle events. This approach, called impact electrochemical cytometry, even though the impact is perhaps not the important part of this process, has been studied and the vesicle rupture appears to be at the interface between the vesicle and the electrode and is probably driven by electroporation. The pore size and rate of content electrolysis are a function of the pore diameter and the presence of a protein core in the vesicles. In model liposomes with no protein, events appear extremely rapidly as the soft nanoparticles impact the electrode and the contents are oxidized. It appears that the proteins decorating the surface of the vesicle are important in maintaining a gap from the electrode and when this gap is closed electroporation takes place. Models of the event response times suggest the pores formed are small enough so we can carry out these measurements at nanotip electrodes and we have used this to quantify the vesicle content in living cells in a mode we call intracellular impact electrochemical cytometry. The development of electrochemical cytometry allows comparison between vesicle content and vesicular release and

  1. Pharmacological and behavioral characterization of D-473, an orally active triple reuptake inhibitor targeting dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloke K Dutta

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule.

  2. Efficacy, safety, and patient preference of monoamine oxidase B inhibitors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Robottom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bradley J RobottomDepartment of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and the most treatable. Treatment of PD is symptomatic and generally focuses on the replacement or augmentation of levodopa. A number of options are available for treatment, both in monotherapy of early PD and to treat complications of advanced PD. This review focuses on rasagiline and selegiline, two medications that belong to a class of antiparkinsonian drugs called monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B inhibitors. Topics covered in the review include mechanism of action, efficacy in early and advanced PD, effects on disability, the controversy regarding disease modification, safety, and patient preference for MAO-B inhibitors.Keywords: monoamine oxidase inhibitors, rasagiline, selegiline, Parkinson's disease, efficacy, safety

  3. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  4. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tada, Keiya; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Masatoshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1987-06-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE.

  5. Human platelet monoamine oxidase activity in health and disease: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, M; Reveley, M A; Glover, V

    1981-01-01

    The most readily available source of monoamine oxidase in man is the platelet, although only the B form of the enzyme is represented in this site. Platelet activity is higher in women than in men. The enzyme activity is generally stable and is partly under genetic control. There is some evidence that individuals with low activity have a higher psychiatric morbidity than those with high activity. Despite some negative studies, the consensus of publication dealing with schizophrenia, migraine, ...

  6. The use of multiscale molecular simulations in understanding a relationship between the structure and function of biological systems of the brain: the application to monoamine oxidase enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vianello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging society and therewith associated neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, including depression, Alzheimer’s disease, obsessive disorders, and Parkinson’s disease, urgently require novel drug candidates. Targets include monoamine oxidases A and B (MAOs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, and various receptors and transporters. For rational drug design it is particularly important to combine experimental synthetic, kinetic, toxicological and pharmacological information with structural and computational work. This paper describes the application of various modern computational biochemistry methods in order to improve the understanding of a relationship between the structure and function of large biological systems including ion channels, transporters, receptors and metabolic enzymes. The methods covered stem from classical molecular dynamics simulations to understand the physical basis and the time evolution of the structures, to combined QM and QM/MM approaches to probe the chemical mechanisms of enzymatic activities and their inhibition. As an illustrative example, the later will focus on the monoamine oxidase family of enzymes, which catalyze the degradation of amine neurotransmitters in various parts of the brain, the imbalance of which is associated with the development and progression of a range of neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibitors that act mainly on MAO A are used in the treatment of depression, due to their ability to raise serotonin concentrations, while MAO B inhibitors decrease dopamine degradation and improve motor control in patients with Parkinson disease. Our results give strong support that both MAO isoforms, A and B, operate through the hydride transfer mechanism. Relevance of MAO catalyzed reactions and MAO inhibition in the context of neurodegeneration will be discussed.

  7. Biogenic monoamine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes during aging. Effects of nootropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancheva, S L; Alova, L G

    1994-09-01

    1. In experiments on young (3-5-month-old), adult (10-11-month-old) and old (21-22-month-old) rats, it was found that significant age-related changes occurred in the high-affinity uptake of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) by cortical and striatal synaptosomes. 2. Changes in DA, NA and 5-HT uptake during aging are suggested to be neurochemical correlates of cognition and memory deficits that develops in senescence. 3. The in vitro effects of the nootropic drugs piracetam, aniracetam, meclofenoxate and adafenoxate on the DA, NA and 5-HT uptake by cortical and striatal synaptosomes from young rats were studied. Administered in increasing concentrations (1 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-3) M) these drugs inhibited monoamine uptake. 4. Adafenoxate proved to be a more potent monoamine uptake inhibitor than the other three drugs; it inhibited the uptake in the frontal cortex and striatum without selectivity for either monoaminergic system. It is suggested that adafenoxate affects cognition through the involvement of central neurotransmission and particularly through the inhibition of monoamine uptake systems.

  8. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C.; Scott, Anna L.; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F.; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles. PMID:23858446

  9. Social isolation alters central nervous system monoamine content in prairie voles following acute restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Neal; Anderson, Eden M; Moenk, Deirdre; Trahanas, Diane; Matuszewich, Leslie; Grippo, Angela J

    2018-04-01

    Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals. Isolated prairie voles displayed significantly increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as elevated serotonin and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus, and potentially decreased levels of serotonin in the frontal cortex. However, no group differences in monoamine levels were observed in the hippocampus or raphe. The results suggest that social stress may bias monoamine neurotransmission and stress hormone function to subsequent acute stressors, such as restraint. These findings improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the consequences of social stress.

  10. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    John Arboleda; Andrés Londoño; Víctor Quiroz; Carlos Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ) e Indiana (VSV-IN), afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar), bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos...

  11. Cytopathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis virus is regulated by the PSAP motif of M protein in a species-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an important vector-borne pathogen of bovine and equine species, causing a reportable vesicular disease. The matrix (M) protein of VSV is multifunctional and plays a key role in cytopathogenesis, apoptosis, host protein shut-off, and virion assembly/budding. Our ...

  12. (/sup 11/C)clorgyline and (/sup 11/C)-L-deprenyl and their use in measuring functional monoamine oxidase activity in the brain using positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1986-04-17

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the living body by using /sup 11/C-labeled enzyme inhibitors which bind irreversibly to an enzyme as a result of catalysis. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  13. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  14. Monoamine Release in the Cat Lumbar Spinal Cord during Fictive Locomotion Evoked by the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Noga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cat’s lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH, intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH and adjacent white matter (WM during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD for NE and 5-HT, respectively. For both substances, release usually began prior to the onset of locomotion typically earliest in the IZ/VH and peaks were positively correlated with net activity in peripheral nerves. Monoamine levels gradually returned to baseline levels or below at the end of stimulation in most trials. Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak (TTP and decline-to-baseline. These results demonstrate that spinal monoamine release is modulated on a timescale of seconds, in tandem with centrally-generated locomotion and indicate that MLR-evoked locomotor activity involves concurrent activation of descending monoaminergic and reticulospinal pathways. These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic

  15. Increase in vesicular hand eczema after house dust mite inhalation provocation : a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Huizinga, Janneke; De Monchy, Jan G; Vermeulen, Karin M

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the respiratory tract is involved in eliciting or aggravating eczematous lesions in patients with vesicular hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the effect of inhalation of house dust mite (HDM) on vesicular hand eczema. METHODS: Eighteen patients with vesicular

  16. Detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Aguero, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. We have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET), for simultaneous...

  17. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present.

  18. TNF-mediated survival of CD169(+) cells promotes immune activation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain ...

  19. Toluene-induced, Ca2+-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952; Vijverberg, H.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068856474

    2002-01-01

    Acute effects of toluene on vesicular catecholamine release from intact PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells have been investigated using carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. The frequency of vesicles released is low under basal conditions and is enhanced by depolarization. Toluene causes an increase in

  20. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating...

  1. [Seminal vesicular cysts associated with renal agenesis, ipsilateral ureter and hemitrigone. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis Mínguez, B; Ferrutxe Frau, J; Moreno Pardo, B; Baixauli Martínez, J M; Moreno Barrachina, E; Rodríguez Hernández, J H

    1979-01-01

    A case is presented of seminal vesicular cyst associated with kidney agenesia, ipsilateral ureter and hemitrigon; this is the 17th case presented in the world literature reviewed. A study is made of all the cases published and the authors recommend deferento-vesiculography as the best means of diagnosis and total excision of the cyst as the most effective treatment.

  2. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exists. (a) Swine vesicular disease is considered to exist in all regions of the world except Australia..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal..., the pork or pork products must be moved under Department seals or seals of the U.S. Customs Service...

  3. The development and significance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas as influenced by agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruissen, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of

  4. Nanoscale distribution of presynaptic Ca(2+) channels and its impact on vesicular release during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiro; Harada, Harumi; Kamasawa, Naomi; Matsui, Ko; Rothman, Jason S; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Silver, R Angus; DiGregorio, David A; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-07

    Synaptic efficacy and precision are influenced by the coupling of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) to vesicles. But because the topography of VGCCs and their proximity to vesicles is unknown, a quantitative understanding of the determinants of vesicular release at nanometer scale is lacking. To investigate this, we combined freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling of Cav2.1 channels, local [Ca(2+)] imaging, and patch pipette perfusion of EGTA at the calyx of Held. Between postnatal day 7 and 21, VGCCs formed variable sized clusters and vesicular release became less sensitive to EGTA, whereas fixed Ca(2+) buffer properties remained constant. Experimentally constrained reaction-diffusion simulations suggest that Ca(2+) sensors for vesicular release are located at the perimeter of VGCC clusters (<30 nm) and predict that VGCC number per cluster determines vesicular release probability without altering release time course. This "perimeter release model" provides a unifying framework accounting for developmental changes in both synaptic efficacy and time course. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances pertaining to the pharmacology and interactions of irreversible nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Peter Kenneth

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances clarifying the pharmacology and interactions of irreversible nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors that have not been considered in depth lately are discussed. These new data elucidate aspects of enzyme inhibition and pharmacokinetic interactions involving amine oxidases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, aminotransferases (transaminases), and decarboxylases (carboxy-lyases) and the effects of tyramine. Phenelzine and tranylcypromine remain widely available, and many publications have data relevant to this review. Their effect on CYP 450 enzymes is less than many newer drugs. Tranylcypromine only inhibits CYP 450 2A6 (selectively and potently). Phenelzine has no reported interactions, but, like isoniazid, weakly and irreversibly inhibits CYP 450 2C19 and 3A4 in vitro. It might possibly be implicated in interactions (as isoniazid is). Phenelzine has some clinically relevant inhibitory effects on amine oxidases, aminotransferases, and decarboxylases, and it lowers pyridoxal phosphate levels. It commonly causes pyridoxal deficiency, weight gain, sedation, and sexual dysfunction, but only rarely causes hepatic damage and failure, or neurotoxicity. The adverse effects and difficulties with monoamine oxidase inhibitors are less than previously believed or estimated, including a lower risk of hypertension, because the tyramine content in foods is now lower. Potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have a strong protective effect against tyramine-induced hypertension. The newly discovered trace amine-associated receptors probably mediate the pressor response. The therapeutic potential of tranylcypromine and L-dopa in depression and Parkinson disease is worthy of reassessment. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are not used to an extent proportionate with their benefits; medical texts and doctors' knowledge require a major update to reflect the evidence of recent advances.

  6. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  7. Brain monoamine oxidase B and A in human parkinsonian dopamine deficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Rathitharan, Gausiha; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Guttman, Mark; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    See Jellinger (doi:10.1093/awx190) for a scientific commentary on this article. The enzyme monoamine oxidases (B and A subtypes, encoded by MAOB and MAOA, respectively) are drug targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Inhibitors of MAOB are used clinically in Parkinson's disease for symptomatic purposes whereas the potential disease-modifying effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is debated. As astroglial cells express high levels of MAOB, the enzyme has been proposed as a brain imaging marker of astrogliosis, a cellular process possibly involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis as elevation of MAOB in astrocytes might be harmful. Since brain monoamine oxidase status in Parkinson's disease is uncertain, our objective was to measure, by quantitative immunoblotting in autopsied brain homogenates, protein levels of both monoamine oxidases in three different degenerative parkinsonian disorders: Parkinson's disease (n = 11), multiple system atrophy (n = 11), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 16) and in matched controls (n = 16). We hypothesized that if MAOB is 'substantially' localized to astroglial cells, MAOB levels should be generally associated with standard astroglial protein measures (e.g. glial fibrillary acidic protein). MAOB levels were increased in degenerating putamen (+83%) and substantia nigra (+10%, non-significant) in multiple system atrophy; in caudate (+26%), putamen (+27%), frontal cortex (+31%) and substantia nigra (+23%) of progressive supranuclear palsy; and in frontal cortex (+33%), but not in substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease, a region we previously reported no increase in astrocyte protein markers. Although the magnitude of MAOB increase was less than those of standard astrocytic markers, significant positive correlations were observed amongst the astrocyte proteins and MAOB. Despite suggestions that MAOA (versus MAOB) is primarily responsible for metabolism of dopamine in dopamine neurons, there was no loss of the

  8. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  9. [The effect of psychotropic substances on the deamination of monoamines in the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol'dina, O A; Gankina, E M

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of antimonoamine oxidase activity of psychotropic agents of different classes was made. Phenothiazine, butyrophenone and atypical neuroleptics were found to suppress deamination of 2-phenylethylamine in the brain. Tranquilizers of benzodiazepine structure appeared to be inactive with respect to monoamine oxidase (MAO) of the brain. Anticonvulsants (except difenin) weakly inhibit serotonin deamination and, on the contrary, difenin stimulates serotonin- and 2-phenylethylamine deamination. Antidepressants--MAO inhibitors--more actively reduce the rate of serotonin deamination, and tricyclic antidepressant desimipramine is similar to aminazine by its effect on MAO. Phenamine is a potent MAO inhibitor. The effect of cocaine is significantly less pronounced.

  10. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor poisoning resulting from Internet misinformation on illicit substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, D Eric; Bird, Steven B; Boyer, Edward W

    2004-01-01

    The Internet may represent a new mechanism by which adolescents initiate the use of illicit substances. The existence of multiple partisan websites providing misinformation regarding the safety of these substances may lead to an increase in unsafe behavior among this age group. Adverse outcomes related to Internet-based drug information are rarely identified. We report a case of an adolescent whose use of the Internet to obtain drug information led to severe poisoning from the combination of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, harmaline, and a hallucinogenic tryptamine, 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT).

  11. Sex-dependent effects of maternal separation on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in response to chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, S E; Quadros, I M H; Machado, R B; Suchecki, D

    2013-12-03

    Prolonged and repeated periods of maternal separation produce behavioral phenotype of increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse. Most of the changes in behavior, corticosterone (CORT) and monoamine levels induced by long maternal separation (LMS) are observed after a challenge, but not in basal conditions. LMS increases ethanol-induced locomotor response and self-administration, possibly due to changes in CORT release and/or monoamine concentrations. This study examined the effects of LMS in association with chronic ethanol treatment on plasma CORT and brain monoamine concentrations in male and female Swiss mice, which were kept undisturbed (animal facility rearing - AFR) or separated from their mothers for 3h/day, from 2 to 14 days of age (LMS). As adults, one set of male and female mice received no drug treatment to assess the effect of LMS per se. Another set of animals received saline injections for 20 days and one ethanol injection (2.2g/kg, i.p.) on day 21 (acute) or ethanol for 21 days (chronic). Locomotor activity, plasma CORT levels and monoamines in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of AFR and LMS mice were evaluated in non-treated, acute and chronic ethanol-treated animals. In non-treated mice, no differences were found in CORT or locomotor activity, with small changes in monoamines content. In LMS females, chronic ethanol increased dopamine and serotonin concentrations in the frontal cortex, relative to acute ethanol LMS and to chronic ethanol-treated AFR groups (pmales, chronic ethanol increased hippocampal noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and metabolites when compared to respective AFR controls, as well as acute LMS. Moreover, chronic ethanol treatment resulted in higher CORT concentrations in LMS than in AFR males. Overall, these results indicate that LMS mice were more susceptible to the effects of chronic ethanol administration on CORT and brain monoamine concentrations, and that these effects were sex

  12. Behavioral and Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and the Hallucinogen 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine

    OpenAIRE

    Halberstadt, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are often ingested together with tryptamine hallucinogens, but relatively little is known about the consequences of their combined use. We have shown previously that monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitors alter the locomotor profile of the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in rats, and enhance its interaction with 5-HT2A receptors. The goal of the present studies was to investigate the mechanism for the interaction between 5-MeO-DMT...

  13. Effect of dichloromethane fraction of Areca catechu nut on monoamines associated behaviors and tyramine pressor sensitivity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Abbas, Ghulam; Ahmed, Fahad Shabbir; Rahman, Attaur; Dar, Ahsana

    2014-03-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the effect of Areca catechu nut dichloromethane fraction (7 mg/kg) on monoamines (serotonin and dopamine) modulation (5-hydroxytryptophan-induced tremors and phenylethylamine-induced stereotypes) and its interaction with tyramine (cheese effect). The dichloromethane fraction caused pronounced increase in 5-HTP-induced tremors (50%) with negligible PEA-induced stereotypes (20%). Additionally, it did not produce a significant increase in the tyramine pressor effects. These results suggest that the dichloromethane fraction of A. catechu nut primarily elevates serotonin levels (probably via monoamine oxidase A inhibition) and does not induce cheese effect.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanes: new dopamine transporter inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiz, A P; Smith, M P; Enyedy, I; Flippen-Anderson, J; Zhang, M; Johnson, K M; Kozikowski, A P

    2000-08-07

    The synthesis and biological activity of a series of 6-substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes are described. 1-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes represent a new class of compounds that exhibit monoamine transporter inhibitory activity highly dependent on the overall topology and the absolute stereochemistry of the molecule.

  15. Immunodetection of the serotonin transporter protein is a more valid marker for serotonergic fibers than serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Brask, Dorthe; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2006-01-01

    transporter (SERT) protein, on the other hand, is less liable to metabolism and for that reason we hypothetized that SERT immunostaining is a more stable marker of serotonergic fibers. Rats were pretreated with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor and compared with placebo treated rats. Brains were double...

  16. Antidepressive-Like Property of Dichloromethane Fraction of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus and Relevance of Monoamine Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus popularly referred to as craveiro is considered as a calming agent in different local preparations. The present study attempted to examine antidepressant-like effect of dichloromethane fraction (DF and role of monoamine oxidase (MAO, tryptophan, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Based on the research focus, tail suspension (TS, forced swimming (FS, and open field (OF tests were conducted after oral administration of DF (125, 250, or 500 mg/Kg. Ex vivo assay of MAO was also conducted to evaluate inhibitory effect of DF (250 mg/Kg. Administration of DF elicits antidepressant-like response in the TS and FS. However, DF 500 mg/Kg did not alter mice performance in these models. The data obtained in the OF showed a reduction in total crossing and rearing activity; these effects suggest motor interference in TS and FS performance. Mice pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p.—serotonin biosynthesis inhibitor for 4 consecutive days or acute administration of α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.—catecholamine synthesis inhibitor blocked anti-immobility effect of DF in the FS. In ex vivo assay of MAO, DF did not inhibit catabolic activity of MAO. Our findings support antidepressant-like activity of DF and suggest an effect that depends on monoamine biosynthesis.

  17. Monoamines, BDNF, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA-Sulfate, and Childhood Depression—An Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Malkesman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal levels of monoamines and DHEA in four main limbic brain regions were measured in prepubertal Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (a putative animal model of childhood depression. Basal levels of “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF” were also determined in two regions in the hippocampus, compared with Wistar strain controls. In the second phase, we examined the responsiveness of prepubertal WKY rats to different types of chronic antidepressant treatments: Fluoxetine, Desipramine, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS. WKY prepubertal rats exhibited different monoamine levels in the limbic system, reduced DHEA levels in the VTA and lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus CA3 region compared to controls. In prepubertal WKY rats, only treatment with DHEAS produced a statistically significant decrease in immobility, compared to saline-administered controls in the forced swim test. Wistar controls were not affected by any antidepressant. The results imply that DHEA(S and BDNF may be involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of childhood depression.

  18. Ondansetron and fluoxetine reduce sleep apnea in mice lacking monoamine oxidase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, C; Seif, I; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P

    2009-09-30

    Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep apnea have indicated that the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine is beneficial to some patients with obstructive apnea, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron seems of little value despite its efficacy in rat and dog models of sleep apnea (central and obstructive). Here, we examined the effect of these drugs in transgenic mice lacking monoamine oxidase A (Tg8), which exhibit approximately 3-fold higher rates of central sleep apnea than their wild-type counterparts (C3H), linked to their enhanced 5-HT levels. Acute ondansetron (2 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal), acute fluoxetine (16 mg kg(-1)) and 13-day chronic fluoxetine (1 or 16 mg kg(-1)) decreased by approximately 80% the total (spontaneous and post-sigh) apnea index in Tg8 mice during non-rapid eye movement sleep, with no statistically significant effect on apnea in C3H mice. Our study shows that both drugs reduce the frequency of apneic episodes attributable to increased monoamine levels in this model of MAOA deficiency, and suggests that both may be effective in some patients with central sleep apneas.

  19. [Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of liver monoamine oxidases of minks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagodina, O V

    2010-01-01

    Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of catalytic properties of liver monoamine oxidases (MAO) was performed in the mature males of the American mink Mustela vison and the European mink Mustela lutreola. The action on the MAO activity was studied of alkaloids of the benzo[c]phenanthridine group: sanguinarine and chelidonine, diisoquinoline alkaloid berberine, medication agents Ukrain and Sanguirythrin as well as derivatives of 2-propylamine: deprenyl and clorgylin. The latter turned out to be irreversible inhibitor of the MAO A form, whereas deprehyl--irreversible inhibitor of the MAO B form in both studied mink species. The selectivity of action of each inhibitor on the corresponding liver MAO form for the species M. vison was one order of magnitude stronger than for the species M. lutreola. All studied alkaloids as well medication agents on their basis have been shown to be specific irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate strength of the liver MAO A form of both mink species. They inhibit the enzymatic deamination of serotonin, tyramine, and tryptamine without affecting the deamination reaction of benzylamine and beta-phenylethylamine (at concentrations of 10 mM and lower). Out of the studied five isoquinoline agents, the medication Ukrain and alkaloid chelidonine have the highest inhibitory action; the agent Sanguirythrin and alkaloids berberine and sanguinarine produce the weaker monoamine oxidase effect. The revealed specificity of action of the studied inhibitors is an indirect evidence for the presence in the liver enzymes of both mink species, like in the rat liver enzyme, of several molecular forms.

  20. Effects of the nootropic agents adafenoxate and meclofenoxate on brain biogenic monoamines in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancheva, S L; Petkov, V D; Petkov, V V

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the nootropic agents meclofenoxate (Mf) and adafenoxate (Adf) on the content of biogenic monoamines in the frontal cerebral cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus of 22-month-old rats was studied. Mf and Adf were administered orally for seven days twice daily in a dose of 50 mg/kg weight. Both agents tested increased the content of serotonin (5-HT) in the cortex and striatum. Adf also raised the noradrenaline (NA) content in the cortex and hippocampus, lowering the dopamine (DA) level in the striatum. Comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the finding of earlier experiments of ours on 4-5-month-old rats revealed the following: 1. Biogenic monoamines (BMA) in the brain tend to decrease with ageing. 2. In addition to the unidirectional effects of Mf and Adf on the BMA content in the brain of both young and old rats, but in some cases there were also differences. 3. The comparison of the effects of Mf and Adf on the BMA content in the different brain regions with the changes in this content, characteristic of certain diseases, reveals prospects for selectivity in the application of these nootropic agents, which are generally rather similar in pharmacological characteristics.

  1. Selective neuronal cell attachment to a covalently patterned monoamine on fluorinated ethylene propylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, J P; Bellamkonda, R; Jacob, J; Vargo, T G; Gardella, J A; Aebischer, P

    1993-07-01

    The patterned covalent surface addition of a monoamine to fluorinated ethylene propylene films (FEP) controls both cellular attachment and differentiation in defined media conditions. A radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) process was used to replace FEP surface fluorine atoms with hydroxyl groups. The primary amine was then covalently attached by polymerizing aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) via the hydroxyl functionalities. The selective attachment of cells to the APTES regions was determined to be dependent upon the initial adsorption of albumin to the patterned FEP membrane. Albumin was determined to enhance cellular attachment to the APTES regions and prevent attachment to the unmodified FEP areas for both an NB2a neuroblastoma cell line and primary rat endothelial cells. If albumin were not preadsorbed onto the membrane, selective attachment to the modified regions would not occur. Radiolabeling albumin with 125I demonstrated the preference of albumin for adsorption onto the monoamine surface where the cells preferentially attached. Both hydrophobic and ionic forces contributed to the adsorption process. Although selective cellular attachment to the patterned APTES regions could be achieved by albumin preadsorption to the surface, the neuroblastoma cells did not significantly differentiate unless additional serum components were supplemented to the media.

  2. Effect of aging and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology on brain monoamines in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Linstow, C. U.; Severino, Maurizio; Metaxas, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Aging is the greatest single risk factor of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). The monoaminergic system, including serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulates cognition, which is affected in AD. Changes in monoamine levels have been observed in AD......, but these can both be age- and/or disease-related. We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1δE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild......-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice. While, we observed no aging effect in WT mice, we detected region-specific changes in the levels...

  3. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor milnacipran does not affect nociception to acute visceral distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Eisenach, James C; Rao, Srinias G; Tong, Chuanyao

    2004-05-01

    The role of antidepressants in the treatment of visceral pain has not been extensively examined. Milnacipran, an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia. In this study, we sought to determine the activity of milnacipran against acute visceral nociception. Female virgin rats were studied 7 days after bilateral ovariectomy. For uterine cervical distension (UCD), two metal rods were inserted into the cervical osses under general anesthesia for manual distension. Colorectal distension (CRD) was performed by insertion of a balloon catheter into the descending colon and rectum, followed by manual inflation. Two electrodes were inserted into the rectus abdominus muscle for recording UCD- or CRD-induced reflex contraction, which was quantified by electromyography (EMG). A dose response for milnacipran, administered intrathecally or i.v., was obtained for UCD and CRD stimulation. Milnacipran failed to inhibit the UCD-induced EMG response, whether administered i.v. or intrathecally. Similarly, i.v. milnacipran, administered either acutely or chronically, failed to inhibit the CRD-induced EMG response. CRD and UCD are well established animal models for the study of acute visceral pain. Milnacipran, although it provides some unique advantages compared with other antidepressants, is unlikely to produce analgesia after acute administration in the setting of acute visceral pain. Neither intrathecal nor i.v. milnacipran, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, inhibits an acute visceral pain response induced by colorectal or uterine cervical distension.

  4. Relationships of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Metabolite Levels With Clinical Variables in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Hattori, Kotaro; Ogawa, Shintaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    Many studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in depressive disorders. However, their clinical significance is still unclear. We tried to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels could be a state-dependent marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on analyses stratified by clinical variables in a relatively large sample. Subjects were 75 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria and 87 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). They were recruited between May 2010 and November 2013. We measured homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) in CSF samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. We analyzed the relationships of the metabolite levels with age, sex, diagnosis, psychotropic medication use, and depression severity. There was a weak positive correlation between age and 5-HIAA levels in controls (ρ = 0.26, P depressed patients (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score > 12) were significantly lower than those in controls (P antipsychotics increased levels of HVA (ρ = 0.24, P .1), were related to depression severity. CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels could be state-dependent markers in MDD patients. Since 5-HIAA levels greatly decrease with the use of antidepressants, HVA levels might be more useful in the clinical setting.

  5. Monoamine oxidase B layer-by-layer film fabrication and characterization toward dopamine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Pereira, Tamyris Paschoal [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, CCTS, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares [Universidade Estadual de São Paulo — UNESP, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Leite de Moraes, Marli [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Unifesp, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Marystela, E-mail: marystela@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, CCTS, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    In this work nanostructured film composites of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme, free or encapsulated in liposomes, were fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique, employing polyethylene imine (PEI) as polycation. Initially, the MAO-B enzyme was incorporated into liposomes in order to preserve its enzymatic structure ensuring their activity and catalytic stability. The LbL film growth was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by gold resonance angle shift analysis after each bilayer deposition. Subsequently, the films were applied as amperometric biosensors for dopamine detection using Prussian Blue (PB) as the electron mediator. The biosensor fabricated by MAO-B incorporated into liposomes composed of DPPG:POPG in the ratio (1:4) (w/w) showed the best performance with a sensitivity of 0.86 (μA cm{sup −2})/(mmol L{sup −1}) and a detection limit of 0.33 mmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Monoamine oxidase B incorporation in liposomes was proposed to preserve the enzyme. • Layer-by-layer films composed of MAO-B (free and in liposomes) were fabricated. • Amperometric response using ITO/Prussian Blue covered with the MAO-B films was studied. • Sensitivity, limit of detection and apparent Michaelis–Menten constant were compared.

  6. Purification and molecular analysis of a monoamine oxidase isolated from Narcissus tazetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yongming; Inoue, Hironori; Yogo, Syun; Hirasawa, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity was detected in Narcissus tazetta. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxyapatite, and phenyl-Sepharose columns. The molecular mass of the enzyme, determined using a GS-520 HQ column, was estimated to be 135 kDa. SDS-PAGE yielded two bands of, 75 kDa and 65 kDa. The enzyme, which had catalytic activity for some aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, belongs to a class of monoamine oxidases (MAOs). The K(m) value for n-propylamine was 5.9 × 10⁻⁵ M. A substrate analog, 2-bromoethylamine, inhibited enzyme activity. Redox-cycling staining detected a quinone in the MAO protein. By inductively coupled plasma mass analysis, it was determined that there were 2.44 moles of copper atoms per mole of the enzyme. Protein sequence analysis revealed that there was no identity between two N-terminal residues of the 75 kDa and 65 kDa proteins of narcissus MAO.

  7. Vesicular noradrenaline stores in peripheral nerves of the rat and their modification by tranylcypromine.

    OpenAIRE

    Fillenz, M; Stanford, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    1 Vesicular noradrenaline stores were compared in the heart, salivary gland and vas deferens of the rat. 2 Noradrenaline storage vesicles in nerve terminals of different organs differed with respect to the amount of noradrenaline they contain in the endogenous store (content), the amount of exogenous noradrenaline they can take up from the circulation (uptake) and the amount of noradrenaline they contain when they are saturated (total storage capacity). 3 The data suggest that the vesicles in...

  8. Neurovirulence properties of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. Erik; Nasar, Farooq; Coleman, John W.; Price, Roger E; Javadian, Ali; Draper, Kenneth; Lee, Margaret; Reilly, Patricia A.; Clarke, David K.; Hendry, R. Michael; Udem, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known about VSV pathogenicity in non-human primates. To address this question, we measured VSV viremia, shedding, and neurovirulence in macaques. Following intranasal inoculation, macaques shed minimal recombinant VSV (rVSV) in nasal washes for one day post-inoculation; viremia was not detected. Following intranasal inoculation of macaques, wild type (wt) VSV, rVSV, and two ...

  9. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. Results In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the reco...

  10. Pseudotype formation of murine leukemia virus with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Emi, N; Friedmann, T; Yee, J K

    1991-01-01

    Mixed infection of a cell by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and retroviruses results in the production of progeny virions bearing the genome of one virus encapsidated by the envelope proteins of the other. The mechanism for the phenomenon of pseudotype formation is not clear, although specific recognition of a viral envelope protein by the nucleocapsid of an unrelated virus is presumably involved. In this study, we used Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retroviral vectors encoding...

  11. Production of vesicular stomatitis virus by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and continuous lymphoblastoid lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, M.; Feldman, J.D.; Kano, S.; Bloom, B.R.

    1973-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore at the ultrastructural level the nature of the cells engaged in the production of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in different lymphoid cell populations, particularly after stimulation with several different agents. Specifically, we have examined (a) lymph node cells from guinea pigs with delayed hypersensitivity activated by specific antigen, (b) murine spleen cells activated by selective B cell and T cell mitogens, and (c) cells of human and murine continuous lymphoblastoid or lymphoma lines.

  12. Efficacy study of vesicular gel containing methotrexate and menthol combination on parakeratotic rat skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Amrita; Goyal, Amit K; Kesarla, Rajesh; Murthy, Rayasa R

    2011-06-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, and disabling psoriasis. The oral or parenteral route of administration causes systemic toxicity. The topical route of delivery, though, reduces systemic toxicity and has limited applicability due to restricted permeability. Liposomal and niosomal MTX topical formulations have also been investigated with limited success to achieve drug localization in the skin. Menthol has been suggested in conditions of psoriasis, in addition to its skin-penetration-enhancing effect on drugs. The present work aimed at investigating the potential benefits of combining menthol with MTX in a vesicular gel base for not only improving the penetration and dermal availability of MTX, but also to render such a formulation more effective with greater patient acceptability. MTX liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration, and the vesicles were characterized for drug-entrapment efficiency, size, and morphology. These liposomal vesicles were incorporated in a gel base, and this vesicular gel was evaluated for transdermal drug permeation and extent of drug accumulation in the skin, using a rat skin ex vivo model. Skin histology studies were carried out to investigate any structural changes caused by the permeation enhancers. Antipsoriatic efficacy of the formulations was tested in vivo, using the rat tail model. The results indicated that the vesicular gel containing menthol could cause maximum drug retention in the skin. The skin treated with menthol had a disrupted epidermis and microcavities. The in vivo studies also ascertained the effectiveness of the formulation in inducing a normal pattern of differentiation in the rat tail skin that initially showed parakeratosis, which is also characteristic of psoriatic epidermis. These results show the potential of vesicular gel containing MTX and menthol to improve penetration into the skin and cause drug retention in skin appendages.

  13. Formation and Stability of Prebiotically Relevant Vesicular Systems in Terrestrial Geothermal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Manesh Prakash Joshi; Anupam Samanta; Gyana Ranjan Tripathy; Sudha Rajamani

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simula...

  14. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P ethosomes produced a significant (P ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  16. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Cabrera, Ingrid; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Veciana, Jaume; Stamou, Dimitrios; Ventosa, Nora

    2012-02-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating two membrane dyes were prepared by either a compressed fluid (CF)-based method (DELOS-susp) or a conventional film hydration procedure. They were subsequently immobilized and imaged individually using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Two integrated fluorescence intensities, I(dye1) and I(dye2), were assigned to each tracked vesicle, and their ratio, I(dye1)/I(dye2), was used for quantifying the degree of membrane inhomogeneity between individual vesicles within each sample. A distribution of I(dye1)/I(dye2) values was obtained for all the studied vesicular systems, indicating intrasample heterogeneity. The degree of inhomogeneity (DI) was similar for Chol/DOPC vesicles prepared by both procedures. In contrast, DI was more than double for the hydration method compared to the CF-based method in the case of Chol/CTAB vesicles, which can suffer from lipid demixing during film formation. These findings reveal a more homogeneous vesicle formation path by CFs, which warranted good homogeneity of the vesicular system, independently of the lipid mixture used. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Effects of ractopamine feeding, gender and social rank on aggressiveness and monoamine concentrations in different brain areas of finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the feed additive ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and brain monoamines levels of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), their metabolites, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) in finishing pigs. Thirty-two pigs (16 barrows/16 gilts) were a...

  18. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase A increases recovery after experimental cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuohelainen, Vilma; Hämäläinen, Mari; Paavonen, Timo; Karlsson, Sari; Moilanen, Eeva; Mennander, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a devastating entity occurring in 1-2% of patients after cardiac surgery. The molecular pathway leading to myocardial cellular destruction after MI may include monoamine oxidases. We experimentally investigated whether moclobemide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, enhances myocardial recovery after cardiac arrest and MI. Fifty-six syngeneic Fischer rats underwent heterotopic cardiac transplantation to induce reversible IRI after cardiac arrest. Twenty-eight rats also underwent permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce MI after cardiac arrest. Twenty-eight rats with or without MI were treated with subcutaneous moclobemide 10 mg/kg/day. Methods used to study myocardial recovery were microdialysis for intramyocardial metabolism, histology and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), interleukin-6, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and macrophages (CD68). Pyruvate increased in MI treated with moclobemide versus IRI with moclobemide (29.19 ± 7.64 vs 13.86 ± 8.49 µM, P = 0.028), reflecting metabolic activity after cardiac arrest and reperfusion. Myocardial inflammation increased in MI compared with IRI after 1 h (0.80 ± 0.56 vs 0, point score units [PSUs], P = 0.003), but decreased after 5 days in MI treated with moclobemide versus MI alone (0.80 ± 0.83 vs 2.00 ± 0.70, PSU, P = 0.033). Expressions of HMGB1, CD68 and HO-1 decreased in MI treated with moclobemide versus MI alone (1.33 ± 0.20 vs 1.75 ± 0.24, fold changes [FCs], P = 0.028; 5.15 ± 1.10 vs 9.59 ± 2.75, FC, P = 0.050; 10.41 ± 4.17 vs 21.28 ± 10.01, FC, P = 0.047), indicating myocardial recovery and increased cellularity of remote intramyocardial arteries. Moclobemide enhances myocardial recovery after cardiac arrest and MI; inhibition of remote myocardial changes may be achieved by targeting treatment

  19. The acute effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors on the stimulus effects of hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Helsley, S; Fiorella, D; Rabin, R A

    1999-07-01

    In a previous study it was observed that fluoxetine potentiates the stimulus effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). In the present investigation, stimulus control was established in groups of rats using as training drugs the hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); 0.1 mg/kg), (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine [(-)-DOM; 0.56 mg/kg], ibogaine (10 mg/kg), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT; 3 mg/kg). A two-lever, fixed-ratio 10, positively reinforced task with saline controls was employed. The hypotheses tested were that (a) monoamine uptake inhibitors other than fluoxetine potentiate the discriminative effects of LSD, and (b) hallucinogens other than LSD are potentiated by acute pretreatment with monoamine uptake inhibitors. The effects of a range of doses of each of the training drugs were determined both alone and following pretreatment with the monoamine reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine. In LSD-trained subjects, all three reuptake inhibitors caused a significant increase in LSD-appropriate responding. Similar results were observed in rats trained with (-)-DOM and with ibogaine. In 5-MeO-DMT-trained subjects, only fluoxetine resulted in an enhancement of drug-appropriate responding. The reuptake inhibitors given alone elicited varying degrees of responses appropriate for the respective training drugs. For fluoxetine in rats trained with LSD and ibogaine, for venlafaxine in LSD trained, and for fluvoxamine in (-)-DOM trained, the degree of responding met our criterion for intermediate responding, i.e., significantly different from both training conditions. Subsequent experiments in (-)-DOM-trained subjects examined a range of doses of each of the reuptake inhibitors in combination with a fixed dose of (-)-DOM (0.1 mg/kg), which alone yielded about 50% (-)-DOM-appropriate responding. With the exception of the point obtained with the highest dose of venlafaxine, all data were compatible with additivity of

  20. [Substrate-inhibitory analysis of monoamine oxidase from hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basova, I N; Iagodina, O V

    2012-01-01

    Study of the substrate-inhibitory specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) of hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus revealed distinctive peculiarities of catalytic properties of this enzyme. The studied enzyme, on one hand, like the classic MAO of homoiothermal animals, is able to deaminate tyramine, serotonin, benzylamine, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine, while, on the other hand, deaminates histamine and does not deaminate putrescine--classic substrates of diamine oxidase (DAO). Results of the substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of chlorgiline and deprenyl are indirect proofs of the existence in the octopus hepatopancreas of one molecular MAO form. Semicarbazide and pyronine G turned out to be weak irreversible inhibitors, four derivatives of acridine--irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate effectiveness with respect to the octopus hepatopancreas MAO; specificity of action of inhibitors at deamination of different substrates was equal.

  1. Total monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by chestnut honey, pollen and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, O; Karahalil, F; Can, Z; Sahin, H; Kolayli, S

    2014-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used in the treatment of depressive disorders and some neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the MAO [MAO (E.C.1.4.3.4)] inhibiting effect of various apitherapeutic products, such as chestnut honey, pollen and propolis. Extracts' MAO inhibition was measured using peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay in enzyme isolated from rat liver microsomes, and the values are expressed as the inhibition concentration (IC50) causing 50% inhibition of MAO. The antioxidant activity of the bee products was also determined in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power in aquatic extracts. All samples exhibited substantial inhibition of MAO, propolis having the highest. Inhibition was related to samples' TPCs and antioxidant capacities. These results show that bee products possess a sedative effect and may be effective in protecting humans against depression and similar diseases.

  2. Effects of meclofenoxate on the level and turnover of biogenic monoamines in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V V; Grahovska, T; Petkov, V D; Konstantinova, E

    1985-01-01

    The level and turnover of biogenic monoamines in some rat brain structures were determined after treatment with meclofenoxate at a dose of 50 mg/kg administered i.p. two times a day (9 a.m. and 5 p.m.) for 5 days. Meclofenoxate decreased dopamine (DA) turnover in the frontal cortex and striatum and highly increased it in the hypothalamus. The DA level significantly declined in the striatum, tended to decline in the cortex and significantly rose in the hypothalamus. The noradrenaline (NA) turnover and level in the cortex and striatum were decreased. Meclofenoxate decreased serotonin (5-HT) turnover in the cortex, striatum and hypothalamus and increased it in the pons. At the same time, the 5-HT level rose in the cortex, striatum and pons and declined in the hypothalamus. These results suggest the neurochemical basis of the psychotropic and neuroendocrine effects of meclofenoxate.

  3. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  4. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA associated with attitude towards longshot risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfa Zhong

    Full Text Available Decision making often entails longshot risks involving a small chance of receiving a substantial outcome. People tend to be risk preferring (averse when facing longshot risks involving significant gains (losses. This differentiation towards longshot risks underpins the markets for lottery as well as for insurance. Both lottery and insurance have emerged since ancient times and continue to play a useful role in the modern economy. In this study, we observe subjects' incentivized choices in a controlled laboratory setting, and investigate their association with a widely studied, promoter-region repeat functional polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA. We find that subjects with the high activity (4-repeat allele are characterized by a preference for the longshot lottery and also less insurance purchasing than subjects with the low activity (3-repeat allele. This is the first result to link attitude towards longshot risks to a specific gene. It complements recent findings on the neurobiological basis of economic risk taking.

  5. Combining stimulants with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review of uses and one possible additional indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, S Shalom

    2004-11-01

    Among antidepressant augmentation strategies, the addition of a stimulant to a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) has received little attention in the literature in recent years because of the diminished clinical use of the latter and concerns of precipitating a hypertensive crisis or other serious complication. Despite that fact, experienced clinicians continue to use this combination for a variety of indications after other options have failed. This article reviews these reported uses and presents a case suggesting another possible indication. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published from 1962 to December 2003 using relevant search terms (psychostimulant, stimulant, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, pemoline or methylphenidate, atomoxetine, bupropion, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and selegiline). A manual search was conducted of cross-references and other relevant recent psychiatric sources (2000-2003). The described uses of the MAOI-stimulant combination have included treatment of refractory depression and the MAOI-related side effects of orthostatic hypotension and daytime sedation. No documented reports were found in the recent literature of hypertensive crises or fatalities occurring when the stimulant was cautiously added to the MAOI. Also presented here is another possible indication for this therapeutic regimen: treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult patient whose major depression had uniquely responded to the MAOI tranylcypromine. As in other fields of medicine, potentially hazardous medication combinations are utilized in psychiatry after cautiously weighing the danger of the treatment against the morbidity and risk of not adequately addressing the illness. Particularly, as the potential arrival of the apparently safer transdermal selegiline may increase the use of MAOIs, we feel this combination deserves additional controlled study.

  6. Monoamine reuptake site occupancy of sibutramine: Relationship to antidepressant-like and thermogenic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Wen; Langdon, Shaun; Pieschl, Rick; Strong, Todd; Wright, Robert N; Rohrbach, Kenneth; Lelas, Snjezana; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2014-08-15

    Sibutramine was formerly marketed as an anti-obesity agent. The current study investigated the relationships between monoamine reuptake site occupancy for sibutramine and both its antidepressant-like efficacy and thermogenic effects. Sibutramine's effects on locomotor activity (LMA) and food intake were also evaluated. Sibutramine occupied monoamine reuptake binding sites with the rank order of potency of NET>SERT>DAT; at 10mg/kg, po, occupancy was 95% NET, 81% SERT and 73% DAT. Sibutramine produced antidepressant-like behavior in the forced swim test; at the lowest effective dose (3mg/kg, po) occupancy was 61%, 90% and 23% at SERT, NET and DAT sites, respectively. Sibutramine also increased body core temperature in a dose- and time-dependent manner; at the lowest effective dose (30mg/kg) SERT, NET and DAT occupancies were respectively 78%, 86% and 59%. A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 3 and 10mg/kg, po. LMA was increased at ≥10mg/kg, sc. The relationship between efficacy in the FST and occupancy was also determined for citalopram, fluoxetine and reboxetine. Similarly, the relationship between thermogenesis and target occupancy for several single or double/triple reuptake inhibitors was measured and showed that >40-50% DAT binding was required for thermogenesis. Thermogenesis was blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH39166 (3mg/kg, sc). Our findings indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of sibutramine may result from additive or synergistic actions on the three reuptake binding targets. At higher doses, sibutramine produces thermogenesis; DAT inhibition and activation of dopamine D1 receptors are required for this effect. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of Zuogui Pill () on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with panic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.

  8. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Valeriana wallichii root extract improves sleep quality and modulates brain monoamine level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Surajit; Ray, Koushik; Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gupta, Shilpa; Kauser, Hina; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mishra, Kshipra; Panjwani, Usha

    2012-07-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines on Sprague-Dawley rats. Electrodes and transmitters were implanted to record EEG and EMG in freely moving condition and the changes were recorded telemetrically after oral administration of VW in the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Sleep latency was decreased and duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease of sleep latency and duration of wakefulness were observed with VW at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Duration of NREM sleep as well as duration of total sleep was increased significantly after treatment with VW at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. VW also increased EEG slow wave activity during NREM sleep at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and hydroxy indole acetic acid (HIAA) were measured in frontal cortex and brain stem after VW treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. NE and 5HT level were decreased significantly in both frontal cortex and brain stem. DA and HIAA level significantly decreased only in cortex. DOPAC level was not changed in any brain region studied. In conclusion it can be said that VW water extract has a sleep quality improving effect which may be dependent upon levels of monoamines in cortex and brainstem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Iododerivative of pargyline: A potential tracer for the exploration of monoamine oxidase sites by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lena, Isabelle; Ombetta, Jean-Edouard; Chalon, Sylvie; Dognon, Anne-Marie; Baulieu, Jean-Louis; Frangin, Yves; Garreau, Lucette; Besnard, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Denis

    1995-08-01

    Monoamine oxidases are important in the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission. An increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) has been observed in some neurodegenerative diseases, and therefore quantification of cerebral MAO B activity by SPECT would be useful for the diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up of these disorders. We have developed an iodinated derivative of pargyline, a selective inhibitor of MAO B, in order to explore this enzyme by SPECT. Stable bromo and iodo derivatives of pargyline were synthesized and chemically characterized. The radioiodinated ligand [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline was obtained with high specific activity from the bromo precursor by nucleophilic exchange. Affinity and selectivity of 2-iodopargyline were tested in vitro. Biodistribution study of [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline was performed in rats. Radioiodinated ligand were obtained in a no-carrier-added form. 2-iodopargyline has a higher in vitro affinity for MAO B than pargyline. However, the in vitro selectivity for MAO B was better for pargyline than for 2-iodopargyline. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies and in vivo saturation studies with selective inhibitors of MAO showed that the cerebral biodistribution of [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline in the rat is consistent with high level binding to MAO B sites in the pineal gland and in the thalamus. In conclusion, 2-iodopargyline preferentially binds in vivo to MAO B sites with high affinity. However, its selectivity for MAO B in rats is not very high, whereas this ligand binds to a lesser extent to MAO A. It will be then of great value to evaluate the specificity of 2-iodopargyline in humans. This new ligand labeled with {sup 123}I should therefore be a suitable tool for SPECT exploration of MAO B in the human brain.

  11. Depolarization by K*O+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in gabaergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of gaba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, Bo; Hansen, G.H.; Schousboe, Arne

    1993-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures......Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures...

  12. Radiation inactivation analysis of fusion and hemolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine the size of the functional unit responsible for fusion of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with cardiolipin or phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine (1:1) liposomes, and for VSV-induced hemolysis. When radiation-insensitive background values were subtracted, the calculated functional units for all three activities were similar, ranging from 866 to 957 kDa, equivalent to about 15 G protein molecules. This is in striking contrast to results of similar studies with influenza and Sendai viruses, in which the functional unit corresponded in size to a single fusion protein monomer, and suggests that VSV fusion may occur by a different mechanism.

  13. Initiation and Direction of RNA Transcription by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Virion Transcriptase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Polly; Bishop, D. H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The initiation of RNA transcription by the virion-bound RNA transcriptase of vesicular stomatitis virus has been examined. Multiple initiation sequences have been observed, two of which have been characterized (pppApCpGp... and pppGpCp...) suggestive of a transcription process which can start at different sites along the template RNA. By the use of sequential labeling techniques and exonucleases, it has been determined that there is a 5′ to 3′ direction of product RNA synthesis. PMID:4349490

  14. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection......D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV...

  15. ANTICUERPOS CONTRA EL VIRUS DE ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR EN HUANGANAS (Tayassu pecari) EN MADRE DE DIOS, PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Carruitero H., Susan; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Rivera G., Hermelinda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Ramírez V., Mercy; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; More B., Juan; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Zúñiga H., Alfonso; Proyecto ÁREAS–Amazonía de la World Wildlife Fund (WWF-Peru); Romero S., Mónica; Proyecto ÁREAS–Amazonía de la World Wildlife Fund (WWF-Peru)

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra los serotipos New Jersey (NJ) e Indiana subtipo 1 (IND-1) del virus Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV) en huanganas (Tayassu pecari) de vida libre de las localidades de Boca de Manu (n=30), Concesión para la Conservación Los Amigos (n=10) y La Reserva Nacional Tambopata/Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (n=48) en el departamento de Madre de Dios. La presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV fue determinado me...

  16. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UNA VACUNA OLEOSA CONTRA ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR BIVALENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeláez, Gustavo; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra. 7 Nº 43 - 82, Bogotá; Mondragón, Nestor; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Turriago, Clara; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Mora, Nelson; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá; Méndez, María; Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios Vecol S.A., Bogotá

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio calculó diferentes MI (Multiplicidad de Infección) para la producción de cultivos industriales de virus de Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) y evaluó el efecto de la cantidad de glicoproteína G en la inducción de respuesta de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus de EV en cobayos inmunizados con una vacuna oleosa bivalente (Indiana (I) y New Jersey (NJ)). Al establecer el MI más eficiente se logró mejorar la cinética de infección de los cultivos industriales disminuyendo los...

  17. The Effects of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on the Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIĞŞAR, Sibel; Sari, Nebahat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae on plant growth of cucumber. Yayla F 1 seeds were sown in sterile and non-sterile growing medium (organic manure:soil:mix of sand; v:v:v 1:1:1). The mix inoculum of Glomus mosseaand Glomus fasciculatumspores (10 g/plant) was placed 5 cm below the cucumber seed before sowing. In order to investigate the effects of VA mycorrhizae on plant growth, plant height, diameter, number of nodes were measured ...

  18. Effects of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine releasers constitute one class of candidate medications for treatment of cocaine abuse, and concurrent cocaine-versus-food choice procedures are potentially valuable as experimental tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of candidate medications. This study assessed choice between cocaine and food by rhesus monkeys during treatment with five monoamine releasers that varied in selectivity to promote release of dopamine and norepinephrine (DA/NE) vs. serotonin (5HT) [m-fluoroamphet...

  19. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  20. Efficiency of antidepressant drugs as monoamine reuptake inhibitors: analysis of the hydrophobicity influence using biopartitioning micellar chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Torrelo, C; Sagrado, S; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Medina-Hernández, M J

    2004-09-01

    The reuptake blockade of biogenic amines by antidepressants is related not only to their therapeutics effects, but also to their side effects and potential drug-drug interactions. As an alternative to classical quantitative structure-activity relationships studies, in this work we propose different quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) models that are able to describe the monoamine reuptake inhibition by antidepressants. The retention of compounds is measured using a biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) system that can simulate the same hydrophobic, electronic and steric molecular interactions as those that condition drug activity. Since all the compounds considered in this work are structurally related because all of them share the same molecular features as the corresponding basic pharmacophore, the results obtained show that there is a retention range in which antidepressants present the highest monoamine reuptake inhibitor potency.

  1. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor clustering by ADF/cofilin-directed vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Wai; Han, Jianzhong; Bamburg, James R; Han, Liang; Lynn, Rachel; Zheng, James Q

    2009-07-01

    Postsynaptic receptor localization is crucial for synapse development and function, but the underlying cytoskeletal mechanisms remain elusive. Using Xenopus neuromuscular junctions as a model, we found that actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin regulated actin-dependent vesicular trafficking of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic membrane. Active ADF/cofilin was concentrated in small puncta adjacent to AChR clusters and was spatiotemporally correlated with the formation and maintenance of surface AChR clusters. Notably, increased actin dynamics, vesicular markers and intracellular AChRs were all enriched at the sites of ADF/cofilin localization. Furthermore, a substantial amount of new AChRs was detected at these ADF/cofilin-enriched sites. Manipulation of either ADF/cofilin activity through its serine-3 phosphorylation or ADF/cofilin localization via 14-3-3 proteins markedly attenuated AChR insertion and clustering. These results suggest that spatiotemporally restricted ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AChR trafficking during the development of neuromuscular synapses.

  2. Ethosomes: versatile vesicular carriers for efficient transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vikas; Golhani, Dilip; Shukla, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Delivery across skin is attractive due to its easy accessibility. However, drug delivery across skin is still a challenge in biomedical sciences. Over the past few decades, various successful novel devices and techniques have emerged to optimize drug delivery across skin whose obstructing behavior constricts entry of most of the therapeutic agents. Inability of various conventional vesicular formulations, e.g. liposomes to pass through the tapered (>30 nm) intercellular channels of stratum corneum, rendered invention of some lipid based vesicular carrier systems such as ethosomes which consist of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomes are non-invasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. In spite of their sophistication in conceptuality, they are exemplified by easiness in their preparation, safety and efficacy - a combination that can highly inflate their application. This review attempts to describe all aspects of ethosomes including roles and upshots of different excipients, various methods of preparation and characterizations, research reports on various drug deliveries, patent reports and future prospects.

  3. Vesicular calcium regulates coat retention, fusogenicity, and size of pre-Golgi intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Marvin; Nycz, Deborah C; Joglekar, Ashwini; Fertschai, Ismene; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F; Hay, Jesse C

    2010-03-15

    The significance and extent of Ca(2+) regulation of the biosynthetic secretory pathway have been difficult to establish, and our knowledge of regulatory relationships integrating Ca(2+) with vesicle coats and function is rudimentary. Here, we investigated potential roles and mechanisms of luminal Ca(2+) in the early secretory pathway. Specific depletion of luminal Ca(2+) in living normal rat kidney cells using cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) resulted in the extreme expansion of vesicular tubular cluster (VTC) elements. Consistent with this, a suppressive role for vesicle-associated Ca(2+) in COPII vesicle homotypic fusion was demonstrated in vitro using Ca(2+) chelators. The EF-hand-containing protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2), previously implicated in the stabilization of sec31 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites, inhibited COPII vesicle fusion in a Ca(2+)-requiring manner, suggesting that ALG-2 may be a sensor for the effects of vesicular Ca(2+) on homotypic fusion. Immunoisolation established that Ca(2+) chelation inhibits and ALG-2 specifically favors residual retention of the COPII outer shell protein sec31 on pre-Golgi fusion intermediates. We conclude that vesicle-associated Ca(2+), acting through ALG-2, favors the retention of residual coat molecules that seem to suppress membrane fusion. We propose that in cells, these Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms temporally regulate COPII vesicle interactions, VTC biogenesis, cargo sorting, and VTC maturation.

  4. Vibrio tapetis isolated from vesicular skin lesions in Dover sole Solea solea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Soetaert, M; Lasa, A; Romalde, J L; Polet, H; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2015-06-29

    Vibrio tapetis is primarily known as the causative agent for brown ring disease in bivalves, although it has been isolated from cultivated fish during mortalities on farms. Here we describe the first isolation of V. tapetis from wild-caught and subsequently captive-held Dover sole Solea solea. Pathological features consisted of multifocal circular greyish-white skin discolourations evolving into vesicular lesions and subsequent ulcerations on the pigmented side. On the non-pigmented side, multiple circular lesions-white at the center and red at the edges-were evident. Histological examination of the vesicular lesions revealed dermal fluid-filled spaces, collagen tissue necrosis and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, with large numbers of small rod-shaped bacteria. In the deep skin lesions, loss of scales and dermal connective tissue, with degeneration and fragmentation of the myofibres bordering the ulceration, were noted. Serotyping, DNA-DNA hybridization and REP- and ERIC-PCR techniques showed that the retrieved isolates displayed a profile similar to the representative strain of genotype/serotype O2 which originally was isolated from carpet-shell clam Venerupis decussata and to which isolates obtained from wedge sole Dicologoglossa cuneata were also closely related.

  5. Fístula colecistoduodenal, complicación infrecuente de litiasis vesicular: nuestra experiencia en su manejo quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    F. Aguilar-Espinosa; R. Maza-Sánchez; F. Vargas-Solís; G.A. Guerrero-Martínez; J.L. Medina-Reyes; P.I. Flores-Quiroz

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Las fístulas bilioentéricas son la comunicación anormal entre el sistema biliar y el tracto gastrointestinal, que ocurre de manera espontánea y en la mayoría de los casos es una complicación rara de la litiasis vesicular no tratada. Pueden provocar consecuencias clínicas diversas que, en algunas situaciones, ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Objetivo: Identificar la incidencia de fístula bilioentérica en pacientes con litiasis vesicular, su presentación clínica, diagnóst...

  6. Didelphis marsupialis como un reservorio potencial u hospedero amplificador del virus de la estomatitis vesicular, serotipo new jersey en Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    John Arboleda; Carlos Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad viral, aguda
    y autolimitante que afecta principalmente bovinos, equinos y
    porcinos. Es producida por el virus de estomatitis vesicular (VEV), serotipos New Jersey (VEV-NJ) e Indiana (VEV-IN), que son los as importantes epidemiológicamente (1). Los estudios serológicos demuestran que VEV-NJ y VEV-IN infectan en forma natural una gran variedad de animales silvestres, que están posiblemente implicados en la  coepizoot...

  7. Changes in Brain Monoamines Underlie Behavioural Disruptions after Zebrafish Diet Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Environmental Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish were exposed through diet to two environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs mixtures of contrasted compositions, one of pyrolytic (PY origin and one from light crude oil (LO. Monoamine concentrations were quantified in the brains of the fish after six month of exposure. A significant decrease in noradrenaline (NA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures, while a decrease in serotonin (5HT and dopamine (DA was observed only in LO-exposed fish. A decrease in metabolites of 5HT and DA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures. Several behavioural disruptions were observed that depended on mixtures, and parallels were made with changes in monoamine concentrations. Indeed, we observed an increase in anxiety in fish exposed to both mixtures, which could be related to the decrease in 5HT and/or NA, while disruptions of daily activity rhythms were observed in LO fish, which could be related to the decrease in DA. Taken together, these results showed that (i chronic exposures to PAHs mixtures disrupted brain monoamine contents, which could underlie behavioural disruptions, and that (ii the biological responses depended on mixture compositions.

  8. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel R; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes.

  9. Two-step production of monoamines in monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord: a different control strategy of neurotransmitter supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengliang

    2016-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play an important role in the modulation of sensory, motor and autonomic functions in the spinal cord. Although traditionally it is believed that in mammalian spinal cord, monoamine neurotransmitters mainly originate from the brain, accumulating evidence indicates that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord. Published data from different sources and unpublished data from my own ongoing projects indicate that monoenzymatic cells expressing aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present in the spinal cord and that these TH and THP cells often lie in close proximity to AADC cells. Prompted by the above evidence, I hypothesize that dopamine and serotonin could be synthesized sequentially in two monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord via a TH-AADC and a TPH-AADC cascade respectively. The monoamines synthesized through this pathway may compensate for lost neurotransmitters following spinal cord injury and also may play specific roles in the recovery of sensory, motor and autonomic functions.

  10. Monoamine Oxidase and Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2012-03-01

    This research was designed to determine what components of Gardenia jasminoides play a major role in inhibiting the enzymes related antidepressant activity of this plant. In our previous research, the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminosides fruits inhibited the activities of both monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), and oral administration of the ethanolic extract slightly increased serotonin concentrations in the brain tissues of rats and decreased MAO-B activity. In addition, we found through in vitro screening test that the ethyl acetate fraction showed modest inhibitory activity on dopamine-β hydroxylase (DBH). The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five bio-active compounds, protocatechuic acid (1), geniposide (2), 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (3), 3,5-d-ihydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptanes (4), and ursolic acid (5), from the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminoides fruits. The isolated compounds showed different inhibitory potentials against MAO-A, -B, and DBH. Protocatechuic acid showed potent inhibition against MAO-B (IC50 300 μmol/L) and DBH (334 μmol/L), exhibiting weak MAO-A inhibition (2.41 mmol/L). Two iridoid glycosides, geniposide (223 μmol/L) and 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (127μmol/L), were selective MAO-B inhibitor. Especially, 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide exhibited more selective MAO-B inhibition than deprenyl, well-known MAO-B inhibitor for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson's disease. The inhibitory activity of 3,5-di-hydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane was strong for MAO-B (196 μmol/L), modest for MAO-A (400 μmol/L), and weak for DBH (941 μmol/L). Ursolic acid exhibited significant inhibition of DBH (214 μmol/L), weak inhibition of MAO-B (780 μmol/L), and no inhibition against MAO-A. Consequently, G. jasminoides fruits are considerable for development of biofunctional food materials for the combination treatment of depression and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Asymmetrical development of the monoamine systems in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzi, Analía; Duffard, Ricardo; de Duffard, Ana María Evangelista

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the regional brain biogenic amine levels in adult rats were altered by pre- and post-natal exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pregnant rats were daily orally exposed to 70 mg/kg per day of 2,4-D from gestation day (GD) 16 to post-partum day (PPD) 23. After weaning, the pups were assigned to one of two subgroups: T1 fed with untreated diet up to post-natal day (PND) 90 and T2 (maintained with 2,4-D diet up to PND 90). In addition, we wanted to know the effect of 2,4-D on lateralization in the monoamine systems of the basal ganglia of these adult rats and whether there was any correlation with the behavioral developmental pattern previously reported by us. In this study the content of noradrenaline (NA) was significantly increased in substantia nigra (SN) while it decreased in cerebellum in male and female rats of T2 group. The decreased dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovallinic acid (HVA) contents in cerebellum, midbrain, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and prefrontal cortex (PFc) showed an alteration in the mesocorticolimbic system. However, an increase of DA in SN and of DOPAC and HVA in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both sexes and of DA and DOPAC (only in females) in striatum was detected. The contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) were significantly increased in both sexes in PFc, striatum (St), midbrain, SN and cerebellum. Variations of any monoamine levels in NAc and VTA were determined. T1 rats were irreversibly altered: a diminution in DA and/or DOPAC levels in PFc, midbrain, VTA and cerebellum was determined. Indolamines of these rats were increased in both sexes in PFc and St. There was also a large increase in 5-HT levels in midbrain of male rats. Although no changes in the dopaminergic system with respect to their control values in any side of these brain structures were observed, DA and DOPAC levels were found to be decreased in the right side with

  12. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lykke Lambertsen

    Full Text Available The calmodulin/calcium-activated K(+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice.In the open field test, KCa3.1-deficiency increased horizontal activity, as KCa3.1(-/- mice travelled longer distances (≈145% of KCa3.1(+/+ and at higher speed (≈1.5-fold of KCa3.1(+/+. Working memory in the Y-maze was reduced by KCa3.1-deficiency. Motor coordination on the rotarod and neuromuscular functions were unchanged. In KCa3.1(-/- mice, HPLC analysis revealed that turn-over rates of serotonin were reduced in frontal cortex, striatum and brain stem, while noradrenalin turn-over rates were increased in the frontal cortex. Dopamine turn-over rates were unaltered. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels were unaltered. Intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of the KCa3.1/KCa2-activator SKA-31 reduced rearing and turning behavior in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice, while 30 mg/kg SKA-31 caused strong sedation in 50% of the animals of either genotypes. KCa3.1(-/- mice were hyperactive (≈+60% in their home cage and SKA-31-administration reduced nocturnal physical activity in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice.KCa3.1-deficiency causes locomotor hyperactivity and altered monoamine levels in selected brain regions, suggesting a so far unknown functional link of KCa3.1 channels to behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in mice. The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders.

  13. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  14. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]brofaromine, a potential tracer for imaging monoamine oxidase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ametamey, S.M.; Beer, H.-F.; Guenther, I.; Antonini, A.; Leenders, K.L.; Waldmeier, P.C.; Schubiger, P.A

    1996-04-01

    Brofaromine(4-5(-methoxy-7-bromobenzofuranyl)-2-piperidine-HCl) is a potent and selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A. Two methods for its synthesis and a preliminary positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation in monkey brain are described. The first method, at low carrier concentration of CO{sub 2}, consisted of direct O-methylation of (4-(5-hydroxy-7-bromobenzofuranyl)-2-piperidine). The total radiochemical yield achieved ranged from 30 to 50% (from end of bombardment [EOB] and decay corrected) with an overall synthesis time of 45 min. The second approach, with high carrier amounts of CO{sub 2} arising from inherent target problems, was accomplished in a three-step route involving protection of secondary amino functionality, O-methylation and deprotection. The total radiochemical yield was 10% (from EOB and decay corrected) with a total synthesis time of 70 min. For both methods methylation was achieved using the classical methylating agent [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I, and radiochemical purity was higher than 98%. PET evaluation of the radioligand in a Rhesus monkey showed a high uptake of radioactivity in the brain. Using the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline and reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and brofaromine, three blockade experiments were designed to determine the extent of specific binding of [{sup 11}C]brofaromine to MAO-A. No apparent decrease in accumulation of radioactivity in the monkey brain was observed when compared to a baseline scan.

  15. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.

  16. Monoamine Oxidase Is Overactivated in Left and Right Ventricles from Ischemic Hearts: An Intriguing Therapeutic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Manni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS may play a key role in human heart failure (HF. Monoamine oxidase (MAO is emerging as a major ROS source in several cardiomyopathies. However, little is known about MAO activity in human failing heart and its relationship with redox imbalance. Therefore, we measured MAO activity in the left (LV and in the right (RV ventricle of human nonfailing (NF and in end-stage ischemic (IHD and nonischemic failing hearts. We found that both MAO isoforms (MAO-A/B significantly increased in terms of activity and expression levels only in IHD ventricles. Catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 activities (ALDH-2, both implicated in MAO-catalyzed catecholamine catabolism, were significantly elevated in the failing LV, whereas, in the RV, statistical significance was observed only for ALDH-2. Oxidative stress markers levels were significantly increased only in the failing RV. Actin oxidation was significantly elevated in both failing ventricles and related to MAO-A activity and to functional parameters. These data suggest a close association between MAO-A-dependent ROS generation, actin oxidation, and ventricular dysfunction. This latter finding points to a possible pathogenic role of MAO-A in human myocardial failure supporting the idea that MAO-A could be a new therapeutic target in HF.

  17. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity as a biological marker in a Swedish forensic psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålenheim, E G; von Knorring, L; Oreland, L

    1997-03-24

    Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities were determined in 58 non-psychotic males at forensic psychiatric examinations. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of platelet MAO activity as a biological marker in forensic psychiatry, a clinical field with growing need of safe predictors for both treatment outcome and behavior. The study population was heterogeneous with respect to clinical and personality disorders and personality traits. The results confirmed the role of platelet MAO activity as a biological marker for stable personality traits such as impulsiveness, monotony avoidance and aggressiveness. Disorders with high frequencies of these personality traits such as borderline personality disorder and type II alcoholism could secondarily be associated with low levels of platelet MAO activity, whereas no such associations could be found regarding other clinical or personality disorders. Neither psychopathy as assessed by the means of PCL-R nor behavior such as abuse or criminality could be associated with platelet MAO activity. The conclusion is that, due to its close relationship with stable personality traits, platelet MAO activity serves a marker for vulnerability also in forensic psychiatric populations. On the other hand it is not a marker for clinical or personality disorders, or behavior per se.

  18. Monoamine oxidase-B activity in alcohol withdrawal of smokers: is there any relationship with aggressiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esel, Ertugrul; Kose, Kader; Turan, M Tayfun; Basturk, Mustafa; Sofuoglu, Seher; Aslan, Suat Sabri; Yabanoglu, Ihsan; Gonul, Ali Saffet; Yazici, Cevat

    2002-01-01

    There is a considerable inconsistency in terms of the association between alcoholism and alterations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in platelet MAO-B activity throughout the alcohol withdrawal period and whether or not MAO-B activity differed between patients with high- and low-aggression tendency. We assayed platelet MAO-B levels spectrophotometrically in 22 male inpatients with alcohol dependence in their first and fourth weeks of withdrawal and in 20 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two high- and low-aggression subgroups according to scores obtained in a Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Life History of Aggression. Our data revealed that the significantly lower platelet MAO-B activity observed during the first week of alcohol withdrawal in patients, compared to controls, did not continue in the fourth week, and that there was no relationship between aggressiveness and MAO activity. These results suggest that low platelet MAO activity may be a state marker of alcohol withdrawal period or a result of high alcohol consumption rather than a trait marker of alcoholism.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides after exposure to standardized barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklundh, T; Gunnarsson, T; Ornhagen, H; Nordin, C

    2000-11-01

    Connections between mood changes and weather have been described throughout the ages, and in more recent years, there have been reports on a relationship between atmospheric pressure and neurotransmitter levels in cerebrospinal fluid. To further investigate this issue under strictly standardized conditions, we have lumbar-punctured 8 healthy males under low (963 hPa) and high (1064 hPa) barometric pressure, using a pressure chamber. Under high pressure, the tyrosine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were lower, while the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) levels were higher. No differences between low and high pressure were found for tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), and sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S). The serum level of CCK-8S was higher under high pressure. On comparing concentration ratios between the second and the first CSF fraction, we found significantly increased ratios for homovanillic acid (HVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG), but a decreased ratio for tyrosine under high pressure. The difference in the concentration ratios of HVA between low and high pressure correlated negatively with age. Intraspinal pressure correlated negatively with tapping time at low pressure. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that atmospheric pressure influences CSF levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides.

  20. Simultaneous determination of cadaverine and putrescine using a disposable monoamine oxidase based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, Wilder; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Asunción Alonso-Lomillo, M; Julia Arcos-Martínez, M

    2013-12-15

    The selective and simultaneous amperometric determination of putrescine (Put) and cadaverine (Cad) has been carried out using a novel design of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with two working electrodes connected in array mode. A mixture of 3% of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), as mediator, and carbon ink was used for the construction of the screen-printed working electrode. The employment of different amounts of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme on these modified TTF/SPCEs and the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allowed performing the simultaneous determination of both analytes. The amperometric detection has been performed by measuring the oxidation current of the mediator at a potential of+250 mV vs. screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A linear response in the Cad concentration range from 19.6 till 107.1 µM and from 9.9 till 74.1 μM for Put was obtained at the MAO/AuNPs/TTF/SPCE biosensor. This device showed a capability of detection of 9.9 and 19.9±0.9 µM (n=4 α=β=0.05) and a precision of 4.9% and 10.3% in terms of relative standard deviation for Put and Cad, respectively. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Put and Cad in octopus samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of monoamine transmitters, precursors and metabolites in a single mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K; McGaugh, J L

    1982-04-16

    A simple and sensitive procedure for simultaneous determination of monoamine transmitters and related substances including precursors and metabolites has been developed for a single mouse brain. The proposed procedure involves (1) primary butanol extraction, (2) separation of the substances into either acid or alkaline aqueous layers according to their physicochemical properties, and (3) determination by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Three transmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) and their precursors (tyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and tryptophan) and major metabolites (normethanephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, 3-methoxytyramine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) were selectively separated and sensitively detected in mouse whole brain sample. Although 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid was also separated from other substances by authentic chromatography, the substance was not detected in mouse brain. Changes in levels of these substances were examined for drugs whose effects had been previously confirmed. These changes reflected putative effects of the drugs and confirmed that the procedure is effective for neurochemical research into the transmitter system.

  2. Switching antipsychotics to aripiprazole or blonanserin and plasma monoamine metabolites levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Itaru; Shiga, Tetsuya; Katsumi, Akihiko; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2014-03-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug that has efficacy equal to risperidone. We investigated the effects of aripiprazole and blonanserin on clinical symptoms and plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol in the switching strategy of schizophrenia. Twenty two Japanese patients with schizophrenia were enrolled into this open study. The antipsychotics of all patients were switched to aripiprazole or blonanserin for the improvement of clinical symptoms or side effects. Plasma monoamine metabolites levels were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant effects for time (p = 0.346) or time × group interaction (p = 0.27) on the changes of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) total score, although blonanserin decreased PANSS scores. We observed negative correlation between pHVA at baseline and the change in PANSS total score (rs = -0.450, p = 0.046). We also found positive correlation between the changes in pHVA and the changes in PANSS total (rs = 0.536, p = 0.015) and positive (rs = 0.572, p = 0.008) scores. There were no differences between blonanserin and aripiprazole in the improvement of clinical symptoms. Our results suggest that pHVA may be useful indicator for the switching strategy to aripiprazole or blonanserin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association between monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms and anger-related personality traits in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, So-Hee; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Boung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene are associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the association of the MAO-A variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAO-A uVNTR) with anger-related personality traits. Specifically, MAO-A uVNTR polymorphisms were examined for associations with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) scores in 211 normal Korean women. All subjects were assessed using the STAXI and genotyped for MAO-A uVNTR status. The scores on the STAXI subscales differed significantly among the MAO-A uVNTR polymorphism genotypes in terms of anger expression-out (AX-Out) scores. Post hoc comparisons revealed significant differences between the 3/3 and 4/4, and between 3/4 and 4/4 polymorphisms. However, no significant difference was observed in other STAXI subscale scores among these genotypes. Subjects with the high-activity MAO-A uVNTR had significantly higher AX-Out scores than subjects with other genotypes. MAO-A uVNTR polymorphisms may contribute in part to the expression of anger. These findings support the hypothesis that this polymorphism in the MAO-A gene may be associated with anger-related personality traits in Korean women. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Conjugated di-anionic dinitro compounds as inhibitors of oxidative deamination of monoamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureyeva, Z.P.; Mostyayeva, L.V.

    1984-11-01

    Comparative studies were conducted on the inhibition kinetics of monoamine oxidase (MO) of mitochondrial fractions derived from bovine liver, to elucidate the chemical features leading to inhibition. The study showed that in the case of a mitochondrial preparation in 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, the disodium salts of 1,4-dinitrobutene-2,1,4-dinitro-2-methyl-butene, and 1,4-dinitro-2, 3-diphenylbutene-2, (I), as well as sodium dinitromethane, and beta-nitrostyrene, inhibited MO, catalyzing the oxidative deamination of tyramine, serotonin and tryptamine. Oxidative deamination of benzylamine was inhibited to a significantly lesser degree. The di-anionic dinitro compounds were established to function as reversible, competitive inhibitors of MO, with the exception of I which behaved as a noncompetitive inhibitor in the Lineweaver-Burke plots. The kinetics and inhibition constants obtained with these inhibitors indicate that inhibition was due to the =C-C=OO-bond in the dinitro compounds, with the inhibitory parameters modified by the introduction of electron donor radicals (methyl, phenyl groups). In addition, diminished inhibition of benzylamine deamination indicated that the inhibitors exhibit considerable specificity for the A form of MO. 10 references, 4 figures.

  5. The synthesis and evaluation of sesamol and benzodioxane derivatives as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Idalet; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, series of eight sesamol (1,3-benzodioxol-5-ol) and eight benzodioxane (2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine) derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. The sesamol and benzodioxane derivatives are structurally related to series of phthalide derivatives, which have previously been found to act as potent reversible MAO inhibitors. The results document that the benzodioxane derivatives, in particular, are potent MAO-B inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.947 μM. IC50 values for the inhibition of MAO-B by the homologous series of sesamol derivatives ranged from 0.164 to 7.29 μM. All compounds evaluated are selective for the MAO-B isoform, with IC50 values for the inhibition of MAO-A ranging from 13.2 to >100 μM. It is further shown that for the most potent MAO-B inhibitor, 6-[(3-bromophenyl)methoxy]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine, inhibition is almost completely reversed by dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures. It may be concluded that benzodioxane derivatives are promising leads for the design of selective MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (IMAOI) to treat depressive disorders - limited use at present in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, L; Verbeke, P; Sienaert, P; De Fruyt, J

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (imaoi) are rarely used in Flanders. Such an anti-imaoi policy is not in keeping with the role that imaoi now play in the general guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. To provide an overview of the history and the current use of imaoi in Flanders. We searched the literature and the literature used in the psychiatric courses taught at Ghent University and the Catholic University of Leuven and we consulted the Acta (Neurologica et) Psychiatrica Belgica. The information we collected was supplemented by personal communications from experts and by data about the period of commercialisation, the pharmaceutical companies producing imaoi and the use of imaoi. imaoi were introduced rapidly onto the Flemish market but their popularity was short-lived. University courses did not give much attention to imaoi and the attitude to these inhibitors was negative. At the moment, phenelzine is the only imaoi available on the Flemish market and is only rarely prescribed. Following the international trend, imaoi in Flanders initially enjoyed a short period of popularity. However, the limited use of phenelzine at present is not in line with the current guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. Practitioners and health professionals need to be better informed. Better education and wider use of imaoi in Flanders are recommended.

  7. [Monoamine oxidase activity in rat pineal gland: comparison with brain areas, alteration during aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razygraev, A V; Taborskaya, K I; Volovik, K Yu; Bunina, A A; Petrosyan, M A

    Using benzylamine as a substrate, the amine oxidase activity was determined in the pineal gland of adult rats and compared with the same activity in brain areas and pituitary. Two groups of rats aged 6-8 and 14-15 months were also compared on the basis of this activity. Benzylamine deaminating activity in the pineal gland was significantly higher than in the area preoptica medialis, the corpus mamillare, the tuberculum olfactorium, and the hypophysis, and lower than in the eminentia mediana. The significant increase of the activity in the pineal gland in animals of age from 6-8 to 14-15-months was revealed. Benzylamine deaminating activity in the pineal gland was totally inhibited by 0,002 mM R deprenyl, indicating the B type monoamine oxidase (MAO B) activity. Age-associated increase of MAO B activity in the pineal gland accompanied by decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity, reported earlier, can promote the oxidative damage in the pineal gland during aging.

  8. Monoamine Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, and Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiac Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Maggiorani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in healthcare over the past several decades have resulted in populations now living longer. With this increase in longevity, a wider prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is more common and known to be a major factor in rising healthcare costs. A wealth of scientific evidence has implicated cell senescence as an important component in the etiology of these age-dependent pathologies. A number of studies indicate that an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS contributes to trigger and accelerate the cardiac senescence processes, and a new role of monoamine oxidases, MAO-A and MAO-B, is emerging in this context. These mitochondrial enzymes regulate the level of catecholamines and serotonin by catalyzing their oxidative deamination in the heart. MAOs’ expression substantially increases with ageing (6-fold MAO-A in the heart and 4-fold MAO-B in neuronal tissue, and their involvement in cardiac diseases is supposedly related to the formation of ROS, via the hydrogen peroxide produced during the substrate degradation. Here, we will review the most recent advances in this field and describe why MAOs could be effective targets in order to prevent age-associated cardiovascular disease.

  9. Association study of monoamine oxidase A/B genes and schizophrenia in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sheng-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoamine oxidases (MAOs catalyze the metabolism of dopaminergic neurotransmitters. Polymorphisms of isoforms MAOA and MAOB have been implicated in the etiology of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Association studies detected these polymorphisms in several populations, however the data have not been conclusive to date. Here, we investigated the association of MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. Methods Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6323 of MAOA and rs1799836 of MAOB, were selected for association analysis in 537 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 536 healthy controls. Single-locus and Haplotype associations were calculated. Results No differences were found in the allelic distribution of rs6323. The G allele of rs1799836 was identified as a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia (P = 0.00001. The risk haplotype rs6323T-rs1799836G was associated with schizophrenia in female patients (P = 0.0002, but the frequency difference was not significant among male groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that MAOB is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. In contrast, no significant associations were observed for the MAOA functional polymorphism with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. These data support further investigation of the role of MAO genes in schizophrenia.

  10. Use of intracranial self-stimulation to evaluate abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects of monoamine releasers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C T; Banks, M L; Blough, B E; Negus, S S

    2013-02-01

    Monoamine releasers constitute a class of drugs that promote the release of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and/or norepinephrine. Although some drugs in this class are well-known drugs of abuse (amphetamine, methamphetamine), others are thought to have reduced (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine [MDMA]) or no (fenfluramine) abuse potential. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the role of dopamine versus serotonin selectivity on expression of abuse-related effects produced by monoamine releasers in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. This study evaluated effects produced in a frequency-rate ICSS procedure by 11 monoamine releasers that vary in selectivity to release DA versus 5-HT. Efficacy of monoamine releasers to facilitate ICSS correlated with DA-selectivity, such that DA-selective releasers exclusively facilitated ICSS, a 5-HT-selective releaser exclusively depressed ICSS, and mixed-action releasers both facilitated low ICSS rates and depressed high ICSS rates. Fixed-proportion mixtures of a DA-selective releaser and a 5-HT-selective releaser recapitulated effects of mixed-action releasers. Efficacy of monoamine releasers to facilitate ICSS also correlated with previously published data on efficacy to maintain self-administration in rhesus monkeys responding under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement. These data support the importance of selectivity for DA versus 5-HT in determining abuse potential of monoamine releasers and demonstrate a novel correlation between rat ICSS and nonhuman primate self-administration measures of abuse-related effects. Taken together, these results support the use of ICSS in rats as an experimental tool to study the expression and pharmacological determinants of abuse-related effects of monoamine releasers. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Carbon fiber ultramicrodic electrode electrodeposited with over-oxidized polypyrrole for amperometric detection of vesicular exocytosis from pheochromocytoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Huiren; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Xu, Shengwei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-06

    Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells' communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM(-1)·µm(-2) using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research.

  12. Oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is nonpathogenic and non-transmissible in pigs, a natural host of VSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a negative stranded RNA virus that naturally causes disease in agricultural livestock including horses, cattle and pigs. The two main identified VSV strains are the New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana (VSIV) strains. VSV is a rapidly replicating, potently immunogenic v...

  13. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells’ communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE, which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM−1·µm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax and the released charge (Q of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research.

  14. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of dexamphetamine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, S.; Aono, Y.; Fusa, K.; Takada, K.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Systemic administration of high doses of dexamphetamine induces a dopamine efflux that has its intracellular origin in both the vesicular, reserpine-sensitive dopamine pool and the cytosolic, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-sensitive, newly synthesized dopamine pool. It remains unknown whether locally

  15. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    Cucumber was grown in a partially sterilized sand-soil mixture with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum or left uninoculated. Fresh soil extract was places in polyvinyl chloride tubes without propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Root tips and root segments...

  16. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Huiren; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Xu, Shengwei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells' communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 μm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 μA·μM−1·μm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ∼562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research. PMID:25569759

  17. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  18. Polysaccharide nano-vesicular multidrug carriers for synergistic killing of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic efficacies against cancer cells. Here, we report dual delivery polysaccharide nano-vesicles that are capable of loading and delivering both water soluble and water insoluble drugs together in a single polymer scaffold. The selective rupture of the nano-vesicular assembly under intracellular enzyme conditions allowed the simultaneous delivery of a hydrophobic drug camptothecin (CPT) and hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) supporting their synergistic killing of breast and colon cancer cells. The polysaccharide nano-vesicles have allowed us to address a few important questions regarding the need for multiple drug administration in cancer cells including (a) the role of simultaneous drug release, (b) antagonistic versus synergistic effects of drug combinations and (c) how these are affected by the ratio of drugs. Further, evaluation of the role of caveolae in endocytosis of these polymer scaffolds was also made. The vesicular scaffolds were found to preserve and deliver DOX resulting in 50-60% better killing of cancer cells than the free drug. Additionally, dual loaded nano-vesicles when compared to drug cocktails with individual drugs in separate nano-vesicles (at comparable molar ratios) suggest the relative drug concentration following release and mode of delivery to be both important in cancer cell killing. Results from these experiments have revealed newly developed polysaccharide nano-vesicles loaded with DOX and CPT drugs as potential candidates for improved breast cancer cell killing. Thus, these custom-designed polysaccharide nano-vesicles provide a new perspective on multi-anticancer drug delivery systems and their efficacy.Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic

  19. LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelshtein, Danit; Werman, Ariel; Novick, Daniela; Barak, Sara; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits a remarkably robust and pantropic infectivity, mediated by its coat protein, VSV-G. Using this property, recombinant forms of VSV and VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors are being developed for gene therapy, vaccination, and viral oncolysis and are extensively used for gene transduction in vivo and in vitro. The broad tropism of VSV suggests that it enters cells through a highly ubiquitous receptor, whose identity has so far remained elusive. Here we show that the LDL receptor (LDLR) serves as the major entry port of VSV and of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in human and mouse cells, whereas other LDLR family members serve as alternative receptors. The widespread expression of LDLR family members accounts for the pantropism of VSV and for the broad applicability of VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors for gene transduction. PMID:23589850

  20. Spectrum of Text Information Content in the RNA Sequence of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyukov, Alexander A.

    A new strategy to recognize patterns in the DNA sequences with functional significance is proposed. The strategy is based on the general definition of any individual organism as a Gibbsian ensemble of identical personal DNA molecules. This approach provides application of the methods of statistical thermodynamics of irreversible steady processes to genome informatics. The random processes theory and its Markov chains approximation lead in this approach directly to the definition of the generalized concept of evolution entropy and to the genuine measure of text information content in the sequences. Computer-assisted proofs of the existence of the nonequilibrium steady state conditions in genome molecule were obtained by investigation of the special type balance relations in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA sequence. The main maxima of the text information content were decoded and denominated. The established coding principles are connected with deviations from equilibrium conditions and from equipartition.

  1. Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

    2014-08-01

    Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSVΔG) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. `Full fusion' is not ineluctable during vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters by endocrine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Alexander; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is an essential and ubiquitous process in neurons and endocrine cells by which neurotransmitters are released in synaptic clefts or extracellular fluids. It involves the fusion of a vesicle loaded with chemical messengers with the cell membrane through a nanometric fusion pore. In endocrine cells, unless it closes after some flickering (`Kiss-and-Run' events), this initial pore is supposed to expand exponentially, leading to a full integration of the vesicle membrane into the cell membrane-a stage called `full fusion'. We report here a compact analytical formulation that allows precise measurements of the fusion pore expansion extent and rate to be extracted from individual amperometric spike time courses. These data definitively establish that, during release of catecholamines, fusion pores enlarge at most to approximately one-fifth of the radius of their parent vesicle, hence ruling out the ineluctability of `full fusion'.

  3. The Dynamic Control of Kiss-And-Run and Vesicular Reuse Probed with Single Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Yulong; Tsien, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Vesicular secretion of neurotransmitter is essential for neuronal communication. Kiss-and-run is a mode of membrane fusion and retrieval without the full collapse of the vesicle into the plasma membrane and de novo regeneration. The significance of kiss-and-run during efficient neurotransmission has remained in doubt. We developed an approach for loading individual synaptic vesicles with single quantum dots. Their size and pH-dependent photoluminescence change allowed us to distinguish kiss-and-run from full-collapse fusion and to track single vesicles through multiple rounds of kiss-and-run and reuse, without perturbing vesicle cycling. Kiss-and-run dominated at the beginning of stimulus trains, reflecting the preference of vesicles with high release probability. Its incidence was increased by rapid firing, a response appropriate to meet the dynamic demands of neurotransmission. PMID:19213879

  4. Cutting Edge: Innate Immune Augmenting Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing Zika Virus Proteins Confers Protective Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Dillon; de Queiroz, Nina M G P; Xia, Tianli; Ahn, Jeonghyun; Barber, Glen N

    2017-04-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models. We also demonstrated maternal protective immunity in challenged newborn mice born to female mice vaccinated with VSVm-ZENV containing the transmembrane domain. Our data indicate that rVSVm may be a suitable strategy for the design of effective vaccines against ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Pesquisaje de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Yera Abreus; Mercedes Cárdenas Drake; Angel Gutiérrez Rojas

    1997-01-01

    Se hace un estudio de frecuencia de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana, en el que se encontró una frecuencia de la afección de un 6,2 %, el predominio de las personas de la raza blanca sobre las de la raza negra fue de sólo 1,8:1; la afección es mucho más frecuente en el sexo femenino que en el masculino (proporción de 9:1) y en personas mayores de 40 años (60 %) con sobrepeso u obesas (85 %), y puede cursar de forma totalmente asintomática en el 50 % de los casos...

  6. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  7. Topical vesicular formulations of Curcuma longa extract on recuperating the ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2011-12-01

      Ultraviolet radiations generate reactive oxygen species, leading to adverse effects on skin properties. Botanical extracts are multifunctional in nature having various properties like photoprotection, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, and antimicrobial activity.   The aim of this study was to formulate creams having Curcuma longa extract loaded novel vesicular systems (liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes) and study their photoprotective effect by assessment of skin hydration (Cutometer) and sebum content (Sebumeter).   The alcoholic C. longa extract loaded liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes having 0.5-2.0% w/w extract were prepared, evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency, and incorporated into the cream. Their long-term interaction with skin (6 weeks) was compared in terms of their effects on skin hydration and sebum content.   Vesicular size obtained was in the range 167.3 ± 3.0 to 262.4 ± 2.4 nm with low polydispersity index (0.2-0.3) and high entrapment efficiency. The efficacy was in the order C. longa extract loaded transfersomal creams > C. longa extract loaded ethosomal creams > C. longa extract loaded liposomal creams > C. longa extract loaded creams > Empty transfersome loaded cream > Empty ethosome loaded cream > Empty liposome loaded cream > Base cream.   The photoprotective properties of the constituents of C. longa extract and hydrant, moisturizing lipid components of nano vesicles with better skin penetration resulted in improvement in skin properties like skin hydration and sebum content. The herbal extract loaded nano vesicles incorporated in cream could be used as photoprotective formulations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  9. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. In vivo study on the monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites change in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats by liquid chromatography with an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Yang, Jie; Lin, Ruipo; Yu, Li; Gao, Hongchang; Yang, Shulin; Li, Xiaokun

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in an experimental Parkinsonian animal model established by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine administration was studied. For the purpose of detecting monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites more sensitively, an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode was fabricated and used as the working electrode for an electrochemical detector in HPLC. The results indicated that the modified electrode exhibited efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation for monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites with relatively high sensitivity, long life, and stability. The linear ranges spanned four orders of magnitude (r>0.998) and the detectability was on the level of 0.1 nmolL(-1). The percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for each compound at all concentration levels was lower than 2.57% and 1.94% for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. The mean recovery values were between 98.75% and 105.25%, and the %RSD was found to be less than 1.02%. Coupled with in vivo microdialysis sampling, the validated method was successfully applied to measure monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in both sides of the striatum of conscious and freely moving Parkinsonian rats, and the extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the lesioned-side striatum of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats were lower than that in the intact side striatum or in the striatum of control rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Online micro-solid-phase extraction based on boronate affinity monolithic column coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoting; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke

    2014-05-16

    Quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters is very important in diagnosing and monitoring of patients with neurological disorders. We developed an online analytical method to selectively determine urinary monoamine neurotransmitters, which coupled the boronate affinity monolithic column micro-solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared by in situ polymerization of vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) in a stainless capillary column. The prepared monolithic column showed good permeability, high extraction selectivity and capacity. The column-to-column reproducibility was satisfactory and the enrichment factors were 17-243 for four monoamine neurotransmitters. Parameters that influence the online extraction efficiency, including pH of sample solution, flow rate of extraction and desorption, extraction volume and desorption volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method exhibited low limit of detection (0.06-0.80μg/L), good linearity (with R(2) between 0.9979 and 0.9993). The recoveries in urine samples were 81.0-105.5% for four monoamine neurotransmitters with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 2.1-8.2% and 3.7-10.6%, respectively. The online analytical method was sensitive, accurate, selective, reliable and applicable to analysis of trace monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal monoamine transporters and receptors in performance in an adjusting delay discounting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Justin R; Perry, Jennifer L; Meyer, Andrew C; Gipson, Cassandra D; Charnigo, Richard; Bardo, Michael T

    2014-07-29

    Performance in an adjusting delay discounting procedure is predictive of drug abuse vulnerability; however, the shared underlying specific prefrontal neural systems linking delay discounting and increased addiction-like behaviors are unclear. Rats received direct infusions of methylphenidate (MPH; 6.25, 25.0, or 100μg), amphetamine (AMPH; 0.25, 1.0, or 4.0μg), or atomoxetine (ATO; 1.0, 4.0, or 16.0μg) into either medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) immediately prior to performance in an adjusting delay task. These drugs were examined because they are efficacious in treating impulse control disorders. Because dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) receptors are implicated in impulsive behavior, separate groups of rats received microinfusions of the DA receptor-selective drugs SKF 81297 (0.1 or 0.4µg), SCH 23390 (0.25 or 1.0µg), quinpirole (1.25 or 5.0µg), and eticlopride (0.25 or 1.0µg), or received microinfusions of the 5-HT receptor-selective drugs 8-OH-DPAT (0.025 or 0.1μg), WAY 100635 (0.01 or 0.04μg), DOI (2.5 or 10.0μg), and ketanserin (0.1 or 0.4μg). Impulsive choice was not altered significantly by MPH, AMPH, or ATO into either mPFC or OFC, indicating that neither of these prefrontal regions alone may mediate the systemic effect of ADHD medications on impulsive choice. However, quinpriole (1.25μg) and eticlopride infused into mPFC increased impulsive choice, whereas 8-OH-DPAT infused into OFC decreased impulsive choice. These latter results demonstrate that blockade of DA D2 receptors in mPFC or activation of 5-HT1A receptors in OFC increases impulsive choice in the adjusting delay procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of Bavachinin and Bavachin on Human Monoamine Oxidases A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla O. Zarmouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (MAO-BIs are used in the early management of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Long-term suspected side effects of MAO-B classical inhibitors established the need for safer alternative therapeutic agents. In our study, the flavanone bavachinin (BNN and its analog bavachin (BVN found in the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. ethanolic extract (PCSEE were investigated for their human MAO-A and MAO-B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B inhibition. Both PCSEE and BNN effectively reduced hMAO-B activity more than hMAO-A while BVN had activating effects. BNN showed selective hMAO-B inhibition (IC50 ~ 8.82 μM more than hMAO-A (IC502009;~ 189.28 μM. BNN in the crude extract was determined by HPLC, also validated by TLC showing a yield of 0.21% PCSEE dry weight. BNN competitively inhibited hMAO-A and hMAO-B, with a lower hMAO-B Ki than hMAO-A Ki by 10.33-fold, and reduced hMAO-B Km/Vmax efficiency ratio to be comparable to the standard selegiline. Molecular docking examination of BNN and BVN predicted an indirect role of BNN C7-methoxy group for its higher affinity, selectivity, and reversibility as an MAO-BI. These findings suggest that BNN, which is known to be a potent PPAR-γ agonist, is a selective and competitive hMAO-B inhibitor and could be used in the management of PD.

  14. Monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates stability of attention problems and susceptibility to life stress during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, K; Bianchi, V; Mascheretti, S; Hohm, E; Schmidt, M H; Esser, G; Brandeis, D; Banaschewski, T; Nobile, M; Laucht, M

    2015-11-01

    Attention problems affect a substantial number of children and adolescents and are predictive of academic underachievement and lower global adaptive functioning. Considerable variability has been observed with regard to the individual development of attention problems over time. In particular, the period of adolescence is characterized by substantial maturation of executive functioning including attentional processing, with the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual trajectories not yet well understood. In the present investigation, we evaluated whether the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism, MAOA-LPR, plays a role in determining continuity of parent-rated attention problems during adolescence. At the same time, a potential effect of severe life events (SLEs) was taken into account. A multi-group path analysis was used in a sample of 234 adolescents (149 males, 85 females) who took part in an epidemiological cohort study at the ages of 11 and 15 years. Attention problems during early adolescence were found to be a strong predictor of attention problems in middle adolescence. However, in carriers of the MAOA-LPR low-activity variant (MAOA-L), stability was found to be significantly higher than in carriers of the high-activity variant (MAOA-H). Additionally, only in MAOA-L carriers did SLEs during adolescence significantly impact on attention problems at the age of 15 years, implying a possible gene × environment interaction. To conclude, we found evidence that attention problems during adolescence in carriers of the MAOA-L allele are particularly stable and malleable to life stressors. The present results underline the usefulness of applying a more dynamic GxE perspective. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Monoamines in the pedal plexus of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccioni-Heuser M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. Moreover, the foot of the terrestrial species has been studied less than that of the aquatic species. As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus, the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. Adult land snails weighing 48-80 g, obtained from the counties of Barra do Ribeiro and Charqueadas (RS, Brazil, were utilized. Monoaminergic fibers were detected throughout the pedal musculature. Blue fluorescence (catecholamines, probably dopamine was observed in nerve branches, pedal and subepithelial plexuses, and in the pedal muscle cells. Yellow fluorescence (serotonin was only observed in thick nerves and in muscle cells. However, when immunohistochemical methods were used, serotonergic fibers were detected in the pedal nerve branches, the pedal and subepithelial plexuses, the basal and lateral zones of the ventral integument epithelial cells, in the pedal ganglion neurons and beneath the ventral epithelium. These findings suggest catecholaminergic and serotonergic involvement in locomotion and modulation of both the pedal ganglion interneurons and sensory information. Knowledge of monoaminergic distribution in this snail´s foot is important for understanding the pharmacological control of reflexive responses and locomotive behavior.

  16. Behavioral and plasma monoamine responses to high-speed railway noise stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guoqing; He, Lingjiao

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported that railway noise causes stress responses. To evaluate the effects of high-speed railway (HSR) noise on behaviors and plasma monoamines. Institute of cancer research mice were exposed to previously recorded HSR noise for 53 days. The noise was arranged according to the HSR's 24-h traffic number and adjusted to a day-night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn ) of 70 dB (A). The open field test (OFT) and the light/dark box test were applied to observe mice behaviors. High performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection was performed to determine the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance using SPSS 16.0. After 53 days of noise exposure, center time and the frequency of line crossing of the exposed mice decreased significantly in the OFT compared with the control group. Meanwhile, transitions and the time spent in the lit compartment of the exposed group decreased significantly in the light/dark box test. After 40 days of HSR noise exposure, the concentrations of plasma DA of the exposed group were significantly higher than those of the control group, while the plasma NE and 5-HT concentrations showed no significant difference between the two groups. The behavioral tests indicate that 70 dB (A) HSR noise can result in anxiety-like behaviors in mice. The physiological results show that plasma DA is more sensitive to HSR noise compared with NE and 5-HT.

  17. Behavioral and plasma monoamine responses to high-speed railway noise stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Di

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have reported that railway noise causes stress responses. To evaluate the effects of high-speed railway (HSR noise on behaviors and plasma monoamines. Institute of cancer research mice were exposed to previously recorded HSR noise for 53 days. The noise was arranged according to the HSR′s 24-h traffic number and adjusted to a day-night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn of 70 dB (A. The open field test (OFT and the light/dark box test were applied to observe mice behaviors. High performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection was performed to determine the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance using SPSS 16.0. After 53 days of noise exposure, center time and the frequency of line crossing of the exposed mice decreased significantly in the OFT compared with the control group. Meanwhile, transitions and the time spent in the lit compartment of the exposed group decreased significantly in the light/dark box test. After 40 days of HSR noise exposure, the concentrations of plasma DA of the exposed group were significantly higher than those of the control group, while the plasma NE and 5-HT concentrations showed no significant difference between the two groups. The behavioral tests indicate that 70 dB (A HSR noise can result in anxiety-like behaviors in mice. The physiological results show that plasma DA is more sensitive to HSR noise compared with NE and 5-HT.

  18. Monoamine oxidase A genotype, childhood trauma, and subclinical atherosclerosis: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, James D; Goldberg, Jack; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Vaccarino, Viola

    2013-06-01

    A functional promoter polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and also moderates the association between early-life stress and mental disorders, which often co-occur with cardiovascular disease. No study has examined the relationship between MAOA genotype, childhood trauma, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of this investigation was to examine whether childhood trauma moderates the association between MAOA genotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. A sample including 289 middle-aged male twin pairs was studied. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound. Childhood trauma, before age 18 years, was measured with the Early Trauma Inventory and included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as general trauma. Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the main and interactive effects of the MAOA genotype and each domain of childhood trauma on FMD, adjusting for known risk factors. General trauma was the most prevalent childhood trauma (28.4%), followed by physical abuse (25.0%), emotional abuse (19.4%), and sexual abuse (11.6%). MAOA genotype was not associated with any domain of childhood trauma. There was no significant evidence for a main effect for the MAOA genotype (β = .02, p = .82) or childhood trauma (.005 .54) FMD. However, a significant interaction was observed between MAOA genotype and physical (β interaction = .37, p = .026) or emotional abuse (β interaction = .43, p = .025) on subclinical atherosclerosis. Childhood trauma modulates the impact of MAOA variant on subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 =0.0037μM), Nile blue (IC 50 =0.0077μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 =0.018μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 =0.07μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monoamine oxidases inhibitors from Colvillea racemosa: Isolation, biological evaluation, and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Enas I; Zaki, Mohamed A; Chaurasiya, Narayan D; Owis, Asmaa I; AbouZid, Sameh; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Seida, Ahmed A; Tekwani, Babu L; Ross, Samir A

    2018-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of Colvillea racemosa stems led to identification of two new α, β-dihydroxydihydrochalcones, colveol A (1) and colveol B (2) along with fifteen known compounds. The structures were elucidated via interpretation of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of the dihydrochalcones 1 and 2 were assigned by a combination of chemical modification and electronic circular dichroism data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibition activity toward recombinant human monoamine oxidases (rhMAO-A and -B). Compound 1 demonstrated preferential inhibition against hMAO-A isoenzyme (IC 50 0.62μM, SI A/B 0.02) while S-naringenin (13) and isoliquiritigein (15) demonstrated preferential hMAO-B inhibition (IC 50 0.27 and 0.51μM, SI A/B 31.77 and 44.69, respectively). Fisetin (11) showed inhibition against hMAO-A with IC 50 value of 4.62μM and no inhibitory activity toward hMAO-B up to 100μM. Molecular docking studies for the most active compounds were conducted to demonstrate the putative binding modes. It suggested that 1 interacts with Gln215, Ala111, Phe352, and Phe208 amino acid residues which have a role in the orientation and stabilization of the inhibitor binding to hMAO-A, while S-naringenin (13) occupies both entrance and substrate cavities and interacts with Tyr326, a critical residue in inhibitor recognition in hMAO-B. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Smoking induces long-lasting effects through a monoamine-oxidase epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Jean-Marie; Del Pino, Muriel; Chironi, Gilles; Callebert, Jacques; Peoc'h, Katell; Mégnien, Jean-Louis; Mallet, Jacques; Simon, Alain; Rendu, Francine

    2009-11-23

    Postulating that serotonin (5-HT), released from smoking-activated platelets could be involved in smoking-induced vascular modifications, we studied its catabolism in a series of 115 men distributed as current smokers (S), never smokers (NS) and former smokers (FS) who had stopped smoking for a mean of 13 years. 5-HT, monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) activities and amounts were measured in platelets, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)--the 5-HT/MAO catabolite--in plasma samples. Both platelet 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA levels were correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular Framingham relative risk (Psmoking status, underlining that the determining risk factor among those taken into account in the Framingham risk calculation was smoking. Surprisingly, the platelet 5-HT content was similar in S and NS but lower in FS with a parallel higher plasma level of 5-HIAA in FS. This was unforeseen since MAO-B activity was inhibited during smoking (Psmoking was compensated by a higher synthesis. To investigate the persistent increase in MAO-B protein concentration, a study of the methylation of its gene promoter was undertaken in a small supplementary cohort of similar subjects. We found that the methylation frequency of the MAOB gene promoter was markedly lower (Psmoke-induced increase of nucleic acid demethylase activity. This is one of the first reports that smoking induces an epigenetic modification. A better understanding of the epigenome may help to further elucidate the physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction. The results could have a larger impact than cardiovascular damage, considering that MAO-dependent 5-HT catabolism is also involved in addiction, predisposition to cancer, behaviour and mental health.

  2. Estrogen Treatment Impairs Cognitive Performance following Psychosocial Stress and Monoamine Depletion in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K.; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause, and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Methods Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. Results E2-treated compared to placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared to placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared to placebo-treated women after but not before the TSST, though the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning were not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifest before the TSST or at baseline. Conclusions These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in

  3. Estrogen treatment impairs cognitive performance after psychosocial stress and monoamine depletion in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul A; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol (E2) administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17beta-E2 (1 mg/d for 1 mo, then 2 mg/d for 2 mo). At the end of the 3-month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. E2-treated compared with placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared with placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared with placebo-treated women after, but not before, the TSST, although the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning was not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifested before the TSST or at baseline. These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in postmenopausal women may be more complex than

  4. Antidepressant behavioral effects by dual inhibition of monoamine reuptake in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rénéric, J P; Lucki, I

    1998-03-01

    Because of clinical interest in the effects of antidepressant drugs that exert their effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems, the behavioral effects produced by combined treatment with an SSRI (fluoxetine) with a selective norepinephrine (NE; desipramine) or dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitor (buproprion) were examined in the forced swimming test (FST), a behavioral test in rodents that predicts the clinical activity of antidepressants. Three additional compounds with mixed activity as NE-5-HT reuptake inhibitors, milnacipran, duloxetine and venlafaxine, were also examined. Desipramine and fluoxetine both reduced immobility in the FST, but desipramine increased only climbing behavior, whereas fluoxetine increased only swimming behavior. The combination of fluoxetine with desipramine or bupropion increased both climbing and swimming behaviors at certain doses, but higher doses of desipramine when combined with fluoxetine replaced swimming behavior with climbing behavior. The mixed NE-5-HT reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and duloxetine reduced immobility and increased climbing behavior, but did not alter swimming. Venlafaxine reduced immobility and increased swimming behavior, except at the highest dose tested (80 mg/kg), which increased both swimming and climbing behaviors. Thus, combining certain doses of pharmacologically selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, or the mixed reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, produced a pattern of mixed active behaviors in the FST (climbing and swimming) that may reflect the activity of multiple neurotransmitters, especially the combination of enhanced 5-HT and DA activity. The combination of higher doses of desipramine with fluoxetine, or compounds with mixed activity at inhibiting NE and 5-HT reuptake, demonstrated effects similar to those of desipramine alone and may reflect inhibition of the expression of serotonergic antidepressant behavioral effects by selective NE reuptake inhibitors.

  5. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  6. Extrasynaptic vesicular transmitter release from the somata of substantia nigra neurons in rat midbrain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, E H; Marty, A; Schulte, A; Chow, R H

    1998-05-15

    Substantia nigra neurons release dopamine from their somatodendritic regions. A long-unresolved question is whether this release occurs by exocytosis or by a nonvesicular mechanism. We used carbon fiber microelectrodes in a brainstem slice to assay secretion from single cell bodies that had been cleared of connective tissue. Amperometry at the carbon fiber microelectrodes revealed unitary events in approximately 90% of cells in resting conditions. These events had charge integrals ranging from a few femtocoulombs to several hundred femtocoulombs (fC). Local glutamate application enhanced the event frequency by 3.5-fold on average and up to 10-fold in highly responsive cells, although the mean charge integral was not modified. Local application of a high K+-containing saline had effects similar to those of glutamate. The frequency of resting and stimulated amperometric events was much lower at 21-22 degreesC than at 32-35 degreesC. The addition of Cd2+ (50 microM), a blocker of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, to the bath solution blocked the stimulatory effects of glutamate. These results suggest that dopamine is released from the somata of substantia nigra neurons by exocytosis and that this mechanism is regulated by neuronal electrical activity. More generally, this study demonstrates the applicability of carbon fiber microelectrodes to the measurement of quantal monoamine secretion in brain slices.

  7. Monoamine Oxidases as Potential Contributors to Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Time for a Study in Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana M. Duicu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a pathomechanism causally linked to the progression of chronic cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Mitochondria have emerged as the most relevant source of reactive oxygen species, the major culprit being classically considered the respiratory chain at the inner mitochondrial membrane. In the past decade, several experimental studies unequivocally demonstrated the contribution of monoamine oxidases (MAOs at the outer mitochondrial membrane to the maladaptative ventricular hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. This paper addresses the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to the pathogenesis of heart failure and diabetes together with the mounting evidence for an emerging role of MAO inhibition as putative cardioprotective strategy in both conditions.

  8. Two-step production of monoamines in monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord: a different control strategy of neurotransmitter supply?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengliang

    2016-01-01

    that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord. Published data from different sources and unpublished data from my own ongoing projects...... that dopamine and serotonin could be synthesized sequentially in two monoenzymatic cells in the spinal cord via a TH-AADC and a TPH-AADC cascade respectively. The monoamines synthesized through this pathway may compensate for lost neurotransmitters following spinal cord injury and also may play specific roles...

  9. In male rats with concurrent iron and (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, provision of either iron or (n-3) fatty acids alone alters monoamine metabolism and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Malan, L.; Arnold, M.; Yee, B.K.; Bianco, L.E.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Muller, M.R.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids [(n-3)FAD)] in rats can alter brain monoamine pathways and impair learning and memory. We examined whether repletion with Fe and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, corrects the deficits in brain monoamine activity (by measuring

  10. Di/tri-peptide transporters as drug delivery targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Brodin, Birger

    2003-01-01

    -dependent, and the transporters thus belong to the Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter (POT)-family. The transporters are not drug targets per se, however due to their uniquely broad substrate specificity; they have proved to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Drug molecules such as oral active beta......-lactam antibiotics, bestatin, prodrugs of aciclovir and ganciclovir have oral bioavailabilities, which largely are a result of their interaction with PepT1. In the last few years an increasing number of studies concerned with regulation of di/tri-peptide transporter capacity have appeared. Studies on receptor....../tri-peptide transporters from vesicular storages 3) changes in gene transcription/mRNA stability. The aim of the present review is to discuss physiological, patho-physiological and drug-induced regulation of di/tri-peptide transporter mediated transport....

  11. Development of radioiodinated ligands for exploration of brain monoamine oxidase by tomo-scintigraphy; Developpement de ligands radioactifs pour l'exploration des monoamines oxydases cerebrales en tomoscintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii, H

    1996-07-01

    Monoamine oxidases, MAO, are important in the regulation of monoaminergic neuro-transmissions. The fluctuations in MAO activities has been observed in some psychiatric and neuro-degenerative diseases. Thus, quantification of cerebral MAO activity would be useful for diagnosis and the therapeutic follow-up of these disorders. With the object of doing an in vivo scintigraphic exploration of cerebral MAO by SPECT, we have undertaken to synthesize some radioiodinated MAO inhibitors. In the first part of this work, we have discussed the general properties of the monoamine oxidases and their inhibitors. In the second part we have described the scintigraphic methods. the ligands to be used for MAO exploration, and the radioiodination methods. At last in the third part, the development of three radioiodinated ligands has been presented: - [{sup 125}I]3-iodopargyline. In vivo results showed that, this radioligand blocked the cerebral MAO-B with moderate selectivity. However, complementary in vivo studies would be needed to define precisely its activity.- [{sup 125}I]Ro 16-6491. The cerebral fixation of this radioligand was in accordance with the MAO-B sites in the rat brains, but its fixation was too low for scintigraphic exploration in vivo with iodine-123. - [{sup 125}I]Ro 11-9900. In vivo studies of rat brains showed that the MAO-A sites were bound preferentially by this radioligand. The cerebral biodistribution of this ligand labelled with iodine-123 is considered for use in a model animal nearest to human pathology. (author)

  12. A combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor, NS9775, represents a novel profile with potential benefits in emotional and cognitive disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø

    2013-01-01

    As affective and cognitive disturbances frequently co-occur in psychiatric disorders, research into opportunities to simultaneously target both entities is warranted. These disorders are typically treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MRIs), whereas ongoing research suggests that symptoms...... in the four plate test. This pro-cognitive, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect of NS9775 suggests that combining α7 nAChR agonism and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition could be a step in the evolution of pharmacological treatments of affective and/or cognitive disturbances....

  13. Altered neurocircuitry in the dopamine transporter knockout mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI. Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn(2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn(2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn(2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral

  14. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Selma H.; Rosa E.C. Linhares; Nozawa,Carlos M.; Ricardo Montalván; Paccola-Meirelles,Luzia D.

    2001-01-01

    Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai) were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae) and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA). The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficie...

  15. Changes in Susceptibility to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus during Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanmeng; Puckett, Shelby; Antinozzi, Peter A; Cramer, Scott D; Lyles, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    A major challenge to oncolytic virus therapy is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, even when these cancers arise from the same tissue type. Variability in response may arise due to differences in the initial genetic lesions leading to cancer development. Alternatively, susceptibility to viral oncolysis may change during cancer progression. These hypotheses were tested using cells from a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Primary cultures from murine cancers derived from prostate-specific Pten deletion contained a mixture of cells that were susceptible and resistant to VSV. Castration-resistant cancers contained a higher percentage of susceptible cells than cancers from noncastrated mice. These results indicate both susceptible and resistant cells can evolve within the same tumor. The role of Pten deletion was further investigated using clonal populations of murine prostate epithelial (MPE) progenitor cells and tumor-derived Pten(-/-) cells. Deletion of Pten in MPE progenitor cells using a lentivirus vector resulted in cells that responded poorly to interferon and were susceptible to VSV infection. In contrast, tumor-derived Pten(-/-) cells expressed higher levels of the antiviral transcription factor STAT1, activated STAT1 in response to VSV, and were resistant to VSV infection. These results suggest that early in tumor development following Pten deletion, cells are primarily sensitive to VSV, but subsequent evolution in tumors leads to development of cells that are resistant to VSV infection. Further evolution in castration-resistant tumors leads to tumors in which cells are primarily sensitive to VSV. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of replication-competent viruses that kill cancer cells (oncolytic viruses). However, a major problem is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, even when these cancers arise from the

  16. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arboleda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ e Indiana (VSV-IN, afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar, bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos de los cascos; hay pérdida de peso y decrecimiento en la producción de leche. Está clasificada en la Lista A de la Organización Internacional de Epizootias, debido a su gran poder de difusión, a las graves consecuencias socioeconómicas y a las restricciones comerciales. Además, clínicamente la EV es indistinguible de la Fiebre Aftosa (FA (1.
    La enfermedad se presenta por ciclos estacionales; la mayoría
    de ellos ocurre en las épocas de transición de los períodos de lluvias a los de verano y viceversa (2. Estudios serológicos realizados en áreas endémicas han demostrado que VSV-NJ y VSV-IN infectan en forma natural una amplia variedad de animales silvestres, los cuales están posiblemente implicados en la ecozootiología de la EV, bien como hospederos portadores, amplificadores o reservorios. Igualmente, dos especies de artrópodos, Lutzomyia shannoni y Simulium vittatum son infectados naturalmente, replican y transmiten experimentalmente
    el VSV, convirtiéndolos en posibles vectores y/o reservorios.
    Sin embargo, en ningún animal se produce la viremia necesaria para infectar los artrópodos hematófagos. El reservorio natural nunca ha sido encontrado entre los animales domésticos y silvestres investigados (3.

    El objetivo es identificar los factores ecológicos (cobertura
    vegetal, temperatura promedio, pluviosidad y humedad relativa, los vectores artrópodos y los mamíferos reservorios asociados con el antenimiento y transmisión de la VSV en

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Survival of CD169+ Cells Promotes Immune Activation during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain...... defense against viral pathogens. CD169(+) macrophages are shown to activate innate and adaptive immunity via "enforced virus replication" a controlled amplification of virus particles. However, factors regulating the CD169(+) macrophages remain to be studied. In this paper, we show that after Vesicular...... stomatitis virus infection, phagocytes produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which signals via TNFR1 and promote "enforced virus replication" in CD169(+) macrophages. Consequently, lack of TNF or TNFR1 resulted in defective immune activation and VSV clearance....

  18. Transcellular communication at the immunological synapse: a vesicular traffic-mediated mutual exchange [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Finetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell’s ability to communicate with the extracellular environment, with other cells, and with itself is a crucial feature of eukaryotic organisms. In the immune system, T lymphocytes assemble a specialized structure upon contact with antigen-presenting cells bearing a peptide-major histocompatibility complex ligand, known as the immunological synapse (IS. The IS has been extensively characterized as a signaling platform essential for T-cell activation. Moreover, emerging evidence identifies the IS as a device for vesicular traffic-mediated cell-to-cell communication as well as an active release site of soluble molecules. Here, we will review recent advances in the role of vesicular trafficking in IS assembly and focused secretion of microvesicles at the synaptic area in naïve T cells and discuss the role of the IS in transcellular communication.

  19. Smoking induces long-lasting effects through a monoamine-oxidase epigenetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Launay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulating that serotonin (5-HT, released from smoking-activated platelets could be involved in smoking-induced vascular modifications, we studied its catabolism in a series of 115 men distributed as current smokers (S, never smokers (NS and former smokers (FS who had stopped smoking for a mean of 13 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 5-HT, monoamine oxidase (MAO-B activities and amounts were measured in platelets, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA--the 5-HT/MAO catabolite--in plasma samples. Both platelet 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA levels were correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular Framingham relative risk (P<0.01, but these correlations became non-significant after adjustment for smoking status, underlining that the determining risk factor among those taken into account in the Framingham risk calculation was smoking. Surprisingly, the platelet 5-HT content was similar in S and NS but lower in FS with a parallel higher plasma level of 5-HIAA in FS. This was unforeseen since MAO-B activity was inhibited during smoking (P<0.00001. It was, however, consistent with a higher enzyme protein concentration found in S and FS than in NS (P<0.001. It thus appears that MAO inhibition during smoking was compensated by a higher synthesis. To investigate the persistent increase in MAO-B protein concentration, a study of the methylation of its gene promoter was undertaken in a small supplementary cohort of similar subjects. We found that the methylation frequency of the MAOB gene promoter was markedly lower (P<0.0001 for S and FS vs. NS due to cigarette smoke-induced increase of nucleic acid demethylase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is one of the first reports that smoking induces an epigenetic modification. A better understanding of the epigenome may help to further elucidate the physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction. The results could have a larger impact than cardiovascular

  20. Hyphal N transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus associated with cucumber grown at three nitrogen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    Cucumis sativus L. cv. Aminex (F1 hybrid) was grown alone or in symbiosis with Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith in containers with two hyphal compartments (HC(A) and HC(B)) on either side of a root compartment (RC) separated by fine nylon mesh. Plants received a total of either 100, 200 or 400...

  1. Hyphal transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus of N applied to the soil as ammonium or nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    with a hyphal compartment separated from the root compartment by a fine nylon mesh. Mineral N was then applied to the hyphal compartment as (NH4+)-N-15 or (NO3-)-N-15 at 5 cm distance from the root compartment. Soil samples were taken from the hyphal compartment at 1, 3 and 5 cm distance from the root...

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of vesicular transport in Aspergillus niger reveals partial conservation of the molecular mechanism of exocytosis in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, M.J.; Arentshorst, M.; Fiedler, M.; Groen,F.L.M. de; Punt, P.J.; Meyer, V.; Ram, A.F.J

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an industrially exploited protein expression platform, well known for its capacity to secrete high levels of proteins. To study the process of protein secretion in A. niger, we established a GFP-v-SNARE reporter strain in which the trafficking and dynamics

  3. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of variants of monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkin, Kate E. [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom); Reiss, Renate; Turner, Nicholas J. [School of Chemistry, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Grogan, Gideon, E-mail: grogan@ysbl.york.ac.uk [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-01

    Crystals of A. niger monoamine oxidase variants display P2{sub 1} or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2/P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 symmetry, with eight or two molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively. Monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) is an FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyses the conversion of terminal amines to their corresponding aldehydes. Variants of MAO-N produced by directed evolution have been shown to possess altered substrate specificity. Crystals of two of these variants (MAO-N-3 and MAO-N-5) have been obtained; the former displays P2{sub 1} symmetry with eight molecules per asymmetric unit and the latter has P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 symmetry and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Solution of these structures will help shed light on the molecular determinants of improved activity and high enantioselectivity towards a broad range of substrates.

  4. Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Ravi, Alok K; Tripathi, Ashok K; Abegaonkar, Mahesh P; Banerjee, Basu D

    2015-09-01

    The increasing use of wireless communication devices has raised major concerns towards deleterious effects of microwave radiation on human health. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and gene expression of their key regulating enzymes in brain of Fischer rats. Animals were exposed to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz microwave radiation for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week) with respective specific absorption rates as 5.953 × 10(-4) and 5.835 × 10(-4) W/kg. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters viz. dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and serotonin (5-HT) were detected using LC-MS/MS in hippocampus of all experimental animals. In addition, mRNA expression of key regulating enzymes for these neurotransmitters viz. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (for DA, NE and E) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1 and TPH2) (for serotonin) was also estimated. Results showed significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. In addition, significant downregulation in mRNA expression of TH, TPH1 and TPH2 was also observed in microwave-exposed animals (p neurotransmitters at mRNA and protein levels.

  5. Ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of monoamines: peak-splitting at high flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Jolien; Brouwer, Hendrik-Jan; Maes, Katrien; Michotte, Yvette; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2013-12-20

    The use of ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD) is of great interest for the fast and sensitive determination of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in microdialysis samples. However, when applying high flow rates in ion-pair UHPLC, other peaks than the initial compound peaks appear on the chromatogram. This peak-splitting phenomenon is caused by disturbed ion-pair retention mechanisms. The influence of several chromatographic parameters is investigated. Peak-splitting is delayed to higher flow rates when increasing the concentration of ion-pair reagent or buffering agent in the mobile phase, when decreasing the percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, when applying a stationary phase with a smaller amount of packing material or when increasing the separation temperature. One or a combination of these conditions can be applied to analyze the monoamine neurotransmitters using ion-pair UHPLC-ECD at high flow rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A promoter polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene is associated with the pineal MAOA activity in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Hui; Fischer, David F; Swaab, Dick F

    2007-09-05

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). MAOA activity and gene expression have been found to be up-regulated in different brain areas of AD patients, including the pineal gland. Increased pineal MAOA activity might contribute to the reduced pineal melatonin production in AD. A promoter polymorphism of a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) in the MAOA gene shows to affect MAOA transcriptional activity in vitro. Here we examined in 63 aged controls and 44 AD patients the effects of the MAOA-VNTR on MAOA gene expression and activity in the pineal gland as endophenotypes, and on melatonin production. AD patients carrying long MAOA-VNTR genotype (consisting of 3.5- or 4-repeat alleles) showed higher MAOA gene expression and activity than the short-genotyped (i.e., 3-repeat allele) AD patients. Moreover, the AD-related up-regulation of MAOA showed up only among long-genotype bearing subjects. There was no significant effect of the MAOA-VNTR on MAOA activity or gene expression in controls, or on melatonin production in both controls and AD patients. Our data suggest that the MAOA-VNTR affects the activity and gene expression of MAOA in the brain of AD patients, and is involved in the changes of monoamine metabolism.

  7. Separate effects of low carbon dioxide and low oxygen content on rat brain monoamine metabolism during hypoxemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Awake, adult male rats were exposed for up to 7 days to one of three environments: a) normoxia (P/sub 1/O/sub 2/=155 Torr), b) hypoxic hypocapnia (P/sub 1/O/sub 2/=73 Torr, and (c) hypoxic normocapnia (P/sub I/O/sub 2/-73 Torr), P/sub I/CO/sub 2/=32 Torr), and arterial blood gas and acid-base status were documented. After 1 hour to 7 days, rats were sacrificed, and the time courses of the brain levels and turnovers of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin were determined in each condition. The transient decrease in monoamine levels seen on exposure to acute hypoxia was absent in normocapnia was maintained; 7 days hypoxia with or without hypocapnia resulted in increase monoamine levels. Normocapnia also prevented an immediate, sustained decrease in 5HT turnover and a delayed decrease in DA turnover which were observed in hypoxic hypocapnia. A delayed increase in 5HT turnover appeared to be due to hypoxia independent of PaCO/sub 2/. Therefore, the initial, transient loss of mental acuity and some ventilatory adaptations observed during prolonged hypoxia may be a result of the decrease in PaCO/sub 2/ rather than the decreased oxygen concentration.

  8. Effect of Physical Exercise and Acute Escitalopram on the Excitability of Brain Monoamine Neurons: In Vivo Electrophysiological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Csatlósová, Kristína; Durišová, Barbora; Moravcíková, Lucia; Lacinová, Lubica; Ježováv, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) rats were housed in individual cages with free access to a running wheel, while control animals were housed in standard laboratory cages. After three weeks, the rats were anesthetized, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings were taken from dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons, locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons, and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. VWR stimulated activity in serotonin, but not in norepinephrine or dopamine neurons. Subsequently, acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in control rats led to complete suppression of serotonin neurons; this suppression was reversed by subsequent administration of selective antagonist of serotonin-1A receptors, WAY100135. Escitalopram induced only partial inhibition of serotonin neurons in the VWR rats while WAY100135 increased the firing activity of serotonin neurons above the baseline value. The beneficial effect of physical exercise on mood is mediated, at least in part, via activation of serotonin neurons. Physical exercise can potentiate the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by increasing the basal firing activity and diminishing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inhibition of serotonin neurons.

  9. Nuclear Choline Acetyltransferase Activates Transcription of a High-affinity Choline Transporter*

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Akinori; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Nishimura, Masaki; Yasuhara, Osamu; Saito, Naoaki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at cholinergic nerve terminals. ChAT contains nuclear localization signals and is also localized in the nuclei of neural and non-neuronal cells. Nuclear ChAT might have an as yet unidentified function, such as transcriptional regulation. In this study, we investigated the alteration of candidate gene transcription by ChAT. We chose high affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter ...

  10. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg2+ as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. PMID:26224801

  11. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg(2+) as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Drexler, Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  13. Some Attenuated Variants of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Show Enhanced Oncolytic Activity against Human Glioblastoma Cells relative to Normal Brain Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wollmann, Guido; Rogulin, Vitaliy; Simon, Ian; Rose, John K.; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2009-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been shown in laboratory studies to be effective against a variety of tumors, including malignant brain tumors. However, attenuation of VSV may be necessary to balance the potential toxicity toward normal cells, particularly when targeting brain tumors. Here we compared 10 recombinant VSV variants resulting from different attenuation strategies. Attenuations included gene shifting (VSV-p1-GFP/RFP), M protein mutation (VSV-M51), G protein cytoplasmic tail t...

  14. Pseudotyping Vesicular Stomatitis Virus with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Glycoproteins Enhances Infectivity for Glioma Cells and Minimizes Neurotropism▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Muik, Alexander; Kneiske, Inna; Werbizki, Marina; Wilflingseder, Doris; Giroglou, Tsanan; Ebert, Oliver; Kraft, Anna; Dietrich, Ursula; Zimmer, Gert; Momma, Stefan; von Laer, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based oncolytic virotherapy has the potential to significantly improve the prognosis of aggressive malignancies such as brain cancer. However, VSV's inherent neurotoxicity has hindered clinical development so far. Given that this neurotropism is attributed to the glycoprotein VSV-G, VSV was pseudotyped with the nonneurotropic envelope glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-GP→VSV-GP). Compared to VSV, VSV-GP showed enhanced infectivity fo...

  15. Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Against Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever in Nonhuman Primate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-19

    VSV (Simon, Cardomone et al. 1990), borna disease virus (Formella, Jehle et al. 2000), and Sinbis virus (Karpf, Lenches et al. 1997). The...C., et al. (2000). "Sequence variability of Borna disease virus : resistance to superinfection may contribute to high genome stability in...Marburg virus disease ". S Afr Med J 66(2):50-4 Roberts, A., L. Buonocore, et al. (1999). "Attenuated vesicular stomatitis viruses as vaccine vectors." J

  16. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  17. Neonatal Mortality, Vesicular Lesions and Lameness Associated with Senecavirus A in a U.S. Sow Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, P; Canon, A; Bates, J L; Gerardy, K; Linhares, D C L; Piñeyro, P E; Schwartz, K J; Yoon, K J; Rademacher, C J; Holtkamp, D; Karriker, L

    2016-08-01

    A 300-sow farrow-to-finish swine operation in the United States experienced a sudden and severe increase in mortality in neonatal piglets with high morbidity followed by vesicular lesions on the snout and feet of adult females and males. Affected live piglets were submitted for diagnostic investigation. Samples tested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine delta coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, porcine rotavirus types A, B and C, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Senecavirus A (SV-A) formerly known as Seneca Valley virus was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from serum, skin and faeces of piglets and from serum and faeces of sows. SV-A was isolated in cell culture from piglet samples. SV-A VP1 gene region sequencing from piglet tissues was also successful. A biosecurity and disease entry evaluation was conducted and identified potential biosecurity risks factors for the entry of new pathogens into the operation. This is the first case report in the United States associating SV-A with a clinical course of severe but transient neonatal morbidity and mortality followed by vesicular lesions in breeding stock animals. Veterinarians and animal caretakers must remain vigilant for vesicular foreign animal diseases and report suspicious clinical signs and lesions to state animal health authorities for diagnostic testing and further investigation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Ethosomes as novel vesicular carrier: An overview of the principle, preparation and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumalya; Roy, Chhandita; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Mohaimin, Amal Widaad; Khanam, Jasmina; Nanda, Arunabha; David, Sheba R

    2018-01-15

    In the study of lipid vesicular carriers in permeation enhancement of drug molecules across skin after the success story of liposomes, ethosomes are a recent addition. There are a number of published reviews but still, there is a lack of reviews representing various aspects in a systematic way with a detailed description of current research works. This review serves to fill this deficiency along with a special emphasize on its preparation methods and application. Information was collected from previously published literatures which were represented after analysis in terms of various aspects such as principles, composition, preparation, mechanism of penetration, modified forms, characterization, marketed preparation and its application. This review is represented in an informative and easily understandable way. Basic principles and background of exploring were covered in the introduction section. Composition section contains the basic components of formulations along with the impact of various parameters on the characterization of the ethosome. A detailed discussion of all the methods along with their own utility is elaborately discussed. Various aspects of characterization of ethosomes are also discussed. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of ethosomes are also outlined here. In spite of having a potent permeation enhancing and targeted drug release profile ethosome suffers from limited commercialization. Various challenges regarding its commercialization and product development are also discussed in this review with an objective of acting as a directional route for the researchers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. [Antitumor effects of matrix protein of vesicular stomatic virus on EL4 lymphoma mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-jia; Yu, Qin-mei; Meng, Wen-tong; Wen, Yan-jun; Chen, Li-juan; Niu, Ting

    2011-03-01

    To explore antitumor effects of plasmid pcDNA3. 1-MP encoding matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP:CHOL) in mice with EL4 lymphoma. C57BL/6 mouse model with EL4 lymphoma was established. Sixty mice bearing EL4 lymphoma were divided randomly into five groups including Lip-MP, Lip-pVAX, Lip, ADM and NS groups, which were intravenously injected with liposome-pcDNA 3. 1-MP complex, liposome-pVAX complex, empty liposome, Adriamycin and normal saline respectively every three days. Tumor volumes and survival time were monitored. Microvessel density and tumor proliferative index in tumor tissues were determined by CD31, Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining, meanwhile the tumor apoptosis index was measured by TUNEL method. From 6 days after treatments on, the tumor volume in Lip-MP group was much smaller than that in Lip-pVAX, Lip and NS group (P EL4 tumor cells in vivo (P EL4 lymphoma, which may be related to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor cell proliferation.

  20. Structure of the L Protein of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus from Electron Cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Li, Zongli; Jenni, Simon; Rahmeh, Amal A; Morin, Benjamin M; Grant, Timothy; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Harrison, Stephen C; Whelan, Sean P J

    2015-07-16

    The large (L) proteins of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, a group that includes Ebola and rabies viruses, catalyze RNA-dependent RNA polymerization with viral ribonucleoprotein as template, a non-canonical sequence of capping and methylation reactions, and polyadenylation of viral messages. We have determined by electron cryomicroscopy the structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) L protein. The density map, at a resolution of 3.8 Å, has led to an atomic model for nearly all of the 2109-residue polypeptide chain, which comprises three enzymatic domains (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [RdRp], polyribonucleotidyl transferase [PRNTase], and methyltransferase) and two structural domains. The RdRp resembles the corresponding enzymatic regions of dsRNA virus polymerases and influenza virus polymerase. A loop from the PRNTase (capping) domain projects into the catalytic site of the RdRp, where it appears to have the role of a priming loop and to couple product elongation to large-scale conformational changes in L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of the L-protein of vesicular stomatitis virus from electron cryomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Li, Zongli; Jenni, Simon; Rahmeh, Amal A.; Morin, Benjamin M.; Grant, Tim; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Harrison, Stephen C.; Whelan, Sean P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The large (L) proteins of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, a group that includes Ebola and rabies viruses, catalyze RNA-dependent RNA polymerization with viral ribonucleoprotein as template, a noncanonical sequence of capping and methylation reactions, and polyadenylation of viral messages. We have determined by electron cryomicroscopy the structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) L protein. The density map, at a resolution of 3.8 Å, has led to an atomic model for nearly all of the 2109-residue polypeptide chain, which comprises three enzymatic domains [RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), polyribonucleotidyl transferase (PRNTase), and methyl transferase] and two structural domains. The RdRp resembles the corresponding enzymatic regions of dsRNA virus polymerases and influenza virus polymerase. A loop from the PRNTase (capping) domain projects into the catalytic site of the RdRp, where it appears to have the role of a priming loop and to couple product elongation to large-scale conformational changes in L. PMID:26144317

  2. Vesicular stomatitis virus as a flexible platform for oncolytic virotherapy against cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an emerging anti-cancer approach that utilizes viruses to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while not harming healthy cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus with inherent OV qualities. Antiviral responses induced by type I interferon pathways are believed to be impaired in most cancer cells, making them more susceptible to VSV than normal cells. Several other factors make VSV a promising OV candidate for clinical use, including its well-studied biology, a small, easily manipulated genome, relative independence of a receptor or cell cycle, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host-cell transformation, and lack of pre-existing immunity in humans. Moreover, various VSV-based recombinant viruses have been engineered via reverse genetics to improve oncoselectivity, safety, oncotoxicity and stimulation of tumour-specific immunity. Alternative delivery methods are also being studied to minimize premature immune clearance of VSV. OV treatment as a monotherapy is being explored, although many studies have employed VSV in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other OVs. Preclinical studies with various cancers have demonstrated that VSV is a promising OV; as a result, a human clinical trial using VSV is currently in progress. PMID:23052398

  3. PEGylation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Extends Virus Persistence in Blood Circulation of Passively Immunized Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Kirk, Amber C.; Hadac, Elizabeth M.; Griesmann, Guy E.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Henry, Stephen M.; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2013-01-01

    We are developing oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) for systemic treatment of multiple myeloma, an incurable malignancy of antibody-secreting plasma cells that are specifically localized in the bone marrow. One of the presumed advantages for using VSV as an oncolytic virus is that human infections are rare and preexisting anti-VSV immunity is typically lacking in cancer patients, which is very important for clinical success. However, our studies show that nonimmune human and mouse serum can neutralize clinical-grade VSV, reducing the titer by up to 4 log units in 60 min. In addition, we show that neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies negate the antitumor efficacy of VSV, a concern for repeat VSV administration. We have investigated the potential use of covalent modification of VSV with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a function-spacer-lipid (FSL)–PEG construct to inhibit serum neutralization and to limit hepatosplenic sequestration of systemically delivered VSV. We report that in mice passively immunized with neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies, PEGylation of VSV improved the persistence of VSV in the blood circulation, maintaining a more than 1-log-unit increase in VSV genome copies for up to 1 h compared to the genome copy numbers for the non-PEGylated virus, which was mostly cleared within 10 min after intravenous injection. We are currently investigating if this increase in PEGylated VSV circulating half-life can translate to increased virus delivery and better efficacy in mouse models of multiple myeloma. PMID:23325695

  4. Vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase's strong affinity to its template suggests exotic transcription models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the prototype for negative sense non segmented (NNS RNA viruses which include potent human and animal pathogens such as Rabies, Ebola and measles. The polymerases of NNS RNA viruses only initiate transcription at or near the 3' end of their genome template. We measured the dissociation constant of VSV polymerases from their whole genome template to be 20 pM. Given this low dissociation constant, initiation and sustainability of transcription becomes nontrivial. To explore possible mechanisms, we simulated the first hour of transcription using Monte Carlo methods and show that a one-time initial dissociation of all polymerases during entry is not sufficient to sustain transcription. We further show that efficient transcription requires a sliding mechanism for non-transcribing polymerases and can be realized with different polymerase-polymerase interactions and distinct template topologies. In conclusion, we highlight a model in which collisions between transcribing and sliding non-transcribing polymerases result in release of the non-transcribing polymerases allowing for redistribution of polymerases between separate templates during transcription and suggest specific experiments to further test these mechanisms.

  5. Inducible vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) L cell line for packaging of recombinant VSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Karp; Jung, Yong-Tae; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

    2005-10-01

    Recently, recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) have been developed as high-level expression vectors which serve as effective vaccine vectors in animals. An ideal approach for VSV vector production would be the development of stable packaging cell lines that can produce vector particles without transfection step. In this report, we describe generation of an inducible cell line that expresses the VSV polymerase gene (L) under the control of the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) system as a first step to make VSV-based packaging cell lines. Integrated polymerase (L) gene was controlled by an rtetR-dependent promoter in the rtTA-producing BHK cell line. When the cell lines were cultured in the presence of tet (tetracycline) or tetracycline derivative doxycycline, the recombinant VSV and wild type VSV were replicated, whereas in the absence of tet or tetracycline derivative doxycycline, the recombinant VSV was not replicated. Viral supernatants were harvested, diluted, and monitored by plaque assay for the presence of infectious VSV. Plaques of VSV containing an additional sequence encoding the EGFP protein allowed rapid detection of infection. Our results suggest wide applications of other surrogate viruses based on VSV. The availability of stable packaging cell lines represents a step toward the use of a VSV vector delivery system that can allow scale-up production of vector-stocks for gene therapy.

  6. [Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a vaccine vector for immunization against viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Orzechowska, Beata

    2013-01-11

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae family, is a promising candidate for potential use in construction of antiviral vaccines. In the natural environment VSV is a pathogen of wild ungulates and livestock. Some of the features that make VSV an excellent platform for the development of a range of viral therapeutics includes its immunogenicity and ability to grow to high titers in cell lines approved for vaccine use. Infection in humans is rare and usually asymptomatic, with mild flu-like symptoms. Moreover, due to affinity of VSV envelope glycoprotein to the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor, VSV is effective at targeting a variety of tissues in vivo. A series of research results confirm the possibility of developing VSV-based vaccines against human papilloma viruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and filoviruses (MARV, ZEBOV and SEBOV), as well as the potential use of a successfully developed vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV). VSV is neurotropic and infection can cause a viral encephalitis in experimental animals. Therefore, intensive studies are being undertaken to achieve satisfactory expression of the viral antigens while maintaining the safety of the constructed vectors.

  7. Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus expressing interferon-σ has enhanced therapeutic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses are known to stimulate the antitumor immune response by specifically replicating in tumor cells. This is believed to be an important aspect of the durable responses observed in some patients and the field is rapidly moving toward immunotherapy. As a further means to engage the immune system, we engineered a virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, to encode the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-σ. We used the 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma as well as other murine tumor models to characterize immune responses in tumor-bearing animals generated by treatment with our viruses. The interferon-σ-encoding virus demonstrated greater activation of dendritic cells and drove a more profound secretion of proinflammatory cytokines compared to the parental virus. From a therapeutic point of view, the interferon-σ virus slowed tumor growth, minimized lung tumors, and prolonged survival in several murine tumor models. The improved efficacy was lost in immunocompromized animals; hence the mechanism appears to be T-cell-mediated. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of oncolytic viruses to act as immune stimulators to drive antitumor immunity as well as their potential for targeted gene therapy.

  8. Different effect of proteasome inhibition on vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Neznanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome activity is an important part of viral replication. In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and poliovirus. We found that the proteasome inhibitors significantly suppressed VSV protein synthesis, virus accumulation, and protected infected cells from toxic effect of VSV replication. In contrast, poliovirus replication was delayed, but not diminished in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib. We also found that inhibition of proteasomes stimulated stress-related processes, such as accumulation of chaperone hsp70, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and overall inhibition of translation. VSV replication was sensitive to this stress with significant decline in replication process. Poliovirus growth was less sensitive with only delay in replication. Inhibition of proteasome activity suppressed cellular and VSV protein synthesis, but did not reduce poliovirus protein synthesis. Protein kinase GCN2 supported the ability of proteasome inhibitors to attenuate general translation and to suppress VSV replication. We propose that different mechanisms of translational initiation by VSV and poliovirus determine their sensitivity to stress induced by the inhibition of proteasomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that connects the effect of stress induced by proteasome inhibition with the efficiency of viral infection.

  9. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Variants Selectively Infect and Kill Human Melanomas but Not Normal Melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Davis, John N.; Bosenberg, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic malignant melanoma remains one of the most therapeutically challenging forms of cancer. Here we test replication-competent vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) on 19 primary human melanoma samples and compare these infections with those of normal human melanocyte control cells. Even at a low viral concentration, we found a strong susceptibility to viral oncolysis in over 70% of melanomas. In contrast, melanocytes displayed strong resistance to virus infection and showed complete protection by interferon. Several recombinant VSVs were compared, and all infected and killed most melanomas with differences in the time course with increasing rates of melanoma infection, as follows: VSV-CT9-M51 VSV-M51 VSV-G/GFP VSV-rp30. VSV-rp30 sequencing revealed 2 nonsynonymous mutations at codon positions P126 and L223, both of which appear to be required for the enhanced phenotype. VSV-rp30 showed effective targeting and infection of multiple subcutaneous and intracranial melanoma xenografts in SCID mice after tail vein virus application. Sequence analysis of mutations in the melanomas used revealed that BRAF but not NRAS gene mutation status was predictive for enhanced susceptibility to infection. In mouse melanoma models with specific induced gene mutations including mutations of the Braf, Pten, and Cdkn2a genes, viral infection correlated with the extent of malignant transformation. Similar to human melanocytes, mouse melanocytes resisted VSV-rp30 infection. This study confirms the general susceptibility of the majority of human melanoma types for VSV-mediated oncolysis. PMID:23552414

  10. Vesicular stomatitis virus as an oncolytic agent against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrea M; Besmer, Dahlia M; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; Moestl, Natascha; Ornelles, David A; Mukherjee, Pinku; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2012-03-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a promising oncolytic agent against a variety of cancers. However, it has never been tested in any pancreatic cancer model. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most common and aggressive form of pancreatic cancer. In this study, the oncolytic potentials of several VSV variants were analyzed in a panel of 13 clinically relevant human PDA cell lines and compared to conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds), Sendai virus and respiratory syncytial virus. VSV variants showed oncolytic abilities superior to those of other viruses, and some cell lines that exhibited resistance to other viruses were successfully killed by VSV. However, PDA cells were highly heterogeneous in their susceptibility to virus-induced oncolysis, and several cell lines were resistant to all tested viruses. Resistant cells showed low levels of very early VSV RNA synthesis, indicating possible defects at initial stages of infection. In addition, unlike permissive PDA cell lines, most of the resistant cell lines were able to both produce and respond to interferon, suggesting that intact type I interferon responses contributed to their resistance phenotype. Four cell lines that varied in their permissiveness to VSV-ΔM51 and CRAd dl1520 were tested in mice, and the in vivo results closely mimicked those in vitro. While our results demonstrate that VSV is a promising oncolytic agent against PDA, further studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance of some PDAs to oncolytic virotherapy.

  11. Repeatable population dynamics among vesicular stomatitis virus lineages evolved under high co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S.C.P. Williams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and hosts can experience oscillatory cycles, where the densities of these interacting species dynamically fluctuate through time. Viruses with different replication strategies can also interact to produce cyclical dynamics. Frequent cellular co-infection can select for defective-interfering particles (DIPs: cheater viruses with shortened genomes that interfere with intracellular replication of full-length (ordinary viruses. DIPs are positively selected when rare because they out-replicate ordinary viruses during co-infection, but DIPs are negatively selected when common because ordinary viruses become unavailable for intracellular exploitation via cheating. Here we tested whether oscillatory dynamics of ordinary viruses were similar across independently evolved populations of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. Results showed identical cyclical dynamics across populations in the first 10 experimental passages, which transitioned to repeatable dampened oscillations by passage 20. Genomic analyses revealed parallel molecular substitutions across populations, particularly novel mutations that became dominant by passage 10. Our study showed that oscillatory dynamics and molecular evolution of interacting viruses were highly repeatable in VSV populations passaged under frequent co-infection. Furthermore, our data suggested that frequent co-infection with DIPs caused lowered performance of full-length viruses, by reducing their population densities by orders of magnitude compared to reproduction of ordinary viruses during strictly clonal infections.

  12. Vesicular stomatitis virus variants selectively infect and kill human melanomas but not normal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Davis, John N; Bosenberg, Marcus W; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2013-06-01

    Metastatic malignant melanoma remains one of the most therapeutically challenging forms of cancer. Here we test replication-competent vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) on 19 primary human melanoma samples and compare these infections with those of normal human melanocyte control cells. Even at a low viral concentration, we found a strong susceptibility to viral oncolysis in over 70% of melanomas. In contrast, melanocytes displayed strong resistance to virus infection and showed complete protection by interferon. Several recombinant VSVs were compared, and all infected and killed most melanomas with differences in the time course with increasing rates of melanoma infection, as follows: VSV-CT9-M51 VSV-M51 VSV-G/GFP VSV-rp30. VSV-rp30 sequencing revealed 2 nonsynonymous mutations at codon positions P126 and L223, both of which appear to be required for the enhanced phenotype. VSV-rp30 showed effective targeting and infection of multiple subcutaneous and intracranial melanoma xenografts in SCID mice after tail vein virus application. Sequence analysis of mutations in the melanomas used revealed that BRAF but not NRAS gene mutation status was predictive for enhanced susceptibility to infection. In mouse melanoma models with specific induced gene mutations including mutations of the Braf, Pten, and Cdkn2a genes, viral infection correlated with the extent of malignant transformation. Similar to human melanocytes, mouse melanocytes resisted VSV-rp30 infection. This study confirms the general susceptibility of the majority of human melanoma types for VSV-mediated oncolysis.

  13. Preimplantation bovine embryos: Pathobiology of Haemophilus somnus exposure and resistance mechanisms to vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Preimplantation bovine embryos were exposed in vitro to H. somnus to determine if the bacteria would adhere to zona pellucida-intact (ZP-I) embryos or adhere to or infect ZP-free embryos. The effect of H. somnus on embryonic development in vitro was also investigated. Electrophoretic comparisons of outer membrane proteins of H. somnus revealed 2 major protein bands common to 10 H. somnus isolates. A monoclonal antibody produced against the outer membrane proteins reacted to one of the major protein bands. The sensitivity of a nucleic acid probe for detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was validated in cells in culture and used to determine if the synthetic double-stranded complex of polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidylic acids (poly I:C) would induce viral resistance in cultured bovine embryos. Two {sup 32}P-nick translated probes of high specific activity prepared from plasmids containing nucleic acid sequences of VSV virus were employed for viral mRNA detection in the tissue culture cells using a DNA-hybridization dot-blot technique. Using one of the probes, the technique was applied to detect differences in viral replication between four groups of bovine embryos (nonexposed, exposed to VSV virus, poly I:C-treated, and poly I:C-treated and exposed to VSV). The nucleic acid probe was sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in quantities of VSV mRNA among embryo treatment groups, resulting in the demonstration that resistance to viral infection was induced in day 9 bovine embryos.

  14. Recent advances in vesicular stomatitis virus-based oncolytic virotherapy: a 5-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Sébastien A; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2017-11-16

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anti-cancer approach that uses viruses that preferentially infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) is an OV that is currently being tested in the USA in several phase I clinical trials against different malignancies. Several factors make VSV a promising OV: lack of pre-existing human immunity against VSV, a small and easy to manipulate genome, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host cell transformation, independence of cell cycle and rapid growth to high titres in a broad range of cell lines facilitating large-scale virus production. While significant advances have been made in VSV-based OV therapy, room for improvement remains. Here we review recent studies (published in the last 5 years) that address 'old' and 'new' challenges of VSV-based OV therapy. These studies focused on improving VSV safety, oncoselectivity and oncotoxicity; breaking resistance of some cancers to VSV; preventing premature clearance of VSV; and stimulating tumour-specific immunity. Many of these approaches were based on combining VSV with other therapeutics. This review also discusses another rhabdovirus closely related to VSV, Maraba virus, which is currently being tested in Canada in phase I/II clinical trials.

  15. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A.; Beier, Kevin T.; Pan, Y. Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Wark, Abigail R.; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV‐G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV‐G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1639–1663, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25688551

  16. Induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Sébastien A; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan J; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2015-01-01

    Effective oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is dependent on the ability of replication-competent viruses to kill infected cancer cells. We previously showed that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines are highly heterogeneous in their permissiveness to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), in part due to differences in type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Here, using 10 human PDAC cell lines and three different VSV recombinants (expressing ΔM51 or wild type matrix protein), we examined cellular and viral factors affecting VSV-mediated apoptosis activation in PDACs. In most cell lines, VSVs activated both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and VSV-ΔM51 primarily activated the type II extrinsic pathway. In cells with defective IFN signaling, all VSV recombinants induced robust apoptosis, whereas VSV-ΔM51 was a more effective apoptosis activator in PDACs with virus-inducible IFN signaling. Three cell lines constitutively expressing high levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were resistant to apoptosis under most experimental conditions, even when VSV replication levels were dramatically increased by Jak inhibitor I treatment. Two of these cell lines also poorly activated apoptosis when treated with Fas activating antibody, suggesting a general defect in apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Durability of a vesicular stomatitis virus-based marburg virus vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus (MARV and Ebola virus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. A promising filovirus vaccine under development is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses individual filovirus glycoproteins (GPs in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. These vaccines have shown 100% efficacy against filovirus infection in nonhuman primates when challenge occurs 28-35 days after a single injection immunization. Here, we examined the ability of a rVSV MARV-GP vaccine to provide protection when challenge occurs more than a year after vaccination. Cynomolgus macaques were immunized with rVSV-MARV-GP and challenged with MARV approximately 14 months after vaccination. Immunization resulted in the vaccine cohort of six animals having anti-MARV GP IgG throughout the pre-challenge period. Following MARV challenge none of the vaccinated animals showed any signs of clinical disease or viremia and all were completely protected from MARV infection. Two unvaccinated control animals exhibited signs consistent with MARV infection and both succumbed. Importantly, these data are the first to show 100% protective efficacy against any high dose filovirus challenge beyond 8 weeks after final vaccination. These findings demonstrate the durability of VSV-based filovirus vaccines.

  18. Triptolide-mediated inhibition of interferon signaling enhances vesicular stomatitis virus-based oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yebdri, Fethia; Van Grevenynghe, Julien; Tang, Vera A; Goulet, Marie-Line; Wu, Jian Hui; Stojdl, David F; Hiscott, John; Lin, Rongtuan

    2013-11-01

    Preclinical and clinical trials demonstrated that use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) is a promising new therapeutic approach to treat multiple types of cancer. To further improve their viral oncolysis, experimental strategies are now combining OVs with different cytotoxic compounds. In this study, we investigated the capacity of triptolide - a natural anticancer molecule - to enhance vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) oncolysis in OV-resistant cancer cells. Triptolide treatment increased VSV replication in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 and in other VSV-resistant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, triptolide (TPL) inhibited the innate antiviral response by blocking type I interferon (IFN) signaling, downstream of IRF3 activation. Furthermore, triptolide-enhanced VSV-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion in VSV-resistant cells, as measured by annexin-V, cleaved caspase-3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 staining. In vivo, using the TSA mammary adenocarcinoma and PC3 mouse xenograft models, combination treatment with VSV and triptolide delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing animals by enhancing viral replication. Together, these results demonstrate that triptolide inhibition of IFN production sensitizes prostate cancer cells to VSV replication and virus-mediated apoptosis.

  19. Tubular-vesicular transformation in the contractile vacuole system of Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Günther; Heuser, John; Clarke, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    The contractile vacuole complex of Dictyostelium is the paradigm of a membrane system that undergoes tubular-vesicular transitions during its regular cycle of activities. This system acts as an osmoregulatory organelle in freshwater amoebae and protozoa. It collects fluid in a network of tubules and cisternae, and pumps it out of the cell through transient pores in the plasma membrane. Tubules and vacuoles are interconvertible. The tubular channels are associated with the cortical actin network and are capable of moving and fusing. The contractile vacuole complex is separate from vesicles of the endosomal pathway and preserves its identity in a dispersed state during cell division. We outline techniques to visualize the contractile vacuole system by electron and light microscopy. Emphasis is placed on GFP-fusion proteins that allow visualization of the dynamics of the contractile vacuole network in living cells. Proteins that control activities of this specialized organelle in Dictyostelium have been conserved during evolution and also regulate membrane trafficking in man.

  20. Spatial transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease virus in the 2006-2007 epidemic in Lombardy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nassuato

    Full Text Available In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV. In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area.

  1. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. Vesicles and ulcerations can also occur on the mammary gland. Recovery in adult animals usually occurs in 8-15 days. Clinical signs for most serotypes are less dramatic in sheep and goats. Swine can develop very severe coronary band lesions and high mortality in piglets has been observed. One of the challenges of diagnosing FMD is that it may be clinically similar to several other vesicular or ulcerative diseases. FMD is clinically indistinguishable from Vesicular stomatitis, Swine vesicular disease and Vesicular exanthema of swine. It may also resemble Bovine viral diarrhea, Mucosal disease, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Bluetongue, Bovine papular stomatitis, Bovine mammillitis and Rinderpest.

  2. N-Myc expression enhances the oncolytic effects of vesicular stomatitis virus in human neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Corredor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available N-myc oncogene amplification is associated but not present in all cases of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB. Since oncogene expression could often modulate sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, we wanted to examine if N-myc expression status would determine virotherapy efficacy to high-risk NB. We showed that induction of exogenous N-myc in a non-N-myc-amplified cell line background (TET-21N increased susceptibility to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (mutant VSVδM51 and alleviated the type I IFN-induced antiviral state. Cells with basal N-myc, on the other hand, were less susceptible to virus-induced oncolysis and established a robust IFN-mediated antiviral state. The same effects were also observed in NB cell lines with and without N-myc amplification. Microarray analysis showed that N-myc overexpression in TET-21N cells downregulated IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs with known antiviral functions. Furthermore, virus infection caused significant changes in global gene expression in TET-21N cells overexpressing N-myc. Such changes involved ISGs with various functions. Therefore, the present study showed that augmented susceptibility to VSVδM51 by N-myc at least involves downregulation of ISGs with antiviral functions and alleviation of the IFN-stimulated antiviral state. Our studies suggest the potential utility of N-myc amplification/overexpression as a predictive biomarker of virotherapy response for high-risk NB using IFN-sensitive oncolytic viruses.

  3. Arbuscules of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabit an acidic compartment within plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberger, M

    2000-08-01

    The most widespread type of mycorrhiza is the so-called vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this endomycorrhiza, fungal hyphae penetrate plant cell walls in the root cortex. There they form densely branched arbuscules. Fungus and plant plasma membrane are separated by a common interfacial apoplast. The pH of the compartment between the symbionts is of pivotal importance for nutrient transfer. Histochemical experiments were conducted to check for an acidic nature of the interface in the model system Glomus versiforme (Karst.) Berch-Allium porrum L. Two chemically different acidotropic dyes (neutral red and LysoSensor Green DND-189) stained the arbuscules intensely. The staining of arbuscules could be eliminated by addition of the protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or treatments leading to membrane rupture. Therefore, the staining of the arbuscules was based on the ion-trap mechanism, which indicates acidic, membrane-bound compartments. Microscopic examination of stained arbuscules at high optical resolution revealed a peripheral accumulation of the dye. Since plasmolysis rapidly destained the arbuscules, it is concluded that the dyes accumulate in the arbuscular interface, indicating the highly acidic nature of this compartment. The findings are discussed with respect to their relevance for the nutrient transfer in mycorrhizas. In addition, evidence for a discontinuity in the arbuscular interface between the stem and the branches of the arbuscule is given.

  4. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyaluk Limsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of −34.19±0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  5. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, Tunyaluk; Boonme, Prapaporn; Khongkow, Pasarat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn

    2017-01-01

    Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR) were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of -34.19 ± 0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  6. Ethosomes - novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, E; Dayan, N; Bergelson, L; Godin, B; Eliaz, M

    2000-04-03

    This work describes a novel carrier for enhanced skin delivery, the ethosomal system, which is composed of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomal systems were much more efficient at delivering a fluorescent probe to the skin in terms of quantity and depth, than either liposomes or hydroalcoholic solution. The ethosomal system dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of minoxidil in vitro compared with either ethanolic or hydroethanolic solution or phospholipid ethanolic micellar solution of minoxidil. In addition, the transdermal delivery of testosterone from an ethosomal patch was greater both in vitro and in vivo than from commercially available patches. Skin permeation of ethosomal components, ethanol and phospholipid, was demonstrated in diffusion-cell experiments. Ethosomal systems composed of soy phosphatidylcholine 2%, ethanol 30% and water were shown by electron microscopy to contain multilamellar vesicles. 31P-NMR studies confirmed the bilayer configuration of the lipids. Calorimetry and fluorescence measurements suggested that the vesicular bilayers are flexible, having a relatively low T(m) and fluorescence anisotropy compared with liposomes obtained in the absence of ethanol. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that ethanol imparted a negative charge to the vesicles. The average vesicle size, as measured by dynamic light scattering, was modulated by altering the ethosome composition. Experiments using fluorescent probes and ultracentrifugation showed that the ethosomes had a high entrapment capacity for molecules of various lyophilicities.

  7. Reconstruction of aperture functions during full fusion in vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatore, Christian; Oleinick, Alexander I; Svir, Irina

    2010-01-18

    Individual vesicular exocytosis of adrenaline by dense core vesicles in chromaffin cells is considered here as a paradigm of many situations encountered in biology, nanosciences and drug delivery in which a spherical container releases in the external environment through gradual uncovering of its surface. A procedure for extracting the aperture (opening) function of a biological vesicle fusing with a cell membrane from the released molecular flux of neurotransmitter as monitored by amperometry has been devised based on semi-analytical expressions derived in a former work [C. Amatore, A. I. Oleinick, I. Svir, ChemPhysChem 2009, 10, DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200900646]. This precise analysis shows that in the absence of direct information about the radius of the vesicle or about the concentration of the adrenaline cation stored by the vesicle matrix, current spikes do not contain enough information to determine the maximum aperture angle. Yet, a statistical analysis establishes that this maximum aperture angle is most probably less than a few tens of degrees, which suggests that full fusion is a very improbable event.

  8. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  9. Pesquisaje de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Yera Abreus

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio de frecuencia de litiasis vesicular en un sector de población supuestamente sana, en el que se encontró una frecuencia de la afección de un 6,2 %, el predominio de las personas de la raza blanca sobre las de la raza negra fue de sólo 1,8:1; la afección es mucho más frecuente en el sexo femenino que en el masculino (proporción de 9:1 y en personas mayores de 40 años (60 % con sobrepeso u obesas (85 %, y puede cursar de forma totalmente asintomática en el 50 % de los casos.A study of the frequency of vasicular lithiasis in an apparently sound sector of the population was conducted. It was found a frequency of affection of 6.2%. The predominance of the white race over the black one was just 1.8:1. This affection is much more common in the females than in the males (proportion 9:1, and among individuals over 40 (60%, who are overweight or obese (85%. It may be completely asymptomatic in 50% of the cases.

  10. Factors influencing survival of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza propagules during topsoil storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Moorman, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    The survival dynamics of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were determined, (using a bioassay procedure) for soils stored from 0.5 to 6.0 years in topsoil stockpiles associated with a coal surface-mine in the western United States. Propagule mortality could best be related to in situ soil moisture potential using a piecewise regression model (R/sup 2/ = 0.57; P less than or equal to 0.001) with the breaking point occurring at -2 MPa. The addition of length of storage time was found to contribute significantly to the accuracy of the model (R/sup 2/ = 0.70; P less than or equal to 0.001). In addition, the piece-wise nature of the data suggested two separate populations of VAM fungi - those propagules found in soils with moisture potentials less than -2 MPa and those occurring in soils with moisture potentials greater than -2 MPa. Soil moisture and length of storage time had differing effects on each of these populations. When water potential was less than -2 MPa, moisture was an important predictor of inoculum (P < 0.001), while length of storage had little predictive capability (P = 0.17). However, when water potentials were greater than -2 MPa, the predictive importance of soil moisture (P = 0.86) and length of storage (P = 0.04) were reversed. The significance of these findings to topsoil replacement and subsequent plant community development are discussed. 28 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Fabrication of Photofunctional Nanoporous Membrane and Its Photoinactivation Effect of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kyun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl-porphyrin] platinum. PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.

  12. Formation and Stability of Prebiotically Relevant Vesicular Systems in Terrestrial Geothermal Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manesh Prakash; Samanta, Anupam; Tripathy, Gyana Ranjan; Rajamani, Sudha

    2017-11-30

    Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simulated laboratory conditions and in hot spring water samples (collected from Ladakh, India, an Astrobiologically relevant site). Combinations of prebiotically pertinent fatty acids and their derivatives were evaluated for the formation of vesicles in aforesaid scenarios. Additionally, the stability of these vesicles was characterized over multiple dehydration-rehydration cycles, at elevated temperatures. Among the combinations that were tested, mixtures of fatty acid and its glycerol derivatives were found to be the most robust, also resulting in vesicles in all of the hot spring waters that were tested. Importantly, these vesicles were stable at high temperatures, and this fatty acid system retained its vesicle forming propensity, even after multiple cycles of dehydration-rehydration. The remaining systems, however, formed vesicles only in bicine buffer. Our results suggest that certain prebiotic compartments would have had a selective advantage in terrestrial geothermal niches. Significantly, our study highlights the importance of validating results that are obtained under 'buffered' laboratory conditions, by verifying their plausibility in prebiotically analogous environments.

  13. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vera Lúcia dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM and ectomycorrhizae (ECM in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per. Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonization increased followed by a decrease in AM. Pisolithus tinctorius was favored in simultaneous inoculation with G. etunicatum, and the positive effect of the simultaneous inoculation of both fungi in the percent colonization by the AM fungus occurred up to 60 days after inoculation. After 120 days, colonization of roots by G. etunicatum decreased in the presence of P. tinctorius. When inoculated simultaneously, the proportion of AM and ECM varied with evaluation time, while the combined percentage of mycorrhizal roots approached the maximum and remained more or less constant after 60 days, suggesting that there could be competition between the fungi for limiting substrate. The maximum percent mycorrhizal colonization varied with Eucalyptus species and the highest value was observed for E. camaldulensis, followed in order by E. citriodora, E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. cloeziana.

  14. Seasonality of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in sedges in a semi-arid tropical grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, T.; Udaiyan, K.

    2002-10-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of Cyperus iria L. and C. rotundus L., growing in a semi-arid tropical grassland, was studied during the 1993 and 1994 monsoons. In addition, climatic and chemical properties of the soils were determined in order to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. VAM fungal association in the sedges was confirmed by plant- and root-trap culture techniques. The soil nutrients exhibited seasonal variations, but were highly variable between years. Intercellular hyphae and vesicles with occasional intraradical spores characterized mycorrhizal association in sedges. Dark septate fungi also colonized roots of sedges. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. However, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization and spore numbers were different during both the years. The VAM fungal structures observed were intercellular hyphae and vesicles. Changes in the proportion of root length with VAM structures, total colonization levels and spore numbers were related to climatic and edaphic factors. However, the intensity of influence of climatic and soil factors on VAM tended to vary with sedge species.

  15. EFFECTS OF CORN CULTIVAR-TILLAGE SYSTEM COMBINATION ON VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo .

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh kombinasi  varietas jagung dan sistem olah tanah terhadap mikorisa vesikular arbuskular.  Penelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh kombinasi sistem olah tanah dan varietas terhadap  populasi mikorisa vesikular arbuskular. Penelitian juga ditujukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kombinasi varietas jagung dan sistem olah tanah terhadap infeksi mikorisa vesicular arbuskular. Penelitian terdiri atas enam perlakuan yang disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok. Perlakuan tersebut adalah varietas RR yang ditanam pada sistem olah tanah konservasi  (RRCT, varietas C7 yang ditanam pada sistem olah tanah konservasi (C7CT, varietas Bisma ditanam pada sistem olah tanah konservasi (BCT, varietas RR ditanam pada sistem olah tanah sempurna (RRFT, varietas C7 yang ditanam pada sistem olah tanah sempurna (C7FT, dan varietas Bisma ditanam pada sistem olah tanah sempurna (BFT. Hasil penelitian pada sistem olah tanah konservasi  menunjukkan bahwa varietas RR dan C7 secara nyata dapat menurunkan infeksi mikorisa dibandingkan dengan varietas Bisma. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa pada varietas RR dan C7, olah tanah konservasi secara nyata menurunkan infeksi mikorisa dibandingkan dengan sistem olah tanah sempurna.

  16. Survey of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in lettuce production in relation to management and soil factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Jackson, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) root colonization and spore number in soil was assessed for 18 fields under intensive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in California during July and August of 1995. Data on management practices and soil characteristics were compiled for each field, and included a wide range of conditions. The relationship between these factors and the occurrence of VAM in these fields was explored with multivariate statistical analysis. VAM colonization of lettuce tended to decrease with the use of chemical inputs, such as pesticides and high amounts of P and N fertilizers. Addition of soil organic matter amendments, the occurrence of other host crops in the rotation, and soil carbon:phosphorus and carbon:nitrogen ratios, were positively associated with VAM colonization of lettuce roots. The number of VAM spores in soil was strongly correlated with the number of other host crops in the rotation, the occurrence of weed hosts and sampling date, but was more affected by general soil conditions than by management inputs. Higher total soil N, C and P, as well as CEC, were inversely related to soil spore number. A glasshouse study of the two primary lettuce types sampled in the field showed no significant differences in the extent of root colonization under similar growing conditions. The results of this study are compared with other studies on the effects of management and soil conditions on mycorrhizal occurrence in agriculture.

  17. Vesicular stomatitis virus as a flexible platform for oncolytic virotherapy against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2012-12-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an emerging anti-cancer approach that utilizes viruses to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while not harming healthy cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus with inherent OV qualities. Antiviral responses induced by type I interferon pathways are believed to be impaired in most cancer cells, making them more susceptible to VSV than normal cells. Several other factors make VSV a promising OV candidate for clinical use, including its well-studied biology, a small, easily manipulated genome, relative independence of a receptor or cell cycle, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host-cell transformation, and lack of pre-existing immunity in humans. Moreover, various VSV-based recombinant viruses have been engineered via reverse genetics to improve oncoselectivity, safety, oncotoxicity and stimulation of tumour-specific immunity. Alternative delivery methods are also being studied to minimize premature immune clearance of VSV. OV treatment as a monotherapy is being explored, although many studies have employed VSV in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other OVs. Preclinical studies with various cancers have demonstrated that VSV is a promising OV; as a result, a human clinical trial using VSV is currently in progress.

  18. Ostwald ripening growth mechanism of gold nanotriangles in vesicular template phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Ferenc; Thunemann, Andreas F; Koetz, Joachim

    2016-10-03

    The mechanism of nanotriangle formation in multivesicular vesicles (MMV) is investigated by using time dependent SAXS measurements in combination with UV-vis spectroscopy, light and transmission electron microscopy. In the first time period 6.5 nm sized spherical gold nanoparticles are formed inside of the vesicles, which build up soft nanoparticle aggregates. In situ SAXS experiments show a linear increase of the volume and molar mass of nanotriangles in the second time period. The volume growth rate of the triangles is 16.1 nm3/min and the growth rate in vertical direction only 0.02 nm/min. Therefore, flat nanotriangles with a thickness of 7 nm and diameters of 23 nm are formed. This process can be described by a diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening growth mechanism. TEM micrographs visualize soft coral-like structures with thin nanoplatelets at the periphery of the aggregates, which disaggregate in the third time period into nanotriangles and spherical particles. The 16 times faster growth of nanotriangles in lateral than that in vertical direction is related to the adsorption of symmetry breaking components, i.e., AOT and the polyampholyte PalPhBisCarb, on the {111} facets of the gold nanoplatelets in combination with confinement effects of the vesicular template phase.

  19. A Conserved Salt Bridge between Transmembrane Segment 1 and 10 Constitutes an Extracellular Gate in the Dopamine Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Vingborg; Andreassen, Thorvald Faurschou; Løland, Claus Juul

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play an important role in termination of synaptic transmission by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitter, but the molecular processes behind translocation are still unclear. The crystal structures of the bacterial homologue, LeuT, provided valuable insight into the s....../E493R) in the serotonin transporter also rescues [(3)H](S)-citalopram binding, suggesting a conserved feature. Taken together, these data suggest that the extracellular thin gate is present in monoamine transporters and that a dynamic interaction is required for substrate transport....

  20. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  1. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Uwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance. However, profiles (as presented here of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dysfunctions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased

  2. Antidepressant-like effects of Gan-Mai-Dazao-Tang via monoamine regulatory pathways on forced swimming test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ling Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a highly prevalent and recurrent mental disorder that impacts all aspects of human life. Undesirable effects of the antidepressant drugs led to the development of complementary and alternative therapies. Gan-Mai-Da-Zao-Tang (甘麥大棗湯, gān mài dà zǎo tang is a traditional herbal formula commonly used for the treatment of depression, but lack of scientific proof on its mechanism. It consisted of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (licorice, Triticum aestivum L. (wheat and Zizphus jujuba Mill. (jujube. The objective of this study is to investigate the antidepressant effects of Gan-Mai-Dazao-Tang and its ingredients in rats exposed to forced swimming test (FST. The 72 of male Nerl: Wistar rats (8 weeks old were randomized into control (10 mL/kg bw H2O, licorice (0.4 g/kg bw, wheat (1.6 g/kg bw, jujube (0.5 g/kg bw, Gan-Mai-Da-Zao-Tang (2.5 g/kg bw of licorice: wheat: jujube in ratio of 5:20:6 and Prozac (18 mg/kg bw groups. Samples were administered by oral gavage for 21 days. FST was performed on 21st day, with 15 min for pretest followed by 5 min for real test. Then, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected for monoamines analyses. The Gan-Mai-Da-Zao-Tang (LWJ showed significantly down-regulation of immobility time, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC and DOPAC/dopamine (DA turnover rates, and also enhanced the concentration of serotonin (5-HT and DA in brain tissues, as compared with the control. The LWJ stated the potent antidepressant-like effect by modulating these monoamines concentration, while the licorice, wheat and jujube did not reported significant results as compared with control group. The positive control (Prozac was noted with significantly reduction in body weight and appetite. In conclusion, the antidepressant-like effects of LWJ might be mediated by the regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, it could beneficial in depression treatment as a complementary approach.

  3. Effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on monoamine neurotransmitters, cerebral blood flow and hemorheology in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Xun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on monoamine neurotransmitters, cerebral blood flow and hemorheology in children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A total of 83 children with cerebral palsy were divided into the control group (n=42 and the observation group (n=41 according to the random data table, patients in the control group were treated with routine rehabilitation treatment, on this basis; the children in the observation group were treated with low-frequency electric stimulation. Before and after the treatment, the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter [dopamine (DA and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE], cerebral blood flow [the average blood flow velocity of anterior cerebral artery (ACA, middle cerebral artery (MCA and posterior cerebral artery (PCA] and blood rheology index [high/low shear whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen (FIB] of two groups were compared. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference of the levels of DA, 5-HT, NE, the average blood flow velocity of ACA/MCA/PCA, high/low shear whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and FIB between the two groups. After treatment, two groups of DA, 5-HT and NE levels were significantly higher than those in the same group before treatment, and the observation group of DA, 5-HT and NE levels were significantly higher than those of the control group, the difference was statistically significant; The average blood flow rate of ACA/MCA/PCA in the observation group after treatment was significantly higher than those in the same group before treatment; After treatment, the levels of high shear/low shear blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and FIB of the two groups were significantly lower than those in the same group before treatment, and the levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion

  4. Chikungunya, Influenza, Nipah, and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Mao, Guochao; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Rose, John K; Davis, John N

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein (G) gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain, including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya (CHIKV), and influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene. We also test a virus-like vesicle (VLV) in which the VSV glycoprotein gene is expressed from a replicon encoding the nonstructural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV were all safe in the adult mouse brain, as were VSVΔG viruses expressing either the Nipah F or G glycoprotein. In contrast, a complementing pair of VSVΔG viruses expressing Nipah G and F glycoproteins were lethal within the brain within a surprisingly short time frame of 2 days. Intranasal inoculation in postnatal day 14 mice with VSVΔG-CHIKV or VLV evoked no adverse response, whereas VSVΔG-H5N1 by this route was lethal in most mice. A key immune mechanism underlying the safety of VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV in the adult brain was the type I interferon response; all three viruses were lethal in the brains of adult mice lacking the interferon receptor, suggesting that the viruses can infect and replicate and spread in brain cells if not blocked by interferon-stimulated genes within the brain.IMPORTANCE Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows considerable promise both as a vaccine vector and as an oncolytic virus. The greatest limitation of VSV is that it is highly neurotropic and can be lethal within the brain. The neurotropism can be mostly attributed to the VSV G glycoprotein. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses of VSV with glycoprotein genes from Nipah

  5. mRNA cap methylation influences pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanmei; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui; Zhu, Yang; Shilo, Konstantin; Oglesbee, Michael; Krakowka, Steven; Whelan, Sean P J; Li, Jianrong

    2014-03-01

    One role of mRNA cap guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) methylation is to facilitate the efficient translation of mRNA. The role of mRNA cap ribose 2'-O methylation is enigmatic, although recent work has implicated this as a signature to avoid detection of RNA by the innate immune system (S. Daffis, K. J. Szretter, J. Schriewer, J. Q. Li, S. Youn, J. Errett, T. Y. Lin, S. Schneller, R. Zust, H. P. Dong, V. Thiel, G. C. Sen, V. Fensterl, W. B. Klimstra, T. C. Pierson, R. M. Buller, M. Gale, P. Y. Shi, M. S. Diamond, Nature 468:452-456, 2010, doi:10.1038/nature09489). Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we previously showed that a panel of recombinant VSVs carrying mutations at a predicted methyltransferase catalytic site (rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site (rVSV-G1670A, -G1672A, and -G4A) were defective in cap methylation and were also attenuated for growth in cell culture. Here, we analyzed the virulence of these recombinants in mice. We found that rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q, which are defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, were highly attenuated in mice. All three viruses elicited a high level of neutralizing antibody and provided full protection against challenge with the virulent VSV. In contrast, mice inoculated with rVSV-G1670A and -G1672A, which are defective only in G-N-7 methylation, were attenuated in vivo yet retained a low level of virulence. rVSV-G4A, which is completely defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, also exhibited low virulence in mice despite the fact that productive viral replication was not detected in lung and brain. Taken together, our results suggest that abrogation of viral mRNA cap methylation can serve as an approach to attenuate VSV, and perhaps other nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, for potential application as vaccines and viral vectors. Nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses include a wide range of significant human, animal, and plant pathogens. For many

  6. Factores de riesgo en la litiasis vesicular: Estudio en pacientes colecistectomizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Romero Díaz

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo desde diciembre de 1991 hasta noviembre de 1997, en 276 pacientes ingresados e intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular. Dichos pacientes se intervinieron por nuestro grupo básico de trabajo y en su mayoría eran remitidos por médicos de la familia graduados en nuestra facultad. Se clasificaron los cálculos en pigmentarios y de colesterol según sus características macroscópicas al corte, y se realizó una encuesta con los posibles factores de riesgos. Predominaron los cálculos de colesterol (76,1 % sobre los pigmentarios, y existió predominio del sexo femenino sobre el masculino en relación de 4:1. El diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular se efectuó con mayor frecuencia en la cuarta y quinta décadas de la vida, mientras los pigmentarios se observaron con mayor frecuencia en edades más avanzadas. La obesidad (39,5 %, la diabetes mellitus (19,5 % y la paridad (31,8 % constituyeron los principales factores de riesgo, por lo que se deberá tomar en cuenta los antecedentes de litiasis en familiares de primera línea y la ingestión de anticonceptivos orales. En los estados hemolíticos predominaron los cálculos pigmentarios y se demostró la relación de las hiperlipoproteinemias de las fracciones IIb y IV con la colelitiasis. Sólo el 34,5 % de los bilicultivos realizados tuvieron crecimiento bacteriano, y fueron la Escherichia coli y el estreptococo los más aisladosA prospective study of 276 patients admitted and operated on with the diagnosis of cholelithiasis was conducted from December, 1991, to November, 1997. These patients were operated on by our basic working group and most of them were referred by family physicians graduated in our Faculty. Gallstones were classified into pigment gallstones and cholesterol gallstones according to their macroscopic characteristics on cutting. A survey was done with the possible risk factors. Cholesterol gallstones (76

  7. Singleton reactors in the diagnosis of swine vesicular disease: the role of coxsackievirus B5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, P; Van Poelwijk, F; Moormann, R; Dekker, A

    2000-10-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus (CVB5) are closely related viruses that can infect swine and man and give rise to cross-reacting serum antibodies. It is, therefore, possible that SVD antibodies found in serologic screenings of pigs are induced by CVB5. Single positive animals found in screening programmes are generally referred to as singleton reactors (SR). To determine whether SR in SVDV screenings are induced by CVB5 infection, virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) and radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPA) were carried out on sera of SR, sera of pigs experimentally infected with SVDV, and sera from pigs vaccinated with CVB5 isolates. The SR sera reacted repeatedly positive in the SVDV UKG/27/72 VNT, but reacted differently in three other VNTs (SVDV NET/1/92, CVB5A, and CVB5B). The VNT titres obtained with the SR sera revealed a correlation between both SVDV strains, and also between both CVB5 stains, but no correlation was found between SVD and CVB5 VNT titres. Sera of experimentally infected (SVDV) or vaccinated (CVB5) pigs showed titres in all four neutralisation tests. In the RIPA, the reaction patterns of the SR sera varied considerably with all four antigens used, in contrast to sera from pigs experimentally infected with SVDV that reacted with all antigens used, and sera from pigs vaccinated with CVB5 that reacted only with CVB5 antigens. The results presented in this paper show that neither CVB5 nor SVDV infections are the only cause of the SR phenomenon. Testing for CVB5 specific antibodies can reduce the number of SR sera in the serodiagnosis of SVDV.

  8. Highly Attenuated Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus VSV-12′GFP Displays Immunogenic and Oncolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown considerable promise both as an immunization vector and as an oncolytic virus. In both applications, an important concern is the safety profile of the virus. To generate a highly attenuated virus, we added two reporter genes to the 3′ end of the VSV genome, thereby shifting the NPMGL genes from positions 1 to 5 to positions 3 to 7. The resulting virus (VSV-12′GFP) was highly attenuated, generating smaller plaques than four other attenuated VSVs. In one-step growth curves, VSV-12′GFP displayed the slowest growth kinetics. The mechanism of attenuation appears to be due to reduced expression of VSV genes downstream of the reporter genes, as suggested by a 10.4-fold reduction in L-protein RNA transcript. Although attenuated, VSV-12′GFP was highly effective at generating an immune response, indicated by a high-titer antibody response against the green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed by the virus. Although VSV-12′GFP was more attenuated than other VSVs on both normal and cancer cells, it nonetheless showed a greater level of infection of human cancer cells (glioma and melanoma) than of normal cells, and this effect was magnified in glioma by interferon application, indicating selective oncolysis. Intravenous VSV-12′GFP selectively infected human gliomas implanted into SCID mice subcutaneously or intracranially. All postnatal day 16 mice given intranasal VSV-12′GFP survived, whereas only 10% of those given VSV-G/GFP survived, indicating reduced neurotoxicity. Intratumoral injection of tumors with VSV-12′GFP dramatically suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival. Together these data suggest this recombinant virus merits further study for its oncolytic and vaccine potential. PMID:23135719

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Attenuation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) by Phosphoprotein Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongthida, Phonphimon; Jengarn, Juggragarn; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Koonyosying, Pongpisid; Srisutthisamphan, Kanjana; Wanitchang, Asawin; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Teeravechyan, Samaporn; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is highly immunogenic and able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, its ability to induce adverse effects has held back the use of VSV as a potential vaccine vector. In this study we developed VSV-ΔP, a safe yet potent replication-defective recombinant VSV in which the phosphoprotein (P) gene was deleted. VSV-ΔP replicated only in supporting cells expressing P (BHK-P cells) and at levels more than 2 logs lower than VSV. In vivo studies indicated that the moderate replication of VSV-ΔP in vitro was associated with the attenuation of this virus in the mouse model, whereas mice intracranially injected with VSV succumbed to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, we constructed VSV and VSV-ΔP expressing a variety of antigens including hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), hemagglutinin (HA) from either a 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09) or the avian H7N9. VSV and VSV-ΔP incorporated the foreign antigens on their surface resulting in induction of robust neutralizing antibody, serum IgG, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers against their corresponding viruses. These results indicated that VSV with P gene deletion was attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and possibly expressed the foreign antigen on its surface. Therefore, the P gene-deletion strategy may offer a potentially useful and safer approach for attenuating negative-sense RNA viruses which use phosphoprotein as a cofactor for viral replication.

  10. Enhanced immunosurveillance for animal morbilliviruses using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; Dundon, William G; Diallo, Adama; Baron, Michael D; James Nyarobi, M; Cleaveland, Sarah; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-11-11

    The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of PPRV on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Serological responses against the four distinct lineages of PPRV could be measured simultaneously and cross-neutralising responses against other morbilliviruses compared. Using this approach, we observed that titres of neutralising antibodies induced by vaccination with live attenuated PPRV were lower than those induced by wild type virus infection and the level of cross-lineage neutralisation varied between vaccinates. By comparing neutralising responses from animals infected with either PPRV or RPV, we found that responses were highest against the homologous virus, indicating that retrospective analyses of serum samples could be used to confirm the nature of the original pathogen to which an animal had been exposed. Accordingly, when screening sera from domestic livestock and wild ruminants in Tanzania, we detected evidence of cross-species infection with PPRV, canine distemper virus (CDV) and a RPV-related bovine morbillivirus, suggesting that exposure to animal morbilliviruses may be more widespread than indicated previously using existing diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Determinants of Susceptibility to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackham, Aaron U; Northrup, Scott A; Willingham, Mark; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Russell, Greg B; Lyles, Douglas S; Stewart, John H

    2014-01-01

    Background M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis virus (M51R-VSV) has oncolytic properties against many cancers. However, some cancer cells are resistant to M51R-VSV. Herein, we evaluate the molecular determinants of VSV resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Cell viability and the effect of β-interferon (IFN) was analyzed using MTS assay. Gene expression was evaluated via microarray analysis. Cell infectability was measured by flow cytometry. Xenografts were established in athymic nude mice and treated with intratumoral M51R-VSV. Results Four of five pancreatic cancer cell lines were sensitive to M51R-VSV, while Panc03.27 cells remained resistant (81±3% viability 72-hours after single cycle infection). Comparing sensitive MiaPaCa2 to resistant Panc03.27 cells, significant differences in gene expression was found relating to IFN signaling (p=2×10-5), viral entry (p=3×10-4) and endocytosis (p=7×10-4). MiaPaCa2 cells permitted high levels of VSV infection, while Panc03.27 cells were capable of resisting VSV cell entry even at high MOIs. Extrinsic β-IFN overcame apparent defects in IFN-mediated pathways in MiaPaCa2 cells conferring VSV resistance. In contrast, β-IFN decreased cell viability in Panc3.27 cells suggesting intact anti-viral mechanisms. VSV treated xenografts exhibited reduced tumor growth relative to controls in both MiaPaCa2 (1423 ± 345% vs 164 ± 136%, pVSV treated Panc03.27 xenografts. Conclusions Inhibition of VSV endocytosis and intact IFN-mediated defenses are responsible for M51R-VSV resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. M51R-VSV treatment appears to induce anti-tumor cellular immunity in vivo which may expand its clinical efficacy. PMID:24252853

  12. Highly attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus VSV-12'GFP displays immunogenic and oncolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Davis, John N

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown considerable promise both as an immunization vector and as an oncolytic virus. In both applications, an important concern is the safety profile of the virus. To generate a highly attenuated virus, we added two reporter genes to the 3' end of the VSV genome, thereby shifting the NPMGL genes from positions 1 to 5 to positions 3 to 7. The resulting virus (VSV-12'GFP) was highly attenuated, generating smaller plaques than four other attenuated VSVs. In one-step growth curves, VSV-12'GFP displayed the slowest growth kinetics. The mechanism of attenuation appears to be due to reduced expression of VSV genes downstream of the reporter genes, as suggested by a 10.4-fold reduction in L-protein RNA transcript. Although attenuated, VSV-12'GFP was highly effective at generating an immune response, indicated by a high-titer antibody response against the green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed by the virus. Although VSV-12'GFP was more attenuated than other VSVs on both normal and cancer cells, it nonetheless showed a greater level of infection of human cancer cells (glioma and melanoma) than of normal cells, and this effect was magnified in glioma by interferon application, indicating selective oncolysis. Intravenous VSV-12'GFP selectively infected human gliomas implanted into SCID mice subcutaneously or intracranially. All postnatal day 16 mice given intranasal VSV-12'GFP survived, whereas only 10% of those given VSV-G/GFP survived, indicating reduced neurotoxicity. Intratumoral injection of tumors with VSV-12'GFP dramatically suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival. Together these data suggest this recombinant virus merits further study for its oncolytic and vaccine potential.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Attenuation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV by Phosphoprotein Deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phonphimon Wongthida

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is highly immunogenic and able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, its ability to induce adverse effects has held back the use of VSV as a potential vaccine vector. In this study we developed VSV-ΔP, a safe yet potent replication-defective recombinant VSV in which the phosphoprotein (P gene was deleted. VSV-ΔP replicated only in supporting cells expressing P (BHK-P cells and at levels more than 2 logs lower than VSV. In vivo studies indicated that the moderate replication of VSV-ΔP in vitro was associated with the attenuation of this virus in the mouse model, whereas mice intracranially injected with VSV succumbed to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, we constructed VSV and VSV-ΔP expressing a variety of antigens including hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN from Newcastle disease virus (NDV, hemagglutinin (HA from either a 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09 or the avian H7N9. VSV and VSV-ΔP incorporated the foreign antigens on their surface resulting in induction of robust neutralizing antibody, serum IgG, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI titers against their corresponding viruses. These results indicated that VSV with P gene deletion was attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and possibly expressed the foreign antigen on its surface. Therefore, the P gene-deletion strategy may offer a potentially useful and safer approach for attenuating negative-sense RNA viruses which use phosphoprotein as a cofactor for viral replication.

  14. Glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain sequences required for rescue of a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitt, M.A.; Chong, L.; Rose, J.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The authors have used transient expression of the wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G protein) from cloned cDNA to rescue a temperature-sensitive G protein mutant of VSV in cells at the nonpermissive temperature. Using cDNAs encoding G proteins with deletions in the normal 29-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain, they determined that the presence of either the membrane-proximal 9 amino acids or the membrane-distal 12 amino acids was sufficient for rescue of the temperature-sensitive mutant. G proteins with cytoplasmic domains derived from other cellular or viral G proteins did not rescue the mutant, nor did G proteins with one or three amino acids of the normal cytoplasmic domain. Rescue correlated directly with the ability of the G proteins to be incorporated into virus particles. This was shown by analysis of radiolabeled particles separated on sucrose gradients as well as by electron microscopy of rescued virus after immunogold labeling. Quantitation of surface expression showed that all of the mutated G proteins were expressed less efficiently on the cell surface than was wild-type G protein. However, they were able to correct for differences in rescue efficiency resulting from differences in the level of surface expression by reducing wild-type G protein expression to levels equivalent to those observed for the mutated G proteins. The results provide evidence that at least a portion of the cytoplasmic domain is required for efficient assembly of the VSV G protein into virions during virus budding.

  15. Mutations in the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus affect cytopathogenicity: potential for oncolytic virotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle, Valérie; Brassard, Frédérick; Lapierre, Pascal; Lamarre, Alain; Poliquin, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been widely used to characterize cellular processes, viral resistance, and cytopathogenicity. Recently, VSV has also been used for oncolytic virotherapy due to its capacity to selectively lyse tumor cells. Mutants of the matrix (M) protein of VSV have generally been preferred to the wild-type virus for oncolysis because of their ability to induce type I interferon (IFN) despite causing weaker cytopathic effects. However, due to the large variability of tumor types, it is quite clear that various approaches and combinations of multiple oncolytic viruses will be needed to effectively treat most cancers. With this in mind, our work focused on characterizing the cytopathogenic profiles of four replicative envelope glycoprotein (G) VSV mutants. In contrast to the prototypic M mutant, VSV G mutants are as efficient as wild-type virus at inhibiting cellular transcription and host protein translation. Despite being highly cytopathic, the mutant G(6R) triggers type I interferon secretion as efficiently as the M mutant. Importantly, most VSV G mutants are more effective at killing B16 and MC57 tumor cells in vitro than the M mutant or wild-type virus through apoptosis induction. Taken together, our results demonstrate that VSV G mutants retain the high cytopathogenicity of wild-type VSV, with G(6R) inducing type I IFN secretion at levels similar to that of the M mutant. VSV G protein mutants could therefore prove to be highly valuable for the development of novel oncolytic virotherapy strategies that are both safe and efficient for the treatment of various types of cancer.

  16. Resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus: role of type I interferon signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; Shah, Nirav R; Murphy, Andrea M; Hastie, Eric; Mukherjee, Pinku; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2013-02-05

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy takes advantage of common cancer characteristics, such as defective type I interferon (IFN) signaling, to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells with viruses. Our recent study (Murphy et al., 2012. J. Virol. 86, 3073-87) found human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells were highly heterogeneous in their permissiveness to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and suggested at least some resistant cell lines retained functional type I IFN responses. Here we examine cellular responses to infection by the oncolytic VSV recombinant VSV-ΔM51-GFP by analyzing a panel of 11 human PDA cell lines for expression of 33 genes associated with type I IFN pathways. Although all cell lines sensed infection by VSV-ΔM51-GFP and most activated IFN-α and β expression, only resistant cell lines displayed constitutive high-level expression of the IFN-stimulated antiviral genes MxA and OAS. Inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling decreased levels of MxA and OAS and increased VSV infection, replication and oncolysis, further implicating IFN responses in resistance. Unlike VSV, vaccinia and herpes simplex virus infectivity and killing of PDA cells was independent of the type I IFN signaling profile, possibly because these two viruses are better equipped to evade type I IFN responses. Our study demonstrates heterogeneity in the type I IFN signaling status of PDA cells and suggests MxA and OAS as potential biomarkers for PDA resistance to VSV and other OVs sensitive to type I IFN responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Type III interferon attenuates a vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Ryann C; Reynolds, Tracy D; Wei, Xin; Fujiwara, Mai; Robek, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been extensively studied as a vaccine vector and oncolytic agent. Nevertheless, safety concerns have limited its widespread use in humans. The type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) family of cytokines shares common signaling pathways with the IFN-α/β family and thus evokes similar antiviral activities. However, IFN-λ signals through a distinct receptor complex that is expressed in a cell type-specific manner, which restricts its activity to epithelial barriers, particularly those corresponding to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, we determined how IFN-λ expression from recombinant VSV would influence vector replication, spread, and immunogenicity. We demonstrate that IFN-λ expression severely attenuates VSV in cell culture. In vivo, IFN-λ limits VSV replication in the mouse lung after intranasal administration and reduces virus spread to other organs. Despite this attenuation, however, the vector retains its capacity to induce protective CD8 T cell and antibody responses after a single immunization. These findings demonstrate a novel method of viral vector attenuation that could be used in both vaccine and oncolytic virus applications. Viruses such as VSV that are used as vaccine vectors can induce protective T cell and antibody responses after a single dose. Additionally, IFN-λ is a potent antiviral agent that has certain advantages for clinical use compared to IFN-α/β, such as fewer patient side effects. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-λ attenuates VSV replication and spread following intranasal virus delivery but does not reduce the ability of VSV to induce potent protective immune responses. These findings demonstrate that the type III IFN family may have widespread applicability for improving the safety and efficacy of viral vaccine and oncolytic vectors. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Induction of Stress Granule-Like Structures in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Beura, Lalit K.; Das, Phani B.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory revealed that cellular poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) downregulates vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) gene expression. We show here that VSV infection induces the formation of granular structures in the cytoplasm containing cellular RNA-binding proteins, including PCBP2, T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), and TIA1-related protein (TIAR). Depletion of TIA1 via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), but not depletion of TIAR, results in enhanced VSV growth and gene expression. The VSV-induced granules appear to be similar to the stress granules (SGs) generated in cells triggered by heat shock or oxidative stress but do not contain some of the bona fide SG markers, such as eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) or eIF4A, or the processing body (PB) markers, such as mRNA-decapping enzyme 1A (DCP1a), and thus may not represent canonical SGs or PBs. Our results revealed that the VSV-induced granules, called SG-like structures here, contain the viral replicative proteins and RNAs. The formation and maintenance of the SG-like structures required viral replication and ongoing protein synthesis, but an intact cytoskeletal network was not necessary. These results suggest that cells respond to VSV infection by aggregating the antiviral proteins, such as PCBP2 and TIA1, to form SG-like structures. The functional significance of these SG-like structures in VSV-infected cells is currently under investigation. PMID:23077311

  19. Antagonistic Effects of Cellular Poly(C) Binding Proteins on Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Gene Expression ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Beura, Lalit K.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of the cellular proteins from cells expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) P protein identified the poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as one of the P protein-interacting proteins. To investigate the role of PCBP2 in the viral life cycle, we examined the effects of depletion or overexpression of this protein on VSV growth. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PCBP2 promoted VSV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PCBP2 in transfected cells suppressed VSV growth. Further studies revealed that PCBP2 negatively regulates overall viral mRNA accumulation and subsequent genome replication. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence microscopic studies showed that PCBP2 interacts and colocalizes with VSV P protein in virus-infected cells. The P-PCBP2 interaction did not result in reduced levels of protein complex formation with the viral N and L proteins, nor did it induce degradation of the P protein. In addition, PCBP1, another member of the poly(C) binding protein family with homology to PCBP2, was also found to interact with the P protein and inhibit the viral mRNA synthesis at the level of primary transcription without affecting secondary transcription or genome replication. The inhibitory effects of PCBP1 on VSV replication were less pronounced than those of PCBP2. Overall, the results presented here suggest that cellular PCBP2 and PCBP1 antagonize VSV growth by affecting viral gene expression and highlight the importance of these two cellular proteins in restricting virus infections. PMID:21752917

  20. Interference of CD40L-mediated tumor immunotherapy by oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galivo, Feorillo; Diaz, Rosa Maria; Thanarajasingam, Uma; Jevremovic, Dragan; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Thompson, Jill; Kottke, Timothy; Barber, Glen N; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy can be achieved in two ways: (1) by exploiting an innate ability of certain viruses to selectively replicate in tumor tissues, and (2) by using viruses to deliver toxic or immunostimulatory genes to tumors. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) selectively replicates in tumors lacking adequate type I interferon response. The efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy using VSV against B16 melanomas in C57BL/6 mice is dependent on CD8(+) T and natural killer cells. Because immunotherapies that prime specific CD8(+) T cells against melanocyte/melanoma antigens can generate significant therapeutic responses, we hypothesized that engineering VSV to express the potent T cell costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (VSV-CD40L) would enhance virotherapy with concomitant priming of melanoma-specific T cells. However, we observed no difference in antitumor efficacy between the parental VSV-GFP and VSV-CD40L. In contrast, intratumoral injection of a replication-defective adenovirus expressing CD40L (Ad-CD40L) consistently produced significantly greater therapy than either replication-competent VSV-GFP or VSV-CD40L. The Ad-CD40L-mediated tumor regressions were associated with specific T cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which took several days to develop, whereas VSV-CD40L rapidly induced high levels of T cell activation without specificity for TAAs. These data suggest that the high levels of VSV-associated immunogenicity distracted immune responses away from priming of tumor-specific T cells, even in the presence of potent costimulatory signals. In contrast, a replication-defective Ad-CD40L allowed significant priming of T cells directed against TAAs. These observations suggest that an efficiently primed antitumor T cell response can produce similar, if not better, therapy against an established melanoma compared with intratumoral injection of a replication-competent oncolytic virus.

  1. Characteristics of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus displaying tumor-targeting ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Peng, Kah-Whye; Russell, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    We sought proof of principle that tumor-targeting ligands can be displayed on the surface of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by engineering its glycoprotein. Here, we successfully rescued VSVs displaying tumor vasculature-targeting ligands. By using a rational approach, we investigated various feasible insertion sites on the G protein of VSV (VSV-G) for display of tumor vasculature-targeting ligands, cyclic RGD (cRGD) and echistatin. We found seven sites on VSV-G that tolerated insertion of the 9-residue cRGD peptide, two of which could tolerate insertion of the 49-amino acid echistatin domain. All of the ligand-displaying viruses replicated as well as the parental virus. In vitro studies demonstrated that the VSV-echistatin viruses specifically bound to targeted integrins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was recently identified as a major receptor for VSV, we investigated the entry of ligand-displaying viruses after masking LDLR. The experiment showed that the modified viruses can enter the cell independently of LDLR, whereas entry of unmodified virus is significantly blocked by a specific monoclonal antibody against LDLR. Both parental and ligand-displaying viruses displayed equal oncolytic efficacies in a syngeneic mouse myeloma model. We further demonstrated that single-chain antibody fragments against tumor-specific antigens can be inserted at the N terminus of the G protein and that corresponding replication-competent VSVs can be rescued efficiently. Overall, we demonstrated that functional tumor-targeting ligands can be displayed on replication-competent VSVs without perturbing viral growth and oncolytic efficacy. This study provides a rational foundation for the future development of fully retargeted oncolytic VSVs.

  2. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based ebola vaccine is well-tolerated and protects immunocompromised nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Geisbert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a significant human pathogen that presents a public health concern as an emerging/re-emerging virus and as a potential biological weapon. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines that can protect nonhuman primates against EBOV. Among these prospects, a vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is particularly robust, as it can also confer protection when administered as a postexposure treatment. A concern that has been raised regarding the replication-competent VSV vectors that express EBOV glycoproteins is how these vectors would be tolerated by individuals with altered or compromised immune systems such as patients infected with HIV. This is especially important as all EBOV outbreaks to date have occurred in areas of Central and Western Africa with high HIV incidence rates in the population. In order to address this concern, we evaluated the safety of the recombinant VSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP in six rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV. All six animals showed no evidence of illness associated with the VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP vaccine, suggesting that this vaccine may be safe in immunocompromised populations. While one goal of the study was to evaluate the safety of the candidate vaccine platform, it was also of interest to determine if altered immune status would affect vaccine efficacy. The vaccine protected 4 of 6 SHIV-infected macaques from death following ZEBOV challenge. Evaluation of CD4+ T cells in all animals showed that the animals that succumbed to lethal ZEBOV challenge had the lowest CD4+ counts, suggesting that CD4+ T cells may play a role in mediating protection against ZEBOV.

  3. Comparative oncology evaluation of intravenous recombinant oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus therapy in spontaneous canine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shruthi; Galyon, Gina D; Jenks, Nathan J; Steele, Michael B; Miller, Amber C; Allstadt, Sara D; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Peng, Kah Whye; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2017-11-20

    Clinical translation of intravenous therapies to treat disseminated or metastatic cancer is imperative. Comparative oncology, the evaluation of novel cancer therapies in animals with spontaneous cancer, can be utilized to inform and accelerate clinical translation. Preclinical murine studies demonstrate that single shot systemic therapy with a VSV-IFNβ-NIS, a novel recombinant oncolytic Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), can induce curative remission in tumor bearing mice. Clinical translation of VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy is dependent on comprehensive assessment of clinical toxicities, virus shedding, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in clinically relevant models. Dogs spontaneously develop cancer with comparable etiology, clinical progression and response to therapy as human malignancies. A comparative oncology study was carried out to investigate feasibility and tolerability of intravenous oncolytic VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy in pet dogs with spontaneous cancer. Nine dogs with various malignancies were treated with a single intravenous dose of VSV-IFNβ-NIS. Two dogs with high-grade peripheral T-cell lymphoma had rapid but transient remission of disseminated disease and transient hepatotoxicity that resolved spontaneously. There was no shedding of infectious virus. Correlative pharmacokinetic studies revealed elevated levels of VSV RNA in blood in dogs with measurable disease remission. This is the first evaluation of intravenous oncolytic virus therapy for spontaneous canine cancer, demonstrating that VSV-IFNβ-NIS is well-tolerated and safe in dogs with advanced or metastatic disease. This approach has informed clinical translation, including dose and target indication selection, leading to a clinical investigation of intravenous VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy, and provided preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy, and potential biomarkers that correlate with therapeutic response. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  5. Semireplication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus as a novel platform for oncolytic virotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muik, Alexander; Dold, Catherine; Geiß, Yvonne; Volk, Andreas; Werbizki, Marina; Dietrich, Ursula; von Laer, Dorothee

    2012-08-01

    Among oncolytic viruses, the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is especially potent and a highly promising agent for the treatment of cancer. But, even though effective against multiple tumor entities in preclinical animal models, replication-competent VSV exhibits inherent neurovirulence, which has so far hindered clinical development. To overcome this limitation, replication-defective VSV vectors for cancer gene therapy have been tested and proven to be safe. However, gene delivery was inefficient and only minor antitumor efficacy was observed. Here, we present semireplication-competent vector systems for VSV (srVSV), composed of two trans-complementing, propagation-deficient VSV vectors. The de novo generated deletion mutants of the two VSV polymerase proteins P (phosphoprotein) and L (large catalytic subunit), VSVΔP and VSVΔL respectively, were used mutually or in combination with VSVΔG vectors. These srVSV systems copropagated in vitro and in vivo without recombinatory reversion to replication-competent virus. The srVSV systems were highly lytic for human glioblastoma cell lines, spheroids, and subcutaneous xenografts. Especially the combination of VSVΔG/VSVΔL vectors was as potent as wild-type VSV (VSV-WT) in vitro and induced long-term tumor regression in vivo without any associated adverse effects. In contrast, 90% of VSV-WT-treated animals succumbed to neurological disease shortly after tumor clearance. Most importantly, even when injected into the brain, VSVΔG/VSVΔL did not show any neurotoxicity. In conclusion, srVSV is a promising platform for virotherapeutic approaches and also for VSV-based vector vaccines, combining improved safety with an increased coding capacity for therapeutic transgenes, potentially allowing for multipronged approaches.

  6. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  7. Reovirus FAST Protein Enhances Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolytic Virotherapy in Primary and Metastatic Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Le Boeuf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins are the smallest known viral fusogens (∼100–150 amino acids and efficiently induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation in multiple cell types. Syncytium formation enhances cell-cell virus transmission and may also induce immunogenic cell death, a form of apoptosis that stimulates immune recognition of tumor cells. These properties suggest that FAST proteins might serve to enhance oncolytic virotherapy. The oncolytic activity of recombinant VSVΔM51 (an interferon-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] mutant encoding the p14 FAST protein (VSV-p14 was compared with a similar construct encoding GFP (VSV-GFP in cell culture and syngeneic BALB/c tumor models. Compared with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 exhibited increased oncolytic activity against MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer spheroids in culture and reduced primary 4T1 breast tumor growth in vivo. VSV-p14 prolonged survival in both primary and metastatic 4T1 breast cancer models, and in a CT26 metastatic colon cancer model. As with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 preferentially replicated in vivo in tumors and was cleared rapidly from other sites. Furthermore, VSV-p14 increased the numbers of activated splenic CD4, CD8, natural killer (NK, and natural killer T (NKT cells, and increased the number of activated CD4 and CD8 cells in tumors. FAST proteins may therefore provide a multi-pronged approach to improving oncolytic virotherapy via syncytium formation and enhanced immune stimulation.

  8. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against Bundibugyo ebolavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for human use. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV-based vaccine vectors, which encode an EBOV glycoprotein in place of the VSV glycoprotein, have shown 100% efficacy against homologous Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV or Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV challenge in NHPs. In addition, a single injection of a blend of three rVSV vectors completely protected NHPs against challenge with SEBOV, ZEBOV, the former Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, and Marburg virus. However, recent studies suggest that complete protection against the newly discovered Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV using several different heterologous filovirus vaccines is more difficult and presents a new challenge. As BEBOV caused nearly 50% mortality in a recent outbreak any filovirus vaccine advanced for human use must be able to protect against this new species. Here, we evaluated several different strategies against BEBOV using rVSV-based vaccines. Groups of cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated with a single injection of a homologous BEBOV vaccine, a single injection of a blended heterologous vaccine (SEBOV/ZEBOV, or a prime-boost using heterologous SEBOV and ZEBOV vectors. Animals were challenged with BEBOV 29-36 days after initial vaccination. Macaques vaccinated with the homologous BEBOV vaccine or the prime-boost showed no overt signs of illness and survived challenge. In contrast, animals vaccinated with the heterologous blended vaccine and unvaccinated control animals developed severe clinical symptoms consistent with BEBOV infection with 2 of 3 animals in each group succumbing. These data show that complete protection against BEBOV will likely require incorporation of BEBOV glycoprotein into the vaccine or employment of a prime-boost regimen. Fortunately, our results demonstrate that heterologous rVSV-based filovirus vaccine

  9. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza response to crossed carbon and phosphorus resource gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitbeck, J.L. (Pennyslvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Employing the annual herb Hemizonia luzulaefolia, native to nutrient limited grassland ecosystem in California, and a community of indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, this study examined mycorrhizal response to interacting plant- and fungus-acquired resources. Plant carbon supply was manipulated through atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) concentration, and substrate phosphorus (P) supply was varied in the nutrient solution. H. luzulaefolia responded strongly to VAM association, showing increased root and shoot biomass, greater leaf area, higher shoot P content and lower specific root length relative to non-mycorrhizal plants. Elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] plants had lower mass, lower root:shoot ratios and slightly greater specific root length than ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants. VAM colonization of roots was stimulated by elevated CO[sub 2] early in the experiment. Low P plants showed greater leaf mass per area and lower shoot P concentration than plus-P plants. P effects on measures of VAM changed over time. While ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants responsed to added P with increased biomass, plants grown at elevated CO[sub 2] showed equivalent or lower biomass in plus-P treatments than in those with no added P. At the same time, ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants developed greater VAM colonization of roots in low P treatments, while at 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. VAM colonization was higher in plus-P treatments. It appears that atmospheric pCO[sub 2] affects the patterns of belowground allocation in H. luzulaefolia: ambient pCO[sub 2] plants direct carbon resources to VAM when P is low and to roots when P is available, while elevated CO[sub 2] plants maintain VAM colonization regardless of P environment and allocate to roots when P is low.

  10. Dromedary milk exosomes as mammary transcriptome nano-vehicle: Their isolation, vesicular and phospholipidomic characterizatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Yassin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles that play a role in cellular trafficking and communication. Camel milk exosomes might carry the potential of recovery of several illnesses that coins the dromedary milk. This study shows for the first time their isolation and fine characterization. The differential ultracentrifugation was used for their isolation. Their recovery from dromedary milk during different lactation periods was evaluated. The vesicular characterization and stability testing of the recovered exosome were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The proteome footprinting was resolved by gel electrophoresis prior to their specific protein biomarker analysis. The immunoblotting of their specific protein biomarker TSG101 unexpectedly revealed a truncated 35 KDa protein specific for dromedary milk exosome rather than the previously reported 43 KDa mammalian one. The reversed-phase HPLC screening of their phospholipid makeup was compared with that of cattle milk exosomes at different lactation periods. Since dromedary milk exosomes reflect their mammary transcriptome outcome, further assessment of their content of αs1casein, αs2casein β-casein κ-casein mRNAs parallel with a constitutive glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (GAPD gene was performed using real-time PCR. The TEM scanning indicated that dromedary milk exosomes are freeze-stress unstable homogeneous with average size of 30 nm. There was no significant difference in expression level of different casein genes in mid lactation period in dromedary milk exosomes over late lactation period. The phospholipidomic survey proved that phosphatidylcholine is the major candidate of the examined phospholipids in dromedary milk exosomes. The obtained data give novel interpretation about the content of camel milk exosomes with possible insight for use as potentially-safe nano carrier.

  11. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Kingsbury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1 orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic–nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic–nuclear or nuclear–cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes.

  12. Vesicular Trafficking Systems Impact TORC1-Controlled Transcriptional Programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Joanne M; Cardenas, Maria E

    2016-01-06

    The Target of Rapamycin Complex I (TORC1) orchestrates global reprogramming of transcriptional programs in response to myriad environmental conditions, yet, despite the commonality of the TORC1 complex components, different TORC1-inhibitory conditions do not elicit a uniform transcriptional response. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TORC1 regulates the expression of nitrogen catabolite repressed (NCR) genes by controlling the nuclear translocation of the NCR transactivator Gln3. Moreover, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking was shown to be required for nuclear translocation of Gln3 upon a shift from rich medium to the poor nitrogen source proline, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Here, we employed microarray profiling to survey the full impact of the vesicular trafficking system on yeast TORC1-orchestrated transcriptional programs. In addition to the NCR genes, we found that ribosomal protein, ribosome biogenesis, phosphate-responsive, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism genes are perturbed by disruption of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking following a nutritional shift from rich to poor nitrogen source medium, but not upon rapamycin treatment. Similar to Gln3, defects in Golgi-to-endosome trafficking significantly delayed cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of Sfp1, but did not detectably affect the cytoplasmic-nuclear or nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of Met4, which are the transactivators of these genes. Thus, Golgi-to-endosome trafficking defects perturb TORC1 transcriptional programs via multiple mechanisms. Our findings further delineate the downstream transcriptional responses of TORC1 inhibition by rapamycin compared with a nitrogen quality downshift. Given the conservation of both TORC1 and endomembrane networks throughout eukaryotes, our findings may also have implications for TORC1-mediated responses to nutritional cues in mammals and other eukaryotes. Copyright © 2016 Kingsbury and Cardenas.

  13. Oncolytic efficacy of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus and myxoma virus in experimental models of rhabdoid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yushui; Lun, Xueqing; Zhou, Hongyuan; Wang, Limei; Sun, Beichen; Bell, John C; Barrett, John W; McFadden, Grant; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2008-02-15

    Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive pediatric tumors that are usually refractory to available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of two oncolytic viruses, myxoma virus (MV) and an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(DeltaM51)), in experimental models of human rhabdoid tumor. Four human rhabdoid tumor cell lines were cultured in vitro and treated with live or inactivated control virus. Cytopathic effect, viral gene expression, infectious viral titers, and cell viability were examined at various time points after infection. To study viral oncolysis in vivo, human rhabdoid tumor cells were implanted s.c. in the hind flank or intracranially in CD-1 nude mice and treated with intratumoral (i.t.) or i.v. injections of live or UV-inactivated virus. Viral distribution and effects on tumor size and survival were assessed. All rhabdoid tumor cell lines tested in vitro were susceptible to productive lethal infections by MV and VSV(DeltaM51). I.t. injection of live MV or VSV(DeltaM51) dramatically reduced the size of s.c. rhabdoid tumor xenografts compared with control animals. I.v. administration of VSV(DeltaM51) or i.t. injection of MV prolonged the median survival of mice with brain xenografts compared with controls (VSV(DeltaM51): 25 days versus 21 days, log-rank test, P = 0.0036; MV: median survival not reached versus 21 days, log-rank test, P = 0.0007). Most of the MV-treated animals (4 of 6; 66.7%) were alive and apparently "cured" when the experiment was arbitrarily ended (>180 days). These results suggest that VSV(DeltaM51) and MV could be novel effective therapies against human rhabdoid tumor.

  14. [Serological examinations for swine vesicular disease (SVD) in a closed pig breeding herd using ELISA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.

  15. Association analysis of a polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase B gene with Parkinson`s disease in a Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yuji; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Kuwano, Akira; Kondo, Ikuko [Ehime Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The polymorphic allele of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) gene detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was associated with Parkinson`s disease (PD) in Caucasians. We characterized this polymorphic allele, allele 1, of the MAO-B gene using direct sequencing of PCR products. A single DNA substitution (G-A), resulting gain of Mae III restriction site was detected in intron 13 of the MAO-B gene. The allele associated with PD in Caucasians was twice as frequent as in healthy Japanese, but the association of the allele of the MAO-B gene was not observed in Japanese patients with PD. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cerebral monoamine oxidase A inhibition in tobacco smokers confirmed with PET and [{sup 11}C]Befloxatone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [INSERM U797, Research Unit ' Neuroimaging and Psychiatry' , Orsay (France); Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [CEA, ' Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, U797 Unit, Hospital Department Frederic Joliot and Neurospin (France); Leroy, C.; Bragulat, V.; Penttila, J.; Artiges, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Trichard, Ch. [Paris sud University - Paris Descartes University, UMR U797 (France); Berlin, I. [Service de Pharmacologie, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere - Universite Paris6 - INSERM U677, Paris (France); Gregoire, M.C.; Bottlaender, M.; Roumenov, D.; Dolle, F.; Bourgeois, S. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Artiges, E.; Trichard, Ch. [Psychiatry Department, Orsay Hospital, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    The inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidases (MAOs) by cigarette smoke components could participate to the tobacco addiction. However, the actual extent of this inhibition in vivo in smokers is still poorly known. We investigated cerebral MAO-A availability in 7 tobacco-dependent subjects and 6 healthy nonsmokers, using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MAO-A selective radioligand [{sup 11}C]befloxatone. In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed a significant overall reduction of [{sup 11}C]befloxatone binding potential (BP) in cortical areas (average reduction, -60%) and a similar trend in caudate and thalamus (-40%). Our findings confirm a widespread inhibition of cerebral MAO-A in smokers. This mechanism may contribute to tobacco addiction and for a possible mood-modulating effect of tobacco. (authors)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of [{sup 125}I]N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide as a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii, Hamid; Chalon, Sylvie; Ombetta, Jean-Edouard; Frangin, Yves; Garreau, Lucette; Dognon, Anne-Marie; Lena, Isabelle; Bodard, Sylvie; Vilar, Marie-Paule; Besnard, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Denis

    1995-07-01

    We described the radiosynthesis of an analog of Ro 16-6491, [{sup 125}I]N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide, for SPECT exploration of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in human brain. The radiolabelling was carried out by nucleophilic exchange of the brominated precursor at solid-state phase in presence of ammonium sulphate. The radiochemical purity of radioiodinated product was higher than 95%. In comparison with Ro 16-6491, the in vitro studies showed a good selectivity of stable N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide for MAO-B but a slightly lower affinity. Biodistribution studies in the rat showed a high and selective uptake of this compound in the pineal gland 1 h after i.v. injection. The cerebral uptake was low, but the coupling of [{sup 125}I]N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide with a lipophilic radical to enhance the passage through the blood-brain barrier can be envisaged.

  18. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma H. Sasaki

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA. The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficient on the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. The results widened the list of beneficial effects of L. edodes on the control and prevention of animal pathogenic virus and filamentous fungi.Quatro linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Le10, 46, K2, ASSAI foram avaliadas quanto ao seu efeito inibitório sobre quatro espécies de fungos filamentosos de importância agrícola (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp., Fusarium solani, Phomopsis sojae e sobre o sorotipo Alagoas vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSA. Foi observado que as linhagens de L. edodes estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao seu efeito, tanto sobre os fungos filamentosos quanto sobre o vírus VSA. As linhagens K2 e Le10 apresentaram-se antagônicas sobre os fungos e as linhagens 46 e K2 foram eficientes na inibição do vírus VSA. Os resultados obtidos permitem ampliar a lista de efeitos benéficos de algumas linhagens de L. edodes no controle e prevenção de vírus patogênicos animais e de fungos filamentosos.

  19. Ropren(®) treatment reverses anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in gonadectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, for 28 days) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus using a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. Ropren(®) was administered to the gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, for 28 days). Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark test (LDT), locomotor and grooming activities were assessed in the open field test (OFT). Ropren(®) alone or in combination with TP-induced anxiolytic effects as evidenced in the EPM and in the LDT and increased locomotor activity in the OFT. Additionally, it was observed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels increased while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratio in the hippocampus decreased. Our results indicate that Ropren(®) has a marked anxiolytic-like action due to an increase in the monoamines levels in the experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease with altered levels of androgens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Concurrent repeated exposure to 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and cocaine produce locomotor sensitization with minimal effects on brain monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Robert J; Perrine, Shane A; Baker, Lisa E

    2017-10-14

    Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline. Locomotor activity was assessed for 1 h immediately before and 1 h immediately after injections on days 1 and 6. Brains were harvested 20 min after the final injection on day 7 and brain tissue punches were obtained to determine monoamine content within the anterior striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Drug-induced increases in horizontal activity were significantly greater on treatment day 6 compared to treatment day 1 in all three drug treatment groups in comparison to the saline control group. MDPV produced significantly higher increases in activity compared to either saline or cocaine, although concurrent treatment with MDPV and cocaine produced sub-additive effects. Neurochemical analyses provided no evidence of alterations in total monoamine content following repeated administration of MDPV, cocaine, or the MDPV + COC mixture. Further investigations targeting possible changes in DA receptor sensitivity following repeated exposure to MDPV may help elucidate the mechanistic changes responsible for MDPV-induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of high-dose fenfluramine treatment on monoamine uptake sites in rat brain: Assessment using quantitative autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Contrera, J.F.; De Souza, E.B. (NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative that in humans is used primarily as an anorectic agent in the treatment of obesity. In rats, subchronic high-dose d,l-fenfluramine treatment (24 mg/kg subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days) causes long-lasting decreases in brain serotonin (5HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and high-affinity 5HT uptake sites. Moreover, this high-dose treatment regimen causes both selective long-lasting decreases in fine-caliber 5HT-immunoreactive axons and appearance of other 5HT-immunoreactive axons with morphology characteristic of degenerating axons. Determination of the potential neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine treatment using immunohistochemistry is limited from the perspectives that staining is difficult to quantify and that it relies on presence of the antigen (in this case 5HT), and the 5HT-depleting effects of fenfluramine are well known. In the present study, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to assess, in detail, the density and regional distribution of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT and (3H)mazindol-labeled catecholamine uptake sites in response to the high-dose fenfluramine treatment described above. Because monoamine uptake sites are concentrated on monoamine-containing nerve terminals, decreases in uptake site density would provide a quantitative assessment of potential neurotoxicity resulting from this fenfluramine treatment regimen. Marked decreases in densities of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT uptake sites occurred in brain regions in which fenfluramine treatment decreased the density of 5HT-like immunostaining when compared to saline-treated control rats. These included cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, and medial hypothalamus.

  2. The Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan excludes the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes by impairing the recruitment of synaptotagmin V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien F Vinet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In contrast, recruitment of cathepsin B, the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 to phagosomes was normal in the absence of Syt V. As Leishmania donovani promastigotes inhibit phagosome maturation, we investigated their potential impact on the phagosomal association of Syt V. This inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis is mediated by the virulence glycolipid lipophosphoglycan, a polymer of the repeating Galbeta1,4Manalpha1-PO(4 units attached to the promastigote surface via an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Our results showed that insertion of lipophosphoglycan into ganglioside GM1-containing microdomains excluded or caused dissociation of Syt V from phagosome membranes. As a consequence, L. donovani promatigotes established infection in a phagosome from which the vesicular proton-ATPase was excluded and which failed to acidify. Collectively, these results reveal a novel function for Syt V in phagolysosome biogenesis and provide novel insight into the mechanism of vesicular proton-ATPase recruitment to maturing phagosomes. We also provide novel findings into the mechanism of Leishmania pathogenesis, whereby targeting of Syt V is part of the strategy used by L. donovani promastigotes to prevent phagosome acidification.

  3. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30 μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect “fades out” the levamisole/aminorex effect “kicks in”. PMID:24296074

  4. Effect of the mineralogical composition on the petrophysical behavior of the amygdaloidal and vesicular basalt of Wadi Wizr, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabawy, Bassem S.; Wassif, Nadia A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper gives an account of the petrophysical characteristics and the petrographical descriptions of Tertiary vesicular and amygdaloidal olivine basalt flows from Wadi Wizr in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The petrographical studies indicated that the studied vesicular basalts are rich in calcic-plagioclase, augite and olivine in addition to numerous amounts of fine opaque minerals and vesicles filled with carbonate and quartz amygdales. The degree of oxidation and alteration of magnetite and ilmenite are discussed in detail. Petrophysically, the studied samples can be grouped into two main groups; the first group includes amygdaloidal basalts and the second group consists of vesicular basalts. The vesicular group (the permeable one) is characterized by fair to very good porosity (∅), good permeability (k), very low true formation resistivity factor (F) and contain micro to ultra micropores. On the other hand, the amygdaloidal basalt group (impermeable group) is characterized by very low storage capacity properties, fair porosity, negligible permeability, medium to high true formation resistivity factor and ultra micropores. The mercury injection capillary pressure technique (MICP) indicates that the pore throats of the studied vesicular samples have a binomial distribution (rank IV), while that of the amygdaloidal samples have a trinomial distribution (rank V). It has been found in this study that the petrophysical behavior of basalts is dependent on the degree of oxidation and alteration; and in particular on the rate of cooling and oxidati