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Sample records for vesicle secretory proteins

  1. Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, María Teresa; Valero, María Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

  2. Docking of secretory vesicles is syntaxin dependent.

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    Heidi de Wit

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones.

  3. A novel role for the centrosomal protein, pericentrin, in regulation of insulin secretory vesicle docking in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

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    Agata Jurczyk

    Full Text Available The centrosome is important for microtubule organization and cell cycle progression in animal cells. Recently, mutations in the centrosomal protein, pericentrin, have been linked to human microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD II, a rare genetic disease characterized by severe growth retardation and early onset of type 2 diabetes among other clinical manifestations. While the link between centrosomal and cell cycle defects may account for growth deficiencies, the mechanism linking pericentrin mutations with dysregulated glucose homeostasis and pre-pubertal onset of diabetes is unknown. In this report we observed abundant expression of pericentrin in quiescent pancreatic beta-cells of normal animals which led us to hypothesize that pericentrin may have a critical function in beta-cells distinct from its known role in regulating cell cycle progression. In addition to the typical centrosome localization, pericentrin was also enriched with secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm. Pericentrin overexpression in beta-cells resulted in aggregation of insulin-containing secretory vesicles with cytoplasmic, but not centrosomal, pericentriolar material and an increase in total levels of intracellular insulin. RNAi- mediated silencing of pericentrin in secretory beta-cells caused dysregulated secretory vesicle hypersecretion of insulin into the media. Together, these data suggest that pericentrin may regulate the intracellular distribution and secretion of insulin. Mice transplanted with pericentrin-depleted islets exhibited abnormal fasting hypoglycemia and inability to regulate blood glucose normally during a glucose challenge, which is consistent with our in vitro data. This previously unrecognized function for a centrosomal protein to mediate vesicle docking in secretory endocrine cells emphasizes the adaptability of these scaffolding proteins to regulate diverse cellular processes and identifies a novel target for modulating regulated

  4. Visualization of peptide secretory vesicles in living nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joshua J; Loh, Y Peng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of real-time movements of peptidergic vesicles in live neurons provides insight into molecular mechanism(s) supporting the activity-dependent secretion of neurotrophins and neuropeptides. We examined the effect of overexpression of exogenous peptides comprising of the cytoplasmic tail sequence of vesicular carboxypeptidase E (CPE), proposed to be involved in the mechanism of trafficking of peptidergic secretory vesicles, in live hippocampal neurons. E16 rat hippocampal neurons were transfected with the peptidergic vesicle markers, CPE C-terminally tagged with red or green fluorescent protein, or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tagged with green fluorescent protein, and grown on dishes specialized for real-time live cell visualization. Movements of peptidergic vesicles were imaged in a temperature-controlled chamber on a confocal inverted microscope and analyzed with respect to their velocity, displacement distance, and processivity.

  5. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

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    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  6. Direct imaging of RAB27B-enriched secretory vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal acinar cells reveals origins on a nascent vesicle budding site.

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    Lilian Chiang

    Full Text Available This study uses YFP-tagged Rab27b expression in rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells, which are polarized secretory epithelial cells, to characterize early stages of secretory vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate the utility of YFP-Rab27b to delineate new perspectives on the mechanisms of early vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal gland acinar cells, where information is significantly limited. Protocols were developed to deplete the mature YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle pool in the subapical region of the cell, and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to track vesicle replenishment. This analysis revealed a basally-localized organelle, which we termed the "nascent vesicle site," from which nascent vesicles appeared to emerge. Subapical vesicular YFP-Rab27b was co-localized with p150(Glued, a component of the dynactin cofactor of cytoplasmic dynein. Treatment with the microtubule-targeted agent, nocodazole, did not affect release of mature secretory vesicles, although during vesicle repletion it significantly altered nascent YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle localization. Instead of moving to the subapical region, these vesicles were trapped at the nascent vesicle site which was adjacent to, if not a sub-compartment of, the trans-Golgi network. Finally, YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles which reached the subapical cytoplasm appeared to acquire the actin-based motor protein, Myosin 5C. Our findings show that Rab27b enrichment occurs early in secretory vesicle formation, that secretory vesicles bud from a visually discernable nascent vesicle site, and that transport from the nascent vesicle site to the subapical region requires intact microtubules.

  7. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...... for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis....

  8. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...... feature of vesicles carrying PM cargo and suggests a common lipid-based mechanism for their formation....

  9. Matrix-dependent local retention of secretory vesicle cargo in cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.; Toonen, R.F.G.; Verhage, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons secrete many diffusible signals from synaptic and other secretory vesicles. We characterized secretion of guidance cues, neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and proteases from single secretory vesicles using pHluorin-tagged cargo in cortical neurons. Stimulation triggered transient and persistent

  10. The class V myosin motor, myosin 5c, localizes to mature secretory vesicles and facilitates exocytosis in lacrimal acini.

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    Marchelletta, Ronald R; Jacobs, Damon T; Schechter, Joel E; Cheney, Richard E; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the role of the actin-based myosin motor, myosin 5c (Myo5c) in vesicle transport in exocrine secretion. Lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) are the major source for the regulated secretion of proteins from the lacrimal gland into the tear film. Confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Myo5c was associated with secretory vesicles in primary rabbit LGAC. Upon stimulation of secretion with the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, Myo5c was also detected in association with actin-coated fusion intermediates. Adenovirus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the tail domain of Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-tail) showed that this protein was localized to secretory vesicles. Furthermore, its expression induced a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in carbachol-stimulated release of two secretory vesicle content markers, secretory component and syncollin-GFP. Adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP appended to the full-length Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-full) was used in parallel with adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP-Myo5c-tail in LGAC to compare various parameters of secretory vesicles labeled with either GFP-labeled protein in resting and stimulated LGAC. These studies revealed that the carbachol-stimulated increase in secretory vesicle diameter associated with compound fusion of secretory vesicles that was also exhibited by vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-full was impaired in vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-tail. A significant decrease in GFP labeling of actin-coated fusion intermediates was also seen in carbachol-stimulated LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-tail relative to LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-full. These results suggest that Myo5c participates in apical exocytosis of secretory vesicles.

  11. Souffle/Spastizin Controls Secretory Vesicle Maturation during Zebrafish Oogenesis

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    Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-01-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  12. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

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    Palsamy Kanagaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15. We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research.

  13. Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and secretory vesicles from human neutrophils

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    Campbell Kevin P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN constitute an essential cellular component of innate host defense against microbial invasion and exhibit a wide array of responses both to particulate and soluble stimuli. As the cells recruited earliest during acute inflammation, PMN respond rapidly and release a variety of potent cytotoxic agents within minutes of exposure to microbes or their products. PMN rely on the redistribution of functionally important proteins, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and phagosome, as the means by which to respond quickly. To determine the range of membrane proteins available for rapid recruitment during PMN activation, we analyzed the proteins in subcellular fractions enriched for plasma membrane and secretory vesicles recovered from the light membrane fraction of resting PMN after Percoll gradient centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis purification using mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods. Results To identify the proteins light membrane fractions enriched for plasma membrane vesicles and secretory vesicles, we employed a proteomic approach, first using MALDI-TOF (peptide mass fingerprinting and then by HPLC-MS/MS using a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the two vesicle populations from resting PMN. We identified several proteins that are functionally important but had not previously been recovered in PMN secretory vesicles. Two such proteins, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP and dysferlin were further validated by immunoblot analysis. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the broad array of proteins present in secretory vesicles that provides the PMN with the capacity for remarkable and rapid reorganization of its plasma membrane after exposure to proinflammatory agents or stimuli.

  14. Disruption of gene expression rhythms in mice lacking secretory vesicle proteins IA-2 and IA-2β

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    Punia, Sohan; Rumery, Kyle K.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Christopher M Lambert; Notkins, Abner L.; David R Weaver

    2012-01-01

    Insulinoma-associated protein (IA)-2 and IA-2β are transmembrane proteins involved in neurotransmitter secretion. Mice with targeted disruption of both IA-2 and IA-2β (double-knockout, or DKO mice) have numerous endocrine and physiological disruptions, including disruption of circadian and diurnal rhythms. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of disruption of IA-2 and IA-2β on molecular rhythms in the brain and peripheral oscillators. We used in situ hybridization to assess molec...

  15. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

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    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  16. Fluconazole Transport into Candida albicans Secretory Vesicles by the Membrane Proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p ▿

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    Basso, Luiz R.; Gast, Charles E.; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [3H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [3H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The Kms (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and Vmaxs (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [3H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [3H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [3H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [3H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s; expressed as proportions of the [3H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi. PMID:20348384

  17. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages...... and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD m......RNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA...

  18. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

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    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  19. Complexin Activates Exocytosis of Distinct Secretory Vesicles Controlled by Different Synaptotagmins

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    Cao, Peng; Yang, Xiaofei; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Complexins are SNARE-complex binding proteins essential for the Ca2+-triggered exocytosis mediated by synaptotagmin-1, -2, -7, or -9, but the possible role of complexins in other types of exocytosis controlled by other synaptotagmin isoforms remains unclear. Here we show that in mouse olfactory bulb neurons, synaptotagmin-1 localizes to synaptic vesicles and to large dense-core secretory vesicles as reported previously, whereas synaptotagmin-10 localizes to a distinct class of peptidergic secretory vesicles containing IGF-1. Both synaptotagmin-1-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synaptotagmin-10-dependent IGF-1 exocytosis were severely impaired by knockdown of complexins, demonstrating that complexin acts as a co-factor for both synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-10 despite the functional differences between these synaptotagmins. Rescue experiments revealed that only the activating but not the clamping function of complexins was required for IGF-1 exocytosis controlled by synaptotagmin-10. Thus, our data indicate that complexins are essential for activation of multiple types of Ca2+-induced exocytosis that are regulated by different synaptotagmin isoforms. These results suggest that different types of regulated exocytosis are mediated by similar synaptotagmin-dependent fusion mechanisms, that particular synaptotagmin isoforms confer specificity onto different types of regulated exocytosis, and that complexins serve as universal synaptotagmin-adaptors for all of these types of exocytosis independent of which synaptotagmin isoform is involved. PMID:23345244

  20. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and non-neuronal secretory cells

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    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and non-neuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. At three preparations where controversies arose, including large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles, we reported that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell types, developmental stages, or endocytic forms (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the controversies in pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest including calcineurin as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis. PMID:24835995

  1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G; Enghild, Jan J; Praetorius, Jeppe; Borregaard, Niels; Petersen, Steen V

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD mRNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the protein was released into the extracellular space and found to associate with DNA released from stimulated cells. The functional consequences were evaluated by the use of neutrophils isolated from wild-type and EC-SOD KO mice, and showed that EC-SOD release significantly reduce the level of superoxide in the extracellular space, but does not affect the capacity to generate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consequently, our data signifies that EC-SOD released from activated neutrophils affects the redox conditions of the extracellular space and may offer protection against highly reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals otherwise generated as a result of respiratory burst activity of activated neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...

  3. SNAP-25 gene family members differentially support secretory vesicle fusion.

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    Arora, Swati; Saarloos, Ingrid; Kooistra, Robbelien; van de Bospoort, Rhea; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2017-06-01

    Neuronal dense-core vesicles (DCVs) transport and secrete neuropeptides necessary for development, plasticity and survival, but little is known about their fusion mechanism. We show that Snap-25 -null mutant (SNAP-25 KO) neurons, previously shown to degenerate after 4 days in vitro (DIV), contain fewer DCVs and have reduced DCV fusion probability in surviving neurons at DIV14. At DIV3, before degeneration, SNAP-25 KO neurons show normal DCV fusion, but one day later fusion is significantly reduced. To test if other SNAP homologs support DCV fusion, we expressed SNAP-23, SNAP-29 or SNAP-47 in SNAP-25 KO neurons. SNAP-23 and SNAP-29 rescued viability and supported DCV fusion in SNAP-25 KO neurons, but SNAP-23 did so more efficiently. SNAP-23 also rescued synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion while SNAP-29 did not. SNAP-47 failed to rescue viability and did not support DCV or SV fusion. These data demonstrate a developmental switch, in hippocampal neurons between DIV3 and DIV4, where DCV fusion becomes SNAP-25 dependent. Furthermore, SNAP-25 homologs support DCV and SV fusion and neuronal viability to variable extents - SNAP-23 most effectively, SNAP-29 less so and SNAP-47 ineffectively. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: pyxu@ibp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: shuangyanhuan@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: mingshu1984@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  5. Secretory proteins in the saliva of children.

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    Sivakumar, Thiruvanamalai; Hand, Arthur R; Mednieks, Maija

    2009-12-01

    The protein composition of oral fluid is modulated by environmental factors and physiological states, i.e. chemical, mechanical and pharmacologic stimuli, pathologic conditions, and psychological stress. Secretory protein concentrations in samples of whole saliva (WS) from children were measured and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Protein expression was determined using electrophoresis and Western blotting. Protein profiles of children were significantly different from those of adults (n = 50, P saliva from children contained a group of high-molecular-weight (>90 kDa) proteins, whereas fewer than 5% of samples from adults had comparable bands. The ratio of the regulatory subunits (RII) of type II protein kinase A (an enzyme that regulates secretion) to total protein was stable in children's saliva, but variable in saliva from adults. Alpha amylase (alpha-amylase), an enzyme that digests carbohydrates, was less degraded in WS of children than in that of adults. Gingival crevicular fluid of both children and adults did not contain alpha-amylase or RII. No significant gender-based differences were found, but Caucasian children had higher salivary protein levels than children with an African background. Saliva collection is rapid, painless, non-invasive, economical, and yields findings that are reproducible. Objective, biochemical monitoring of secretory proteins in oral fluid of children may reveal responses to stressful stimuli.

  6. Inhibition of cathepsin B reduces beta-amyloid production in regulated secretory vesicles of neuronal chromaffin cells: evidence for cathepsin B as a candidate beta-secretase of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Vivian; Toneff, Thomas; Bogyo, Matthew; Greenbaum, Doron; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Neveu, John; Lane, William; Hook, Gregory; Reisine, Terry

    2005-09-01

    The regulated secretory pathway of neurons is the major source of extracellular A beta that accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Extracellular A beta secreted from that pathway is generated by beta-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Previously, cysteine protease activity was demonstrated as the major beta-secretase activity in regulated secretory vesicles of neuronal chromaffin cells. In this study, the representative cysteine protease activity in these secretory vesicles was purified and identified as cathepsin B by peptide sequencing. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated colocalization of cathepsin B with A beta in these vesicles. The selective cathepsin B inhibitor, CA074, blocked the conversion of endogenous APP to A beta in isolated regulated secretory vesicles. In chromaffin cells, CA074Me (a cell permeable form of CA074) reduced by about 50% the extracellular A beta released by the regulated secretory pathway, but CA074Me had no effect on A beta released by the constitutive pathway. Furthermore, CA074Me inhibited processing of APP into the COOH-terminal beta-secretase-like cleavage product. These results provide evidence for cathepsin B as a candidate beta-secretase in regulated secretory vesicles of neuronal chromaffin cells. These findings implicate cathepsin B as beta-secretase in the regulated secretory pathway of brain neurons, suggesting that inhibitors of cathepsin B may be considered as therapeutic agents to reduce A beta in AD.

  7. Subcellular localization of SV2 and other secretory vesicle components in PC12 cells by an efficient method of preembedding EM immunocytochemistry for cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, V A; Ploug, Thorkil; Tao-Cheng, J H

    1996-01-01

    substantially improved the efficiency of the preembedding EM ICC procedures for cell cultures. The advantages and related caveats of this method are discussed. SV2 was distinctly localized on dusters of synaptic vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles (LDCV). The distribution of SV2 on these two types...... membranes. Furthermore, whereas SV2 is localized on the membranes of the LDCVs, chromogranin A, an acidic protein in secretory granules, is clearly in the core of the LDCVs. This is the first demonstration of these two antigens in such dose (approximately 20 nm) yet distinct compartments within a single...

  8. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane ...

  9. Synaptic vesicle proteins and active zone plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Kittel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone. The complex molecular architecture of active zones mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of active zones vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct active zone states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the active zone.The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1 and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and active zone states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  10. Secretory pathway-dependent localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rho GTPase-activating protein Rgd1p at growth sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèbvre, Fabien; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Hugues, Michel; Crouzet, Marc; Vieillemard, Aurélie; McCusker, Derek; Thoraval, Didier; Doignon, François

    2012-05-01

    Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in eukaryotes depends upon the regulation of Rho GTPases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) Rgd1p stimulates the GTPase activities of Rho3p and Rho4p, which are involved in bud growth and cytokinesis, respectively. Consistent with the distribution of Rho3p and Rho4p, Rgd1p is found mostly in areas of polarized growth during cell cycle progression. Rgd1p was mislocalized in mutants specifically altered for Golgi apparatus-based phosphatidylinositol 4-P [PtdIns(4)P] synthesis and for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) production at the plasma membrane. Analysis of Rgd1p distribution in different membrane-trafficking mutants suggested that Rgd1p was delivered to growth sites via the secretory pathway. Rgd1p may associate with post-Golgi vesicles by binding to PtdIns(4)P and then be transported by secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. In agreement, we show that Rgd1p coimmunoprecipitated and localized with markers specific to secretory vesicles and cofractionated with a plasma membrane marker. Moreover, in vivo imaging revealed that Rgd1p was transported in an anterograde manner from the mother cell to the daughter cell in a vectoral manner. Our data indicate that secretory vesicles are involved in the delivery of RhoGAP Rgd1p to the bud tip and bud neck.

  11. Ultrastructure and immunohistochemical characterization of proteins concerned with the secretory machinery in goat ceruminous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yasui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expression of soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins in apocrine glands has not been fully elucidated. In addition to performing ultrastructural observation of the ceruminous glands in goats, our study focuses on the demonstration of β-defensins, SNARE proteins and Rab3D in these glands with the use of immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells were equipped with two types of vesicles, Golgi apparatus and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Additionally, in some of them, the characteristic concentric structures composed of rough ER were observed in their circum- and infranuclear parts. The expression of phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme 1a was also detected. These findings may indicate their ability to produce numerous secretory proteins and the maintenance of homeostasis in the glandular cells. Furthermore, β-defensins were demonstrated as products of the ceruminous glands. The present investigation also revealed the presence of SNARE proteins and Rab3D. It is suggested that these proteins are concerned with the secretory machinery of this gland type.

  12. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  13. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  14. Engineering of vesicle trafficking improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Tyo, Keith; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-03-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often restricted due to the limitations of the host strain. In the protein secretory pathway, the protein trafficking between different organelles is catalyzed by the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) receptor (SNARE) complex and regulated by the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. In this study, we report that over-expression of the SM protein encoding genes SEC1 and SLY1, improves the protein secretion in S. cerevisiae. Engineering Sec1p, the SM protein that is involved in vesicle trafficking from Golgi to cell membrane, improves the secretion of heterologous proteins human insulin precursor and α-amylase, and also the secretion of an endogenous protein invertase. Enhancing Sly1p, the SM protein regulating the vesicle fusion from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi, increases α-amylase production only. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the protein trafficking in ER-to-Golgi and Golgi-to-plasma membrane process is a novel secretory engineering strategy for improving heterologous protein production in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coated vesicles as protein release mechanism in myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, L D; Lazarus, S S

    An electron microscopic study was undertaken of the protein release mechanism within myeloma cells showing a very high degree of protein production. Smooth surfaced vesicles (50 millimicrons) were seen to originate from the outer margin of the perinuclear cistern. Similar vesicles were also associated with distended Golgi sacs. Possible function of these vesicles could not be determined. Coated vesicles (60 millimicrons) originated as evaginations from endoplasmic reticulum in the transitional region. They were present throughout the cytoplasm and were seen to fuse with the cell membrane discharging an electron dense material. These vesicles are, therefore, thought to transport protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and discharge it at the cell surface.

  16. Rab3 proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis and priming in embryonic mouse chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonn, Jean-Sébastien; van Weering, Jan R T; Mohrmann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The four Rab3 paralogs A-D are involved in exocytosis, but their mechanisms of action are hard to study due to functional redundancy. Here we used a quadruple Rab3 knock-out (rab3a, rab3b, rab3c, rab3d null, here denoted ABCD(-/-)) mouse line to investigate Rab3 function in embryonic mouse adrenal...... chromaffin cells by electron microscopy and electrophysiological measurements. We show that in cells from ABCD(-/-) animals large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) are less abundant while the number of morphologically docked granules is normal. By capacitance measurements, we show that deletion of Rab3s reduces...... rate after an initial delay. Rescue experiments showed that short-term (4-6 hours) overexpression of Rab3A or Rab3C suffices to rescue vesicle priming and secretion, but it does not restore the number of secretory vesicles. We conclude that Rab3 proteins play two distinct stimulating roles for LDCV...

  17. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...... was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands...

  18. Extracellular vesicles secreted by Schistosoma mansoni contain protein vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Pearson, Mark; Potriquet, Jeremy; Becker, Luke; Pickering, Darren; Mulvenna, Jason; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show for the first time that Schistosoma mansoni adult worms secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles ranging from 50 to 130nm in size. Extracellular vesicles were collected from the excretory/secretory products of cultured adult flukes and purified by Optiprep density gradient, resulting in highly pure extracellular vesicle preparations as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight tracking analysis. Extracellular vesicle proteomic analysis showed numerous known vaccine candidates, potential virulence factors and molecules implicated in feeding. These findings provide new avenues for the exploration of host-schistosome interactions and offer a potential mechanism by which some vaccine antigens exert their protective efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering Globular Protein Vesicles through Tunable Self-Assembly of Recombinant Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Choi, Won Tae; Heller, William T; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Champion, Julie A

    2017-09-01

    Vesicles assembled from folded, globular proteins have potential for functions different from traditional lipid or polymeric vesicles. However, they also present challenges in understanding the assembly process and controlling vesicle properties. From detailed investigation of the assembly behavior of recombinant fusion proteins, this work reports a simple strategy to engineer protein vesicles containing functional, globular domains. This is achieved through tunable self-assembly of recombinant globular fusion proteins containing leucine zippers and elastin-like polypeptides. The fusion proteins form complexes in solution via high affinity binding of the zippers, and transition through dynamic coacervates to stable hollow vesicles upon warming. The thermal driving force, which can be tuned by protein concentration or temperature, controls both vesicle size and whether vesicles are single or bi-layered. These results provide critical information to engineer globular protein vesicles via self-assembly with desired size and membrane structure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The SNARE protein vti1a functions in dense-core vesicle biogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Kurps, Julia; de Wit, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The SNARE protein vti1a is proposed to drive fusion of intracellular organelles, but recent data also implicated vti1a in exocytosis. Here we show that vti1a is absent from mature secretory vesicles in adrenal chromaffin cells, but localizes to a compartment near the trans-Golgi network, partially...... overlapping with syntaxin-6. Exocytosis is impaired in vti1a null cells, partly due to fewer Ca(2+)-channels at the plasma membrane, partly due to fewer vesicles of reduced size and synaptobrevin-2 content. In contrast, release kinetics and Ca(2+)-sensitivity remain unchanged, indicating that the final fusion...... reaction leading to transmitter release is unperturbed. Additional deletion of the closest related SNARE, vti1b, does not exacerbate the vti1a phenotype, and vti1b null cells show no secretion defects, indicating that vti1b does not participate in exocytosis. Long-term re-expression of vti1a (days...

  1. Formation of Giant Protein Vesicles by a Lipid Cosolvent Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Vissing, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method to create giant protein vesicles (GPVs) of ≥10 μm by solvent‐driven fusion of large vesicles (0.1–0.2 μm) with reconstituted membrane proteins. We found that formation of GPVs proceeded from rotational mixing of protein‐reconstituted large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs)...... of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ aquaporins. Our findings show that hydrophobic interactions within the bilayer of formed GPVs are influenced not only by the solvent partitioning propensity, but also by lipid composition and membrane protein isoform....

  2. Synaptotagmin-1 docks secretory vesicles to syntaxin-1/SNAP-25 acceptor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Heidi; Walter, Alexander M; Milosevic, Ira

    2009-01-01

    to SNARE complex assembly. Here, using adrenal chromaffin cells, we identify the vesicular docking partner as synaptotagmin-1, the calcium sensor for exocytosis, and SNAP-25 as an essential plasma membrane docking factor, which, together with the previously known docking factors Munc18-1 and syntaxin, form...... the minimal docking machinery. Moreover, we show that the requirement for Munc18-1 in docking, but not fusion, can be overcome by stabilizing syntaxin/SNAP-25 acceptor complexes. These findings, together with cross-rescue, double-knockout, and electrophysiological data, lead us to propose that vesicles dock...... when synaptotagmin-1 binds to syntaxin/SNAP-25 acceptor complexes, whereas Munc18-1 is required for the downstream association of synaptobrevin to form fusogenic SNARE complexes....

  3. Synaptic vesicle protein 2b is expressed temporospatially in (pre)odontoblasts in developing molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, So-Young; Jeon, Soo-Kyung; Kang, Jee-Hae; Yoo, Hong-Il; Kim, Yoo-Seong; Moon, Jung-Sun; Kim, Min-Seok; Koh, Jung-Tae; Oh, Won-Mann; Kim, Sun-Hun

    2012-12-01

    The formation of dentin and enamel is initiated by the differentiation of odontogenic precursor cells into odontoblasts and ameloblasts, respectively. This study was performed to identify new molecules involved in the differentiation of odontogenic cells. The genes expressed differentially between the root stage (after the differentiation of odontogenic cells and dental hard-tissue formation) and the cap stage (before the differentiation of odontogenic cells and dental hard-tissue formation) were searched using differential display PCR. For the first time, synaptic vesicle protein (SV) 2b, an important transmembrane transporter of Ca(2+) -stimulated vesicle exocytosis, was identified as a differentially expressed molecule. Real-time PCR and western blotting revealed an increase in the transcriptional and translational levels of SV2b during or after the differentiation of odontogenic cells. Immunofluorescence revealed this molecule to be localized in not only fully differentiated odontoblasts but also in pre-odontoblasts before dentin matrix secretion. The expression pattern of the SV2a isoform was similar to that of the SV2b isoform, whereas the SV2c isoform showed a contrasting pattern of expression. After treatment with alendronate, an inhibitor of protein isoprenylation for the transport of secretory vesicles, the expression of SV2a and SV2b decreased, whereas that of SV2c increased. These results suggest that the SV2 isoforms are functional molecules of (pre)odontoblasts which may be involved in vesicle transport. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98...

  5. Characterization of a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase A, in the protein secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngiam, C.; Jeenes, D.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Archer, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is important in assisting the folding and maturation of secretory proteins in eukaryotes. A gene, pdiA, encoding PDIA was previously isolated from Aspergillus niger, and we report its functional characterization here. Functional analysis of PDIA showed that it

  6. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2013-01-01

    granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Mycobacterial Secretory Proteins Against Established Asthma in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Choi, Inseon S.; Choi, Han-Gyu; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Live/killed mycobacteria and culture supernatants can suppress asthmatic reactions. This study investigated whether mycobacterial secretory proteins have therapeutic effects on asthma. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG; 2×105 CFUs) and mycobacterial secretory proteins (Ag85 complex, 38-kDa protein or MPB70; 4 or 20 µg) were administered intraperitoneally to female BALB/c mice with established airway hyperresponsiveness. One week after treatment, the mice underwe...

  8. Chronic regulation of colonic epithelial secretory function by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toumi, F

    2011-02-01

    Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.

  9. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation   Lisbeth R. Poulsen1, Rosa L. López-Marqués1, Stephen C. McDowell2, Juha Okkeri3, Dirk Licht3, Alexander Schulz1, Thomas Pomorski3,  Jeffrey F. Harper2, and Michael G....... Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation, Department of Plant Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Biochemistry Department MS200, University of Nevada Reno, NV 89557, USA 3Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty...... and in inducing membrane curvature, which is a requirement for vesicle formation. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that genetic lesions of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots...

  10. Surfactant protein B inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Bonnie L.; Waite, B. Moseley; Veldhuizen, Ruud A.; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Seeds, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids (PL) by secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) contributes to surfactant damage in inflammatory airway diseases such as acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. We and others have reported that each sPLA2 exhibits specificity in hydrolyzing different PLs in pulmonary surfactant and that the presence of hydrophilic surfactant protein A (SP-A) alters sPLA2-mediated hydrolysis. This report tests the hypothesis that hydrophobic SP-B also inhibits sPLA2-mediated surfactant hydrolysis. Three surfactant preparations were used containing varied amounts of SP-B and radiolabeled tracers of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylglycerol (PG): 1) washed ovine surfactant (OS) (pre- and postorganic extraction) compared with Survanta (protein poor), 2) Survanta supplemented with purified bovine SP-B (1–5%, wt/wt), and 3) a mixture of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (DPPC:POPC:POPG, 40:40:20) prepared as vesicles and monomolecular films in the presence or absence of SP-B. Hydrolysis of PG and PC by Group IB sPLA2 (PLA2G1A) was significantly lower in the extracted OS, which contains SP-B, compared with Survanta (P = 0.005), which is SP-B poor. Hydrolysis of PG and PC in nonextracted OS, which contains all SPs, was lower than both Survanta and extracted OS. When Survanta was supplemented with 1% SP-B, PG and PC hydrolysis by PLA2G1B was significantly lower (P hydrolysis by both PLA2G1B and Group IIA sPLA2 (PLA2G2A). In films, PLA2G1B hydrolyzed surfactant PL monolayers at surface pressures ≤30 mN/m (P hydrolysis can occur. These results suggest the hydrophobic SP, SP-B, protects alveolar surfactant PL from hydrolysis mediated by multiple sPLA2 in both vesicles (alveolar subphase) and monomolecular films (air-liquid interface). PMID:22037357

  11. Durable vesicles for reconstitution of membrane proteins in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Paul A; Khan, Sanobar; Muench, Stephen P; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2017-02-08

    The application of membrane proteins in biotechnology requires robust, durable reconstitution systems that enhance their stability and support their functionality in a range of working environments. Vesicular architectures are highly desirable to provide the compartmentalisation to utilise the functional transmembrane transport and signalling properties of membrane proteins. Proteoliposomes provide a native-like membrane environment to support membrane protein function, but can lack the required chemical and physical stability. Amphiphilic block copolymers can also self-assemble into polymersomes: tough vesicles with improved stability compared with liposomes. This review discusses the reconstitution of membrane proteins into polymersomes and the more recent development of hybrid vesicles, which blend the robust nature of block copolymers with the biofunctionality of lipids. These novel synthetic vesicles hold great promise for enabling membrane proteins within biotechnologies by supporting their enhanced in vitro performance and could also contribute to fundamental biochemical and biophysical research by improving the stability of membrane proteins that are challenging to work with. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Expression and localization of cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) in the prepubertal and postpubertal male horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorka, C E; Scoggin, K E; Squires, E L; Ball, B A; Troedsson, M H T

    2017-01-01

    The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques. In humans and rodents, CRISP-3 has been described as an androgen-dependent protein, but the effect of androgens on the expression of CRISP-3 has not been investigated in the horse. The objectives of this study were to (a) confirm and quantify the expression of CRISP-3 in the male equine reproductive tract, (b) describe the localization of CRISP-3 within the specific tissues which express it, and (c) determine if expression of CRISP-3 increases after puberty. We hypothesized that expression of CRISP-3 would be expressed in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles, and expression would increase after puberty. Tissues were collected postmortem from three prepubertal colts (3 years). Tissue samples were collected from the ampulla of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, testis, as well as the cauda, corpus, and caput aspects of the epididymis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using an equine-specific CRISP-3 designed primer and monocolonal antibody. A mixed linear additive model was used to compare mRNA expression between age groups, and significance was set to P CRISP-3 mRNA was found primarily in the ampulla of vas deferens with lesser expression in the seminal vesicles. Expression of CRISP-3 was higher in the postpubertal stallion when compared with the prepubertal colt for the ampulla (P CRISP-3 is primarily located in the glandular

  13. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  14. Differential protein expression in the secretory fluids of maxillary sinusitis and maxillary retention cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-01-01

    Both maxillary sinusitis (MS) and maxillary retention cyst (MRC) involve the maxillary sinus and show similar clinical features. Clinically, differentiating between MS and MRC is sometimes difficult in asymptomatic patients, despite their quite different pathogenic behaviors. To identify differential protein expressions in the secretory fluids of MS and MRC, 25 cases of asymptomatic MS and 15 cases of asymptomatic MRC were examined pathologically in this study. All patients underwent routine endoscopic sinus surgery or modified Caldwell-Luc procedure and the sinus mucosal specimens obtained during these procedures with the approval of the Institutional Review Board. Their secretory fluids were analyzed via immunoprecipitation-based high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC) using 25 types of antiserum, including inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial proteins, and mucosal protective proteins. In the histological examinations, MS and MRC showed similar features in the secretory columnar epithelial lining and thick submucosal connective tissue, both of which contained few inflammatory cells infiltrates. The IP-HPLC analysis revealed that TNFα, IL-1, -8, MMP-3, -10, α1-antitrypsin, cathepsin C, lysozyme, lactoferrin, β-defensin-1, -3, LL-37, mucocidin, and mucin-1 were more intensely expressed in MS than in MRC; whereas IgA, cystatin A, and proline-rich proteins were more strongly expressed in MRC than in MS. These data indicate that the secretory fluid of MS is indicative of a more robust inflammatory reaction to certain bacteria compared to that of MRC, while the secretory fluid of MRC contains more abundant mucosal protective proteins compared to that of MS. Taken together, the IP-HPLC analysis of MS and MRC secretory fluid revealed that MRC showed a weaker inflammatory reaction but a stronger mucosal protective function than MS.

  15. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckerich Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii. These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular

  16. Amyloid precursor protein knockout diminishes synaptic vesicle proteins at the presynaptic active zone in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Bajjalieh, Sandra M; Muller, Ulrike; Volknandt, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has previously been allocated to an organellar pool residing in the Golgi apparatus and in endosomal compartments, and in its mature form to a presynaptic active zone-localized pool. By analyzing homozygous APP knockout mice we evaluated the impact of APP on synaptic vesicle protein abundance at synaptic release sites. Following immunopurification of synaptic vesicles and the attached presynaptic plasma membrane, individual proteins were subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. We demonstrate that APP deletion in knockout animals reduces the abundance of the synaptic vesicle proteins synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1, and SV2A at the presynaptic active zone. Conversely, deletion of the additional APP family members, APLP1 and APLP2 resulted in an increase in synaptophysin, synaptogamin-1, and SV2A abundance. When transmembrane APP is lacking in APPsα-KI/APLP2-KO mice synaptic vesicle protein abundance corresponds to that in APP -KO mice. Deletion of the synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B had no effect on APP and synaptophysin abundance but decreased synaptotagmin-1. Our data suggest that APP controls the abundance of synaptic vesicle proteins at the presynaptic release sites and thus impacts synaptic transmission.

  17. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  18. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  19. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that vaccination with two low molecular mass excretory secretory (ES) antigens of 15 and 24 kDa, respectively, afforded a substantial degree of protection against Haemonchus contortus to sheep. In vitro cultivation of the parasite usually yields a limited amount of these proteins

  20. Monosaccharide transport in protein-depleted vesicles from erythrocyte membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M A Zoccoli; G E Lienhard

    1977-01-01

    .... Based on comparisons between erythrocytes and vesicles with regard to specificity, temparture dependence, and effects of inhibitors, we conclude that sorbose uptake into the vesicles occurs by way...

  1. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    women with uncomplicated pregnancies and normal outcome. SETTING: The women were admitted to a university hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty-nine women with laparoscopically verified ectopic pregnancy entered the study. INTERVENTION: At the time of diagnosis PP14 and P were measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: After......OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98...... observing the low serum levels of PP14 and P, a correlation analysis was made and compared with the findings in normally pregnant women. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was found between the level of PP14 and P (P less than 0.00002), not found in normal intrauterine pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: jkroy@bhu.ac.in [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  3. Homofusion of Golgi secretory vesicles in flax phloem fibers during formation of the gelatinous secondary cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, Vadim V; Ageeva, Marina V; Gorshkova, Tatyana A

    2008-11-01

    The gelatinous type of secondary cell wall is present in tension wood and in phloem fibers of many plants. It is characterized by the absence of xylan and lignin, a high cellulose content and axially orientated microfibrils in the huge S2 layer. In flax phloem fiber, the major non-cellulosic component of such cell walls is tissue-specific galactan, which is tightly bound to cellulose. Ultrastructural analysis of flax fiber revealed that initiation of gelatinous secondary cell wall formation was accompanied by the accumulation of specific Golgi vesicles, which had a characteristic bicolor (dark-light) appearance and were easily distinguishable from vesicles made in different tissues and during the other stages of fiber development. Many of the bicolor vesicles appeared to fuse with each other, forming large vacuoles. The largest observed was 4 mum in diameter. Bicolor vesicles and vacuoles fused with the plasma membrane and spread their content in a characteristic "syringe-like" manner, covering a significant area of periplasm and forming "dark" stripes on the inner wall surface. Both Golgi derivatives and cell wall layers were labeled by LM5 antibody, indicating the presence of tissue- and stage-specific (1-->4)-beta-galactan. We suggest that this specific type of galactan secretion, which allows coverage of a large area of periplasm, is designed to increase the chance of the galactan meeting the cellulose microfibrils while they are still in the process of construction. The membrane fusion machinery of flax fiber must possess special components, which may be crucial for the formation of the gelatinous type cell wall.

  4. Nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms: Transcriptional profiling of secretory proteins and the implication for the protein corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Engelmann, Péter; Autrup, Herman; Sutherland, Duncan S; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have identified lysenin as a key protein constituent of the secretome from Eisenia fetida coelomocytes and revealed its critical importance in priming interactions between the cells and the protein corona around nanosilver. As alterations of the protein environment can directly affect the corona composition, the extent to which nanoparticles influence the cells' protein secretion profile is of remarkable interest that has rarely acquired attention. Here, we have probed transcriptional responses of E. fetida coelomocytes to the representative nanosilver NM-300K (15 nm) in a time-dependent manner (2, 4, 8 and 24 h at a low-cytotoxic concentration), and examined the implication of the temporal changes in transcriptional profiles of secretory proteins with a particular reference to that of lysenin. NM-300K was accumulated in/at the cells and lysenin was, after transient induction, gradually suppressed over time indicating a negative feedback cycle. This may limit further enrichment of lysenin in the corona and thereby decrease the lysenin-assisted uptake of the nanoparticles. Other differentially expressed genes were those involved in metal stress (likewise in AgNO3-stressed cells) and in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. This offers an intriguing perspective of the nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms, in which the conserved pattern recognition receptor TLRs may play an effector role.

  5. tor/mouse secretory phospholipase A2 proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    amino acid protein with a 21 amino acid long signal pep- tide. A 100 kDa cell .... Site-directed mutagenesis of EF/sPLA2. 491 air dried and reconstituted in 1 M acetic acid. The acid- soluble proteins were dialysed against 0⋅1 M acetic acid at 4ºC. ... wtEF produced mutant GE1, mutant GE2 and wild type. EF protein ...

  6. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  7. Proteome of cell wall-extracts from pathogenic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Comparison among morphological phases, isolates, and reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa V.G. Longo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified non-covalently linked cell wall proteins from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts and mycelia, with focus on the yeast pathogenic phase, and correlated them with reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins. We studied isolates Pb3 and Pb18, which evoke distinct patterns of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis and represent two phylogenetic groups. Proteins were extracted mildly with dithiothreitol, trypsinized, and peptides analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Among 132 yeast-exclusive sequences, 92 were Pb18-exclusive. About 80% of total proteins were classified as secretory, mostly showing non-conventional signals. Extracellular vesicular transportation could be involved, since 60% had orthologs reported in fungal extracellular vesicles.

  8. Machine Learning of Protein Interactions in Fungal Secretory Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludas, Jana; Arvas, Mikko; Castillo, Sandra; Pakula, Tiina; Oja, Merja; Brouard, Céline; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply machine learning methods for predicting protein interactions in fungal secretion pathways. We assume an inter-species transfer setting, where training data is obtained from a single species and the objective is to predict protein interactions in other, related species. In our methodology, we combine several state of the art machine learning approaches, namely, multiple kernel learning (MKL), pairwise kernels and kernelized structured output prediction in the supervised graph inference framework. For MKL, we apply recently proposed centered kernel alignment and p-norm path following approaches to integrate several feature sets describing the proteins, demonstrating improved performance. For graph inference, we apply input-output kernel regression (IOKR) in supervised and semi-supervised modes as well as output kernel trees (OK3). In our experiments simulating increasing genetic distance, Input-Output Kernel Regression proved to be the most robust prediction approach. We also show that the MKL approaches improve the predictions compared to uniform combination of the kernels. We evaluate the methods on the task of predicting protein-protein-interactions in the secretion pathways in fungi, S.cerevisiae, baker's yeast, being the source, T. reesei being the target of the inter-species transfer learning. We identify completely novel candidate secretion proteins conserved in filamentous fungi. These proteins could contribute to their unique secretion capabilities.

  9. Cysteine-Rich Atrial Secretory Protein from the Snail Achatina achatina: Purification and Structural Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Shabelnikov

    Full Text Available Despite extensive studies of cardiac bioactive peptides and their functions in molluscs, soluble proteins expressed in the heart and secreted into the circulation have not yet been reported. In this study, we describe an 18.1-kDa, cysteine-rich atrial secretory protein (CRASP isolated from the terrestrial snail Achatina achatina that has no detectable sequence similarity to any known protein or nucleotide sequence. CRASP is an acidic, 158-residue, N-glycosylated protein composed of eight alpha-helical segments stabilized with five disulphide bonds. A combination of fold recognition algorithms and ab initio folding predicted that CRASP adopts an all-alpha, right-handed superhelical fold. CRASP is most strongly expressed in the atrium in secretory atrial granular cells, and substantial amounts of CRASP are released from the heart upon nerve stimulation. CRASP is detected in the haemolymph of intact animals at nanomolar concentrations. CRASP is the first secretory protein expressed in molluscan atrium to be reported. We propose that CRASP is an example of a taxonomically restricted gene that might be responsible for adaptations specific for terrestrial pulmonates.

  10. Export of a Cysteine-Free Misfolded Secretory Protein from the Endoplasmic Reticulum for Degradation Requires Interaction with Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillece, Pauline; Luz, José Manuel; Lennarz, William J.; de la Cruz, Francisco Javier; Römisch, Karin

    1999-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with secretory proteins, irrespective of their thiol content, late during translocation into the ER; thus, PDI may be part of the quality control machinery in the ER. We used yeast pdi1 mutants with deletions in the putative peptide binding region of the molecule to investigate its role in the recognition of misfolded secretory proteins in the ER and their export to the cytosol for degradation. Our pdi1 deletion mutants are deficient in the export of a misfolded cysteine-free secretory protein across the ER membrane to the cytosol for degradation, but ER-to-Golgi complex transport of properly folded secretory proteins is only marginally affected. We demonstrate by chemical cross-linking that PDI specifically interacts with the misfolded secretory protein and that mutant forms of PDI have a lower affinity for this protein. In the ER of the pdi1 mutants, a higher proportion of the misfolded secretory protein remains associated with BiP, and in export-deficient sec61 mutants, the misfolded secretory protein remain bounds to PDI. We conclude that the chaperone PDI is part of the quality control machinery in the ER that recognizes terminally misfolded secretory proteins and targets them to the export channel in the ER membrane. PMID:10613903

  11. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  12. Mutations in the major gas vesicle protein GvpA and impacts on gas vesicle formation in Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitsch, Regine; Schneefeld, Marie; Weitzel, Kerstin; Pfeifer, Felicitas

    2017-09-12

    Gas vesicles are proteinaceous, gas-filled nanostructures produced by some bacteria and archaea. The hydrophobic major structural protein GvpA forms the ribbed gas vesicle wall. An in-silico 3D-model of GvpA of the predicted coil-α1-β1-β2-α2-coil structure is available and implies that the two β-chains constitute the hydrophobic interior surface of the gas vesicle wall. To test the importance of individual amino acids in GvpA we performed 85 single substitutions and analyzed these variants in Haloferax volcanii ΔA + Amut transformants for their ability to form gas vesicles (Vac(+) phenotype). In most cases, an alanine substitution of a non-polar residue did not abolish gas vesicle formation, but the replacement of single non-polar by charged residues in β1 or β2 resulted in Vac(-) transformants. A replacement of residues near the β-turn altered the spindle-shape to a cylindrical morphology of the gas vesicles. Vac(-) transformants were also obtained with alanine substitutions of charged residues of helix α1 suggesting that these amino acids form salt-bridges with another GvpA monomer. In helix α2, only the alanine substitution of His53 or Tyr54, led to Vac(-) transformants, whereas most other substitutions had no effect. We discuss our results in respect to the GvpA structure and data available from solid-state NMR. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. MAA-1, a novel acyl-CoA-binding protein involved in endosomal vesicle transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Tuck, Simon; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    The budding and fission of vesicles during membrane trafficking requires many proteins, including those that coat the vesicles, adaptor proteins that recruit components of the coat, and small GTPases that initiate vesicle formation. In addition, vesicle formation in vitro is promoted by the hydro...

  14. Planar cell polarity protein localization in the secretory ameloblasts of rat incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2012-05-01

    The localization of the planar cell polarity proteins Vang12, frizzled-3, Vang11, and Celsr1 in the rat incisors was examined using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that Vang12 was localized at two regions of the Tomes' processes of inner enamel-secretory ameloblasts in rat incisors: a proximal and a distal region. In contrast, frizzled-3 was localized at adherens junctions of the proximal and distal areas of inner enamel- and outer enamel-secretory ameloblasts, where N-cadherin and β-catenin were localized. frizzled-3 was also localized in differentiating inner enamel epithelial cells. Vang11 was localized sparsely in differentiating preameloblasts and extensively at the cell boundary of stratum intermedium. Celsr1 was not localized in ameloblasts but localized in odontoblasts extensively. These results suggest the involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis.

  15. Alteration in endometrial proteins during early- and mid-secretory phases of the cycle in women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila

    2014-01-01

    Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8) and mid-secretory (n = 8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin

  16. Alteration in endometrial proteins during early- and mid-secretory phases of the cycle in women with unexplained infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murli Manohar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2 to mid-secretory phase (LH+7, in women with unexplained infertility. METHODS: 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8 and mid-secretory (n = 8 phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4 and mid-secretory (n = 4 phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4 and mid-secretory (n = 4 phase endometrium of fertile women. RESULTS: Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women

  17. Survey of Red Fluorescence Proteins as Markers for Secretory Granule Exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Gandasi

    Full Text Available Fluorescent proteins (FPs have proven to be valuable tools for high-resolution imaging studies of vesicle transport processes, including exo- and endocytosis. Since the pH of the vesicle lumen changes between acidic and neutral during these events, pH-sensitive FPs with near neutral pKa, such as pHluorin, are particularly useful. FPs with pKa>6 are readily available in the green spectrum, while red-emitting pH-sensitive FPs are rare and often not well characterized as reporters of exo- or endocytosis. Here we tested a panel of ten orange/red and two green FPs in fusions with neuropeptide Y (NPY for use as secreted vesicle marker and reporter of dense core granule exocytosis and release. We report relative brightness, bleaching rate, targeting accuracy, sensitivity to vesicle pH, and their performance in detecting exocytosis in live cells. Tandem dimer (td-mOrange2 was identified as well-targeted, bright, slowly bleaching and pH-sensitive FP that performed similar to EGFP. Single exocytosis events were readily observed, which allowed measurements of fusion pore lifetime and the dynamics of the exocytosis protein syntaxin at the release site during membrane fusion and cargo release.

  18. βIII spectrin regulates the structural integrity and the secretory protein transport of the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sicilia, Laia; Granell, Susana; Jovic, Marko; Sicart, Adrià; Mato, Eugenia; Johannes, Ludger; Balla, Tamas; Egea, Gustavo

    2013-01-25

    A spectrin-based cytoskeleton is associated with endomembranes, including the Golgi complex and cytoplasmic vesicles, but its role remains poorly understood. Using new generated antibodies to specific peptide sequences of the human βIII spectrin, we here show its distribution in the Golgi complex, where it is enriched in the trans-Golgi and trans-Golgi network. The use of a drug-inducible enzymatic assay that depletes the Golgi-associated pool of PI4P as well as the expression of PH domains of Golgi proteins that specifically recognize this phosphoinositide both displaced βIII spectrin from the Golgi. However, the interference with actin dynamics using actin toxins did not affect the localization of βIII spectrin to Golgi membranes. Depletion of βIII spectrin using siRNA technology and the microinjection of anti-βIII spectrin antibodies into the cytoplasm lead to the fragmentation of the Golgi. At ultrastructural level, Golgi fragments showed swollen distal Golgi cisternae and vesicular structures. Using a variety of protein transport assays, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi and post-Golgi protein transports were impaired in βIII spectrin-depleted cells. However, the internalization of the Shiga toxin subunit B to the endoplasmic reticulum was unaffected. We state that βIII spectrin constitutes a major skeletal component of distal Golgi compartments, where it is necessary to maintain its structural integrity and secretory activity, and unlike actin, PI4P appears to be highly relevant for the association of βIII spectrin the Golgi complex.

  19. Expression of Clara cell secretory protein in experimental otitis media in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Jin; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2005-01-01

    These results suggest that CCSP is upregulated in OME and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of OME. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) is an abundant 16-kDa homodimeric protein and is secreted by non-ciliated secretory epithelial cells in the lung. It has an important protective role against the intrapulmonary inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CCSP in endotoxin-induced otitis media with effusion (OME) in the rat. We instilled endotoxin and saline (control) into the middle ear cavity of the rat. Middle ear mucosa were taken at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 h and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days, and the expression of both CCSP mRNA and protein were then evaluated using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of CCSP was first identified at 1 h after endotoxin instillation, was dramatically increased between 1 h and Day 1, with maximal expression at 12 h, and then decreased after Day 3. The expression pattern of CCSP protein identified by means of Western blotting was similar to the CCSP mRNA patterns observed using RT-PCR. Expression of CCSP at both mRNA and protein levels was not detected in either normal middle ear mucosa or saline-instilled middle ear mucosa. Immunohistochemistry revealed that some epithelial cells in the middle ear mucosa were stained.

  20. Identification and characterization of secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Na Kyung; Hong, Mi Na; Jung, Seung Hee; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Jae Seon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seong Gil [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Cellular senescence was first described by Hayflick and Moorhead in 1961 who observed that cultures of normal human fibroblasts had a limited replicative potential and eventually became irreversibly arrest. The majority of senescent cells assume a characteristic flattened and enlarged morphological change, senescence associated {beta} alactosidase positivity. Recently a large number of molecular phenotypes such as changes in gene expression, protein processing and chromatin organization have been also described. In contrast to apoptosis, senescence does not destroy the cells but leaves them metabolically and synthetically active and therefore able to affect their microenvironment. In particular, senescent fibroblasts and some cancer cells were found to secrete proteins with known or putative tumor-promoting functions such as growth factors or proteolytic enzymes. However, the knowledge about secreted proteins from senescent tumor cells and their functions to surrounding cells is still lacking. In this study, changes of senescence associated secretory protein expression profile were observed in MCF7 human breast cancer cells exposed to gamma-ray radiation using two dimensional electrophoresis. Also, we identified up-regulated secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence. Here, we show that senescent human breast cancer MCF7 cells promote the proliferation, invasion and migration of neighboring cells

  1. Wolbachia bacteria reside in host Golgi-related vesicles whose position is regulated by polarity proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ok Cho

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis are intracellular symbiotic bacteria extremely common in various organisms including Drosophila melanogaster, and are known for their ability to induce changes in host reproduction. These bacteria are present in astral microtubule-associated vesicular structures in host cytoplasm, but little is known about the identity of these vesicles. We report here that Wolbachia are restricted only to a group of Golgi-related vesicles concentrated near the site of membrane biogenesis and minus-ends of microtubules. The Wolbachia vesicles were significantly mislocalized in mutant embryos defective in cell/planar polarity genes suggesting that cell/tissue polarity genes are required for apical localization of these Golgi-related vesicles. Furthermore, two of the polarity proteins, Van Gogh/Strabismus and Scribble, appeared to be present in these Golgi-related vesicles. Thus, establishment of polarity may be closely linked to the precise insertion of Golgi vesicles into the new membrane addition site.

  2. Cobra venom contains a pool of cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Alexey V; Levashov, Mikhail Yu; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2005-03-04

    A large family of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) includes proteins of different origin, the function of the majority of CRISPs being unknown. For CRISPs isolated from snake venom, two types of activities were found: two proteins blocked cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, several others blocked potassium-stimulated smooth muscle contraction. Thus, snake CRISPs represent potentially valuable tools for studies of ion channels, which makes promising a search for new CRISPs. Here we report on the isolation of several novel CRISPs from the venoms of Asian cobra Naja kaouthia and African cobra Naja haje using a combination of different types of liquid chromatography. Four CRISP variants were identified in N. kaouthia venom and three proteins, one of them acidic, were found in N. haje venom. Acidic CRISP was found in a reptilian venom for the first time. Our data suggest that each cobra venom contains a pool of different CRISPs.

  3. Heterologous Secretory Expression and Characterization of Dimerized Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Hanif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP2 has important applications in the spine fusion and ortho/maxillofacial surgeries. Here we first report the secretory expression of biological active dimerized rhBMP2 from Bacillus subtilis system. The mature domain of BMP2 gene was amplified from pTz57R/BMP2 plasmid. By using pHT43 expression vector two constructs, pHT43-BMP2-M (single BMP2 gene and pHT43-BMP2-D (two BMP2 genes coupled with a linker to produce a dimer, were designed. After primary cloning (DH5α strain and sequence analysis, constructs were transformed into Bacillus subtilis for secretory expression. Expression conditions like media (2xYT and temperature (30°C were optimized. Maximum 35% and 25% secretory expression of monomer (~13 kDa and dimer (~25 kDa, respectively, were observed on SDS-PAGE in SCK6 strain. The expression and dimeric nature of rhBMP2 were confirmed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. For rhBMP2 purification, 200 ml culture supernatant was freeze dried to 10 ml and dialyzed (Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (6 ml, Resource Q column was performed. The rhBMP2 monomer and dimer were eluted at 0.9 M and 0.6 M NaCl, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase assay of rhBMP2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml was analyzed on C2C12 cells and maximum 200 ng/ml activity was observed in dose dependent manner.

  4. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Pugalenthi, Ganesan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe [Centre for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Biology, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Moeller, Steffen [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Suganthan, P.N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Martinetz, Thomas, E-mail: martinetz@inb.uni-luebeck.de [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  5. Transport vesicle tethering at the trans Golgi network: coiled coil proteins in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-yan Patricia Cheung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network. How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress towards understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  6. Vesicle Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, S.; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-07-01

    Amphiphiles, under appropriate conditions, can self-assemble into nanoscale thin membrane vessels (vesicles) that encapsulate and hence protect and transport molecular payloads. Vesicles assemble naturally within cells but can also be artificially synthesized. In this article, we review the mechanisms and applications of light-field interactions with vesicles. By being associated with light-emitting entities (e.g., dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as imaging agents in addition to cargo carriers. Vesicles can also be optically probed on the basis of their nonlinear response, typically from the vesicle membrane. Light fields can be employed to transport vesicles by using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or can directly perturb the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy). We conclude with emerging vesicle applications in biology and photochemical microreactors.

  7. Comparative proteome analysis of secretory proteins from pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Matthias; Wehmhöner, Dirk; Kärst, Uwe; Dieterich, Guido; Wehland, Jürgen; Jänsch, Lothar

    2005-04-01

    Extracellular proteins of bacterial pathogens play a crucial role in the infection of the host. Here we present the first comprehensive validation of the secretory subproteome of the Gram positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes using predictive bioinformatic and experimental proteomic approaches. The previous original signal peptide (SP) prediction (Glaser et al., Science 2001, 294, 849-852) has been greatly improved by an in-depth analysis using seven different bioinformatic tools. Subsequent careful classification of the resulting data gives a probability dependent annotation of 121 putatively secreted proteins of which 45 are novel. Complementary proteomic analysis using both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry has identified 105 proteins in the culture supernatant of L. monocytogenes. Among these, we were able to detect all the currently known virulence factors with an SP showing the importance of this subproteome and demonstrating the reliability of the techniques used. The comparison between the L. monocytogenes wildtype and the nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua was performed to reveal proteins probably involved in pathogenicity and/or the adaptation to their respective lifestyles. In addition to the eight known virulence factors, all of which have no orthologous genes in L. innocua, eight additional proteins have been identified that exhibit the typical key feature defining the known listerial virulence factors. Further significant differences between the two species are evident in the group of cell wall and secretory proteins that warrant further study. Our investigation clearly demonstrates that the major difference between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic species, noted in the comparative genome analysis, manifests itself strongest in the secretome.

  8. Mapping dynamic protein interactions to insulin secretory granule behavior with TIRF-FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Ismail, Sahar; Wu, Ray; Yizhar, Ofer; Passmore, Daniel R; Ernst, Stephen A; Stuenkel, Edward L

    2010-08-09

    Biological processes are governed by extensive networks of dynamic molecular interactions. Yet, establishing a spatial and temporal map of these interactions and their direct relationship to specific cell functions has remained a challenge. Here, we implement sensitized emission Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We demonstrate through quantitative analysis and modeling that evanescent fields must be precisely matched between FRET excitation wavelengths to isolate dynamic interactions between bimolecular FRET pairs that are not entirely membrane-delimited. We then use TIRF-FRET to monitor the behavior of individual insulin-containing secretory granules at the plasma membrane of living cells, while simultaneously tracking the dynamic interaction between the GTPase Rab27A and its effector Slp4A, on those same granules. Notably, insulin granules that underwent exocytosis demonstrated a specific increase in Rab27A-GTP/Slp4A FRET in the 5 s before membrane fusion, which coincided temporally with an increase in granule displacement and mobility. These results demonstrate an initial spatiotemporal mapping of a dynamic protein-protein interaction on individual secretory granules that is linked to a specific granule behavior in living cells. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in domain-assembly : Lessons from giant unilamellar vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahya, Nicoletta

    Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) provide a key model membrane system to study lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, which are relevant to vital cellular processes, by (single-molecule) optical microscopy. Here, we review the work on reconstitution techniques for membrane proteins and other

  10. Speed Controls in Translating Secretory Proteins in Eukaryotes - an Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlab, Shelly; Linial, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Protein translation is the most expensive operation in dividing cells from bacteria to humans. Therefore, managing the speed and allocation of resources is subject to tight control. From bacteria to humans, clusters of relatively rare tRNA codons at the N′-terminal of mRNAs have been implicated in attenuating the process of ribosome allocation, and consequently the translation rate in a broad range of organisms. The current interpretation of “slow” tRNA codons does not distinguish between protein translations mediated by free- or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes. We demonstrate that proteins translated by free- or ER-bound ribosomes exhibit different overall properties in terms of their translation efficiency and speed in yeast, fly, plant, worm, bovine and human. We note that only secreted or membranous proteins with a Signal peptide (SP) are specified by segments of “slow” tRNA at the N′-terminal, followed by abundant codons that are considered “fast.” Such profiles apply to 3100 proteins of the human proteome that are composed of secreted and signal peptide (SP)-assisted membranous proteins. Remarkably, the bulks of the proteins (12,000), or membranous proteins lacking SP (3400), do not have such a pattern. Alternation of “fast” and “slow” codons was found also in proteins that translocate to mitochondria through transit peptides (TP). The differential clusters of tRNA adapted codons is not restricted to the N′-terminal of transcripts. Specifically, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are unified by clusters of low adapted tRNAs codons at the C′-termini. Furthermore, selection of amino acids types and specific codons was shown as the driving force which establishes the translation demands for the secretory proteome. We postulate that “hard-coded” signals within the secretory proteome assist the steps of protein maturation and folding. Specifically, “speed control” signals for delaying the translation

  11. Dystrophin deficiency leads to disturbance of LAMP1-vesicle-associated protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duguez, S.; Duddy, W.; Johnston, H.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from loss of the protein dystrophin, which links the intracellular cytoskeletal network with the extracellular matrix, but deficiency in this function does not fully explain the onset or progression of the disease. While some intracellular events involved...... (SILAC), finding marked enrichment of vesicular markers in the mdx secretome. These included the lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP1, that co-localized in vesicles with an over-secreted cytoskeletal protein, myosin light chain 1. These LAMP1/MLC1-3-positive vesicles accumulated in the cytosol...... of dystrophin leads to a general dysregulation of vesicle trafficking. We hypothesize that disturbance of the export of proteins through vesicles occurs before, and then concurrently with, the myonecrotic cascade and contributes chronically to the pathophysiology of DMD, thereby presenting us with a range...

  12. Human protein secretory pathway genes are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern to match processing demands of the secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Gatto, Francesco; Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    -translational modifications in each tissue's secretome. Our findings conciliate both the housekeeping and tissue-specific nature of the protein secretory pathway, which we attribute to a fine-tuned regulation of defined gene families to support the diversity of secreted proteins and their modifications....

  13. Use of cloned excretory/secretory low-molecular-weight proteins of Cooperia oncophora in a serological assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, J.; Kooyman, F. N.; Dop, P. Y.; Schallig, H. D.; Eysker, M.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    The potential of Cooperia oncophora excretory/secretory (ES) proteins as antigens in a serological assay which aims to establish exposure levels in cattle was assessed. ES proteins were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The N-terminal domains

  14. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Mossuto

    Full Text Available Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC.

  15. Translational regulation of viral secretory proteins by the 5' coding regions and a viral RNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Johan; Petitou, Jeanne; Östbye, Henrik; da Silva, Diogo V; Dou, Dan; Wang, Hao; Daniels, Robert

    2017-08-07

    A primary function of 5' regions in many secretory protein mRNAs is to encode an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting sequence. In this study, we show how the regions coding for the ER-targeting sequences of the influenza glycoproteins NA and HA also function as translational regulatory elements that are controlled by the viral RNA-binding protein (RBP) NS1. The translational increase depends on the nucleotide composition and 5' positioning of the ER-targeting sequence coding regions and is facilitated by the RNA-binding domain of NS1, which can associate with ER membranes. Inserting the ER-targeting sequence coding region of NA into different 5' UTRs confirmed that NS1 can promote the translation of secretory protein mRNAs based on the nucleotides within this region rather than the resulting amino acids. By analyzing human protein mRNA sequences, we found evidence that this mechanism of using 5' coding regions and particular RBPs to achieve gene-specific regulation may extend to human-secreted proteins. © 2017 Nordholm et al.

  16. PI(4,5)P2-binding effector proteins for vesicle exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2014-01-01

    PI(4,5)P2 participates directly in priming and possibly fusion steps of Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis. High concentration nanodomains of PI(4,5)P2 reside on the plasma membrane of neuroendocrine cells. A subset of vesicles that co-localize with PI(4,5)P2 domains appear to undergo preferential exocytosis in stimulated cells. PI(4,5)P2 directly regulates vesicle exocytosis by recruiting and activating PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins that regulate SNARE protein function including CAPS, Munc13-1/2, synaptotagmin-1, and other C2 domain-containing proteins. These PI(4,5)P2 effector proteins are coincidence detectors that engage in multiple interactions at vesicle exocytic sites. The SNARE protein syntaxin-1 also binds to PI(4,5)P2, which promotes clustering, but an activating role for PI(4,5)P2 in syntaxin-1 function remains to be fully characterized. Similar principles underlie polarized constitutive vesicle fusion mediated in part by the PI(4,5)P2-binding subunits of the exocyst complex (Sec3, Exo70). Overall, focal vesicle exocytosis occurs at sites landmarked by PI(4,5)P2, which serves to recruit and/or activate multifunctional PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins. PMID:25280637

  17. PI(4,5)P₂-binding effector proteins for vesicle exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas F J

    2015-06-01

    PI(4,5)P₂participates directly in priming and possibly in fusion steps of Ca²⁺-triggered vesicle exocytosis. High concentration nanodomains of PI(4,5)P₂reside on the plasma membrane of neuroendocrine cells. A subset of vesicles that co-localize with PI(4,5)P₂ domains appear to undergo preferential exocytosis in stimulated cells. PI(4,5)P₂directly regulates vesicle exocytosis by recruiting and activating PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins that regulate SNARE protein function including CAPS, Munc13-1/2, synaptotagmin-1, and other C2 domain-containing proteins. These PI(4,5)P₂effector proteins are coincidence detectors that engage in multiple interactions at vesicle exocytic sites. The SNARE protein syntaxin-1 also binds to PI(4,5)P₂, which promotes clustering, but an activating role for PI(4,5)P₂in syntaxin-1 function remains to be fully characterized. Similar principles underlie polarized constitutive vesicle fusion mediated in part by the PI(4,5)P₂-binding subunits of the exocyst complex (Sec3, Exo70). Overall, focal vesicle exocytosis occurs at sites landmarked by PI(4,5)P2, which serves to recruit and/or activate multifunctional PI(4,5)P₂-binding proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The exocyst subunit Sec3 is regulated by a protein quality control pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Karakostova, Antonina; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie

    2017-01-01

    Exocytosis involves fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, thereby delivering membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. The tethering of the secretory vesicles before membrane fusion is mediated by the exocyst, an essential...

  19. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Tyler M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. Findings All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. Conclusions These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  20. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  1. Cysteine-Rich Secretory Proteins (CRISP and their role in mammalian fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora J Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epididymal protein CRISPI is a member of the CRISP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory proteins family and is involved in sperm-egg fusion through its interaction with complementary sites on the egg surface. Results from our laboratory have shown that this binding ability resides in a 12-amino-acid region corresponding to a highly conserved motif of the CRISP family, named Signature 2 (S2. In addition to this, our results revealed that CRISP1 could also be involved in the previous step of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, identifying a novel role for this protein in fertilization. As another approach to elucidate the participation of CRISP1 in fertilization, a mouse line containing a targeted disruption of CRISP1 was generated. Although CRISP1-deficient mice exhibited normal fertility, CRISP1-defficient sperm presented a decreased level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation, and an impaired ability to fertilize both zona-intact and zona-free eggs in vitro, confirming the proposed roles for the protein in fertilization. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicated that testicular CRISP2 would also be involved in sperm-egg fusion. Competition assays between CRISP1 and CRISP2, as well as the comparison of their corresponding S2 regions, suggest that both proteins bind to common complementary sites in the egg. Together, these results suggest a functional cooperation between CRISP1 and CRISP2 to ensure the success of fertilization.

  2. The BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Controls Vesicle Number and Size in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Jansen, Anna M; de Wit, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) is a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain protein involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Here, we identify a selective role for PICK1 in the biogenesis of large, dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in mouse chromaffin cells. PICK1 colocalized with syntaxin-6......, a marker for immature granules. In chromaffin cells isolated from a PICK1 knockout (KO) mouse the amount of exocytosis was reduced, while release kinetics and Ca(2+) sensitivity were unaffected. Vesicle-fusion events had a reduced frequency and released lower amounts of transmitter per vesicle (i.......e., reduced quantal size). This was paralleled by a reduction in the mean single-vesicle capacitance, estimated by averaging time-locked capacitance traces. EM confirmed that LDCVs were fewer and of markedly reduced size in the PICK1 KO, demonstrating that all phenotypes can be explained by reductions...

  3. Characterization ofTrichuris murissecreted proteins and extracellular vesicles provides new insights into host-parasite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Ramon M; Talukder, Md Hasanuzzaman; Field, Matthew A; Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul; Loukas, Alex; Sotillo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Whipworms are parasitic nematodes that live in the gut of more than 500 million people worldwide. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining parasite material, the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris has been extensively used as a model to study human whipworm infections. These nematodes secrete a multitude of compounds that interact with host tissues where they orchestrate a parasitic existence. Herein we provide the first comprehensive characterization of the excretory/secretory products of T. muris . We identify 148 proteins secreted by T. muris and show for the first time that the mouse whipworm secretes exosome-like extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can interact with host cells. We use an Optiprep® gradient to purify the EVs, highlighting the suitability of this method for purifying EVs secreted by a parasitic nematode. We also characterize the proteomic and genomic content of the EVs, identifying >350 proteins, 56 miRNAs (22 novel) and 475 full-length mRNA transcripts mapping to T. muris gene models. Many of the miRNAs putatively mapped to mouse genes are involved in regulation of inflammation, implying a role in parasite-driven immunomodulation. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, colonic organoids have been used to demonstrate the internalization of parasite EVs by host cells. Understanding how parasites interact with their host is crucial to develop new control measures. This first characterization of the proteins and EVs secreted by T. muris provides important information on whipworm-host communication and forms the basis for future studies.

  4. Characterisation of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicle subtypes identifies distinct protein and lipid signatures for large and small extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcin, Maëva; Fleury, Audrey; Taillebois, Emiliane; Hilairet, Grégory; Krupova, Zuzana; Henry, Céline; Truchet, Sandrine; Trötzmüller, Martin; Köfeler, Harald; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Hue, Olivier; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martin, Patrice; Le Lay, Soazig

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells. Adipocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation of conditioned media collected from 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured for 24 h in serum-free conditions. Based on morphological and biochemical properties, as well as quantification of secreted EVs, we distinguished two subpopulations of adipocyte-derived EVs, namely small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and large extracellular vesicles (lEVs). Proteomic analyses revealed that lEVs and sEVs exhibit specific protein signatures, allowing us not only to define novel markers of each population, but also to predict their biological functions. Despite similar phospholipid patterns, the comparative lipidomic analysis performed on these EV subclasses revealed a specific cholesterol enrichment of the sEV population, whereas lEVs were characterised by high amounts of externalised phosphatidylserine. Enhanced secretion of lEVs and sEVs is achievable following exposure to different biological stimuli related to the chronic low-grade inflammation state associated with obesity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of primary murine adipocytes to secrete sEVs and lEVs, which display physical and biological characteristics similar to those described for 3T3-L1. Our study provides additional information and elements to define EV subtypes based on the characterisation of adipocyte-derived EV populations. It also underscores the need to distinguish EV subpopulations, through a combination of multiple

  5. Altered synthesis of some secretory proteins in pancreatic lobules isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, R.D.; Erlanson-Albertsson, C. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro incorporation of (35S)cysteine into lipase, colipase, amylase, procarboxypeptidase A and B, and the serine proteases and total proteins was studied in pancreatic lobules isolated from normal and diabetic rats with or without insulin treatment. The incorporation of (35S)cysteine into total proteins was 65% greater in pancreatic lobules from diabetic animals than from normal rats. The increased incorporation was partly reversed by insulin treatment (2 U/100 g/day for 5 days) of diabetic rats. The relative rates of biosynthesis for amylase and the procarboxypeptidases in diabetic pancreatic lobules were decreased by 75 and 25%, respectively, after 1 h of incubation, while those for lipase, colipase, and the serine proteases were increased by 90, 85, and 35%, respectively. The absolute rates of synthesis for these enzymes changed in the same direction as the relative rates in diabetic lobules, except that for the procarboxypeptidases, which did not change. The changed rates of biosynthesis for the pancreatic enzymes were reversed by insulin treatment of the diabetic rats. Kinetic studies showed that the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into amylase, lipase, and colipase was linear until up to 2 h of incubation in normal pancreatic lobules, while in the diabetic lobules the incorporation into lipase and colipase was accelerated, reaching a plateau level already after 1 h of incubation. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of pancreatic secretory proteins in diabetic rats is greatly changed both in terms of quantity and kinetics.

  6. Sorting of a HaloTag protein that has only a signal peptide sequence into exocrine secretory granules without protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Yokoyama, Megumi; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu

    2013-11-15

    The mechanism involved in the sorting and accumulation of secretory cargo proteins, such as amylase, into secretory granules of exocrine cells remains to be solved. To clarify that sorting mechanism, we expressed a reporter protein HaloTag fused with partial sequences of salivary amylase protein in primary cultured parotid acinar cells. We found that a HaloTag protein fused with only the signal peptide sequence (Met(1)-Ala(25)) of amylase, termed SS25H, colocalized well with endogenous amylase, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Percoll-density gradient centrifugation of secretory granule fractions shows that the distributions of amylase and SS25H were similar. These results suggest that SS25H is transported to secretory granules and is not discriminated from endogenous amylase by the machinery that functions to remove proteins other than granule cargo from immature granules. Another reporter protein, DsRed2, that has the same signal peptide sequence also colocalized with amylase, suggesting that the sorting to secretory granules is not dependent on a characteristic of the HaloTag protein. Whereas Blue Native PAGE demonstrates that endogenous amylase forms a high-molecular-weight complex, SS25H does not participate in the complex and does not form self-aggregates. Nevertheless, SS25H was released from cells by the addition of a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, which also induces amylase secretion. These results indicate that addition of the signal peptide sequence, which is necessary for the translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum, is sufficient for the transportation and storage of cargo proteins in secretory granules of exocrine cells.

  7. The TIP30 protein complex, arachidonic acid and coenzyme A are required for vesicle membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengliang Zhang

    Full Text Available Efficient membrane fusion has been successfully mimicked in vitro using artificial membranes and a number of cellular proteins that are currently known to participate in membrane fusion. However, these proteins are not sufficient to promote efficient fusion between biological membranes, indicating that critical fusogenic factors remain unidentified. We have recently identified a TIP30 protein complex containing TIP30, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 and Endophilin B1 (Endo B1 that promotes the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles, which transport endosomal acidification enzymes vacuolar (H⁺-ATPases (V-ATPases to the early endosomes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the TIP30 protein complex facilitates the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles in vitro. Fusion of the two vesicles also depends on arachidonic acid, coenzyme A and the synthesis of arachidonyl-CoA by ACSL4. Moreover, the TIP30 complex is able to transfer arachidonyl groups onto phosphatidic acid (PA, producing a new lipid species that is capable of inducing close contact between membranes. Together, our data suggest that the TIP30 complex facilitates biological membrane fusion through modification of PA on membranes.

  8. Bacterial lipid modification of proteins requires appropriate secretory signals even for expression - implications for biogenesis and protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subramani; Balamurali, M M; Sankaran, Krishnan

    2014-09-01

    Sec- and Tat-mediated bacterial lipid modification of proteins are important posttranslational processes owing to their vital roles in cellular functions, membrane targeting and biotechnological applications like ELISA, biosensor, adjuvant-free vaccines, liposomal drug delivery etc. However a better understanding of the tight coupling of secretory and lipid modification machineries and the processes associated will help unravel this essential biological event and utilize it for engineering applications. Further, there is a need for a systematic and convincing investigation into membrane targeting, solubilization and ease-of-purification of engineered lipoproteins to facilitate scientists in readily applying this new protein engineering tool. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated systematically recombinant expression, translocation, solubilization and purification of three White Spot Syndrome Viral (WSSV) proteins, ICP11, VP28 and VP281. Our study shows that the lipid modification and secretion processes are tightly coupled to the extent that mismatch between folding kinetics and signal sequence of target proteins could lead to transcriptional-translational uncoupling or aborted translation. The proteins expressed as lipoproteins through Tat-pathway were targeted to the inner membrane achieving considerable enrichment. These His-tagged proteins were then purified to apparent homogeneity in detergent-free form using single-step Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography. This study has interesting findings in lipoprotein biogenesis enhancing the scope of this unique post-translational protein engineering tool for obtaining pure detergent-free, membrane or hydrophobic surface-associating diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates for WSSV.

  9. Endocytic proteins drive vesicle growth via instability in high membrane tension environment

    CERN Document Server

    Walani, Nikhil; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key pathway for transporting cargo into cells via membrane vesicles. It plays an integral role in nutrient import, signal transduction, neurotransmission and cellular entry of pathogens and drug-carrying nanoparticles. As CME entails substantial local remodeling of the plasma membrane, the presence of membrane tension offers resistance to bending and hence, vesicle formation. Experiments show that in such high tension conditions, actin dynamics is required to carry out CME successfully. In this study, we build upon these pioneering experimental studies to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the roles of two key endocytic proteins, namely, actin and BAR proteins in driving vesicle formation in high membrane tension environment. Our study reveals a new actin force induced `snap-through instability' that triggers a rapid shape transition from a shallow invagination to a highly invaginated tubular structure. We show that the association of BAR proteins stabilizes...

  10. Club cell secretory protein improves survival in a murine obliterative bronchiolitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Christine; Tram, Kevin; Price, Andrew; England, Kristen; Stiehm, Andrew; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2013-11-01

    Club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is an indirect phospholipase A2 inhibitor with some immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties that is expressed in bronchiolar Club cells. In our murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) model of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), CCSP is diminished; however, its role is unknown. To determine the role of CCSP, B6 wild-type (WT) or CCSP-deficient (CCSP(-/-)) mice were lethally conditioned and given allogeneic bone marrow with a sublethal dose of allogeneic splenic T cells to induce OB. We found that CCSP(-/-) mice demonstrated a higher mortality following BMT-induced OB compared with WT mice. Mice were analyzed 60 days post-BMT for protein expression, pulmonary function, and histology. CCSP levels were reduced in WT mice with BMT-induced OB, and lower levels correlated to decreased lung compliance. CCSP(-/-) had a higher degree of injury and fibrosis as measured by hydroxy proline, along with an increased lung resistance and the inflammatory markers, leukotriene B4 and CXCL1. Replacement with recombinant intravenous CCSP partially reversed the weight loss and improved survival in the CCSP(-/-) mice. In addition, CCSP replacement improved histology and decreased inflammatory cells and markers. These findings indicate that CCSP has a regulatory role in OB and may have potential as a preventive therapy.

  11. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  12. Vesicle Docking Is a Key Target of Local PI(4,5)P2 Metabolism in the Secretory Pathway of INS-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen; Fan, Fan; Lou, Xuelin

    2017-08-08

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) signaling is transient and spatially confined in live cells. How this pattern of signaling regulates transmitter release and hormone secretion has not been addressed. We devised an optogenetic approach to control PI(4,5)P2 levels in time and space in insulin-secreting cells. Combining this approach with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we examined individual vesicle-trafficking steps. Unlike long-term PI(4,5)P2 perturbations, rapid and cell-wide PI(4,5)P2 reduction in the plasma membrane (PM) strongly inhibits secretion and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses, but not sytaxin1a clustering. Interestingly, local PI(4,5)P2 reduction selectively at vesicle docking sites causes remarkable vesicle undocking from the PM without affecting [Ca2+]i. These results highlight a key role of local PI(4,5)P2 in vesicle tethering and docking, coordinated with its role in priming and fusion. Thus, different spatiotemporal PI(4,5)P2 signaling regulates distinct steps of vesicle trafficking, and vesicle docking may be a key target of local PI(4,5)P2 signaling in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The puzzle of chloroplast vesicle transport – involvement of GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazzad eKarim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cytosol of plant cells vesicle transport occurs via secretory pathways among the endoplasmic reticulum (ER network, Golgi bodies, secretory granules, endosome and plasma membrane. Three systems transfer lipids, proteins and other important molecules through aqueous spaces to membrane-enclosed compartments, via vesicles that bud from donor membranes, being coated and uncoated before tethered and fused with acceptor membranes. In addition, molecular, biochemical and ultrastructural evidence indicates presence of a vesicle transport system in chloroplasts. Little is known about the protein components of this system. However, as chloroplasts harbour the photosynthetic apparatus that ultimately supports most organisms on the planet, close attention to their pathways is warranted. This may also reveal novel diversification and/or distinct solutions to the problems posed by the targeted intra-cellular trafficking of important molecules. To date two homologues to well-known yeast cytosolic vesicle transport proteins, CPSAR1 and CPRabA5e, have been shown to have roles in chloroplast vesicle transport, both being GTPases. Bioinformatic data indicate that several homologues of cytosolic vesicle transport system components are putatively chloroplast-localized and in addition other proteins have been implicated to participate in chloroplast vesicle transport, including vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1 (VIPP1, thylakoid formation 1 (THF1, snowy cotyledon 2/cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor (SCO2/CYO1, curvature thylakoid 1 (CURT1 proteins, and a dynamin like GTPase FZO-like (FZL protein. Several putative potential cargo proteins have also been identified, including building blocks of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we discuss details of the largely unknown putative chloroplast vesicle transport system, focusing on GTPase-related components.

  14. Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Naegleria fowleri Induce Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kang, Jung-Mi; Kim, Tae Im; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that is found in diverse environmental habitats, can cause a type of fulminating hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, but it is likely to be primarily caused by disruption of the host's nervous system via a direct phagocytic mechanism by the amoeba. Naegleria fowleri trophozoites are known to secrete diverse proteins that may indirectly contribute to the pathogenic function of the amoeba, but this factor is not clearly understood. In this study, we analyzed the inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells induced by excretory and secretory proteins of N. fowleri (NfESP). Treatment of BV-2 cells with NfESP induced the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α expression in BV-2 cells were regulated by p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α production in BV-2 cells were effectively downregulated by inhibition of NF-kB and AP-1. These results collectively suggest that NfESP stimulates BV-2 cells to release IL-1α and TNF-α via NF-kB- and AP-1-dependent MAPK signaling pathways. The released cytokines may contribute to inflammatory responses in microglia and other cell types in the brain during N. fowleri infection. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. The effect of vesicle shape, line tension, and lateral tension on membrane-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jaime B.

    Model membranes allow for the exploration of complex biological phenomena with simple, controllable components. In this thesis we employ model membranes to determine the effect of vesicle properties such as line tension, lateral tension, and shape on membrane-binding proteins. We find that line tension at the boundary between domains in a phase separated vesicle can accumulate model membrane-binding proteins (green fluorescent protein with a histidine tag), and that those proteins can, in turn, alter vesicle shape. These results suggest that domains in biological membranes may enhance the local concentration of membrane-bound proteins and thus alter protein function. We also explore how membrane mechanical and chemical properties alter the function of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin, a membrane-binding protein implicated in endocytosis. We find that negatively charged lipids are necessary for N-BAR binding to membranes at detectable levels, and that, at least for some lipid species, binding may be cooperative. Measurements of N-BAR binding as a function of vesicle tension reveal that modest membrane tension of around 2 mN/m, corresponding to a strain of around 1%, strongly increases N-BAR binding. We attribute this increase in binding with tension to the insertion of N-BAR's N-terminal amphipathic helix into the membrane which increases the membrane area. We propose that N-BAR, which was previously described as being able to sense membrane curvature, may be sensing strain instead. Measurements of membrane deformation by N-BAR as a function of membrane tension reveal that tension can hinder membrane deformation. Thus, tension may favor N-BAR binding yet suppress membrane deformation/tubulation, which requires work against tension. These results suggest that membrane tension, a parameter that is often not controlled in model membranes but is tightly controlled in biological cells, may be important in regulating protein binding and assembly and, hence, protein

  16. Nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms: Transcriptional profiling of secretory proteins and the implication for the protein corona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Engelmann, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have identified lysenin as a key protein constituent of the secretome from Eisenia fetida coelomocytes and revealed its critical importance in priming interactions between the cells and the protein corona around nanosilver. As alterations of the protein environment can directly affect...... the corona composition, the extent to which nanoparticles influence the cells’ protein secretion profile is of remarkable interest that has rarely acquired attention. Here, we have probed transcriptional responses of E. fetida coelomocytes to the representative nanosilver NM-300K (15 nm) in a time...... suppressed over time indicating a negative feedback cycle. This may limit further enrichment of lysenin in the corona and thereby decrease the lysenin-assisted uptake of the nanoparticles. Other differentially expressed genes were those involved in metal stress (likewise in AgNO3-stressed cells) and in Toll...

  17. RIM Proteins Activate Vesicle Priming by Reversing Auto-Inhibitory Homodimerization of Munc13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lunbin; Kaeser, Pascal S.; Xu, Wei; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    At a synapse, the presynaptic active zone mediates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. RIM proteins are active-zone scaffolding molecules that – among others – mediate vesicle priming, and directly or indirectly interact with most other essential presynaptic proteins. In particular, the Zn2+-finger domain of RIMs binds to the C2A-domain of the priming factor Munc13, which forms a homodimer in the absence of RIM, but a heterodimer with it. Here we show that RIMs mediate vesicle priming not by coupling Munc13 to other active zone proteins as thought, but by directly activating Munc13. Specifically, we found that the isolated Zn2+-finger domain of RIMs autonomously promotes vesicle priming by binding to Munc13, thereby relieving Munc13 homodimerization. Strikingly, constitutively monomeric mutants of Munc13 rescued priming in RIM-deficient synapses, whereas wild-type Munc13 did not. Both mutant and wild-type Munc13, however, rescued priming in Munc13-deficient synapses. Thus, homodimerization of Munc13 inhibits its priming function, and RIMs activate priming by disrupting Munc13 homodimerization. PMID:21262469

  18. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stacey L; Yorks, Rosalina M; Morrison, Logan M; Hoover, Christopher M; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Secretory proteins are delivered to the septin-organized penetration interface during root infection by Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2017-01-01

    Successful infection of the host requires secretion of effector proteins to evade or suppress plant immunity. Secretion of effectors in root-infecting fungal pathogens, however, remains unexplored. We previously reported that Verticillium dahliae, a root-infecting phytopathogenic fungus, develops a penetration peg from a hyphopodium to infect cotton roots. In this study, we report that a septin ring, requiring VdSep5, partitions the hyphopodium and the invasive hypha and form the specialized fungus-host interface. The mutant strain, VdΔnoxb, in which NADPH oxidase B (VdNoxB) is deleted, impaired formation of the septin ring at the hyphal neck, indicating that NADPH oxidases regulate septin ring organization. Using GFP tagging and live cell imaging, we observed that several signal peptide containing secreted proteins showed ring signal accumulation/secretion at the penetration interface surrounding the hyphal neck. Targeted mutation for VdSep5 reduced the delivery rate of secretory proteins to the penetration interface. Blocking the secretory pathway by disrupting the vesicular trafficking factors, VdSec22 and VdSyn8, or the exocyst subunit, VdExo70, also arrested delivery of the secreted proteins inside the hyphopodium. Reduced virulence was observed when cotton roots were infected with VdΔsep5, VdΔsec22, VdΔsyn8 and VdΔexo70 mutants compared to infection with the isogenic wild-type V592. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the hyphal neck is an important site for protein secretion during plant root infection, and that the multiple secretory routes are involved in the secretion. PMID:28282450

  20. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm

  1. Personal exposure to fine particulate matter, lung function and serum club cell secretory protein (Clara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Shi, Jingjin; Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Lin, Zhijing; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Niu, Yue; Xia, Yongjie; Zhao, Zhuohui; Li, Weihua; Kan, Haidong

    2017-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms about the association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and lung function were unclear. Few epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential mediating effects of serum club cell secretory protein (Clara) (CC16), a biomarker of pulmonary epithelium integrity. To evaluate the short-term effect of personal PM 2.5 exposure on lung function and to explore the potential mediating role of CC16 in this effect. We enrolled 36 healthy, nonsmoking college students for a panel study in Shanghai, China from December 17, 2014 to July 11, 2015. We measured personal and real-time exposure to PM 2.5 for 72 h preceding each of four rounds of health examinations, including lung function test and serum CC16 measurement. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the effects of PM 2.5 on lung function and CC16 over various lag times. Furthermore, we analyzed the mediating effect of CC16 in the association between PM 2.5 and lung function. Average PM 2.5 exposure ranged from 36 to 52 μg/m3 across different lag periods. PM 2.5 exposure was negatively associated with lung function and positively associated with serum CC16 concentration. The effect of PM 2.5 on CC16 occurred earlier than that on lung function. For instance, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 0-2 h average exposure to PM 2.5 was significantly associated with a 4.84% increase in serum CC16; and an IQR increase in 3-6 h average exposure to PM 2.5 was significantly associated with a 1.08% decrease in 1-sec forced expiratory volume. These effects lasted up to 24 h after exposure. Increased serum CC16 contributed 3.9%-36.3% of the association between PM 2.5 and impaired lung function. Acute exposure to PM 2.5 might induce an immediate decrease in lung function by virtue of the loss of pulmonary epithelium integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of Coatomer Cage Proteins and the Relationship among COPI, COPII, and Clathrin Vesicle Coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changwook; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)

    2010-09-13

    COPI-coated vesicles form at the Golgi apparatus from two cytosolic components, ARF G protein and coatomer, a heptameric complex that can polymerize into a cage to deform the membrane into a bud. Although coatomer shares a common evolutionary origin with COPII and clathrin vesicle coat proteins, the architectural relationship among the three cages is unclear. Strikingly, the {alpha}{beta}-COP core of coatomer crystallizes as a triskelion in which three copies of a {beta}-COP {beta}-propeller domain converge through their axial ends. We infer that the trimer constitutes the vertex of the COPI cage. Our model proposes that the COPI cage is intermediate in design between COPII and clathrin: COPI shares with clathrin an arrangement of three curved {alpha}-solenoid legs radiating from a common center, and COPI shares with COPII highly similar vertex interactions involving the axial ends of {beta}-propeller domains.

  3. Isolation of High-Purity Extracellular Vesicles by Extracting Proteins Using Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmin; Shin, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jiyoon; Kim, Junho; Park, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple and rapid method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs) by using a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). This system isolated more than ~75% of melanoma-derived EVs from a mixture of EVs and serum proteins. To increase the purity of EVs, a batch procedure was combined as additional steps to remove protein contaminants, and removed more than ~95% of the protein contaminants. We also performed RT-PCR and western blotting to verify the diagnostic applicability of the isolated EVs, and detected mRNA derived from melanoma cells and CD81 in isolated EVs. PMID:26090684

  4. Isolation of High-Purity Extracellular Vesicles by Extracting Proteins Using Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmin Kim

    Full Text Available We present a simple and rapid method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs by using a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. This system isolated more than ~75% of melanoma-derived EVs from a mixture of EVs and serum proteins. To increase the purity of EVs, a batch procedure was combined as additional steps to remove protein contaminants, and removed more than ~95% of the protein contaminants. We also performed RT-PCR and western blotting to verify the diagnostic applicability of the isolated EVs, and detected mRNA derived from melanoma cells and CD81 in isolated EVs.

  5. Botulinum neurotoxin D uses synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and gangliosides as receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Peng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs include seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G that target presynaptic terminals and act as proteases cleaving proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Here we identified synaptic vesicle protein SV2 as the protein receptor for BoNT/D. BoNT/D enters cultured hippocampal neurons via synaptic vesicle recycling and can bind SV2 in brain detergent extracts. BoNT/D failed to bind and enter neurons lacking SV2, which can be rescued by expressing one of the three SV2 isoforms (SV2A/B/C. Localization of SV2 on plasma membranes mediated BoNT/D binding in both neurons and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, chimeric receptors containing the binding sites for BoNT/A and E, two other BoNTs that use SV2 as receptors, failed to mediate the entry of BoNT/D suggesting that BoNT/D binds SV2 via a mechanism distinct from BoNT/A and E. Finally, we demonstrated that gangliosides are essential for the binding and entry of BoNT/D into neurons and for its toxicity in vivo, supporting a double-receptor model for this toxin.

  6. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Buck, Amy H; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Knox, David P; McNeilly, Tom N

    2016-05-15

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  8. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 is a synapsin I-binding protein regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synapsin I trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Kimberly D; Lumsden, Amanda L; Guo, Feng; Duffield, Michael D; Chataway, Timothy; Lim, Yoon; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Keating, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (HAP1) is involved in intracellular trafficking, vesicle transport, and membrane receptor endocytosis. However, despite such diverse functions, the role of HAP1 in the synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle in nerve terminals remains unclear. Here, we report that HAP1 functions in SV exocytosis, controls total SV turnover and the speed of vesicle fusion in nerve terminals and regulates glutamate release in cortical brain slices. We found that HAP1 interacts with synapsin I, an abundant neuronal phosphoprotein that associates with SVs during neurotransmitter release and regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. The interaction between HAP1 with synapsin I was confirmed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins. Furthermore, HAP1 co-localizes with synapsin I in cortical neurons as discrete puncta. Interestingly, we find that synapsin I localization is specifically altered in Hap1(-/-) cortical neurons without an effect on the localization of other SV proteins. This effect on synapsin I localization was not because of changes in the levels of synapsin I or its phosphorylation status in Hap1(-/-) brains. Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in transfected neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-synapsin Ia demonstrates that loss of HAP1 protein inhibits synapsin I transport. Thus, we demonstrate that HAP1 regulates SV exocytosis and may do so through binding to synapsin I. The Proposed mechanism of synapsin I transport mediated by HAP1 in neurons. HAP1 interacts with synapsin I, regulating the trafficking of synapsin I containing vesicles and/or transport packets, possibly through its engagement of microtubule motors. The absence of HAP1 reduces synapsin I transport and neuronal exocytosis. These findings provide insights into the processes of neuronal trafficking and synaptic signaling. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. High abundance of Serine/Threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-O-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background O-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. It consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to Ser or Thr residues in the protein backbone via O-glycosidic bonds. Secretory proteins in fungi frequently display Ser/Thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive O-glycosylation. We have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (Botrytis cinerea, Magnaporthe grisea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Ustilago maydis, Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma reesei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in search of Ser/Thr-rich regions as well as regions predicted to be highly O-glycosylated by NetOGlyc (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk. Results By comparison with experimental data, NetOGlyc was found to overestimate the number of O-glycosylation sites in fungi by a factor of 1.5, but to be quite reliable in the prediction of highly O-glycosylated regions. About half of secretory proteins have at least one Ser/Thr-rich region, with a Ser/Thr content of at least 40% over an average length of 40 amino acids. Most secretory proteins in filamentous fungi were predicted to be O-glycosylated, sometimes in dozens or even hundreds of sites. Residues predicted to be O-glycosylated have a tendency to be grouped together forming hyper-O-glycosylated regions of varying length. Conclusions About one fourth of secretory fungal proteins were predicted to have at least one hyper-O-glycosylated region, which consists of 45 amino acids on average and displays at least one O-glycosylated Ser or Thr every four residues. These putative highly O-glycosylated regions can be found anywhere along the proteins but have a slight tendency to be at either one of the two ends.

  10. Chromogranin A regulates vesicle storage and mitochondrial dynamics to influence insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollam, Joshua; Mahata, Sumana; Riopel, Matthew; Hernandez-Carretero, Angelina; Biswas, Angshuman; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Chi, Nai-Wen; Eiden, Lee E; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Corti, Angelo; Webster, Nicholas J G; Mahata, Sushil K

    2017-06-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells. CgA deficiency in Chga-KO islets leads to compensatory overexpression of chromogranin B, secretogranin II, SNARE proteins and insulin genes, as well as increased insulin protein content. Ultrastructural studies of pancreatic islets revealed that Chga-KO β-cells contain fewer immature secretory granules than wild-type (WT) control but increased numbers of mature secretory granules and plasma membrane-docked vesicles. Compared to WT control, CgA-deficient β-cells exhibited increases in mitochondrial volume, numerical densities and fusion, as well as increased expression of nuclear encoded genes (Ndufa9, Ndufs8, Cyc1 and Atp5o). These changes in secretory vesicles and the mitochondria likely contribute to the increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion observed in Chga-KO mice. We conclude that CgA is an important regulator for coordination of mitochondrial dynamics, secretory vesicular quanta and GSIS for optimal secretory functioning of β-cells, suggesting a strong, CgA-dependent positive link between mitochondrial fusion and GSIS.

  11. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  12. Fusogenicity of Naja naja atra cardiotoxin-like basic protein on sphingomyelin vesicles containing oxidized phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Chen, Ying-Jung; Yang, Shin-Yi; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) and cholesterol (Chol) on Naja naja atra cardiotoxin-like basic protein (CLBP)-induced fusion and leakage in sphingomyelin (SM) vesicles. Compared with those on PC/SM/Chol vesicles, CLBP showed a lower activity to induce membrane permeability but a higher fusogenicity on oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles. A reduction in inner-leaflet fusion elucidated that CLBP fusogenicity was not in parallel to its membrane-leakage activity on oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles. The lipid domain formed by Chol and SM supported CLBP fusogenicity on oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles, while oxPC altered the interacted mode of CLBP with oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles as evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses and colorimetric phospholipid/polydiacetylene membrane assay. Although CLBP showed similar binding affinity with PC/SM/Chol and oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles, the binding capability of CLBP with PC/SM/Chol and oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles was affected differently by NaCl. This emphasized that CLBP adopted different membrane interaction modes upon binding with PC/SM/Chol and oxPC/SM/Chol vesicles. CLBP induced fusion in vesicles containing oxPC bearing the aldehyde group, and aldehyde scavenger methoxyamine abrogated the CLBP ability to induce oxPC/SM/Chol fusion. Taken together, our data indicate that Chol and oxPC bearing aldehyde group alter the CLBP membrane-binding mode, leading to fusogenicity promotion while reducing the membrane-damaging activity of CLBP.

  13. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host’s immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Methods Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. Results The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. Conclusions 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis. PMID

  14. The interplay of Hrd3 and the molecular chaperone system ensures efficient degradation of malfolded secretory proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Martin; Sommermeyer, Franziska; Berger, Maren; Kumar Lakshmipathy, Sathish; Gauss, Robert; Aebi, Markus; Jarosch, Ernst; Sommer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are extracted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), polyubiquitylated by a protein complex termed the Hmg-CoA reductase degradation ligase (HRD-ligase), and degraded by cytosolic 26S proteasomes. This process is termed ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We previously showed that the membrane protein Der1, which is a subunit of the HRD-ligase, is involved in the export of aberrant polypeptides from the ER. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a close spatial proximity of Der1 and the substrate receptor Hrd3 in the ER lumen. We report here on a mutant Hrd3KR that is selectively defective for ERAD of soluble proteins. Hrd3KR displays subtle structural changes that affect its positioning toward Der1. Furthermore, increased quantities of the ER-resident Hsp70-type chaperone Kar2 and the Hsp40-type cochaperone Scj1 bind to Hrd3KR. Of note, deletion of SCJ1 impairs ERAD of model substrates and causes the accumulation of client proteins at Hrd3. Our data imply a function of Scj1 in the removal of malfolded proteins from the receptor Hrd3, which facilitates their delivery to downstream-acting components like Der1. PMID:25428985

  15. ACCUMULATION OF RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINSECRETORY ANALOG OF Ag85B AND ESAT6 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS PROTEINS – IN TRANSGENIC Lemna minor L. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.Peterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the presence of the recombinant fusion protein (ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His and its accumulation level in duckweed plants (Lemna minor L. was the aim of the research. ESAT6 and Ag85B are secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are considered as potential candidates for development of new vaccine against tuberculosis (TB. Transgenic duckweed plants were obtained previously by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and possessed fusion gene sequence esxA-fbpBΔTMD. Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced in immunized mice to identify levels of accumulation of TB antigens in plants. Recombinant antigen used for mice immunization was obtained in our laboratory by expression in E. coli. Western blot analysis revealed the recombinant tuberculosis antigen ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His in extracts from transgenic L. minor plants. The level of accumulation of the protein corresponds to 0.4-0.5 µg protein per 1 g of fresh weight of plant. Additionally, the accumulation of recombinant protein was investigated in lyophilized transgenic plants after 1.5 year storage. Duckweed plants accumulating a recombinant analogue of M. tuberculosis secretory proteins can be used for development of plant-based edible vaccines.

  16. Analyses of advanced rice anther transcriptomes reveal global tapetum secretory functions and potential proteins for lipid exine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Cheng-Cheih; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; Huang, Anthony H C

    2009-02-01

    The anthers in flowers perform important functions in sexual reproduction. Several recent studies used microarrays to study anther transcriptomes to explore genes controlling anther development. To analyze the secretion and other functions of the tapetum, we produced transcriptomes of anthers of rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) at six progressive developmental stages and pollen with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. The transcriptomes included at least 18,000 unique transcripts, about 25% of which had antisense transcripts. In silico anther-minus-pollen subtraction produced transcripts largely unique to the tapetum; these transcripts include all the reported tapetum-specific transcripts of orthologs in other species. The differential developmental profiles of the transcripts and their antisense transcripts signify extensive regulation of gene expression in the anther, especially the tapetum, during development. The transcriptomes were used to dissect two major cell/biochemical functions of the tapetum. First, we categorized and charted the developmental profiles of all transcripts encoding secretory proteins present in the cellular exterior; these transcripts represent about 12% and 30% of the those transcripts having more than 100 and 1,000 transcripts per million, respectively. Second, we successfully selected from hundreds of transcripts several transcripts encoding potential proteins for lipid exine synthesis during early anther development. These proteins include cytochrome P450, acyltransferases, and lipid transfer proteins in our hypothesized mechanism of exine synthesis in and export from the tapetum. Putative functioning of these proteins in exine formation is consistent with proteins and metabolites detected in the anther locule fluid obtained by micropipetting.

  17. APache Is an AP2-Interacting Protein Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking and Neuronal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Alessandra; Castroflorio, Enrico; Valente, Pierluigi; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Aprile, Davide; Michetti, Caterina; Bramini, Mattia; Giansante, Giorgia; Pinto, Bruno; Savardi, Annalisa; Cesca, Fabrizia; Bachi, Angela; Cattaneo, Angela; Wren, Jonathan D; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio; Giovedì, Silvia

    2017-12-19

    Synaptic transmission is critically dependent on synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. Although the precise mechanisms of SV retrieval are still debated, it is widely accepted that a fundamental role is played by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a form of endocytosis that capitalizes on the clathrin/adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) coat and several accessory factors. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized protein KIAA1107, predicted by bioinformatics analysis to be involved in the SV cycle, is an AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein (APache). We found that APache is highly enriched in the CNS and is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles via interaction with AP2. APache-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of maturation at early developmental stages, reduced SV density, enlarged endosome-like structures, and defects in synaptic transmission, consistent with an impaired clathrin/AP2-mediated SV recycling. Our data implicate APache as an actor in the complex regulation of SV trafficking, neuronal development, and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. APache Is an AP2-Interacting Protein Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking and Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piccini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission is critically dependent on synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. Although the precise mechanisms of SV retrieval are still debated, it is widely accepted that a fundamental role is played by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a form of endocytosis that capitalizes on the clathrin/adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2 coat and several accessory factors. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized protein KIAA1107, predicted by bioinformatics analysis to be involved in the SV cycle, is an AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein (APache. We found that APache is highly enriched in the CNS and is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles via interaction with AP2. APache-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of maturation at early developmental stages, reduced SV density, enlarged endosome-like structures, and defects in synaptic transmission, consistent with an impaired clathrin/AP2-mediated SV recycling. Our data implicate APache as an actor in the complex regulation of SV trafficking, neuronal development, and synaptic plasticity.

  19. Integrating Protein Engineering and Bioorthogonal Click Conjugation for Extracellular Vesicle Modulation and Intracellular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Altinoglu, Sarah; Takeda, Yuji S; Xu, Qiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are small, cell-secreted vesicles that transfer proteins and genetic information between cells. This intercellular transmission regulates many physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, exosomes have emerged as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis and as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Here, we report an easy-to-adapt and highly versatile methodology to modulate exosome composition and conjugate exosomes for intracellular delivery. Our strategy combines the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins or glycan/glycoproteins of exosome-secreting cells with active azides and bioorthogonal click conjugation to modify and functionalize the exosomes. The azide-integrated can be conjugated to a variety of small molecules and proteins and can efficiently deliver conjugates into cells. The metabolic engineering of exosomes diversifies the chemistry of exosomes and expands the functions that can be introduced into exosomes, providing novel, powerful tools to study the roles of exosomes in biology and expand the biomedical potential of exosomes.

  20. Immunogenicity of recombinant class 1 protein from Neisseria meningitidis refolded into phospholipid vesicles and detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, O; Alvarez, A; Martín, A; Rodríguez, A; Delgado, M; Falcón, V; Guillén, G

    2001-05-14

    The possibility of eliciting bactericidal antibodies against a recombinant class 1 protein (P1) from Neisseria meningitidis, joined to the first 45 amino acids of the neisserial LpdA protein (PM82), was examined. P1 was produced in Escherichia coli as intracellular inclusion bodies, from which it was purified and reconstituted by (a) inclusion into phospholipid vesicles and detergent and (b) refolding in 0.1% SDS. When Balb/c mice were immunised, high titres of subtype-specific bactericidal antibodies against P1 were obtained in both cases. These results suggest that in spite of being a denaturing agent, it is possible to use SDS to reconstitute the P1 protein in a conformation that exposes the immunodominat regions.

  1. Extracellular vesicle-derived protein from Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jang, Min Seong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sook Jin; Yun, Chang Ho; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Ham, Jun-Sang; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of food allergies has increased dramatically during the last decade. Recently, probiotics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. We examined whether Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 and Enterococcus faecalis KACC 91532 have the capacity to suppress food allergies. B longum KACC 91563 and E faecalis KACC 91532 were administered to BALB/c wild-type mice, in which food allergy was induced by using ovalbumin and alum. Food allergy symptoms and various immune responses were assessed. B longum KACC 91563, but not E faecalis KACC 91532, alleviated food allergy symptoms. Extracellular vesicles of B longum KACC 91563 bound specifically to mast cells and induced apoptosis without affecting T-cell immune responses. Furthermore, injection of family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein, a main component of extracellular vesicles, into mice markedly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in a mouse food allergy model. B longum KACC 91563 induces apoptosis of mast cells specifically and alleviates food allergy symptoms. Accordingly, B longum KACC 91563 and family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein exhibit potential as therapeutic approaches for food allergies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Alexey M., E-mail: fysio@rambler.ru; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F., E-mail: guzik121192@mail.ru; Yakovleva, Anastasia A., E-mail: nastya1234qwer@mail.ru; Zefirov, Andrei L., E-mail: zefiroval@rambler.ru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  3. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Nazarul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Hu, Chuan, E-mail: chuan.hu@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  4. Extracellular vesicles: a platform for the structure determination of membrane proteins by Cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Vasishtan, Daven; Siebert, C Alistair; Whittle, Cathy; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-11-04

    Membrane protein-enriched extracellular vesicles (MPEEVs) provide a platform for studying intact membrane proteins natively anchored with the correct topology in genuine biological membranes. This approach circumvents the need to conduct tedious detergent screens for solubilization, purification, and reconstitution required in classical membrane protein studies. We have applied this method to three integral type I membrane proteins, namely the Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cell fusion proteins AFF-1 and EFF-1 and the glycoprotein B (gB) from Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). Electron cryotomography followed by subvolume averaging allowed the 3D reconstruction of EFF-1 and HSV1 gB in the membrane as well as an analysis of the spatial distribution and interprotein interactions on the membrane. MPEEVs have many applications beyond structural/functional investigations, such as facilitating the raising of antibodies, for protein-protein interaction assays or for diagnostics use, as biomarkers, and possibly therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001)

  6. Novel method for isolation of murine clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells with traces of stemness.

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    Xiao-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Clara cells are non-ciliated, secretory bronchiolar epithelial cells that serve to detoxify harmful inhaled substances. Clara cells also function as stem/progenitor cells for repair in the bronchioles. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP is specifically expressed in pulmonary Clara cells and is widely used as a Clara cell marker. In addition CCSP promoter is commonly used to direct gene expression into the lung in transgenic models. The discovery of CCSP immunoreactivity in plasma membranes of airway lining cells prompted us to explore the possibility of enriching Clara cells by flow cytometry. We established a novel and simple method for the isolation of CCSP-expressing cell Clara cells using a combination of mechanical and enzymatic dissociation followed by flow cytometry sorting technology. We showed that ∼25% of dissociated cells from whole lung expressed CCSP. In the resulting preparation, up to 98% of cells expressed CCSP. Notably, we found that several common stem cell markers including CD44, CD133, Sca-1 and Sox2 were expressed in CCSP(+ cells. Moreover, CCSP(+ cells were able to form spheroid colonies in vitro with 0.97‰ efficiency. Parallel studies in vivo confirmed that a small population of CCSP(-expressing cells in mouse airways also demonstrates stem cell-like properties such as label retention and harboring rare bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs in terminal bronchioles (TBs. We conclude that CCSP(+ cells exhibit a number of stem cell-like features including stem cell marker expression, bronchosphere colony formation and self-renewal ability. Clara cell isolation by flow cytometry sorting is a useful method for investigating the function of primary Clara cells in stem cell research and mouse models.

  7. Urinary extracellular vesicles as reservoirs of altered proteins during the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Raj, Delfin A A; Fiume, Immacolata; Vilasi, Annalisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Capasso, Giovambattista

    2015-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) might reflect the pathophysiological state of urinary system; and that EVs-induced ciliary signaling is a possible mechanism of intercellular communication within the tract. Here, we aimed to analyze the protein expression of urinary EVs during autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). EVs were isolated from pooled urine samples of healthy control and ADPKD patients at two different stages of the disease and under tolvaptan treatment using the double-cushion ultracentrifugation method. Proteins were identified and quantified by iTRAQ and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT)-based quantitative proteomics. Quantitative analyses identified 83 differentially expressed EV proteins. Many of these have apical membrane origin and are involved in signal transduction pathways of primary cilia, Ca(2+) -activated signaling, cell-cycle regulation, and cell differentiation. The reduced AQP-2 and the increased APO-A1 levels observed in all ADPKD-affected groups may reflects the impaired renal concentrating capability of these patients and correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate decline. The levels of some upregulated proteins involved in Ca(2+) -activated signaling declined upon tolvaptan treatment. The results obtained suggest that the quantitative proteomics of urinary EVs might be useful to monitor proteins difficult to access noninvasively, and thus advance our understanding of urinary tract physiology and pathology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. AFM/TIRF force clamp measurements of neurosecretory vesicle tethers reveal characteristic unfolding steps.

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    Mark C Harris

    Full Text Available Although several proteins have been implicated in secretory vesicle tethering, the identity and mechanical properties of the components forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link remain unknown. Here we present the first experimental measurements of nanomechanical properties of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane tethers using combined AFM force clamp and TIRF microscopy on membrane sheets from PC12 cells expressing the vesicle marker ANF-eGFP. Application of pulling forces generated tether extensions composed of multiple steps with variable length. The frequency of short (<10 nm tether extension events was markedly higher when a fluorescent vesicle was present at the cantilever tip and increased in the presence of GTPγS, indicating that these events reflect specifically the properties of vesicle-plasma membrane tethers. The magnitude of the short tether extension events is consistent with extension lengths expected from progressive unfolding of individual helices of the exocyst complex, supporting its direct role in forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link.

  9. AFM/TIRF force clamp measurements of neurosecretory vesicle tethers reveal characteristic unfolding steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark C; Cislo, Dillon; Lenz, Joan S; Umbach, Christopher; Lindau, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Although several proteins have been implicated in secretory vesicle tethering, the identity and mechanical properties of the components forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link remain unknown. Here we present the first experimental measurements of nanomechanical properties of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane tethers using combined AFM force clamp and TIRF microscopy on membrane sheets from PC12 cells expressing the vesicle marker ANF-eGFP. Application of pulling forces generated tether extensions composed of multiple steps with variable length. The frequency of short (<10 nm) tether extension events was markedly higher when a fluorescent vesicle was present at the cantilever tip and increased in the presence of GTPγS, indicating that these events reflect specifically the properties of vesicle-plasma membrane tethers. The magnitude of the short tether extension events is consistent with extension lengths expected from progressive unfolding of individual helices of the exocyst complex, supporting its direct role in forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link.

  10. Motor neuron disease-associated mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) B recruits wild-type VAPs into endoplasmic reticulum-derived tubular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, Eva; Ahmed, Suaad; Haasdijk, Elize; Demmers, Jeroen; Steinmetz, Michel O; Akhmanova, Anna; Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2007-01-01

    The vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins (VAPs) VAPA and VAPB interact with lipid-binding proteins carrying a short motif containing two phenylalanines in an acidic tract (FFAT motif) and targets them to the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A genetic mutation

  11. Dirofilaria immitis exhibits sex- and stage-specific differences in excretory/secretory miRNA and protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritten, Lucienne; Clarke, Damian; Timmins, Scott; McTier, Tom; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-12-15

    The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D. immitis molecules previously detected in dog blood and in culture medium, but add additional insight into the sex- and stage-specificity of these processes. Of 131 miRNA candidates analyzed, none of the most abundant sequences was exclusively associated with one stage. Several isoforms of the nematode miR-100 family, miR-279, miR-71, were highly represented and overlapped substantially with the profile of heartworm miRNAs described from infected dog blood. lin-4 was primarily associated with males. We also report 4, 27 and 72 proteins in media from microfilariae, females and males, respectively. The only protein in common to all samples was actin, and only 9/88 proteins with a gene ontology description had not been reported in other studies of filarial secretomes. Exosomal proteins were well represented, dominated by cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, zeta polypeptide, and chaperones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ATM protein is located on presynaptic vesicles and its deficit leads to failures in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Graham; Cheng, Aifang; Han, Yu Ray; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl; Plummer, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a multisystemic disorder that includes a devastating neurodegeneration phenotype. The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein is well-known for its role in the DNA damage response, yet ATM is also found in association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures: endosomes and lysosomes, as well as neuronal synaptic vesicles. In keeping with this latter association, electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway in hippocampal slices from ATM-deficient mice does not elicit normal long-term potentiation (LTP). The current study was undertaken to assess the nature of this deficit. Theta burst-induced LTP was reduced in Atm(-/-) animals, with the reduction most pronounced at burst stimuli that included 6 or greater trains. To assess whether the deficit was associated with a pre- or postsynaptic failure, we analyzed paired-pulse facilitation and found that it too was significantly reduced in Atm(-/-) mice. This indicates a deficit in presynaptic function. As further evidence that these synaptic effects of ATM deficiency were presynaptic, we used stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ATM is significantly more closely associated with Piccolo (a presynaptic marker) than with Homer1 (a postsynaptic marker). These results underline how, in addition to its nuclear functions, ATM plays an important functional role in the neuronal synapse where it participates in the regulation of presynaptic vesicle physiology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Glomerular expression of plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein-1 in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, I; Horita, S; Takahashi, T; Tanabe, K; Fuchinoue, S; Teraoka, S; Hattori, M; Yamaguchi, Y

    2007-08-01

    Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is a prominent feature of chronic rejection that is characterized by double contours of the glomerular capillaries (GC). In this report, we demonstrate that one of the histopathological features of TG is a phenotypic change of glomerular endothelial cells which is illustrated by increased caveolae formation. To verify the endothelial changes in this disease, we examined the expression of plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV-1), a glycoprotein associated with plasmalemmal vesicles (caveolae), in the glomeruli of TG patients using pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium (PAL-E) antibody. Twenty-six cases of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) with TG were examined, compared with 16 cases of CAN without TG, type I MPGN (4 cases), and transplant glomerulitis (8 cases). Overall, 24 of 26 (92.3%), 4 of 16 (25%), 0 of 4, 0 of 8 cases were PAL-E-positive for GC, respectively. Further, the extent of glomerular PAL-E expression was positively correlated with both the grade of TG (rs= 0.72, p = 0.0003) and proteinuria (g/day) (rs= 0.51, p = 0.02). A correlation was not observed between glomerular PAL-E positivity and peritubular capillary C4d deposits (Yetes chi = 0.23, p = 0.89). In summary, the present study demonstrates expression of PV-1 in the GC of TG which is correlated with the grade of TG and proteinuria.

  14. Histological and histochemical characterization of the secretory cells of Choeradoplana iheringi Graff, 1899 (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola

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    S. A. de Souza

    Full Text Available The present study aims at providing a detailed description of the histology, as well as the first histochemical characterization, of the secretory cells of the epidermis, pharynx, and copulatory organs of Choeradoplana iheringi, in order to give further support to studies on the physiology of these organs. The secretory cells are distinguished on the basis of secretion morphology and its staining properties, using trichrome methods and histochemical reactions. Four cell types open through the epidermis of Ch. iheringi, three of them secreting basic protein and a fourth containing glycosaminoglycan mucins. The epidermal lining cells store glycogen. In the pharynx, four secretory cell types were distinguished. Two types produce glycoprotein, a third type secretes basic protein, and another one produces glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the male copulatory organs, the prostatic vesicle receives four secretory cell types containing basic protein, except for one type which produces glycoprotein. The two secretory cell types opening into the male atrium secrete, respectively, glycoprotein, and glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the female copulatory organs, the female atrium and its proximal diverticulum, the vagina, receive two types of secretory cells producing, respectively, basic protein and glycosaminoglycan mucins. Another secretory cell type constitutes the so-called shell glands which open into the common glandular duct, secreting basic protein. The lining cells of the male and female atria produce a mucous secretion containing glycosaminoglycans. In addition, the lining epithelium of the female atrium presents an apical secretion of a proteic nature. The occurrence of a kind of spermatophore is reported for the first time for a species of Choeradoplana. This structure is located in the male or female atria in different specimens, and characterized by erythrophil, xanthophil, and/or mixed secretions associated with sperm.

  15. Characterization of the DMAE-modified juvenile excretory-secretory protein Juv-p120 of Litomosoides sigmodontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ulrike; Hirzmann, Jörg; Hintz, Martin; Beck, Ewald; Geyer, Rudolf; Hobom, Gerd; Taubert, Anja; Zahner, Horst

    2011-04-01

    Juv-p120 is an excretory-secretory 160 kDa glycoprotein of juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis and exhibits features typical for mucins. 50% of its molecular mass is attributed to posttranslational modifications with the unusual substituent dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). By that Juv-p120 corresponds to the surface proteins of the microfilarial sheath, Shp3 and Shp3a. The secreted protein consists of 697 amino acids, organized in two different domains of repeat elements separated by a stretch of polar residues. The N-terminal domain shows fourteen P/S/T/F-rich repeat elements highly modified with phospho-DMAE substituted O-glycans confering a negative charge to the protein. The C-terminal domain is extremely rich in glutamine (35%) and leucine (25%) in less organized repeats and may play a role in oligomerization of Juv-p120 monomers. A protein family with a similar Q/L-rich region and conserved core promoter region was identified in Brugia malayi by homology screening and in Wuchereria bancrofti and Loa loa by database similarity search. One of the Q/L-rich proteins in each genus has an extended S/T-rich region and due to this feature is supposed to be a putative Juv-p120 ortholog. The corresponding modification of Juv-p120 and the microfilarial sheath surface antigens Shp3/3a explains the appearance of anti-sheath antibodies before the release of microfilariae. The function of Juv-p120 is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic potential of larval excretory/secretory proteins of the pig whipworm Trichuris suis in allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Hepworth, M R; Rausch, S; Janek, K; Niewienda, A; Kühl, A; Henklein, P; Lucius, R; Hamelmann, E; Hartmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are currently being evaluated as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of chronic human inflammatory disorders, due to their unique ability to induce immunoregulatory pathways in their hosts. In particular, administration of ova from the pig whipworm Trichuris suis (T. suis; TSO) has been proposed for the treatment of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Despite these advances, the biological pathways through which TSO therapy modulates the host immune system in the context of human disease remain undefined. We characterized the dominant proteins present in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of first-stage (L1) T. suis larvae (Ts E/S) using LC-MS/MS analysis and examined the immunosuppressive properties of whole larval Ts E/S in vitro and in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Administration of larval Ts E/S proteins in vivo during the allergen sensitization phase was sufficient to suppress airway hyperreactivity, bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrate and allergen-specific IgE production. Three proteins in larval Ts E/S were unambiguously identified. The immunomodulatory function of larval Ts E/S was found to be partially dependent on the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the released proteins of larval T. suis have significant immunomodulatory capacities and efficiently dampen allergic airway hyperreactivity. Thus, the therapeutic potential of defined larval E/S proteins should be exploited for the treatment of human allergic disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diagnosis of Fasciola infection by SDS–PAGE eluted excretory secretory (ES protein fractions using dot-ELISA

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    M.A. Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is now recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease in Egypt. Diagnosis in suspected patients still needs some degree of accuracy. In the present study, three Fasciola gigantica execratory secretory (ES protein bands of molecular weight (MW ranging from 14 to 20 kDa, 25 to 32 kDa and 45 to 65 kDa were eluted after fractionation of the parasite antigen using SDS–PAGE. The extracted kDa protein bands were concentrated and evaluated in diagnosis of Fasciola infection. Moreover the level of their cross reaction with other parasitic infections in infected and suspected patients of known parasite eggs/gram stool was evaluated using the dot-ELISA technique. Protein bands in the range of 14–20 kDa and that of 25–32 kDa were markedly specific and sensitive in diagnosis of different levels of anti-Fasciola antibodies (Ab in sera of infected cases. These two groups of bands were able to exclude cross-reaction between anti-Fasciola Ab and other parasites recorded in stool of selected patients suffering from Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris, and Giardia, either in single or mixed conditions with Fasciola eggs. While that of 45–65 kDa appeared less specific than the other previously mentioned bands. Protein bands in the range of 25–32 kDa appeared more sensitive than the other protein bands in detection of anti-Fasciola Ab at higher serum dilutions. The Dot-ELISA technique was proved to be more economic and easy in application. The dotted very small amount of antigens can be stored in a freezer and used at request in diagnosis of large numbers of samples.

  18. Proteomics analysis of vesicles isolated from plasma and urine of prostate cancer patients using a multiplex, aptamer-based protein array

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    Joanne Louise Welton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics analysis of biofluid-derived vesicles holds enormous potential for discovering non-invasive disease markers. Obtaining vesicles of sufficient quality and quantity for profiling studies has, however, been a major problem, as samples are often replete with co-isolated material that can interfere with the identification of genuine low abundance, vesicle components. Here, we used a combination of ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate and analyse vesicles of plasma or urine origin. We describe a sample-handling workflow that gives reproducible, quality vesicle isolations sufficient for subsequent protein profiling. Using a semi-quantitative aptamer-based protein array, we identified around 1,000 proteins, of which almost 400 were present at comparable quantities in plasma versus urine vesicles. Significant differences were, however, apparent with elements like HSP90, integrin αVβ5 and Contactin-1 more prevalent in urinary vesicles, while hepatocyte growth factor activator, prostate-specific antigen–antichymotrypsin complex and many others were more abundant in plasma vesicles. This was also applied to a small set of specimens collected from men with metastatic prostate cancer, highlighting several proteins with the potential to indicate treatment refractory disease. The study provides a practical platform for furthering protein profiling of vesicles in prostate cancer, and, hopefully, many other disease scenarios.

  19. BPI Fold-Containing Family A Member 2/Parotid Secretory Protein Is an Early Biomarker of AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Satya K; Pernicone, Elizabeth; Leaf, David E; Stillman, Isaac E; Waikar, Sushrut S; Kota, Savithri Balasubramanian

    2017-12-01

    AKI is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and an important contributor to the development and progression of CKD. Molecular biomarkers that improve the detection and prognostication of AKI are therefore required. We assessed the utility as such of BPI fold-containing family A member 2 (BPIFA2), also known as parotid secretory protein, which we identified via a multiplex quantitative proteomics screen of acutely injured murine kidneys. In physiologic conditions, BPIFA2 is expressed specifically in the parotid glands and is abundant in salivary secretions. In our study, AKI induced Bpifa2 expression in the kidneys of mice within 3 hours. Furthermore, we detected BPIFA2 protein in plasma and urine in these models as early as 6 hours after injury. However, renal injury did not induce the expression of Bpifa2 in mice lacking Nur77 , an immediate early gene expressed in the kidneys during AKI. Notably, patients with AKI had higher blood and urine levels of BPIFA2 than did healthy individuals. Together, our results reveal that BPIFA2 is a potential early biomarker of AKI. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Trichinella spiralis Adult Worm Excretory-Secretory Proteins Recognized by Sera of Patients with Early Trichinellosis

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    Zhong Q. Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used serodiagnostic antigens for trichinellosis are the excretory-secretory (ES antigens from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML, but the specific antibodies against the ML ES antigens are usually negative during early stage of Trichinella infection. The recent studies demonstrated that T. spiralis adult worm (AW antigens were recognized by mouse or swine infection sera on Western blot as early as 7–15 days post-infection (dpi, the AW antigens might contain the early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. The purpose of this study was to screen early diagnostic antigens in T. spiralis AW ES proteins recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis. T. spiralis AW were collected at 72 h post-infection (hpi, and their ES antigens were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Our results showed that 5 protein bands (55, 48–50, 45, 44, and 36 kDa were recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis collected at 19 dpi, and were subjected to shotgun LC–MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. A total of 185 proteins were identified from T. spiralis protein database, of which 116 (67.2% proteins had molecular weights of 30∼60 kDa, and 125 (67.6% proteins with pI 4–7. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the identified proteins have a wide diversity of biological functions (binding of nucleotides, proteins, ions, carbohydrates, and lipids; hydrolase, transferase, and oxidoreductase, etc.. Several enzymes (e.g., adult-specific DNase II, serine protease and serine protease inhibitor could be the invasion-related proteins and early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. Moreover, recombinant T. spiralis serine protease (rTsSP-ZH68 was expressed in E. coli and its antigenicity was analyzed by Western blot with the early infection sera. The rTsSP-ZH68 was recognized by sera of infected mice at 8–10 dpi and sera of early patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi. T. spiralis AW proteins identified in this study, especially serine

  1. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To impr...

  2. Modular Integrated Secretory System Engineering in Pichia pastoris To Enhance G-Protein Coupled Receptor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Katrien; Vandewalle, Kristof; Laukens, Bram; Laeremans, Toon; Vosters, Olivier; Langer, Ingrid; Parmentier, Marc; Steyaert, Jan; Callewaert, Nico

    2016-10-21

    Membrane protein research is still hampered by the generally very low levels at which these proteins are naturally expressed, necessitating heterologous expression. Protein degradation, folding problems, and undesired post-translational modifications often occur, together resulting in low expression levels of heterogeneous protein products that are unsuitable for structural studies. We here demonstrate how the integration of multiple engineering modules in Pichia pastoris can be used to increase both the quality and the quantity of overexpressed integral membrane proteins, with the human CXCR4 G-protein coupled receptor as an example. The combination of reduced proteolysis, enhanced ER folding capacity, GlycoDelete-based N-Glycan trimming, and nanobody-based fold stabilization improved the expression of this GPCR in P. pastoris from a low expression level of a heterogeneously glycosylated, proteolyzed product to substantial quantities (2-3 mg/L shake flask culture) of a nonproteolyzed, homogeneously glycosylated proteoform. We expect that this set of tools will contribute to successful expression of more membrane proteins in a quantity and quality suitable for functional and structural studies.

  3. Regulation of HIV-Gag Expression and Targeting to the Endolysosomal/Secretory Pathway by the Luminal Domain of Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP-1) Enhance Gag-Specific Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Carolina Gonçalves de Oliveira; Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz Santos; Sato, Maria Notomi; Maciel, Milton; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; August, J. Thomas; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a DNA vaccine encoding HIV-p55gag in association with the lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) elicited a greater Gag-specific immune response, in comparison to a DNA encoding the native gag. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that LAMP/Gag was highly expressed and was present in MHCII containing compartments in transfected cells. In this study, the mechanisms involved in these processes and the relative contributions of the increased expression and altered traffic for the enhanced immune response were addressed. Cells transfected with plasmid DNA constructs containing p55gag attached to truncated sequences of LAMP-1 showed that the increased expression of gag mRNA required p55gag in frame with at least 741 bp of the LAMP-1 luminal domain. LAMP luminal domain also showed to be essential for Gag traffic through lysosomes and, in this case, the whole sequence was required. Further analysis of the trafficking pathway of the intact LAMP/Gag chimera demonstrated that it was secreted, at least in part, associated with exosome-like vesicles. Immunization of mice with LAMP/gag chimeric plasmids demonstrated that high expression level alone can induce a substantial transient antibody response, but targeting of the antigen to the endolysosomal/secretory pathways was required for establishment of cellular and memory response. The intact LAMP/gag construct induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cell response, which presence at the time of immunization was required for CD8+ T cell priming. LAMP-mediated targeting to endolysosomal/secretory pathway is an important new mechanistic element in LAMP-mediated enhanced immunity with applications to the development of novel anti-HIV vaccines and to general vaccinology field. PMID:24932692

  4. Crovirin, a snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP with promising activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M Adade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania.Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8 column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10-2.38 µg/ml. A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells.This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases.

  5. Crovirin, a snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) with promising activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adade, Camila M; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia O; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Costa, Tatiana F R; Godinho, Joseane L; Melo, Paulo A; Lima, Ana Paula C A; Rodrigues, Juliany C F; Zingali, Russolina B; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2014-10-01

    The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv) snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania. Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8) column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10-2.38 µg/ml). A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml) of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: localization in secretory granules of Paneth cells in the mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    in closer detail the synthesis and storage of LBP in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, we performed an immunolocalization of LBP in mouse small intestine. By immunofluorescence microscopy, an antibody recognizing the 58-60 kDa protein of LBP distinctly labeled a small population of cells located deep......Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study...... together with other proteins acting in the innate immune response of the gut, such as lysozyme, defensins and intelectin....

  7. Immunoproteomic Analysis of the Excretory-Secretory Proteins from Spirometra Mansoni Sparganum

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    Zhong Quan Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sparganosis is caused by the invasion of Spirometra sparganum into various tissues/organs. Subcutaneous sparganosis can be diagnosed by biopsy, while visceral/cerebral sparganosis is not easy to be diagnosed. The diagnosis de­pends largely on the detection of specific anti-sparganum antibodies. The specific­ity of the ELISA could be increased by using S. mansoni sparganum excretory–secre­tory (ES antigens, but it also had the cross-reactions with sera of patients with cysticercosis or paragonimiasis. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens in S. mansoni sparganum ES proteins.Methods: The sparganum ES proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophore­sis (2-DE and Western blot probed with early sera from infected mice at 14 days post-infection. The immunoreactive protein spots were characterized by MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS.Results: A total of approximately 149 proteins spots were detected with isoelectric point (pI varying from 3 to 7.5 and molecular weight from 20 to 115 kDa and seven protein spots with molecular weight of 23-31 kDa were recognized by the infection sera. Three of seven spots were successfully identified and characterized as the same S. mansoni protein (cysteine protease, and the proteins of other 4 spots were not included in the databases.Conclusion: The cysteine protease from S. mansoni ES proteins recognized by early infection sera might be the early diagnostic antigens for sparganosis.

  8. Mycobacterial excretory secretory-31 protein with serine protease and lipase activities: An immunogen and drug target against tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinath, Bhaskar C

    2016-12-01

    patients suspected of TB attending Kasturba Hospital-a tertiary health care center. The characterization of ES-31 antigen protein showed that ES-31 is a 31-kDa protein antigen with zinc containing serine protease as well as lipase activities and shown to be a chymotrypsin-like protein which has the catalytic triad responsible for both the activities. Addition of serine protease inhibitors: (1) pefabloc; (2) 3,4 dichloroisocoumarin; (3) phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (53-76%); and metallo-protease inhibitors: (1) EDTA; (2) 1,10 phenanthroline (46-61%), lipase inhibitor, orlistat (61%), or anti-ES-31 serine protease antibody (89%) inhibited the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra growth in axenic culture which is further confirmed by a decreased amount of ES-31 protein secreted in the culture filtrate. The importance of excretory secretory ES-31 protein for the survival of MTB H37Ra and H37Rv bacilli has been shown by 77% and 78% growth inhibition in macrophage culture by protease inhibitor pefabloc and was further confirmed by the enhancement of growth of TB bacilli in the presence of ES-31. Inhibition of ES-31 leads to the growth inhibition of MTB bacilli, suggesting that ES-31 is important for entry and multiplication of bacilli and an important drug target for exploring new drugs for TB based on protease and lipase activities of ES-31 protein. Copyright © 2016.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Pex3 contain membrane vesicles that harbor a subset of peroxisomal membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Justyna P; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Yuan, Wei; Schummer, Andreas; Chuartzman, Silvia G; de Boer, Rinse; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat; Warscheid, Bettina; Erdmann, Ralf; van der Klei, Ida J

    2017-10-01

    Pex3 has been proposed to be important for the exit of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) from the ER, based on the observation that PMPs accumulate at the ER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pex3 mutant cells. Using a combination of microscopy and biochemical approaches, we show that a subset of the PMPs, including the receptor docking protein Pex14, localizes to membrane vesicles in S. cerevisiae pex3 cells. These vesicles are morphologically distinct from the ER and do not co-sediment with ER markers in cell fractionation experiments. At the vesicles, Pex14 assembles with other peroxins (Pex13, Pex17, and Pex5) to form a complex with a composition similar to the PTS1 import pore in wild-type cells. Fluorescence microscopy studies revealed that also the PTS2 receptor Pex7, the importomer organizing peroxin Pex8, the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Pex4 with its recruiting PMP Pex22, as well as Pex15 and Pex25 co-localize with Pex14. Other peroxins (including the RING finger complex and Pex27) did not accumulate at these structures, of which Pex11 localized to mitochondria. In line with these observations, proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the docking proteins and Pex5, also Pex7, Pex4/Pex22 and Pex25 were present in Pex14 complexes isolated from pex3 cells. However, formation of the entire importomer was not observed, most likely because Pex8 and the RING proteins were absent in the Pex14 protein complexes. Our data suggest that peroxisomal membrane vesicles can form in the absence of Pex3 and that several PMPs can insert in these vesicles in a Pex3 independent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. liver-enriched gene 1a and 1b encode novel secretory proteins essential for normal liver development in zebrafish.

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    Changqing Chang

    Full Text Available liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1 is a liver-enriched gene in zebrafish and encodes a novel protein. Our preliminary data suggested that Leg1 is probably involved in early liver development. However, no detailed characterization of Leg1 has been reported thus far. We undertook both bioinformatic and experimental approaches to study leg1 gene structure and its role in early liver development. We found that Leg1 identifies a new conserved protein superfamily featured by the presence of domain of unknown function 781 (DUF781. There are two copies of leg1 in zebrafish, namely leg1a and leg1b. Both leg1a and leg1b are expressed in the larvae and adult liver with leg1a being the predominant form. Knockdown of Leg1a or Leg1b by their respective morpholinos specifically targeting their 5'-UTR each resulted in a small liver phenotype, demonstrating that both Leg1a and Leg1b are important for early liver development. Meanwhile, we found that injection of leg1-ATG(MO, a morpholino which can simultaneously block the translation of Leg1a and Leg1b, caused not only a small liver phenotype but hypoplastic exocrine pancreas and intestinal tube as well. Further examination of leg1-ATG(MO morphants with early endoderm markers and early hepatic markers revealed that although depletion of total Leg1 does not alter the hepatic and pancreatic fate of the endoderm cells, it leads to cell cycle arrest that results in growth retardation of liver, exocrine pancreas and intestine. Finally, we proved that Leg1 is a secretory protein. This intrigued us to propose that Leg1 might act as a novel secreted regulator that is essential for liver and other digestive organ development in zebrafish.

  11. The role of human epididymis secretory protein E4 in patients with endometrial cancer and premalignant endometrial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Setenay Arzu; Altınkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Kerimoglu, Özlem Seçilmiş; Tazegül Pekin, Aybike; Akyürek, Fikret; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Benzer, Nilgün; Unlu, Ali; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Cetin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the concentrations of human epididymis secretory protein E4 (HE4) and Ca-125 in relation to clinicopathologic features in patients with endometrial cancer and premalignant endometrial lesions. Women with abnormal uterine bleeding (n = 167) who underwent endometrial sampling were divided into four groups. Group 1: endometrial cancer (n = 68), group 2: atypical endometrial hyperplasia (n = 12), group 3: endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (n = 39) and group 4: controls (n = 48). Women with endometrial cancer exhibited higher concentrations of HE4 levels than controls (91.4 pmol/L vs. 46.2 pmol/L, p endometrial cancer were 72.7%, 84.4%, 80% and 78.4%, respectively. Preoperative HE4 levels are more elevated in women with endometrial cancer than those with benign endometrium as well as in women with prognostic high-risk factors with endometrial cancer. HE4 may be used as an additional marker in combination with other clinicopathologic features for planning the treatment.

  12. Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent innate immune response via membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, So Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Tae In; Lee, Je Chul; Lee, Yoo Chul

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly becoming a major nosocomial pathogen. This opportunistic pathogen secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that interact with host cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of A. baumannii OMVs to elicit a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and the immunopathology in response to A. baumannii OMVs in vivo. OMVs derived from A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T) induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and chemokine genes, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Disintegration of OMV membrane with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, as compared with the response to intact OMVs. In addition, proteinase K-treated A. baumannii OMVs did not induce significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes above the basal level, suggesting that the surface-exposed membrane proteins in intact OMVs are responsible for pro-inflammatory response. Early inflammatory processes, such as vacuolization and detachment of epithelial cells and neutrophilic infiltration, were clearly observed in lungs of mice injected with A. baumannii OMVs. Our data demonstrate that OMVs produced by A. baumannii elicit a potent innate immune response, which may contribute to immunopathology of the infected host.

  13. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors, some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs.

  14. Vesicle amine transport protein-1 (VAT-1) is upregulated in glioblastomas and promotes migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsch, S; Becker, M; Lichota, A; Paulus, W; Senner, V

    2009-08-01

    Diffuse invasion of single-glioma cells is the main obstacle to successful therapy of these tumours. After identifying vesicle amine transport protein-1 (VAT-1) as being upregulated in invasive human gliomas, we study its possible function in glioblastoma cell migration. Based on data obtained from previous oligonucleotide arrays, we investigated expression of VAT-1 in glioblastoma tissue and cell lines on mRNA levels using reverse transcriptase PCR. Furthermore, we examined the amount and localization of VAT-1 protein using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Using small interfering RNA technology we repressed VAT-1 expression in human glioma cell lines and analysed their migration using wound healing and transwell migration assays. Increased VAT-1 mRNA and protein levels were found in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines compared with normal human brain. Small interfering RNA-mediated VAT-1 knockdown led to significantly reduced migration of human glioma cells. VAT-1 is overexpressed in glioblastomas and functionally involved in glioma cell migration, representing a new component involved in glioma invasion

  15. The neurosecretory vesicle protein phogrin functions as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase to regulate insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caromile, Leslie A; Oganesian, Anush; Coats, Scott A; Seifert, Ronald A; Bowen-Pope, Daniel F

    2010-04-02

    Phogrin is a transmembrane protein expressed in cells with stimulus-coupled peptide hormone secretion, including pancreatic beta cells, in which it is localized to the membrane of insulin-containing dense-core vesicles. By sequence, phogrin is a member of the family of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatases, but it contains substitutions in conserved catalytic sequences, and no significant enzymatic activity for phogrin has ever been reported. We report here that phogrin is able to dephosphorylate specific inositol phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate and PI 4,5-diphosphate but not PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate. The phosphatidylinositol phosphatase (PIPase) activity of phogrin was measurable but low when evaluated by the ability of a catalytic domain fusion protein to hydrolyze soluble short-chain phosphatidylinositol phospholipids. Unlike most PIPases, which are cytoplasmic proteins that associate with membranes, mature phogrin is a transmembrane protein. When the transmembrane form of phogrin was overexpressed in mammalian cells, it reduced plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-disphosphate levels in a dose-dependent manner. When purified and assayed in vitro, the transmembrane form had a specific activity of 142 mol/min/mol, 75-fold more active than the catalytic domain fusion protein and comparable with the specific activities of the other PIPases. The PIPase activity of phogrin depended on the catalytic site cysteine and correlated with effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We propose that phogrin functions as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase that contributes to maintaining subcellular differences in levels of PIP that are important for regulating stimulus-coupled exocytosis of insulin.

  16. Prions on the run: How extracellular vesicles serve as delivery vehicles for self-templating protein aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Hossinger, André; Göbbels, Sarah; Vorberg, Ina M

    2017-03-04

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted, membrane-bound communication vehicles that exchange biomolecules between cells. EVs also serve as dissemination vehicles for pathogens, including prions, proteinaceous infectious agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in mammals. Increasing evidence accumulates that diverse protein aggregates associated with common neurodegenerative diseases are packaged into EVs as well. Vesicle-mediated intercellular transmission of protein aggregates can induce aggregation of homotypic proteins in acceptor cells and might thereby contribute to disease progression. Our knowledge of how protein aggregates are sorted into EVs and how these vesicles adhere to and fuse with target cells is limited. Here we review how TSE prions exploit EVs for intercellular transmission and compare this to the transmission behavior of self-templating cytosolic protein aggregates derived from the yeast prion domain Sup 35 NM. Artificial NM prions are non-toxic to mammalian cell cultures and do not cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Importantly, NM particles are also secreted in association with exosomes that horizontally transmit the prion phenotype to naive bystander cells, a process that can be monitored with high accuracy by automated high throughput confocal microscopy. The high abundance of mammalian proteins with amino acid stretches compositionally similar to yeast prion domains makes the NM cell model an attractive model to study self-templating and dissemination properties of proteins with prion-like domains in the mammalian context.

  17. Fast and efficient detection of tuberculosis antigens using liposome encapsulated secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the newly developed liposome tuberculosis antigen card test detected antigens in our study population with approximately 97.48% sensitivity and 95.79% specificity. This is the first study to report the liposomal encapsulation of culture filtrate proteins from M. tuberculosis for diagnostic application.

  18. Cells in 3D-reconstitutued eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into gross cystic disease fluid protein 15-expressing dark secretory cells and carbonic anhydrase II-expressing clear secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Bingna

    2017-07-01

    Secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands are composed of myoepithelial cells, dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells. The two types of cells play important roles in sweat secretion. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into secretory coil-like structures. However, whether the secretory coil-like structures further differentiate into dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells were is still unknown. In this study, we detected the differentiation of clear and dark secretory cells in the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids using the dark secretory cell-specific marker, GCDFP-15, and clear secretory cell-specific marker, CAII by immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that there were both GCDFP-15- and CAII-expressing cells in 12-week-old 3D spheroids, similar to native eccrine sweat glands, indicating that the spheroids possess a cellular structure capable of sweat secretion. We conclude that the 12-week 3D spheroids may have secretory capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aphid Gel Saliva: Sheath Structure, Protein Composition and Secretory Dependence on Stylet-Tip Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliva) protein fractions were significantly different. To test the effect of the stylet milieu on saliva secretion, aphids were fed on various diets. Hardening of gel saliva is strongly oxygen-dependent, probably owing to formation of sulfide bridges by oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Surface texture of gel saliva deposits is less pronounced under low-oxygen conditions and disappears in dithiothreitol containing diet. Using diets mimicking sieve-element sap and cell-wall fluid respectively showed that the soluble protein fraction was almost exclusively secreted in sieve elements while non-soluble fraction was preferentially secreted at cell wall conditions. This indicates that aphids are able to adapt salivary secretion in dependence of the stylet milieu. PMID:23056521

  1. Two distinct populations of synaptic-like vesicles from rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoidis, Galini; Chen, Peng; Pushkin, Alexander V.; Vallega, Gino; Leeman, Susan E.; Fine, Richard E.; Kandror, Konstantin V.

    1998-01-01

    In nonneuronal cells, several plasma membrane proteins such as exofacial enzymes, receptors, and ion channels recycle between their intracellular compartment(s) and the cell surface via an endosomal pathway. In neurons, however, this pathway has not been extensively characterized. In particular, it remains unclear whether or not it is related to the recycling of small synaptic vesicles, the major pathway of membrane traffic in nerve terminals. To approach this problem, we purified and studied a vesicular fraction from rat brain synaptosomes. Two distinct populations of vesicles with different buoyant densities and sedimentation coefficients were detected in this fraction by sucrose gradient centrifugation and Western blot analysis of the individual proteins. Both populations contain proteins that are markers of synaptic vesicles, namely, SV2, synaptotagmin, synaptophysin, secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs), synaptobrevin, and rab3a. A striking difference between the two populations is the presence of arginine aminopeptidase activity (a previously suggested marker for the regulated endosomal recycling pathway) exclusively in the lighter less-dense vesicles. The same two vesicular populations were also detected in the preparation of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from whole rat brain or purified synaptosomes after removal of their clathrin coats by incubation at pH 8.5. We conclude, therefore, that both types of vesicles recycle in synaptosomes via a clathrin-mediated pathway. These data present experimental evidence for biochemical heterogeneity of synaptic-like vesicles in rat brain. PMID:9419350

  2. Structures of Azemiops feae venom phospholipases and cys-rich-secretory protein and implications for taxonomy and toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Inn-Ho; Wang, Ying-Ming; Huang, Kai-Fa

    2016-05-01

    The Azemiops snakes are pit-less and phylogenetically located at the Crotalinae and Viperinae divergence. cDNAs encoding five Azemiops venom phospholipase (sPLA2) molecules were cloned and sequenced; their signal-peptides were similar to those of crotalid sPLA2s. Based on their calculated pI-values and residue-49 substitutions, they were designated as Af-E6, Af-N49a, Af-N49a1, Af-N49a2, and Af-N49b, respectively. The first three isoforms, comprising 3-4% of the venom proteins, were purified by reversed-phase HPLC. Af-E6 is catalytically active and has >80% sequence-similarity to other Glu(6)-PLA2 (a pitviper venom-marker). Results of phylogenetic analyses reveal that acidic Af-N49a and Af-N49a1 are rather unique and loosely linked with crotalid PLA2s, while Af-N49b is related to the viperid PLA2s with Ser(1) substitution. Notably, the Asn(49)-substitutions in these molecules imply catalytic-independent mechanisms. The 3D-models of Af-E6 and Af-N49a have surface electropotential maps similar to each other and to those of antiplatelet PLA2s, while the Af-N49b model is similar to basic and myotoxic sPLA2 molecules. From Azemiops feae and four other Viperidae, we cloned five novel Cys-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs). Azemiops CRISP and natriuretic-peptide precursors share more sequence similarities with those of crotalid venoms than with viperid venoms, further supporting the theory that Azemiops are sister taxons to pit vipers, especially Tropedolaemus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of cloned excretory/secretory low-molecular-weight proteins of Cooperia oncophora in a serological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, J; Kooyman, F N; Dop, P Y; Schallig, H D; Eysker, M; Cornelissen, A W

    1997-07-01

    The potential of Cooperia oncophora excretory/secretory (ES) proteins as antigens in a serological assay which aims to establish exposure levels in cattle was assessed. ES proteins were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The N-terminal domains of two ES proteins were sequenced, and the corresponding cDNAs were cloned. Two cDNAs, designated CoES14.0 and CoES14.2, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were tested in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which crude worm antigen (CWA) was used as a reference standard. In total, 67 reference serum samples were used: 27 negative serum samples, 29 C. oncophora-specific serum samples, 7 Dictyocaulus viviparus-specific serum samples, and 4 Ostertagia ostertagi-specific serum samples. This showed respective sensitivities and specificities of 17 and 84%, 0 and 100%, and 100 and 100% by the ELISAs with the three different types of proteins (CWA, CoES14.0, and CoES14.2, respectively). Since the CoES14.2 ELISA had the best sensitivity and specificity with reference sera, its specificity was further validated in an antigen inhibition ELISA. In this assay CoES14.2 and CWA preparations of C. oncophora, Cooperia curticei, O. ostertagi, Nematodirus helvetianus, Fasciola hepatica, D. viviparus, Haemonchus placei, and Trichostrongylus colubriformus were used as competitor antigens. This experiment showed that only the homologous antigens C. oncophora CWA and CoEs14.2 resulted in 100% inhibition. The CWA preparations of all other nematodes did not affect the ELISA, even if concentrations of 250 times the 50% inhibitory concentration of C. oncophora CWA were used. These results indicate that CoES14.2 does not share cross-reactive epitopes with heterologous CWAs. Finally, we tested the CoES14.2 ELISA with sequential serum samples from naturally infected groups of animals. The optical density values that were obtained correlated well with

  4. Identification of Pathways in Liver Repair Potentially Targeted by Secretory Proteins from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. Methods: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses. Results: MSC from adipose tissue and bone marrow expressed a similar pattern of surface markers. After hepatocytic differentiation, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 increased and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM decreased. MSC secreted different factors before and after differentiation. These comprised cytokines involved in innate immunity and growth factors regulating liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signalling pathways, the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the Januskinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD-like receptor signalling pathways as relevant networks. Relationships to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α signalling seemed also relevant. Conclusion: MSC secreted proteins, which differed depending on cell source and degree of differentiation. The factors might address inflammatory and growth factor pathways as well as chemo-attraction and innate immunity. Since these are prone to dysregulation in most liver diseases, MSC release hepatotropic factors, potentially supporting liver regeneration.

  5. Fast and efficient detection of tuberculosis antigens using liposome encapsulated secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Dileep; Haque, Shafiul; Tiwari, Ram P; Jawed, Arshad; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and efficient diagnostic test was developed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in serum samples of active tuberculosis (TB) and extrapulmonary TB patients via a liposomal agglutination-based method. A rapid card test has been developed to facilitate the recognition of high-affinity binding rabbit raised purified culture filtrate protein antibodies coupled on the surface of activated liposomal preparation. In the presence of TB antigens, the polyclonal antibodies bound to the liposomal particles demonstrate a visible agglutination reaction. The developed assay was simple, rapid, reliable, sensitive, and specific as a diagnostic test for the detection of antigens in serum samples of clinically confirmed cases of TB within 4-5 minutes' duration. The test was evaluated at different hospitals, medical colleges, and pathology centers, and involved 1483 participants. This investigation was conducted to detect the presence of these antigens during the period of active growth of the microorganism in serum samples for pulmonary TB and processed tissue biopsy for other extrapulmonary TB. Results obtained using this test were compared with acid-fast bacilli smear and culture results. Our study demonstrated that the newly developed liposome tuberculosis antigen card test detected antigens in our study population with approximately 97.48% sensitivity and 95.79% specificity. This is the first study to report the liposomal encapsulation of culture filtrate proteins from M. tuberculosis for diagnostic application. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey M; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F; Yakovleva, Anastasia A; Zefirov, Andrei L

    2015-01-02

    Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Vorum, H

    2000-01-01

    The CREC family consists of a number of recently discovered multiple (up to seven) EF-hand proteins that localise to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. At present, the family includes reticulocalbin, ERC-55/TCBP-49/E6BP, Cab45, calumenin and crocalbin/CBP-50. Similar proteins are found...... in quite diverse invertebrate organisms such as DCB-45 and SCF in Drosophila melanogaster, SCF in Bombyx mori, CCB-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pfs40/PfERC in Plasmodium falciparum. The Ca(2+) affinity is rather low with dissociation constants around 10(-4)-10(-3) M. The proteins may participate in Ca...

  8. The transbilayer movement of phosphatidylcholine in vesicles reconstituted with intrinsic proteins from the human erythrocyte membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W.J.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Kruijff, B. de; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1980-01-01

    Vesicles have been prepared from 18 : 1c/18 : 1c-phosphatidylcholine with or without purified glycophorin or partially purified band 3 (obtained by organomercurial gel chromatography). The vesicles have been characterized by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, binding studies to DEAE-cellulose,

  9. A secretory protein of necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that suppresses host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Wei, Wei; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Kang, Zhensheng; Dickman, Martin B; Jiang, Daohong

    2013-01-01

    SSITL (SS1G_14133) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5-3.0 hpi). Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET) signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection.

  10. A secretory protein of necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that suppresses host resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    Full Text Available SSITL (SS1G_14133 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5-3.0 hpi. Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection.

  11. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  12. Decrease of UPR- and ERAD-related proteins in Pichia pastoris during methanol-induced secretory insulin precursor production in controlled fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanz, Ana Letícia; Nimtz, Manfred; Rinas, Ursula

    2014-02-13

    Pichia pastoris is a popular yeast preferably employed for secretory protein production. Secretion is not always efficient and endoplasmic retention of proteins with aberrant folding properties, or when produced at exaggerated rates, can occur. In these cases production usually leads to an unfolded protein response (UPR) and the induction of the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). P. pastoris is nowadays also an established host for secretory insulin precursor (IP) production, though little is known about the impact of IP production on the host cell physiology, in particular under industrially relevant production conditions. Here, we evaluate the cellular response to aox1 promoter-controlled, secretory IP production in controlled fed-batch processes using a proteome profiling approach. Cells were first grown in a batch procedure using a defined medium with a high glycerol concentration. After glycerol depletion IP production was initiated by methanol addition which was kept constant through continuous methanol feeding. The most prominent changes of the intracellular proteome after the onset of methanol feeding were related to the enzymes of central carbon metabolism. In particular, the enzymes of the methanol dissimilatory pathway - virtually absent in the glycerol batch phase - dominated the proteome during the methanol fed-batch phase. Unexpectedly, a strong decrease of UPR and ERAD related proteins was also observed during methanol-induced IP production. Compared to non-producing control strains grown under identical conditions the UPR down-regulation was less pronounced indicating that IP production elicits a detectable but non prominent UPR response which is repressed by the general culture condition-dependent UPR down-regulation after the shift from glycerol to methanol. The passage of IP through the secretory pathway using an optimized IP vector and growing the strain at fed-batch conditions with a high initial glycerol concentration does

  13. Large GLUT4 vesicles are stationary while locally and reversibly depleted during transient insulin stimulation of skeletal muscle of living mice: imaging analysis of GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein vesicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Galbo, Henrik; Brandauer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle by GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to sarcolemma and t-tubules. We studied in living animals the recruitment of GLUT4 vesicles in more detail than previously done and, for the first time, analyzed the steady......-state recycling and subsequent re-internalization of GLUT4 on an insulin bolus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A confocal imaging technique was used in GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein-transfected superficial muscle fibers in living mice. RESULTS: During the first 30 min of insulin stimulation, very few...... superficially or deeply located GLUT4 storage vesicles (>1 microm) moved in toto. Rather, big vesicles were stationary in their original position at sarcolemma or t-tubules and were locally depleted of GLUT4 by budding off of smaller vesicles. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during initial...

  14. Inhibition of the activity of pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 by acute phase proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pruzanski

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pro-Inflammatory non-pancreatic phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is markedly over-expressed in acute systemic and chronic local inflammatory processes. Since in acute phase reaction sPLA2 is often over-expressed simultaneously with acute phase proteins (APP, it is important to determine whether APP interacts with sPLA2. We tested ten APPs for interaction with sPLA2 using as a substrate multilamellar Hposomes composed either of PC:Lyso PC or PE:Lyso PE. Using PC:Lyso PC substrate, CRP, lactoferrin and SAP were found to inhibit sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 25 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml, respectively, corresponding to 0.21 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.21 μM respectively. Using PE:Lyso PE substrate only SAP was inhibitory, with an IC50 of 10 μg/ml (0.04 μM. Phosphorylcholine abolished the inhibitory activity of CRP but not of SAP or lactoferrin. Addition of phosphorylethanolamine or of excess calcium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of APP. Limulin, lysozyme, transferrin, β2-microglobulin, α2-macroglobulin, human and bovine albumins had no effect on sPLA2 activity. Therefore neither the structure of pentraxins, or ironbinding, bacteriostatic property or amyloidogenic property preclude whether APP modulates sPLA2 activity. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory sPLA2 by APP may be one of the protective mechanisms of the acute phase reaction.

  15. An extended model of vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane to estimate protein lateral diffusion from TIRF microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Antoine; Bouthemy, Patrick; Boulanger, Jérôme; Waharte, François; Salamero, Jean; Kervrann, Charles

    2017-07-24

    Characterizing membrane dynamics is a key issue to understand cell exchanges with the extra-cellular medium. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is well suited to focus on the late steps of exocytosis at the plasma membrane. However, it is still a challenging task to quantify (lateral) diffusion and estimate local dynamics of proteins. A new model was introduced to represent the behavior of cargo transmembrane proteins during the vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane at the end of the exocytosis process. Two biophysical parameters, the diffusion coefficient and the release rate parameter, are automatically estimated from TIRFM image sequences, to account for both the lateral diffusion of molecules at the membrane and the continuous release of the proteins from the vesicle to the plasma membrane. Quantitative evaluation on 300 realistic computer-generated image sequences demonstrated the efficiency and accuracy of the method. The application of our method on 16 real TIRFM image sequences additionally revealed differences in the dynamic behavior of Transferrin Receptor (TfR) and Langerin proteins. An automated method has been designed to simultaneously estimate the diffusion coefficient and the release rate for each individual vesicle fusion event at the plasma membrane in TIRFM image sequences. It can be exploited for further deciphering cell membrane dynamics.

  16. Mechanical properties of bare and protein-coated giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. A comparative study of micropipet aspiration and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieluweit, Sabine; Csiszár, Agnes; Rubner, Wolfgang; Fleischhauer, Johannes; Houben, Sebastian; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-07-06

    In this study, protein-coated giant phospholipid vesicles were used to model cell plasma membranes coated by surface protein layers that increase membrane stiffness under mechanical or osmotic stress. These changed mechanical properties like bending stiffness, membrane area compressibility modulus, and effective Young's modulus were determined by micropipet aspiration, while bending stiffness, effective Young's modulus, and effective spring constant of vesicles were analyzed by AFM. The experimental setups, the applied models, and the results using both methods were compared here. As demonstrated before, we found that bare vesicles were best probed by micropipet aspiration due to its high sensitivity. The mechanical properties of vesicles with protein surface layers were, however, better determined by AFM because it enables very local deformations of the membrane with barely any structural damage to the protein layer. Mechanical properties of different species of coating proteins, here streptavidin and avidin, could be clearly distinguished using this technique.

  17. Measuring brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with positron emission tomography and [18F]UCB-H

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Plenevaux, Alain; Aerts, Joël; Bastin, Christine; Becker, Guillaume; Mercier, Joël; Valade, Anne; Buchanan, Tim; Mestdagh, Nathalie; Ledoux, Didier; Seret, Alain; Luxen, André; Salmon, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic v...

  18. The Golgi-associated long coiled-coil protein NECC1 participates in the control of the regulated secretory pathway in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-García, David; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P; Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Vaudry, Hubert; Anouar, Youssef; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Malagón, María M

    2012-04-15

    Golgi-associated long coiled-coil proteins, often referred to as golgins, are involved in the maintenance of the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus and the regulation of membrane traffic events occurring in this organelle. Little information is available on the contribution of golgins to Golgi function in cells specialized in secretion such as endocrine cells or neurons. In the present study, we characterize the intracellular distribution as well as the biochemical and functional properties of a novel long coiled-coil protein present in neuroendocrine tissues, NECC1 (neuroendocrine long coiled-coil protein 1). The present study shows that NECC1 is a peripheral membrane protein displaying high stability to detergent extraction, which distributes across the Golgi apparatus in neuroendocrine cells. In addition, NECC1 partially localizes to post-Golgi carriers containing secretory cargo in PC12 cells. Overexpression of NECC1 resulted in the formation of juxtanuclear aggregates together with a slight fragmentation of the Golgi and a decrease in K+-stimulated hormone release. In contrast, NECC1 silencing did not alter Golgi architecture, but enhanced K+-stimulated hormone secretion in PC12 cells. In all, the results of the present study identify NECC1 as a novel component of the Golgi matrix and support a role for this protein as a negative modulator of the regulated trafficking of secretory cargo in neuroendocrine cells.

  19. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat...

  20. The Conserved VPS-50 Protein Functions in Dense-Core Vesicle Maturation and Acidification and Controls Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Nicolas; Murata, Yasunobu; Froehlich, Allan; Omura, Daniel T; Ailion, Michael; Pender, Corinne L; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Horvitz, H Robert

    2016-04-04

    The modification of behavior in response to experience is crucial for animals to adapt to environmental changes. Although factors such as neuropeptides and hormones are known to function in the switch between alternative behavioral states, the mechanisms by which these factors transduce, store, retrieve, and integrate environmental signals to regulate behavior are poorly understood. The rate of locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on both current and past food availability. Specifically, C. elegans slows its locomotion when it encounters food, and animals in a food-deprived state slow even more than animals in a well-fed state. The slowing responses of well-fed and food-deprived animals in the presence of food represent distinct behavioral states, as they are controlled by different sets of genes, neurotransmitters, and neurons. Here we describe an evolutionarily conserved C. elegans protein, VPS-50, that is required for animals to assume the well-fed behavioral state. Both VPS-50 and its murine homolog mVPS50 are expressed in neurons, are associated with synaptic and dense-core vesicles, and control vesicle acidification and hence synaptic function, likely through regulation of the assembly of the V-ATPase complex. We propose that dense-core vesicle acidification controlled by the evolutionarily conserved protein VPS-50/mVPS50 affects behavioral state by modulating neuropeptide levels and presynaptic neuronal function in both C. elegans and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Bam complex catalyzes efficient insertion of bacterial outer membrane proteins into membrane vesicles of variable lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sunyia; Bernstein, Harris D

    2018-01-08

    Most proteins that reside in the bacterial outer membrane (OM) have a distinctive "β-barrel" architecture, but the assembly of these proteins is poorly understood. The spontaneous assembly of OM proteins (OMPs) into pure lipid vesicles has been studied extensively, but often requires non-physiological conditions and time scales and is strongly influenced by properties of the lipid bilayer including surface charge, thickness, and fluidity. Furthermore, the membrane insertion of OMPs in vivo is catalyzed by a heterooligomer called the β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex. To determine the role of lipids in the assembly of OMPs under more physiological conditions, we exploited an assay in which the Bam complex mediates their insertion into membrane vesicles. After reconstituting the Bam complex into vesicles that contain a variety of different synthetic lipids, we found that two model OMPs, EspP and OmpA, folded efficiently regardless of the lipid composition. Most notably, both proteins folded into membranes composed of a gel phase lipid that mimics the rigid bacterial OM. Interestingly, we found that EspP, OmpA and another model protein (OmpG) folded at significantly different rates and that an α-helix embedded inside the EspP β-barrel accelerates folding. Our results show that the Bam complex largely overcomes effects that lipids exert on OMP assembly and suggest that specific interactions between the Bam complex and an OMP influence its rate of folding. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Complexin synchronizes primed vesicle exocytosis and regulates fusion pore dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Madhurima; Yarzagaray, Antonio; Schwarz, Yvonne; Dutta, Soumyajit; Grabner, Chad; Moghadam, Paanteha K.; Bost, Anneka; Schirra, Claudia; Rettig, Jens; Reim, Kerstin; Brose, Nils; Mohrmann, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    ComplexinII (CpxII) and SynaptotagminI (SytI) have been implicated in regulating the function of SNARE proteins in exocytosis, but their precise mode of action and potential interplay have remained unknown. In this paper, we show that CpxII increases Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis and accelerates its secretory rates, providing two independent, but synergistic, functions to enhance synchronous secretion. Specifically, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of CpxII increases the pool of primed vesicles by hindering premature exocytosis at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations, whereas the N-terminal domain shortens the secretory delay and accelerates the kinetics of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by increasing the Ca2+ affinity of synchronous secretion. With its C terminus, CpxII attenuates fluctuations of the early fusion pore and slows its expansion but is functionally antagonized by SytI, enabling rapid transmitter discharge from single vesicles. Thus, our results illustrate how key features of CpxII, SytI, and their interplay transform the constitutively active SNARE-mediated fusion mechanism into a highly synchronized, Ca2+-triggered release apparatus. PMID:24687280

  3. Synaptotagmin 1 Negatively Controls the Two Distinct Immune Secretory Pathways to Powdery Mildew Fungi in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeran; Kwon, Hyeokjin; Kim, Soohong; Kim, Mi Kyung; Botella, Miguel A; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2016-06-01

    PEN1, one of the plasma membrane (PM) syntaxins, comprises an immune exocytic pathway by forming the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex with SNAP33 and VAMP721/722 in plants. Although this secretory pathway is also involved in plant growth and development, how plants control their exocytic activity is as yet poorly understood. Since constitutive PEN1 cycling between the PM and endocytosed vesicles is critical for its immune activity, we studied here the relationship of PEN1 to synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) that is known to regulate endocytosis at the PM. Interestingly, syt1 plants showed enhanced disease resistance to the Arabidopsis-adapted Golovinomyces orontii fungus, and elevated protein but not transcript levels of PEN1 Calcium-dependent promotion of PEN1-SYT1 interaction suggests that SYT1 controls defense activities of the PEN1-associated secretory pathway by post-translationally modulating PEN1. Increased PEN1-SYT1 interaction and inhibited PEN1 SNARE complex induction by G. orontii additionally suggest that the adaption of phytopathogens to host plants might partly result from effective suppression of the PEN1-related secretory pathway. Further genetic analyses revealed that SYT1 also regulates the atypical peroxisomal myrosinase PEN2-associated secretory pathway. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Proteome analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of Entamoeba histolytica HM1:IMSS via LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Jorim Anak; Kwan, Soon Hong; Ismail, Mohd Nazri; Lim, Boon Huat; Noordin, Rahmah; Othman, Nurulhasanah

    2016-01-01

    Excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of E. histolytica are thought to play important roles in the host invasion, metabolism, and defence. Elucidation of the types and functions of E. histolytica ES proteins can further our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study is to use proteomics approach to better understand the complex ES proteins of the protozoa. E. histolytica ES proteins were prepared by culturing the trophozoites in protein-free medium. The ES proteins were identified using two mass spectrometry tools, namely, LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins were then classified according to their biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components using the Panther classification system (PantherDB). A complementary list of 219 proteins was identified; this comprised 201 proteins detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS and 107 proteins by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Of the 219 proteins, 89 were identified by both mass-spectrometry systems, while 112 and 18 proteins were detected exclusively by LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF respectively. Biological protein functional analysis using PantherDB showed that 27% of the proteins were involved in metabolic processes. Using molecular functional and cellular component analyses, 35% of the proteins were found to be involved in catalytic activity, and 21% were associated with the cell parts. This study showed that complementary use of LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF has improved the identification of ES proteins. The results have increased our understanding of the types of proteins excreted/secreted by the amoeba and provided further evidence of the involvement of ES proteins in intestinal colonisation and evasion of the host immune system, as well as in encystation and excystation of the parasite.

  5. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Vorum, H

    2000-01-01

    The CREC family consists of a number of recently discovered multiple (up to seven) EF-hand proteins that localise to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. At present, the family includes reticulocalbin, ERC-55/TCBP-49/E6BP, Cab45, calumenin and crocalbin/CBP-50. Similar proteins are found...... in quite diverse invertebrate organisms such as DCB-45 and SCF in Drosophila melanogaster, SCF in Bombyx mori, CCB-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pfs40/PfERC in Plasmodium falciparum. The Ca(2+) affinity is rather low with dissociation constants around 10(-4)-10(-3) M. The proteins may participate in Ca......(2+)-regulated activities. Recent evidence has been obtained that some CREC family members are involved in pathological activities such as malignant cell transformation, mediation of the toxic effects of snake venom toxins and putative participation in amyloid formation. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-21...

  6. How pure are your vesicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jason; Clayton, Aled

    2013-01-01

    We propose a straightforward method to estimate the purity of vesicle preparations by comparing the ratio of nano-vesicle counts to protein concentration, using tools such as the increasingly available NanoSight platform and a colorimetric protein assay such as the BCA-assay. Such an approach is simple enough to apply to every vesicle preparation within a given laboratory, assisting researchers as a routine quality control step. Also, the approach may aid in comparing/standardising vesicle purity across diverse studies, and may be of particular importance in evaluating vesicular biomarkers. We herein propose some criteria to aid in the definition of pure vesicles. PMID:24009896

  7. Differential expression patterns of the tight junction-associated proteins occludin and claudins in secretory and mature ameloblasts in mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masaki; Kawamoto, Tadafumi; Kawai, Mariko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2010-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) function primarily as a barrier against paracellular transport between epithelial cells and are composed mainly of occludin (OLD) and claudins (CLDs). The CLD family consists of 24 members that show tissue- or cell-specific expression. Ameloblasts, which originate from the oral epithelium, form enamel, and enamel proteins and minerals are transported across the ameloblastic layer during amelogenesis. We immunohistochemically examined the distribution patterns of TJs in ameloblasts by observing the expression patterns of OLD and CLDs (CLD-1 to CLD-10). Secretory ameloblasts contained OLD and CLD-1, -8, and -9 at the distal end of the cell. In mature ameloblasts, OLD and CLD-1, -6, -7, -8, -9, and -10 were present mainly at both the distal and proximal ends of the cell, regardless of whether the ameloblasts were ruffle-ended or smooth-ended. Mature ameloblasts in which only the proximal ends were stained for OLD and CLDs were also found. These results indicate that the expression patterns of CLDs and the distribution patterns of TJs change drastically between the secretory and mature ameloblast stages, suggesting that these patterns reflect the different functions of these cells, specifically in the transport of proteins and ions for enamel formation.

  8. Entamoeba histolytica uses ferritin as an iron source and internalises this protein by means of clathrin-coated vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soto, Fernando; González-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Salazar, Eduardo Pérez; de la Garza, Mireya

    2009-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces dysentery and often reaches the liver, leading to abscess formation. Ferritin is an iron-storage protein that is mainly found in liver and spleen in mammals. The liver contains a plentiful source of iron for amoebae multiplying in that organ, making it a prime target for infection since iron is essential for the growth of this parasite. The aim of this study was to determine whether trophozoites are able to take up ferritin and internalise this protein for their growth in axenic culture. Interaction between the amoebae and ferritin was studied by flow cytometry, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Amoebae were viable in iron supplied by ferritin. Trophozoites quickly internalised ferritin via clathrin-coated vesicles, a process that was initiated within the first 2 min of incubation. In 30 min, ferritin was found colocalizing with the LAMP-2 protein at vesicles in the cytosol. The uptake of ferritin was time- temperature- and concentration-dependent, specific and saturated at 46 nM of ferritin. Haemoglobin and holo-transferrin did not compete with ferritin for binding to amoebae. Amoebae cleaved ferritin leading to the production of several different sized fragments. Cysteine proteases of 100, 75 and 50 kDa from amoeba extracts were observed in gels copolymerised with ferritin. For a pathogen such as E. histolytica, the capacity to utilise ferritin as an iron source may well explain its high pathogenic potential in the liver.

  9. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  10. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nyegaard

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2.

  11. Analysis of AKT and ERK1/2 protein kinases in extracellular vesicles isolated from blood of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes C. van der Mijn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small nanometre-sized vesicles that are circulating in blood. They are released by multiple cells, including tumour cells. We hypothesized that circulating EVs contain protein kinases that may be assessed as biomarkers during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Methods: EVs released by U87 glioma cells, H3255 and H1650 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells were profiled by tandem mass spectrometry. Total AKT/protein kinase B and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 levels as well as their relative phosphorylation were measured by western blot in isogenic U87 cells with or without mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII and their corresponding EVs. To assess biomarker potential, plasma samples from 24 healthy volunteers and 42 patients with cancer were used. Results: In total, 130 different protein kinases were found to be released in EVs including multiple drug targets, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, AKT, ERK1/2, AXL and EGFR. Overexpression of EGFRvIII in U87 cells results in increased phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 in cells and EVs, whereas a decreased phosphorylation was noted upon treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. EV samples derived from patients with cancer contained significantly more protein (p=0.0067 compared to healthy donors. Phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in plasma EVs from both healthy donors and patients with cancer was relatively low compared to levels in cancer cells. Preliminary analysis of total AKT and ERK1/2 levels in plasma EVs from patients with NSCLC before and after sorafenib/metformin treatment (n=12 shows a significant decrease in AKT levels among patients with a favourable treatment response (p<0.005. Conclusion: Phosphorylation of protein kinases in EVs reflects their phosphorylation in tumour cells. Total AKT protein levels may allow monitoring of kinase inhibitor responses in patients with cancer.

  12. Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from the Brains of rTg4510 Mice Seed Tau Protein Aggregation in a Threshold-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Juan Carlos; Scicluna, Benjamin James; Hill, Andrew Francis; Götz, Jürgen

    2016-06-10

    The microtubule-associated protein tau has a critical role in Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies. There is accumulating evidence that tau aggregates spread and replicate in a prion-like manner, with the uptake of pathological tau seeds causing misfolding and aggregation of monomeric tau in recipient cells. Here we focused on small extracellular vesicles enriched for exosomes that were isolated from the brains of tau transgenic rTg4510 and control mice. We found that these extracellular vesicles contained tau, although the levels were significantly higher in transgenic mice that have a pronounced tau pathology. Tau in the vesicles was differentially phosphorylated, although to a lower degree than in the brain cells from which they were derived. Several phospho-epitopes (AT8, AT100, and AT180) thought to be critical for tau pathology were undetected in extracellular vesicles. Despite this, when assayed with FRET tau biosensor cells, extracellular vesicles derived from transgenic mice were capable of seeding tau aggregation in a threshold-dependent manner. We also observed that the dye used to label extracellular vesicle membranes was still present during nucleation and formation of tau inclusions, suggesting either a role for membranes in the seeding or in the process of degradation. Together, we clearly demonstrate that extracellular vesicles can transmit tau pathology. This indicates a role for extracellular vesicles in the transmission and spreading of tau pathology. The characteristics of tau in extracellular vesicles and the seeding threshold we identified may explain why tau pathology develops very slowly in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Autoradiographic investigation of the effect of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate on matrix protein synthesis and secretion by secretory ameloblasts in rat incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangtharnthip, P; Yamada, Y; Takagi, Y; Ohya, K

    2000-06-01

    Seven daily subcutaneous injections of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) can induce enamel hypoplasia. Several enamel-free zones were observed along the crown-analogue side of rat incisors during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. Ameloblasts related to the enamel-free zones lay directly on the abnormally non-mineralized mantle dentine, whereas the adjacent ameloblasts, which were forming the enamel matrix layer, were associated with the region where mineralization of dentine was proceeding. The further purpose of this study was to investigate the synthetic and secretory activity of these two groups of ameloblasts and to trace the fate of the radioactively labelled proteins. [(3)H]-proline was administered to Wistar rats 12 h after the last injection of HEBP. Light-microscopic autoradiography was performed. Quantitative analysis indicated that the ameloblasts of the enamel-forming zones in the drug-treated group showed a distribution pattern of silver grains similar to that of the controls. The ameloblasts of the enamel-free zones also demonstrated incorporation of [(3)H]-proline at the same level. There was some labelling over the non-mineralized mantle dentine, which was supposed to indicate the penetration of ameloblast products. From these results, it is concluded that HEBP does not affect the ameloblast activity in protein synthesis. The complete failure of enamel-layer formation in some specific regions is probably due to the failure in protein secretion and protein deposition. This study provides additional evidence that the mineralization of dentine is an essential factor in successful enamel matrix secretion and deposition.

  14. Protein kinase C delta localizes to secretory lysosomes in CD8+ CTL and directly mediates TCR signals leading to granule exocytosis-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S Y; Haydar, Tarik F; Radoja, Sasa

    2008-10-01

    Lytic granule exocytosis is the major effector function used by CD8(+) CTL in response to intracellular pathogens and tumors. Despite recent progress in the field, two important aspects of this cytotoxic mechanism remain poorly understood. First, TCR-signaling pathway(s) that selectively induces granule exocytosis in CTL has not been defined to date. Second, it is unclear how Ag receptor-induced signals are converted into mobilization of lytic granules. We recently demonstrated that protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) selectively regulates TCR-induced lytic granule polarization in mouse CD8(+) CTL. To better understand how PKC delta facilitates granule movement, here we studied dynamics of intracellular localization of PKC delta in living CD8(+) CTL. Strikingly, we found that PKC delta localizes to the secretory lysosomes and polarizes toward immunological synapse during the process of target cell killing. Also, biochemical and structure-function studies demonstrated that upon TCR ligation, PKC delta becomes rapidly phosphorylated on the activation loop and regulates granule exocytosis in a kinase-dependent manner. Altogether, our current studies provide new insights concerning the regulation of TCR-induced lytic granule exocytosis by revealing novel intracellular localization of PKC delta, providing the first example of colocalization of a kinase with secretory lysosomes in CD8(+) CTL and demonstrating that PKC delta directly transduces TCR signals leading to polarized granule secretion.

  15. Statistical analysis of the quantal basis of secretory granule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křepelová-Dror, Marika; Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution of vesicles exocytosed from secretory cells displays quantal nature, vesicle volume is periodic multi-modal, suggesting that these heterogeneous vesicles are aggregate sums of a variable number of homogeneous basic granules. Whether heterogeneity is a lumping-together artifact of the measurement or an inherent intra-cell feature of the vesicles is an unresolved question. Recent empirical evidence will be provided for the quantal nature of intra-cell vesicle volume, supporting the controversial paradigm of homotypic fusion: basic cytoplasmic granules fuse with each other to create heterogeneously sized vesicles. An EM-algorithm-based method is presented for the conversion of multi-modal to quantal data that provides as by-product estimates of means and variances of basic granule packaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rupturing Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles to Form Micron-sized Supported Cell Plasma Membranes with Native Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chieh; Tanady, Kevin; Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2017-11-09

    Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins. We demonstrated that not only lipid but also a native transmembrane protein in HeLa cells, Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), is mobile in the supported membrane platform. This convenient method for generating micron-sized supported membrane patches with mobile native transmembrane proteins could not only facilitate the study of membrane proteins by surface analytical tools, but could also enable us to use native membrane proteins for bio-sensing applications.

  17. Class C Vps protein complex regulates vacuolar SNARE pairing and is required for vesicle docking/fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T K; Rehling, P; Peterson, M R; Emr, S D

    2000-09-01

    In yeast, the Class C Vps protein complex (C-Vps complex), composed of Vps11, Vps16, Vps18, and Vps33, functions in Golgi-to-vacuole protein transport. In this study, we characterized and purified this complex and identified its interaction with the syntaxin homolog Vam3. Vam3 pairs with the SNAP-25 homolog Vam7 and VAMP homolog Vti1 to form SNARE complexes during vesicle docking/fusion with the vacuole. The C-Vps complex does not bind to Vam3-Vti1-Vam7 paired SNARE complexes but instead binds to unpaired Vam3. Antibodies to a component of this complex inhibited in vitro vacuole-to-vacuole fusion. Furthermore, temperature-conditional mutations in the Class C VPS genes destabilized Vam3-Vti1-Vam7 pairing. Therefore, we propose that the C-Vps complex associates with unpaired (activated) Vam3 to mediate the assembly of trans-SNARE complexes during both vesicle docking/fusion and vacuole-to-vacuole fusion.

  18. Measuring brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with positron emission tomography and [18F]UCB-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Plenevaux, Alain; Aerts, Joël; Bastin, Christine; Becker, Guillaume; Mercier, Joël; Valade, Anne; Buchanan, Tim; Mestdagh, Nathalie; Ledoux, Didier; Seret, Alain; Luxen, André; Salmon, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2A was measured with fluorine-18 UCB-H ([ 18 F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic vesicle protein 2A distribution volume. [ 18 F]UCB-H uptake was ubiquitous in cortical and subcortical gray matter. Arterial input function and image-derived input function provided regional distribution volume with a high linear relationship. The cerebral distribution of [ 18 F]UCB-H is similar to that recently observed with carbon-11 UCB-J ([ 11 C]UCB-J). An accurate [ 18 F]UCB-H quantification can be performed without invasive arterial blood sampling when no suitable reference region is available, using dynamic PET carotid activity. Brain synaptic density can be studied in vivo in normal and pathological aging.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tudor, E L

    2010-05-19

    Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

  20. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein-2 (VAMP2) Mediates cAMP-stimulated Renin Release in Mouse Juxtaglomerular Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mariela; Gross, Kenneth W.; Glenn, Sean T.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Renin is essential for blood pressure control. Renin is stored in granules in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, located in the pole of the renal afferent arterioles. The second messenger cAMP stimulates renin release. However, it is unclear whether fusion and exocytosis of renin-containing granules is involved. In addition, the role of the fusion proteins, SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins), in renin release from JG cells has not been studied. The vesicle SNARE proteins VAMP2 (vesicle associated membrane protein 2) and VAMP3 mediate cAMP-stimulated exocytosis in other endocrine cells. Thus, we hypothesized that VAMP2 and/or -3 mediate cAMP-stimulated renin release from JG cells. By fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we isolated JG cells expressing green fluorescent protein and compared the relative abundance of VAMP2/3 in JG cells versus total mouse kidney mRNA by quantitative PCR. We found that VAMP2 and VAMP3 mRNA are expressed and enriched in JG cells. Confocal imaging of primary cultures of JG cells showed that VAMP2 (but not VAMP3) co-localized with renin-containing granules. Cleavage of VAMP2 and VAMP3 with tetanus toxin blocked cAMP-stimulated renin release from JG cells by ∼50% and impaired cAMP-stimulated exocytosis by ∼50%, as monitored with FM1–43. Then we specifically knocked down VAMP2 or VAMP3 by adenoviral-mediated delivery of short hairpin silencing RNA. We found that silencing VAMP2 blocked cAMP-induced renin release by ∼50%. In contrast, silencing VAMP3 had no effect on basal or cAMP-stimulated renin release. We conclude that VAMP2 and VAMP3 are expressed in JG cells, but only VAMP2 is targeted to renin-containing granules and mediates the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin exocytosis. PMID:21708949

  1. Species-Specific Antibody Responses to the Recombinant 53-Kilodalton Excretory and Secretory Proteins in Mice Infected with Trichinella spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Isao; Wu, Zhiliang; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2008-01-01

    The 53-kDa proteins in larval excretory and secretory (E-S) products were expressed from five Trichinella species (T. spiralis, T. britovi, T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis, and T. papuae), using the Escherichia coli expression system, and the antibody responses to the 53-kDa recombinant proteins in mice infected with Trichinella spp. were analyzed by Western blotting. The 53-kDa protein is conserved among the five Trichinella species, with >60% similarity in amino acid sequences. The 53-kDa recombinant proteins of T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis reacted to sera from mice infected with T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis at 8 days postinfection (p.i.), respectively. An antibody against the 53-kDa recombinant protein of T. spiralis recognized the 53-kDa protein in the crude extracts from adult worms and 30-day p.i. muscle larvae and E-S products from muscle larvae of T. spiralis but did not recognize any proteins from T. pseudospiralis. The sera from the mice infected with T. spiralis strongly reacted with the 53-kDa recombinant protein of T. spiralis but did not react with the 53-kDa recombinant proteins of T. britovi, T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis, and T. papuae. Similarly, the sera from mice infected with T. britovi, T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis, or T. papuae strongly reacted with the 53-kDa recombinant proteins of T. britovi, T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis, or T. papuae, respectively. These results showed that the 53-kDa recombinant proteins provide early and species-specific antibody responses in mice infected with Trichinella spp. PMID:18184826

  2. Characterization of membrane protein interactions in plasma membrane derived vesicles with quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Del Piccolo, Nuala; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-08-18

    Here we describe an experimental tool, termed quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer (QI-FRET), that enables the quantitative characterization of membrane protein interactions. The QI-FRET methodology allows us to acquire binding curves and calculate association constants for complex membrane proteins in the native plasma membrane environment. The method utilizes FRET detection, and thus requires that the proteins of interest are labeled with florescent proteins, either FRET donors or FRET acceptors. Since plasma membranes of cells have complex topologies precluding the acquisition of two-dimensional binding curves, the FRET measurements are performed in plasma membrane derived vesicles that bud off cells as a result of chemical or osmotic stress. The results overviewed here are acquired in vesicles produced with an osmotic vesiculation buffer developed in our laboratory, which does not utilize harsh chemicals. The concentrations of the donor-labeled and the acceptor-labeled proteins are determined, along with the FRET efficiencies, in each vesicle. The experiments utilize transient transfection, such that a wide variety of concentrations is sampled. Then, data from hundreds of vesicles are combined to yield dimerization curves. Here we discuss recent findings about the dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), membrane proteins that control cell growth and differentiation via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane. We focus on the dimerization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), a RTK that plays a critically important role in skeletal development. We study the role of different FGFR3 domains in FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand, and we show that FGFR3 extracellular domains inhibit unliganded dimerization, while contacts between the juxtamembrane domains, which connect the transmembrane domains to the kinase domains, stabilize the unliganded FGFR3 dimers. Since FGFR3 has been documented to harbor many pathogenic

  3. Engineering vesicle trafficking improves the extracellular activity and surface display efficiency of cellulases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongting; Song, Meihui; He, Yao; Wang, Jiajing; Wang, Shenghuan; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase expression via extracellular secretion or surface display in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most frequently used strategies for a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) of cellulosic ethanol production. However, the inefficiency of the yeast secretory pathway often results in low production of heterologous proteins, which largely limits cellulase secretion or display. In this study, the components of the vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, involved in vesicle budding, tethering and fusion, were over-expressed in Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase (CelA)- and Sacchromycopsis fibuligera β-glucosidase (BGL1)-secreting or -displaying strains. Engineering the targeted components in the ER to Golgi vesicle trafficking, including Sec12p, Sec13p, Erv25p and Bos1p, enhanced the extracellular activity of CelA. However, only Sec13p over-expression increased BGL1 secretion. By contrast, over-expression of the components in the Golgi to plasma membrane vesicle trafficking, including Sso1p, Snc2p, Sec1p, Exo70p, Ypt32p and Sec4p, showed better performance in increasing BGL1 secretion compared to CelA secretion, and the over-expression of these components all increased BGL1 extracellular activity. These results revealed that various cellulases showed different limitations in protein transport, and engineering vesicle trafficking has protein-specific effects. Importantly, we found that engineering the above vesicle trafficking components, particularly from the ER to the Golgi, also improved the display efficiency of CelA and BGL1 when a-agglutinin was used as surface display system. Further analyses illustrated that the display efficiency of a-agglutinin was increased by engineering vesicle trafficking, and the trend was consistent with displayed CelA and BGL1. These results indicated that fusion with a-agglutinin may affect the proteins' properties and alter the rate-limiting step in the

  4. Molecular mechanisms involved in gamete interaction: evidence for the participation of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) in sperm-egg fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, V; Busso, D; Cohen, D J; Maldera, J; Goldweic, N; Cuasnicu, P S

    2007-01-01

    Epididymal protein DE and testicular protein Tpx-1 are two cysteine-rich secretory proteins also known as CRISP-1 and CRISP-2, respectively. DE/ CRISP-1 is localised on the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted sperm and participates in rat gamete fusion through its binding to egg-complementary sites. Recent results using bacterially-expressed recombinant fragments of DE as well as synthetic peptides revealed that the ability of DE to bind to the egg surface and inhibit gamete fusion resides in a region of 12 amino acids corresponding to an evolutionary conserved motif of the CRISP family (Signature 2). Given the high degree of homology between DE/CRISP-1 and Tpx-1/CRISP-2, we also explored the potential participation of the testicular intra-acrosomal protein in gamete fusion. Results showing the ability of recombinant Tpx-1 to bind to the surface of rat eggs (evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence) and to significantly inhibit zona-free egg penetration, support the participation of this protein in gamete fusion through its interaction with egg-binding sites. Interestingly, rat Tpx-1 exhibits only two substitutions in Signature 2 when compared to this region in DE. Together, these results provide evidence for the involvement of both epididymal DE/CRISP-1 and testicular Tpx-1/CRISP-2 in gamete fusion suggesting the existence of a functional cooperation between homologue molecules as a mechanism to ensure the success of fertilisation.

  5. WDR8 is a centriolar satellite and centriole-associated protein that promotes ciliary vesicle docking during ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Wang, Wenbo; Ruppert, Thomas; Neuner, Annett; Cerikan, Berati; Viol, Linda; Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Gruss, Oliver J; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-02-01

    Ciliogenesis initiates at the mother centriole through a series of events that include membrane docking, displacement of cilia-inhibitory proteins and axoneme elongation. Centriolar proteins, in particular at distal and subdistal appendages, carry out these functions. Recently, cytoplasmic complexes named centriolar satellites have also been shown to promote ciliogenesis. Little is known about the functional and molecular relationship between appendage proteins, satellites and cilia biogenesis. Here, we identified the WD-repeat protein 8 (WDR8, also known as WRAP73) as a satellite and centriolar component. We show that WDR8 interacts with the satellite proteins SSX2IP and PCM1 as well as the centriolar proximal end component Cep135. Cep135 is required for the recruitment of WDR8 to centrioles. Depletion experiments revealed that WDR8 and Cep135 have strongly overlapping functions in ciliogenesis. Both are indispensable for ciliary vesicle docking to the mother centriole and for unlocking the distal end of the mother centriole from the ciliary inhibitory complex CP110-Cep97. Our data thus point to an important function of centriolar proximal end proteins in ciliary membrane biogenesis, and establish WDR8 and Cep135 as two factors that are essential for the initial steps of ciliation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Candida albicans Modifies the Protein Composition and Size Distribution of THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose Antonio; Vaz, Catarina; Monteoliva, Lucía; Molero, Gloria; Gil, Concha

    2017-01-06

    The effectiveness of macrophages in the response to systemic candidiasis is crucial to an effective clearance of the pathogen. The secretion of proteins, mRNAs, noncoding RNAs and lipids through extracellular vesicles (EVs) is one of the mechanisms of communication between immune cells. EVs change their cargo to mediate different responses, and may play a role in the response against infections. Thus we have undertaken the first quantitative proteomic analysis on the protein composition of THP-1 macrophage-derived EVs during the interaction with Candida albicans. This study revealed changes in EVs sizes and in protein composition, and allowed the identification and quantification of 717 proteins. Of them, 133 proteins changed their abundance due to the interaction. The differentially abundant proteins were involved in functions relating to immune response, signaling, or cytoskeletal reorganization. THP-1-derived EVs, both from control and from Candida-infected macrophages, had similar effector functions on other THP-1-differenciated macrophages, activating ERK and p38 kinases, and increasing both the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the candidacidal activity; while in THP-1 nondifferenciated monocytes, only EVs from infected macrophages increased significantly the TNF-α secretion. Our findings provide new information on the role of macrophage-derived EVs in response to C. albicans infection and in macrophages communication.

  7. Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William M; Boyanovsky, Boris B; Oslund, Rob C; Gelb, Michael H; Webb, Nancy R

    2010-06-25

    We developed C57BL/6 mice with targeted deletion of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (GX KO). These mice have approximately 80% higher plasma corticosterone concentrations compared with wild-type (WT) mice under both basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced stress conditions. This increased corticosterone level was not associated with increased circulating ACTH or a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as evidenced by a normal response to dexamethasone challenge. Primary cultures of adrenal cells from GX KO mice exhibited significantly increased corticosteroid secretion compared with WT cells. Conversely, overexpression of GX secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), but not a catalytically inactive mutant form of GX sPLA(2), significantly reduced steroid production 30-40% in Y1 mouse adrenal cell line. This effect was reversed by the sPLA(2) inhibitor, indoxam. Silencing of endogenous M-type receptor expression did not restore steroid production in GX sPLA(2)-overexpressing Y1 cells, ruling out a role for this sPLA(2) receptor in this regulatory process. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA(2). Results from StAR-promoter luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that GX sPLA(2) antagonizes StAR promoter activity and liver X receptor-mediated StAR promoter activation. In summary, GX sPLA(2) is expressed in mouse adrenal glands and functions to negatively regulate corticosteroid synthesis, most likely by negatively regulating StAR expression.

  8. An abundantly secreted glycoprotein from Drosophila melanogaster is related to mammalian secretory proteins produced in rheumatoid tissues and by activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, R B; Matico, R E; McNulty, D E; Strickler, J E; Rosenberg, M

    1995-02-14

    An abundantly secreted 47-kDa glycoprotein, DS47, was purified from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) Schneider line-2 cells, a line exhibiting macrophage-like properties. DS47 is also secreted from several Dm cell lines resembling S2 but not from lines that are morphologically distinct. A cDNA cline was isolated from an S2 cell cDNA library using oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on the DS47 amino acid (aa) sequence and found to encode a novel secretory glycoprotein of 452 aa. Analysis of DS47 protein production and mRNA expression during fly development indicates that both are present throughout the entire Dm life cycle, suggesting that DS47 may be important at all developmental stages. In larvae, the DS47 message is made in the fat body and by hemocytes, and secreted into the hemolymph. DS47 is related to a human cartilage glycoprotein, HC gp-39, that is secreted from cell types associated with the arthritic joint, such as synovial cells and activated macrophages. Interestingly, the HC gp-39 message is most readily detected in the human liver, an organ that is somewhat analogous to the Dm fat body. DS47 also shares homology to a mouse secretory glycoprotein, YM-1, identified in activated macrophages. These homologies extend to the chitinase gene family and include a conserved cysteine aa motif, as well as two blocks of aa within the enzymatic active site, although neither DS-47 nor HC gp-39 exhibit chitinase activity. Potential functions of this conserved protein family are discussed.

  9. High ω-3:ω-6 fatty acids ratio increases fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in human ectopic endometrial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaki, Korosh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Darabi, Masoud; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shabani, Mahdi; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases. Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells. Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique. Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis. PMID:25709631

  10. Spontaneous crowding of ribosomes and proteins inside vesicles: a possible mechanism for the origin of cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Souza, Tereza; Steiniger, Frank; Stano, Pasquale; Fahr, Alfred; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2011-10-17

    One of the open questions in the origin of life is the spontaneous formation of primitive cell-like compartments from free molecules in solution and membranes. "Metabolism-first" and "replicator-first" theories claim that early catalytic cycles first evolved in solution, and became encapsulated inside lipid vesicles later on. "Compartment-first" theories suggest that metabolism progressively occurred inside compartments. Both views have some weaknesses: the low probability of co-entrapment of several compounds inside the same compartment, and the need to control nutrient uptake and waste release, respectively. By using lipid vesicles as early-cell models, we show that ribosomes, proteins and lipids spontaneously self-organise into cell-like compartments to achieve high internal concentrations, even when starting from dilute solutions. These findings suggest that the assembly of cell-like compartments, despite its low probability of occurrence, is indeed a physically realistic process. The spontaneous achievement of high local concentration might provide a rational account for the origin of primitive cellular metabolism. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Increased liver-specific proteins in circulating extracellular vesicles as potential biomarkers for drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Cho

    Full Text Available Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury. The circulating EVs, isolated from plasma of APAP-exposed, ethanol-fed mice, or alcoholic hepatitis patients versus normal control counterparts, were characterized by proteomics and biochemical methods. Liver specific EV proteins were analyzed by immunoblots and ELISA. The amounts of total and liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs from APAP-treated mice significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis of EVs from APAP-exposed mice revealed that the amounts of liver-specific and/or hepatotoxic proteins were increased compared to those of controls. Additionally, the increased protein amounts in EVs following APAP exposure returned to basal levels when mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Similar results of increased amounts and liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs were also observed in mice exposed to hepatotoxic doses of thioacetamide or d-galactosamine but not by non-hepatotoxic penicillin or myotoxic bupivacaine. Additionally, binge ethanol exposure significantly elevated liver-specific proteins in circulating EVs from mice and alcoholics with alcoholic hepatitis, compared to control counterparts. These results indicate that circulating EVs in drug- and alcohol-mediated hepatic injury contain liver-specific proteins that could serve as specific biomarkers for hepatotoxicity.

  12. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    hemophagocytic syndrome) and metabolic (diabe- tes) disorders [2, 23, 33]. Mutations in the genes of the basic secretory protein machinery lead to a number of membrane trafficking diseases such as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Cohen.

  13. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for analysis of protein antigens in a meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lawrence W; Mehl, John T; Loughney, John W; Mach, Anna; Rustandi, Richard R; Ha, Sha; Zhang, Lan; Przysiecki, Craig T; Dieter, Lance; Hoang, Van M

    2015-01-01

    The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or 2-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the 2-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a 2-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques.

  14. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  15. Engineering the cellular protein secretory pathway for enhancement of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells: effects of CERT and XBP1s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Azam; Vaziri, Behrouz; Moazzami, Reza; Nematollahi, Leila; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Kokabee, Leila; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2013-08-01

    Cell line development is the most critical and also the most time-consuming step in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this regard, a variety of vector and cell engineering strategies have been developed for generating high-producing mammalian cells; however, the cell line engineering approach seems to show various results on different recombinant protein producer cells. In order to improve the secretory capacity of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, we developed cell line engineering approaches based on the ceramide transfer protein (CERT) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) genes. For this purpose, CERT S132A, a mutant form of CERT that is resistant to phosphorylation, and XBP1s were overexpressed in a recombinant t-PA-producing CHO cell line. Overexpression of CERT S132A increased the specific productivity of t-PA-producing CHO cells up to 35%. In contrast, the heterologous expression of XBP1s did not affect the t-PA expression rate. Our results suggest that CERTS132A- based secretion engineering could be an effective strategy for enhancing recombinant t- PA production in CHO cells.

  16. Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 participates in transport carrier formation and protein trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Johannes, Ludger; Pyne, Susan; Sarri, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2013-06-15

    The inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity by propanolol indicates that diacylglycerol (DAG) is required for the formation of transport carriers at the Golgi and for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Here we report that the PAP2 family member lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3, also known as PAP2b) localizes in compartments of the secretory pathway from ER export sites to the Golgi complex. The depletion of human LPP3: (i) reduces the number of tubules generated from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi, with those formed from the Golgi being longer in LPP3-silenced cells than in control cells; (ii) impairs the Rab6-dependent retrograde transport of Shiga toxin subunit B from the Golgi to the ER, but not the anterograde transport of VSV-G or ssDsRed; and (iii) induces a high accumulation of Golgi-associated membrane buds. LPP3 depletion also reduces levels of de novo synthesized DAG and the Golgi-associated DAG contents. Remarkably, overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of LPP3 mimics the effects of LPP3 knockdown on Rab6-dependent retrograde transport. We conclude that LPP3 participates in the formation of retrograde transport carriers at the ER-Golgi interface, where it transitorily cycles, and during its route to the plasma membrane.

  17. [Effect of excretory/secretory protein ofTrichinella spiralisadult worm on CLP-induced sepsis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-di, Yang; Wen-Xin, He; Qiang, Fang; Di, Song; Qi, Wu; Xiao-Li, Wang; Nan, Li; Qi, Qi; Yong-Kun, Wan; Hui, Zhang; Rui, Zhou; Xing-Zhi, Chen; Mu-Lin, Liu; Hui-Hui, Li; Liang, Chu

    2016-05-25

    To observe the effect of excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms (AES) on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis in mice. Forty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups:a sham operation group (PBS + sham group, Group A), a CLP-induced sepsis group (PBS+CLP group, Group B) and an AES treatment group (AES+CLP group, Group C). The mice of each group were intraperitoneally injected with 25 μg of AES or PBS only as a control in a total volume of 200 μl. Eight mice from each group were selected randomly for survival analysis of 96 hours. The other 8 mice in each group were observed for pathological changes in the lung, liver and kidney tissues by HE staining 12 h after CLP, and then determined for the detection of cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in the sera by ELISA. The difference among the survival rates of mice in the 3 groups was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 21.16, P CLP. Compared with the mice in group B, the survival rate of those in Group C (70%) increased significantly ( P CLP in mice.

  18. Diffusion of lipids and GPI-anchored proteins in actin-free plasma membrane vesicles measured by STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Falk; Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...... (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Hindered diffusion of phospholipids and sphingolipids...... forming immobile clusters, both of which disappear in GPMVs. Our data underline the crucial role of the actin cortex in maintaining hindered diffusion modes of many but not all of the membrane molecules, and highlight a powerful experimental approach to decipher specific influences on molecular plasma...

  19. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Involved in Salt-Adaptation and Vesicle Trafficking in Tobacco by-2 Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Olmos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents. Using the immuno-dot blot technique with different anti-AGP antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, and others, we observed that AGPs were highly accumulated in the culture medium of salt-adapted tobacco cells, probably due to the action of phospholipases. We located these AGP epitopes using immunogold labeling in the cytoplasm associated to the endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and vesicles, plasma membrane and tonoplast. Our results show that salt-adaptation induced a significant reduction of the cytoplasm, plasma membrane and tonoplast content of these epitopes. Yariv reagent was added to the control and salt-adapted tobacco cell cultures, leading to cell death induction in control cells but not in salt-adapted cells. Ultrastructural and immunogold labeling revealed that cell death induced by Yariv reagent in control cells was due to the interaction of Yariv reagent with the AGPs linked to the plasma membranes. Finally, we propose a new function of AGPs as a possible sodium carrier through the mechanism of vesicle trafficking from the apoplast to the vacuoles in salt-adapted tobacco BY-2 cells. This mechanism may contribute to sodium homeostasis during salt-adaptation to high saline concentrations.

  20. Extensive surface protein profiles of extracellular vesicles from cancer cells may provide diagnostic signatures from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Belov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV are membranous particles (30–1,000 nm in diameter secreted by cells. Important biological functions have been attributed to 2 subsets of EV, the exosomes (bud from endosomal membranes and the microvesicles (MV; bud from plasma membranes. Since both types of particles contain surface proteins derived from their cell of origin, their detection in blood may enable diagnosis and prognosis of disease. We have used an antibody microarray (DotScan to compare the surface protein profiles of live cancer cells with those of their EV, based on their binding patterns to immobilized antibodies. Initially, EV derived from the cancer cell lines, LIM1215 (colorectal cancer and MEC1 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; CLL, were used for assay optimization. Biotinylated antibodies specific for EpCAM (CD326 and CD19, respectively, were used to detect captured particles by enhanced chemiluminescence. Subsequently, this approach was used to profile CD19+ EV from the plasma of CLL patients. These EV expressed a subset (~40% of the proteins detected on CLL cells from the same patients: moderate or high levels of CD5, CD19, CD31, CD44, CD55, CD62L, CD82, HLA-A,B,C, HLA-DR; low levels of CD21, CD49c, CD63. None of these proteins was detected on EV from the plasma of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals.

  1. Blocking effect and crystal structure of natrin toxin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein from Naja atra venom that targets the BKCa channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shen, Bing; Guo, Min; Lou, Xiaohua; Duan, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xin Ping; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Qun; Huang, Qingqiu; Hao, Quan

    2005-08-02

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are widespread in snake venoms. Some members of these CRISPs recently have been found to block L-type Ca(2+) channels or cyclic nucleotide-gated ion (CNG) channels. Here, natrin purified from Naja atra venom, a member of the CRISP family, can induce a further contractile response in the endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta of mouse which has been contracted by a high-K(+) solution. Further experiments show it can block the high-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 34.4 nM and a Hill coefficient of 1.02, which suggests that only a single natrin molecule is required to bind an ion channel to block BK(Ca) current. The crystal structure of natrin displaying two domains in tandem shows its cysteine-rich domain (CRD) has relatively independent flexibility, especially for the C-terminal long loop (loop I) of CRD to participate in the interface of two domains. On the basis of previous studies of CNG channel and L-Ca(2+) channel blockers, and the sequence and structural comparison of natrin and stecrisp, the deviation of the vital loop I of CRD is suggested to contribute to different effects of some CRISPs in protein-protein interaction.

  2. Investigating possible biological targets of Bj-CRP, the first cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovicho, Marina E; Costa, Tássia R; Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Zoccal, Karina F; Carone, Sante E; Rosa, José C; Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Arantes, Eliane C; Tytgat, Jan; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-01-04

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are commonly described as part of the protein content of snake venoms, nevertheless, so far, little is known about their biological targets and functions. Our study describes the isolation and characterization of Bj-CRP, the first CRISP isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, also aiming at the identification of possible targets for its actions. Bj-CRP was purified using three chromatographic steps (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and C18) and showed to be an acidic protein of 24.6kDa with high sequence identity to other snake venom CRISPs. This CRISP was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic or coagulant activities, and it did not affect the currents from 13 voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms. Conversely, Bj-CRP induced inflammatory responses characterized by increase of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, after 1 and 4h of its injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice, also stimulating the production of IL-6. Bj-CRP also acted on the human complement system, modulating some of the activation pathways and acting directly on important components (C3 and C4), thus inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a and C5a). Therefore, our results for Bj-CRP open up prospects for better understanding this class of toxins and its biological actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dendrite-derived supernumerary axons on adult axotomized motor neurons possess proteins that are essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials and synaptic vesicle release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; MacDermid, Victoria E; Montague, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    on these processes matches the arrangement of these channels that is necessary for the initiation and conduction of action potentials. At terminal bouton-like structures they possess key proteins necessary for the release of synaptic vesicles (SV2 and synaptophysin). Thus, axon-like processes emanating from the tips...

  4. An erythrocyte vesicle protein exported by the malaria parasite promotes tubovesicular lipid import from the host cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Tamez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite that causes the most virulent of human malarias. The blood stage parasites export several hundred proteins into their host erythrocyte that underlie modifications linked to major pathologies of the disease and parasite survival in the blood. Unfortunately, most are 'hypothetical' proteins of unknown function, and those that are essential for parasitization of the erythrocyte cannot be 'knocked out'. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genome-wide expression analyses with a new series of transgenic and cellular assays to show for the first time in malaria parasites that microarray read out from a chemical perturbation can have predictive value. We thereby identified and characterized an exported P. falciparum protein resident in a new vesicular compartment induced by the parasite in the erythrocyte. This protein, named Erythrocyte Vesicle Protein 1 (EVP1, shows novel dynamics of distribution in the parasite and intraerythrocytic membranes. Evidence is presented that its expression results in a change in TVN-mediated lipid import at the host membrane and that it is required for intracellular parasite growth, but not invasion. This exported protein appears to be needed for the maintenance of an essential tubovesicular nutrient import pathway induced by the pathogen in the host cell. Our approach may be generalized to the analysis of hundreds of 'hypothetical' P. falciparum proteins to understand their role in parasite entry and/or growth in erythrocytes as well as phenotypic contributions to either antigen export or tubovesicular import. By functionally validating these unknowns, one may identify new targets in host-microbial interactions for prophylaxis against this major human pathogen.

  5. Association of the cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and some of its polymorphisms with the quality of cryopreserved stallion semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuga, Alexandra; Rojano, Benjamín A; Restrepo, Giovanni

    2017-08-31

    Contribution of seminal plasma proteins to semen freezability has been reported in several species, suggesting these proteins as genetic markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and some of its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with post-thawing semen quality in stallions. DNA was obtained from 100 stallions, regions of interest were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Evaluated SNPs within the equine CRISP-3 gene were CRISP3c.+199A>G (SNP1), CRISP3c.+566C>A (SNP2), CRISP3c.+622G>A (SNP3) and CRISP3c.+716A>G (SNP4). CRISP-3 protein content in seminal plasma was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Semen from 30 stallions was cryopreserved and post-thaw motility, kinetics, abnormal morphology (AM), sperm vitality (SV) and membrane integrity (MI) were evaluated. Generalized linear models were fitted and means were compared using Tukey's test. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. For SNP1 and SNP3, the AA genotype had the highest results for motility and MI; for SNP2, the best results for motility and AM were obtained with the CC genotype. For SNP4, the GG genotype had the lowest results, except for MI. A high level of CRISP-3 protein in seminal plasma had the best results for motility, kinetics, SV and AM. In conclusion, there was a relationship between CRISP-3 genotype and seminal plasma protein and post-thawing semen quality in stallions.

  6. Mutations in the capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus affecting encapsidation eliminate vesicle induction in planta: implications for virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange the endomembrane network to make it more conducive for replication, maturation, or egress. Our previous transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that ectopic expression of wild-type (wt) capsid protein (CP) of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has an intrinsic property of modifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce vesicles similar to those present in wt BMV infection. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of CP-mediated vesicle induction to the BMV infection cycle in planta. Consequently, the cytopathologic changes induced by wt CP or its mutants defective in virion assembly due to mutations engineered in either N- or C-proximal domains were comparatively analyzed by TEM in two susceptible (Nicotiana benthamiana and Chenopodium quinoa) and one nonhost (N. clevelandii) plant species. The results showed that in susceptible hosts, CP-mediated ER-derived vesicle induction is contingent on the expression of encapsidation-competent CP. In contrast, unlike in N. benthamiana and C. quinoa, transient expression of wt CP in nonhost N. clevelandii plants eliminated vesicle induction. Additionally, comparative source-to-sink analysis of virus spread in leaves of N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii coexpressing wt BMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that despite trans-encapsidation, CMV failed to complement the defective cell-to-cell movement of BMV. The significance and relation of CP-mediated vesicle induction to virus cell-to-cell movement are discussed.

  7. Novel secretory protein Ss-Caf1 of the plant-pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is required for host penetration and normal sclerotial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueqiong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong; Fu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    To decipher the mechanism of pathogenicity in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a pathogenicity-defective mutant, Sunf-MT6, was isolated from a T-DNA insertional library. Sunf-MT6 could not form compound appressorium and failed to induce lesions on leaves of rapeseed though it could produce more oxalic acid than the wild-type strain. However, it could enter into host tissues via wounds and cause typical necrotic lesions. Furthermore, Sunf-MT6 produced fewer but larger sclerotia than the wild-type strain Sunf-M. A gene, named Ss-caf1, was disrupted by T-DNA insertion in Sunf-MT6. Gene complementation and knockdown experiments confirmed that the disruption of Ss-caf1 was responsible for the phenotypic changes of Sunf-MT6. Ss-caf1 encodes a secretory protein with a putative Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motif. High expression levels of Ss-caf1 were observed at an early stage of compound appressorium formation and in immature sclerotia. Expression of Ss-caf1 without signal peptides in Nicotiana benthamiana via Tobacco rattle virus-based vectors elicited cell death. These results suggest that Ss-caf1 plays an important role in compound appressorium formation and sclerotial development of S. sclerotiorum. In addition, Ss-Caf1 has the potential to interact with certain host proteins or unknown substances in host cells, resulting in subsequent host cell death.

  8. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi...

  9. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  10. Effect of secretory pathway gene overexpression on secretion of a fluorescent reporter protein in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: The considerable capacity of filamentous fungi for the secretion of proteins is the basis for multi-billion dollar industries producing enzymes and proteins with therapeutic value. The stepwise pathway from translation to secretion is therefore well studied, and genes playing major ro...... results indicate that increased expression may be a way for the cell to slow down secretion in order to cope with the increased protein load. By constructing a secretion reporter strain, the study demonstrates a robust way to study the secretion pathway in filamentous fungi....

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 and the CFP10:ESAT6 complex inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB transactivation by downregulation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niladri; Giang, Pham H; Gupta, Chitra; Basu, Sandip K; Siddiqui, Imran; Salunke, Dinakar M; Sharma, Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes death of 2-3 million people annually and is considered one of the most successful intracellular pathogens to persist inside the host macrophage. Recent studies have implicated the role of RD-1 region of Mtb genome in the mycobacterial pathogenesis. The role of RD-1-encoded secretory proteins of Mtb in modulation of macrophage function has not been investigated in detail. Here we show that RD-1 encoded two major secretory proteins, namely, culture filtrate protein-10 kDa (CFP-10) and early secreted antigenic target-6 kDa (ESAT-6), and their 1:1 CFP-10:ESAT6 complex inhibit production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) in RAW264.7 cells. These proteins also downregulated the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS production, which, in turn, downregulated LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 DNA-binding activity, as well as inhibited the NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) expression in the treated macrophages. Moreover, addition of N-acetyl cysteine, which is a scavenger of ROS, also inhibited LPS-induced reporter gene expression by scavenging the ROS, thereby preventing NF-kappaB transactivation. These studies indicate that the secretory proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 and the CFP10:ESAT6 complex of Mtb can inhibit LPS-induced NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression via downregulation of ROS production.

  12. Identification of the antiepileptic racetam binding site in the vesicle synaptic protein 2A by molecular dynamics and docking simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eCorrea-Basurto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A is an integral membrane protein necessary for the proper function of the central nervous system (CNS and is associated to the physiopathology of epilepsy. SV2A is the molecular target of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV and its racetam analogues. The racetam binding site in SV2A and the non-covalent interactions between racetams and SV2A are currently unknown; therefore, an in silico study was performed to explore these issues. Since SV2A has not been structurally characterized with X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance, a three-dimensional (3D model was built. The model was refined by performing a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS and the interactions of SV2A with the racetams were determined by docking studies. A reliable 3D model of SV2A was obtained; it reached structural equilibrium during the last 15 ns of the MDS (50 ns with remaining structural motions in the N-terminus and long cytoplasmic loop. The docking studies revealed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds participate importantly in ligand recognition within the binding site. Residues T456, S665, W666, D670 and L689 were important for racetam binding within the trans-membrane hydrophilic core of SV2A. Identifying the racetam binding site within SV2A should facilitate the synthesis of suitable radio-ligands to study treatment response and possibly epilepsy progression.

  13. Identification of the antiepileptic racetam binding site in the synaptic vesicle protein 2A by molecular dynamics and docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Basurto, José; Cuevas-Hernández, Roberto I; Phillips-Farfán, Bryan V; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; Ramírez-Salinas, Gema L; Pérez-González, Óscar A; Trujillo-Ferrara, José; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta G

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) is an integral membrane protein necessary for the proper function of the central nervous system and is associated to the physiopathology of epilepsy. SV2A is the molecular target of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam and its racetam analogs. The racetam binding site in SV2A and the non-covalent interactions between racetams and SV2A are currently unknown; therefore, an in silico study was performed to explore these issues. Since SV2A has not been structurally characterized with X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance, a three-dimensional (3D) model was built. The model was refined by performing a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and the interactions of SV2A with the racetams were determined by docking studies. A reliable 3D model of SV2A was obtained; it reached structural equilibrium during the last 15 ns of the MDS (50 ns) with remaining structural motions in the N-terminus and long cytoplasmic loop. The docking studies revealed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds participate importantly in ligand recognition within the binding site. Residues T456, S665, W666, D670 and L689 were important for racetam binding within the trans-membrane hydrophilic core of SV2A. Identifying the racetam binding site within SV2A should facilitate the synthesis of suitable radio-ligands to study treatment response and possibly epilepsy progression.

  14. Expression of the synaptic vesicle proteins VAMPs/synaptobrevins 1 and 2 in non-neural tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Beushausen, S; Ploug, Thorkil

    1994-01-01

    for Vp/Syb 2 detected a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area of skeletal muscle. Thus Vp/Sybs 1 and 2 are not restricted to the nervous system but appear to be co-expressed with cellubrevin in many different tissues. This redundancy of Vp/Sybs in a single cell may be required to control......The VAMPs/synaptobrevins (Vp/Sybs) are small integral membrane proteins. Two isoforms, Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2, are considered to be specific to neural tissue. They are associated with synaptic vesicles and are believed to play an important role in neurotransmitter release. A third isoform......, cellubrevin, has recently been found in non-neural tissues. We now report that the distribution of Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2 is wider than previously thought. RNA transcripts for both Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2 were found in rat skeletal muscle and in several other rat non-neural tissues, and antibodies specific...

  15. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-06

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is a ligand of alpha1B-glycoprotein in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Lene; Sørensen, Ole E; Pass, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    (28 kDa), we hypothesized that CRISP-3 in plasma was bound to another component. This was supported by size-exclusion chromatography and immunoprecipitation of plasma proteins. The binding partner was identified by mass spectrometry as alpha(1)B-glycoprotein (A1BG), which is a known plasma protein...... and is held together by strong electrostatic forces. Similar complexes have been described between toxins from snake venom and A1BG-like plasma proteins from opossum species. In these cases, complex formation inhibits the toxic effect of snake venom metalloproteinases or myotoxins and protects the animal from...... of unknown function and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We demonstrate that CRISP-3 is a specific and high-affinity ligand of A1BG with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance. The A1BG-CRISP-3 complex is noncovalent with a 1:1 stoichiometry...

  17. Evaluation of erythrocyte band 3 phosphotyrosine level, glutathione content, CA-125, and human epididymal secretory protein E4 as combined parameters in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Luciana; Fiore, Cristina; Donà, Gabriella; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte response to diamide-induced oxidative stress, alone or as adjuncts to serum values of CA-125 and human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4), in the diagnosis and study of endometriosis. University of Padova. Prospective study. Forty-five patients of reproductive age undergoing laparoscopy. All women were studied for endometriotic foci during laparoscopic surgery. Forty-one had laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis, and four did not. Twenty women with confirmed endometriosis were reassessed 1-4 months later. CA-125 and HE4 and two new parameters evaluated in erythrocytes after diamide-induced stress, that is, band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) level and decrease in total glutathione content (ΔGSH), were assessed in all patients. In association with serum CA-125 levels but not with HE4, diamide-related erythrocyte band 3 Tyr-P and ΔGSH were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis and were able to discriminate with high sensitivity and specificity between patients before and after surgery. Endometriosis is associated with an increase in systemic oxidative stress, affecting the antioxidative defenses of circulating erythrocytes. All related implications, including evaluation of other oxidative stress-related changes, warrant further study. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in Plasmalemma Vesicle Associated Protein Result in Sieving Protein-Losing Enteropathy Characterized by Hypoproteinemia, Hypoalbuminemia, and HypertriglyceridemiaSummary

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    Abdul Elkadri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Severe intestinal diseases observed in very young children are often the result of monogenic defects. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES to examine genetics in a patient with a distinct severe form of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE characterized by hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Methods: WES was performed at the Centre for Applied Genomics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, and exome library preparation was performed with the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq RDY Exome Kit. Functional studies were based on the identified mutation. Results: Using WES we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (1072C>T; p.Arg358* in the PLVAP (plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein gene in an infant from consanguineous parents who died at 5 months of age of severe PLE. Functional studies determined that the mutated PLVAP mRNA and protein were not expressed in the patient biopsy tissues, presumably secondary to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Pathological analysis showed that the loss of PLVAP resulted in disruption of endothelial fenestrated diaphragms. Conclusions: The PLVAP p.Arg358* mutation resulted in the loss of PLVAP expression with subsequent deletion of the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae, which led to plasma protein extravasation, PLE, and ultimately death. Keywords: Endothelium, Fenestrae, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypoalbuminemia, Hypoproteinemia, Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Monogenic Diseases, Protein-Losing Enteropathy, Whole-Exome Sequencing

  19. Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 k......Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different......D metalloproteinase that has been de novo sequenced and is described for the first time; (iv) Type II arabinogalactans-proteins. Significant differences between the gums from the two species were observed in the protein content (6% vs 22%), offering the possibility of a quick differentiation of gums from both species...

  20. Gene transfer mediated by fusion protein hemagglutinin reconstituted in cationic lipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, P; Chonn, A; Cullis, PR; Wilschut, J; Scherrer, P

    Hemagglutinin, the membrane fusion protein of influenza virus,is known to mediate a low-pH-dependent fusion reaction between the viral envelope and the limiting membrane of the endosomal cell compartment following cellular uptake of the virus particles by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we

  1. The influence of gestation and mechanical ventilation on serum clara cell secretory protein (CC10) concentrations in ventilated and nonventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Oei, Julee; Wang, He; Xu, Hongxiu; Wimalasundera, Neil; Egan, Claire; Henry, Richard; Lui, Kei

    2006-07-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CC10) is an important anti-inflammatory mediator in the adult lung, but its role in newborn pulmonary protection is uncertain. We examined the early postnatal behavior of CC10 in newborn serum and tracheal fluid and hypothesized that CC10 production is positively influenced by gestation. Blood from 165 infants from the first, third/fourth, and seventh days of life (gestational ages: 23-29 wk, 30-36 wk, >36 wk) and tracheal fluid (TF) from the first day of life from 32 ventilated infants were analyzed for CC10. Surfactant proteins A (SPA) and B (SPB) were also analyzed from the blood of a subgroup of infants. Serum CC10 on day 1 was highest in term infants (69.4 ng/mL), followed by moderately preterm (55.8 ng/mL), and then extremely preterm infants (median 42.1 ng/mL). Term infants also had higher tracheal fluid CC10 than preterm infants. (20.152 ng/mL versus 882 ng/mL). Mechanical ventilation increased serum CC10 only in moderately preterm infants, and only on d 1 [68.4 ng/mL versus 42.1 ng/mL (nonventilated moderately preterm infants)]. Serum CC10 decreased progressively by the end of the first week in all infants, in contrast to SPA and SPB, which increased. Our results show that CC10 is detectable in the blood of newborn infants and that a production surge occurs at birth. This surge is more pronounced in term infants and may confer them with superior extrauterine pulmonary protection compared with preterm infants.

  2. Phosphorylation by Dyrk1A of clathrin coated vesicle-associated proteins: identification of the substrate proteins and the effects of phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Murakami

    Full Text Available Dyrk1A phosphorylated multiple proteins in the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV preparations obtained from rat brains. Mass spectrometric analysis identified MAP1A, MAP2, AP180, and α- and β-adaptins as the phosphorylated proteins in the CCVs. Each protein was subsequently confirmed by [(32P]-labeling and immunological methods. The Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation released the majority of MAP1A and MAP2 and enhanced the release of AP180 and adaptin subunits from the CCVs. Furthermore, Dyrk1A displaced adaptor proteins physically from CCVs in a kinase-concentration dependent manner. The clathrin heavy chain release rate, in contrast, was not affected by Dyrk1A. Surprisingly, the Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation of α- and β-adaptins led to dissociation of the AP2 complex, and released only β-adaptin from the CCVs. AP180 was phosphorylated by Dyrk1A also in the membrane-free fractions, but α- and β-adaptins were not. Dyrk1A was detected in the isolated CCVs and was co-localized with clathrin in neurons from mouse brain sections and from primary cultured rat hippocampus. Previously, we proposed that Dyrk1A inhibits the onset of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in neurons by phosphorylating dynamin 1, amphiphysin 1, and synaptojanin 1. Current results suggest that besides the inhibition, Dyrk1A promotes the uncoating process of endocytosed CCVs.

  3. Malaria parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates blood stage merozoite secretory organelle discharge and egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Collins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV. Eventually, in a tightly regulated process called egress, proteins of the PV and intracellular merozoite surface are modified by an essential parasite serine protease called PfSUB1, whilst the enclosing PV and erythrocyte membranes rupture, releasing merozoites to invade fresh erythrocytes. Inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG prevents egress, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that PfPKG activity is required for PfSUB1 discharge into the PV, as well as for release of distinct merozoite organelles called micronemes. Stimulation of PfPKG by inhibiting parasite phosphodiesterase activity induces premature PfSUB1 discharge and egress of developmentally immature, non-invasive parasites. Our findings identify the signalling pathway that regulates PfSUB1 function and egress, and raise the possibility of targeting PfPKG or parasite phosphodiesterases in therapeutic approaches to dysregulate critical protease-mediated steps in the parasite life cycle.

  4. How cancer cells dictate their microenvironment: present roles of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-02-01

    Intercellular communication plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression through secretory molecules, including growth factors and cytokines. Recent advances have revealed that small membrane vesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), served as a regulatory agent in the intercellular communication of cancer. EVs enable the transfer of functional molecules, including proteins, mRNA and microRNAs (miRNAs), into recipient cells. Cancer cells utilize EVs to dictate the unique phenotype of surrounding cells, thereby promoting cancer progression. Against such "education" by cancer cells, non-tumoral cells suppress cancer initiation and progression via EVs. Therefore, researchers consider EVs to be important cues to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology. Understanding the functions of EVs in cancer progression is an important aspect of cancer biology that has not been previously elucidated. In this review, we summarize experimental data that indicate the pivotal roles of EVs in cancer progression.

  5. Neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) deficiency disrupts the Golgi secretory pathway and causes growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Hammels, Ina; Jenke, Bitta; Binczek, Erika; Schmidt-Soltau, Inga; Brodesser, Susanne; Schauss, Astrid; Etich, Julia; Heilig, Juliane; Zaucke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus–pituitary–somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3−/− mouse mutant and derived smpd3−/− primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment. Here we describe the unprecedented role of SMPD3. SMPD3 deficiency disrupts homeostasis of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the Golgi SMPD3-SMS1 (SM-synthase1) cycle. Cer and DAG, two fusogenic intermediates, modify the membrane lipid bilayer for the initiation of vesicle formation and transport. Dysproteostasis, unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis perturb the Golgi secretory pathway in the smpd3−/− mouse. Secretion of extracellular matrix proteins is arrested in chondrocytes and causes skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia. Similarly, retarded secretion of proteo-hormones in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons leads to hypothalamus induced combined pituitary hormone deficiency. SMPD3 in the regulation of the protein vesicular secretory pathway may become a diagnostic target in the etiology of unknown forms of juvenile growth and developmental inhibition. PMID:27882938

  6. A 24 kDa Excretory-Secretory Protein of Anisakis simplex Larvae Could Elicit Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Yun Seong; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Min Ki; Ock, Mee Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that a 24 kDa protein (22U homologous; As22U) of Anisakis simplex larvae could elicit several Th2-related chemokine gene expressions in the intestinal epithelial cell line which means that As22U may play a role as an allergen. In order to determine the contribution of As22U to allergic reactions, we treated mice with 6 times intra-nasal application of recombinant As22U (rAs22U). In the group challenged with rAs22U and ovalbumin (OVA), the number of eosinophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased, as compared to the group receiving only OVA. In addition, mice treated with rAs22U and OVA showed significantly increased airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus, severe inflammation around the airway and immune cell recruitment was observed in mice treated with rAs22U plus OVA. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines in the BALF increased significantly after treatment with rAs22U and OVA. Similarly, the levels of anti-OVA specific IgE and IgG1 increased in mice treated with rAs22U and OVA, compared to those treated only with OVA. The Gro-α (CXCL1) gene expression in mouse lung epithelial cells increased instantly after treatment with rAs22U, and allergy-specific chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus-and-activation-regulated-chemokine (CCL17) gene expressions significantly increased at 6 hr after treatment. In conclusion, rAs22U may induce airway allergic inflammation, as the result of enhanced Th2 and Th17 responses. PMID:22355204

  7. SNARE proteins synaptobrevin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin are involved in rapid and slow endocytosis at synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianhua; Luo, Fujun; Zhang, Zhen; Xue, Lei; Wu, Xinsheng; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid endocytosis, which takes only a few seconds, is widely observed in secretory cells. Although it is more efficient in recycling vesicles than slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis, its underlying mechanism, thought to be clathrin-independent, is largely unclear. Here we reported that cleavage of three SNARE proteins essential for exocytosis, including synaptobrevin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin, inhibited rapid endocytosis at the calyx of Held nerve terminal, suggesting the involvement of three SNARE proteins in rapid endocytosis. These SNARE proteins were also involved in slow endocytosis. In addition, SNAP-25 and syntaxin facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, likely via their roles in endocytosis and/or exocytosis. We concluded that both rapid and slow endocytosis share the involvement of SNARE proteins. The dual role of three SNARE proteins in exo- and endocytosis suggests that SNARE proteins may be molecular substrates contributing to the exo-endocytosis coupling, which maintains exocytosis in secretory cells. PMID:23643538

  8. Liver-Enriched Gene 1, a Glycosylated Secretory Protein, Binds to FGFR and Mediates an Anti-stress Pathway to Protect Liver Development in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mammals and birds, teleost fish undergo external embryogenesis, and therefore their embryos are constantly challenged by stresses from their living environment. These stresses, when becoming too harsh, will cause arrest of cell proliferation, abnormal cell death or senescence. Such organisms have to evolve a sophisticated anti-stress mechanism to protect the process of embryogenesis/organogenesis. However, very few signaling molecule(s mediating such activity have been identified. liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1 is an uncharacterized gene that encodes a novel secretory protein containing a single domain DUF781 (domain of unknown function 781 that is well conserved in vertebrates. In the zebrafish genome, there are two copies of leg1, namely leg1a and leg1b. leg1a and leg1b are closely linked on chromosome 20 and share high homology, but are differentially expressed. In this report, we generated two leg1a mutant alleles using the TALEN technique, then characterized liver development in the mutants. We show that a leg1a mutant exhibits a stress-dependent small liver phenotype that can be prevented by chemicals blocking the production of reactive oxygen species. Further studies reveal that Leg1a binds to FGFR3 and mediates a novel anti-stress pathway to protect liver development through enhancing Erk activity. More importantly, we show that the binding of Leg1a to FGFR relies on the glycosylation at the 70th asparagine (Asn(70 or N(70, and mutating the Asn(70 to Ala(70 compromised Leg1's function in liver development. Therefore, Leg1 plays a unique role in protecting liver development under different stress conditions by serving as a secreted signaling molecule/modulator.

  9. Value of detection of serum human epididymis secretory protein 4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingui; Zhao, Fengting; Hu, Linli; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the value of detection of human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) from serum in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes and discussed the mechanism of HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay were used to detect HE4 and CA125 from serum in endometrial cancer and control groups. Besides, the concentration of HE4 and CA125 was compared in these two groups, and the expression of CA125 and HE4 and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with endometrial cancer were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the expression of HE4 was much higher in serum of patients with endometrial cancer, while there was no obvious change in the expression of CA125. The threshold detection value was acquired by receiver operating characteristic analysis method, that is, 141.5 pmol/L and 54.5 U/L, respectively. When comparing the concentration of HE4 in patients with endometrial cancer at the early stage (stage I) with healthy people, the difference therein had statistical significance, but there was no obvious difference in CA125. HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the stages I and II were found with no statistically significant difference. The difference of HE4 in the stages II and III had statistical significance while the difference of CA125 had no statistical significance. The specificity of both HE4 and CA125 was 95%, and the sensitivity of HE4 to uterine papillary serous carcinomas was higher than that to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Thus, the serum HE4 is much better than CA125 in detecting the endometrial cancer at an early stage.

  10. Differentiation in neuroblastoma: diffusion-limited hypoxia induces neuro-endocrine secretory protein 55 and other markers of a chromaffin phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Hedborg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy of sympathetic embryonal origin. A high potential for differentiation is a hallmark of neuroblastoma cells. We have previously presented data to suggest that in situ differentiation in tumors frequently proceeds along the chromaffin lineage and that decreased oxygen (hypoxia plays a role in this. Here we explore the utility of Neuro-Endocrine Secretory Protein 55 (NESP55, a novel member of the chromogranin family, as a marker for this process.Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridizations were performed on human fetal tissues, mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma cell lines, and on specimens of human neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Effects of anaerobic exposure on gene expression by cultured neuroblastoma cells was analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Fetal sympathetic nervous system expression of NESP55 was shown to be specific for chromaffin cell types. In experimental and clinical neuroblastoma NESP55 immunoreactivity was specific for regions of chronic hypoxia. NESP55 expression also correlated strikingly with morphological evidence of differentiation and with other chromaffin-specific patterns of gene expression, including IGF2 and HIF2α. Anaerobic culture of five neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in an 18.9-fold mean up-regulation of NESP55.The data confirms that chronic tumor hypoxia is a key microenvironmental factor for neuroblastoma cell differentiation, causing induction of chromaffin features and NESP55 provides a reliable marker for this neuronal to neuroendocrine transition. The hypoxia-induced phenotype is the predominant form of differentiation in stroma-poor tumors, while in stroma-rich tumors the chromaffin phenotype coexists with ganglion cell-like differentiation. The findings provide new insights into the biological diversity which is a striking feature of this group of tumors.

  11. Proteomic analysis of common bean seed with storage protein deficiency reveals up-regulation of sulfur-rich proteins and starch and raffinose metabolic enzymes, and down-regulation of the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolais, Frédéric; Pajak, Agnieszka; Yin, Fuqiang; Taylor, Meghan; Gabriel, Michelle; Merino, Diana M; Ma, Vanessa; Kameka, Alexander; Vijayan, Perumal; Pham, Hai; Huang, Shangzhi; Rivoal, Jean; Bett, Kirstin; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Liu, Qiang; Bertrand, Annick; Chapman, Ralph

    2010-06-16

    A deficiency in major seed storage proteins is associated with a nearly two-fold increase in sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Their mature seed proteome was compared by an approach combining label-free quantification by spectral counting, 2-DE, and analysis of selective extracts. Lack of phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin was mainly compensated by increases in legumin, alpha-amylase inhibitors and mannose lectin FRIL. Along with legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were major contributors to the elevated sulfur amino acid content. Coordinate induction of granule-bound starch synthase I, starch synthase II-2 and starch branching enzyme were associated with minor alteration of starch composition, whereas increased levels of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase were correlated with a 30% increase in raffinose content. Induction of cell division cycle protein 48 and ubiquitin suggested enhanced ER-associated degradation. This was not associated with a classical unfolded protein response as the levels of ER HSC70-cognate binding protein were actually reduced in the mutant. Repression of rab1 GTPase was consistent with decreased traffic through the secretory pathway. Collectively, these results have implications for the nutritional quality of common bean, and provide information on the pleiotropic phenotype associated with storage protein deficiency in a dicotyledonous seed. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Superresolution and pulse-chase imaging reveal the role of vesicle transport in polar growth of fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Evangelinos, Minoas; Wernet, Valentin; Eckert, Antonia F; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Fischer, Reinhard; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Takeshita, Norio

    2018-01-01

    Polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires continuous transport of biomolecules to the hyphal tip. To this end, construction materials are packaged in vesicles and transported by motor proteins along microtubules and actin filaments. We have studied these processes with quantitative superresolution localization microscopy of live Aspergillus nidulans cells expressing the photoconvertible protein mEosFP thermo fused to the chitin synthase ChsB. ChsB is mainly located at the Spitzenkörper near the hyphal tip and produces chitin, a key component of the cell wall. We have visualized the pulsatory dynamics of the Spitzenkörper, reflecting vesicle accumulation before exocytosis and their subsequent fusion with the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, high-speed pulse-chase imaging after photoconversion of mEosFP thermo in a tightly focused spot revealed that ChsB is transported with two different speeds from the cell body to the hyphal tip and vice versa. Comparative analysis using motor protein deletion mutants allowed us to assign the fast movements (7 to 10 μm s -1 ) to transport of secretory vesicles by kinesin-1, and the slower ones (2 to 7 μm s -1 ) to transport by kinesin-3 on early endosomes. Our results show how motor proteins ensure the supply of vesicles to the hyphal tip, where temporally regulated exocytosis results in stepwise tip extension.

  13. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eCampos-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA or polymeric IgA (pIgA and the secretory component (SC, a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation.

  14. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan Shan H; Held, Richard G; Wong, Man Yan; Liu, Changliang; Karakhanyan, Aziz; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-08-17

    In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Streptococcus mutans Extracellular DNA Is Upregulated during Growth in Biofilms, Actively Released via Membrane Vesicles, and Influenced by Components of the Protein Secretion Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sumei; Klein, Marlise I.; Heim, Kyle P.; Fan, Yuwei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; Ahn, San-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Koo, Hyun; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in biofilms. Limited information is available concerning the extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a scaffolding matrix in S. mutans biofilms. This study demonstrates that S. mutans produces eDNA by multiple avenues, including lysis-independent membrane vesicles. Unlike eDNAs from cell lysis that were abundant and mainly concentrated around broken cells or cell debris with floating open ends, eDNAs produced via the lysis-independent pathway appeared scattered but in a structured network under scanning electron microscopy. Compared to eDNA production of planktonic cultures, eDNA production in 5- and 24-h biofilms was increased by >3- and >1.6-fold, respectively. The addition of DNase I to growth medium significantly reduced biofilm formation. In an in vitro adherence assay, added chromosomal DNA alone had a limited effect on S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite beads, but in conjunction with glucans synthesized using purified glucosyltransferase B, the adherence was significantly enhanced. Deletion of sortase A, the transpeptidase that covalently couples multiple surface-associated proteins to the cell wall peptidoglycan, significantly reduced eDNA in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. Sortase A deficiency did not have a significant effect on membrane vesicle production; however, the protein profile of the mutant membrane vesicles was significantly altered, including reduction of adhesin P1 and glucan-binding proteins B and C. Relative to the wild type, deficiency of protein secretion and membrane protein insertion machinery components, including Ffh, YidC1, and YidC2, also caused significant reductions in eDNA. PMID:24748612

  16. Shedding light on the role of lipid flippases in the secretory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    flippases, play an essential role in this transport process. We have recently characterized several members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases as prime candidate lipid flippases in the secretory pathway of several eukaryotic cells. Our studies in yeast, plants and mammalian cells uncovered......A fundamental feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of distinct organelles surrounded by lipid bilayers. Assembly and maintenance of the various organellar membranes requires translocation of lipids from one leaflet of the bilayer to the other. Specific membrane proteins, termed lipid...... biophysical approaches based on giant vesicles and several advanced bioimaging methods. The limitations and future perspectives of these techniques for the characterization of lipid translocases will be discussed in the light of our recent results....

  17. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  18. Ca2+ Dependence of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jeremy; Kavalali, Ege T

    2016-10-01

    Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for structural homeostasis of synapses and maintenance of neurotransmission. Although, the executive role of intrasynaptic Ca(2+) transients in synaptic vesicle exocytosis is well established, identifying the exact role of Ca(2+) in endocytosis has been difficult. In some studies, Ca(2+) has been suggested as an essential trigger required to initiate synaptic vesicle retrieval, whereas others manipulating synaptic Ca(2+) concentrations reported a modulatory role for Ca(2+) leading to inhibition or acceleration of endocytosis. Molecular studies of synaptic vesicle endocytosis, on the other hand, have consistently focused on the roles of Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent phosphatase calcineurin and synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin as potential Ca(2+) sensors for endocytosis. Most studies probing the role of Ca(2+) in endocytosis have relied on measurements of synaptic vesicle retrieval after strong stimulation. Strong stimulation paradigms elicit fusion and retrieval of multiple synaptic vesicles and therefore can be affected by several factors besides the kinetics and duration of Ca(2+) signals that include the number of exocytosed vesicles and accumulation of released neurotransmitters thus altering fusion and retrieval processes indirectly via retrograde signaling. Studies monitoring single synaptic vesicle endocytosis may help resolve this conundrum as in these settings the impact of Ca(2+) on synaptic fusion probability can be uncoupled from its putative role on synaptic vesicle retrieval. Future experiments using these single vesicle approaches will help dissect the specific role(s) of Ca(2+) and its sensors in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Isolation of a cDNA clone for spinach lipid transfer protein and evidence that the protein is synthesized by the secretory pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, W.R.; Thoma, S.; Botella, J.; Somerville, C.R. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was isolated by probing a library with synthetic oligonucleotides based on the amino acid sequence of the protein. Determination of the DNA sequence indicated a 354-nucleotide open reading frame which encodes a 118-amino acid residue polypeptide. The first 26 amino acids of the open reading frame, which are not present in the mature protein, have all the characteristics of a signal sequence which is normally associated with the synthesis of membrane proteins or secreted proteins. In vitro transcription of the cDNA and translation in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes or microsomes from cultured maize endosperm cells indicated that proteolytic processing of the preprotein to the mature form was associated with cotranslational insertion into the microsomal membranes. Because there is no known mechanism by which the polypeptide could be transferred from the microsomal membranes to the cytoplasm, the proposed role of this protein in catalyzing lipid transfer between intracellular membranes is in doubt. Although the lipid transfer protein is one of the most abundant proteins in leaf cells, the results of genomic Southern analysis were consistent with the presence of only one gene. Analysis of the level of mRNA by Northern blotting indicated that the transcript was several-fold more abundant than an actin transcript in leaf and petiole tissue, but was present in roots at less than 1% of the level in petioles.

  20. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Yin, Yijun; Lai, Ruenn Chai; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicle or EV is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes, the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized...

  1. Concentration of Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Matrix Gla Protein in Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yuniati Daulay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE and their receptor (RAGE system play an important role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Recently, an endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE has been identified as a novel splice variant, which lacks the transmembrane domain and is secreted in human sera. Interestingly, it was reported that esRAGE binds AGE ligands and neutralizes AGE actions. Many studies have reported that diabetes mellitus correlates with vascular calcification event and increases progressively in uncontrolled diabetes. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP is known to act as an inhibitor in vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to observe progress of vascular calcification in uncontrolled diabetes patient by biochemical markers MGP as inhibitor in vascular calcification, via mechanism of AGEs. METHODS: This study was an observational study with cross sectional design on adult type 2 diabetic male patients who were defined by the 2011 Indonesian diabetes mellitus consensus criteria. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that there was a positive significant correlation between esRAGE and HbA1C (r=0.651, p=0.009, and negative correlation between MGP and HbA1C (r=-0.465, p=0.081 in controlled diabetes group. In uncontrolled diabetes group there was a positive significant correlation between MGP and HbA1C (r=0.350, p=0.023, despite the fact esRAGE showed no significant correlation with HbA1C. There was no significant difference in level of esRAGE and MGP in controlled and uncontrolled diabetes group, but MGP showed lower level in uncontrolled diabetes group, contrary to esRAGE that had higher concentration. CONCLUSIONS: In diabetes condition, complications of vascular calcification are caused by the mechanism of increased AGE formation represented by esRAGE. In diabetes control it is very important to keep the blood vessels from complications caused by vascular calcification. KEYWORDS: type 2 diabetes mellitus

  2. Listeria-vectored vaccine expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30 kDa major secretory protein via the constitutively active prfA* regulon boosts BCG efficacy against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingmei; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2017-06-19

    A potent vaccine against tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest diseases, is needed to enhance the immunity of people worldwide, most of whom have been vaccinated with the partially effective BCG vaccine. Here we investigate novel live attenuated recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (rLm) vaccines expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 30 kDa major secretory protein (r30/Ag85B) (rLm30) as heterologous booster vaccines in animals primed with BCG. Using three attenuated Lm vectors, rLm ΔactA (LmI), rLm ΔactA ΔinlB (LmII), and rLm ΔactA ΔinlBprfA* (LmIII), we constructed five rLm30 vaccine candidates expressing the r30 linked in-frame to the Lm Listeriolycin O signal sequence and driven by the hly promoter (h30) or linked in-frame to the ActA N-terminus and driven by the actA promoter (a30). All five rLm30 vaccines secreted r30 in broth and macrophages; while rLm expressing r30 via a constitutively active prfA* regulon (rLmIII/a30) expressed the greatest amount of r30 in broth culture, all five rLm vaccines expressed equivalent amounts of r30 in infected macrophages. In comparative studies, boosting BCG-immunized mice with rLmIII/a30 induced the strongest antigen-specific T-cell responses, including splenic and lung polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells expressing the three cytokines of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) (P vaccines were generally more potent booster vaccines than r30 in adjuvant and a recombinant adenovirus vaccine expressing r30. In a setting in which BCG alone was highly immunoprotective, boosting mice with rLmIII/a30, the most potent of the vaccines, significantly enhanced protection against aerosolized Mtb (P <0.01). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  4. The Antitoxin Protein of a Toxin-Antitoxin System fromXylella fastidiosaIs Secreted via Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, André da Silva; Mendes, Juliano S; Dos Santos, Clelton A; de Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Crucello, Aline; Horta, Maria A C; Favaro, Marianna T de Pinho; Munar, Duber M M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Mônica A; de Souza, Anete P

    2016-01-01

    The Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that is able to form a biofilm and affects citrus crops in Brazil. Some genes are considered to be involved in biofilm formation, but the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. This limited understanding of how some bacteria form biofilms is a major barrier to our comprehension of the progression of diseases caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Several investigations have shown that the toxin-antitoxin (TA) operon is related to biofilm formation. This operon is composed of a toxin with RNAse activity and its cognate antitoxin. Previous reports have indicated that the antitoxin is able to inhibit toxin activity and modulate the expression of the operon as well as other target genes involved in oxidative stress and mobility. In this study, we characterize a toxin-antitoxin system consisting of XfMqsR and XfYgiT, respectively, from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c. These proteins display a high similarity to their homologs in X. fastidiosa strain Temecula and a predicted tridimensional structure that is similar to MqsR-YgiT from Escherichia coli . The characterization was performed using in vitro assays such as analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and Western blotting. Using a fluorometric assay to detect RNAses, we demonstrated that XfMqsR is thermostable and can degrade RNA. XfMqsR is inhibited by XfYgiT, which interacts with its own promoter. XfYgiT is known to be localized in the intracellular compartment; however, we provide strong evidence that X. fastidiosa secretes wild-type XfYgiT into the extracellular environment via outer membrane vesicles, as confirmed by Western blotting and specific immunofluorescence labeling visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Taken together, our results characterize the TA system from X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, and we also discuss the possible

  5. The antitoxin protein of a toxin-antitoxin system from Xylella fastidiosa is secreted via outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that is able to form a biofilm and affects citrus crops in Brazil. Some genes are considered to be involved in biofilm formation, but the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. This limited understanding of how some bacteria form biofilms is a major barrier to our comprehension of the progression of diseases caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Several investigations have shown that the toxin-antitoxin (TA operon is related to biofilm formation. This operon is composed of a toxin with RNAse activity and its cognate antitoxin. Previous reports have indicated that the antitoxin is able to inhibit toxin activity and modulate the expression of the operon as well as other target genes involved in oxidative stress and mobility. In this study, we characterize a toxin-antitoxin system consisting of XfMqsR and XfYgiT, respectively, from X. fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c. These proteins display a high similarity to their homologues in X. fastidiosa strain Temecula and a predicted tridimensional structure that is similar to MqsR-YgiT from Escherichia coli. The characterization was performed using in vitro assays such as analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC, size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry and western blotting. Using a fluorometric assay to detect RNAses, we demonstrated that XfMqsR is thermostable and can degrade RNA. XfMqsR is inhibited by XfYgiT, which interacts with its own promoter. XfYgiT is known to be localized in the intracellular compartment; however, we provide strong evidence that X. fastidiosa secretes wild-type XfYgiT into the extracellular environment via outer membrane vesicles, as confirmed by western blotting and specific immunofluorescence labeling visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Taken together, our results characterize the TA system from X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, and we also discuss

  6. Do Neural Cells Communicate with Endothelial Cells via Secretory Exosomes and Microvesicles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Smalheiser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons, glial, cells, and brain tumor cells tissues release small vesicles (secretory exosomes and microvesicles, which may represent a novel mechanism by which neuronal activity could influence angiogenesis within the embryonic and mature brain. If CNS-derived vesicles can enter the bloodstream as well, they may communicate with endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation and with cells concerned with immune surveillance.

  7. Vps15p regulates the distribution of cup-shaped organelles containing the major eisosome protein Pil1p to the extracellular fraction required for endocytosis of extracellular vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kathryn; Winters, Chelsea; Chiang, Hui-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from virtually every cell from bacteria to humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system to study trafficking of small vesicles in response to changes in the environment. When yeast cells are grown in low glucose, vesicles carrying gluconeogenic enzymes are present as free vesicles and aggregated clusters in the cytoplasm. These vesicles are also secreted into the periplasm and account for more than 90% of total extracellular organelles, while less than 10% are larger 100-300 nm structures with unknown functions. When glucose is added to glucose-starved cells, secreted vesicles are endocytosed and then targeted to the vacuole. Recent secretomic studies indicated that more than 300 proteins involved in diverse biological functions are secreted during glucose starvation and endocytosed during glucose re-feeding. We hypothesised that extracellular vesicles are internalised using novel mechanisms independent of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our results showed that vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes were endocytosed at a fast rate, whereas vesicles carrying the heat shock protein Ssa1p were endocytosed at a slow rate. The PI3K regulator Vps15p is critical for the fast internalisation of extracellular vesicles. VPS15 regulates the distribution of the 100-300 nm organelles that contain the major eisosome protein Pil1p to the extracellular fraction. These Pil1p-containing structures were purified and showed unique cup-shape with their centres deeper than the peripheries. In the absence of VPS15, PIL1 or when PIL1 was mutated, the 100-300 nm structures were not observed in the extracellular fraction and the rapid internalisation of vesicles was impaired. We conclude that VPS15 regulates the distribution of the 100-300 nm Pil1p-containing organelles to the extracellular fraction required for fast endocytosis of vesicles carrying metabolic enzymes. This work provides the first evidence showing that Pil1p displayed unique

  8. Ameloblast transcriptome changes from secretory to maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, James P; Richardson, Amelia S; Wang, Shih-Kai; Reid, Bryan M; Bai, Yongsheng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Jan C-C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major molecular components in the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis through transcriptome analyses. Ameloblasts (40 sections per age group) were laser micro-dissected from Day 5 (secretory stage) and Days 11-12 (maturation stage) first molars. PolyA+ RNA was isolated from the lysed cells, converted to cDNA, and amplified to generate a cDNA library. DNA sequences were obtained using next generation sequencing and analyzed to identify genes whose expression had increased or decreased at least 1.5-fold in maturation stage relative to secretory stage ameloblasts. Among the 9198 genes that surpassed the quality threshold, 373 showed higher expression in secretory stage, while 614 genes increased in maturation stage ameloblasts. The results were cross-checked against a previously published transcriptome generated from tissues overlying secretory and maturation stage mouse incisor enamel and 34 increasing and 26 decreasing expressers common to the two studies were identified. Expression of F2r, which encodes protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) that showed 10-fold higher expression during the secretory stage in our transcriptome analysis, was characterized in mouse incisors by immunohistochemistry. PAR1 was detected in secretory, but not maturation stage ameloblasts. We conclude that transcriptome analyses are a good starting point for identifying genes/proteins that are critical for proper dental enamel formation and that PAR1 is specifically expressed by secretory stage ameloblasts.

  9. The Ciliopathy Protein CC2D2A Associates with NINL and Functions in RAB8-MICAL3-Regulated Vesicle Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are a group of human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous microtubule-based organelles involved in transduction of extra-cellular signals to the cell. This function requires the concentration of receptors and channels in the ciliary membrane, which is achieved by complex trafficking mechanisms, in part controlled by the small GTPase RAB8, and by sorting at the transition zone located at the entrance of the ciliary compartment. Mutations in the transition zone gene CC2D2A cause the related Joubert and Meckel syndromes, two typical ciliopathies characterized by central nervous system malformations, and result in loss of ciliary localization of multiple proteins in various models. The precise mechanisms by which CC2D2A and other transition zone proteins control protein entrance into the cilium and how they are linked to vesicular trafficking of incoming cargo remain largely unknown. In this work, we identify the centrosomal protein NINL as a physical interaction partner of CC2D2A. NINL partially co-localizes with CC2D2A at the base of cilia and ninl knockdown in zebrafish leads to photoreceptor outer segment loss, mislocalization of opsins and vesicle accumulation, similar to cc2d2a-/- phenotypes. Moreover, partial ninl knockdown in cc2d2a-/- embryos enhances the retinal phenotype of the mutants, indicating a genetic interaction in vivo, for which an illustration is found in patients from a Joubert Syndrome cohort. Similar to zebrafish cc2d2a mutants, ninl morphants display altered Rab8a localization. Further exploration of the NINL-associated interactome identifies MICAL3, a protein known to interact with Rab8 and to play an important role in vesicle docking and fusion. Together, these data support a model where CC2D2A associates with NINL to provide a docking point for cilia-directed cargo vesicles, suggesting a mechanism by which transition zone proteins can control the protein content of the ciliary

  10. Cystinosin, MPDU1, SWEETs and KDELR belong to a well-defined protein family with putative function of cargo receptors involved in vesicle trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudek, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Classification of proteins into families based on remote homology often helps prediction of their biological function. Here we describe prediction of protein cargo receptors involved in vesicle formation and protein trafficking. Hidden Markov model profile-to-profile searches in protein databases using endoplasmic reticulum lumen protein retaining receptors (KDEL, Erd2) as query reveal a large and diverse family of proteins with seven transmembrane helices and common topology and, most likely, similar function. Their coding genes exist in all eukaryota and in several prokaryota. Some are responsible for metabolic diseases (cystinosis, congenital disorder of glycosylation), others are candidate genes for genetic disorders (cleft lip and palate, certain forms of cancer) or solute uptake and efflux (SWEETs) and many have not yet been assigned a function. Comparison with the properties of KDEL receptors suggests that the family members could be involved in protein trafficking and serve as cargo receptors. This prediction sheds new light on a range of biologically, medically and agronomically important proteins and could open the way to discovering the function of many genes not yet annotated. Experimental testing is suggested.

  11. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The secretory synapse: the secrets of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giovanna; Trambas, Christina; Booth, Sarah; Clark, Richard; Stinchcombe, Jane; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2002-11-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy their targets by a process involving secretion of specialized granules. The interactions between CTLs and target can be very brief; nevertheless, adhesion and signaling proteins segregate into an immunological synapse. Secretion occurs in a specialized secretory domain. Use of live and fixed cell microscopy allows this secretory synapse to be visualized both temporally and spatially. The combined use of confocal and electron microscopy has produced some surprising findings, which suggest that the secretory synapse may be important both in delivering the lethal hit and in facilitating membrane transfer from target to CTL. Studies on the secretory synapse in wild-type and mutant CTLs have been used to identify proteins involved in secretion. Further clues as to the signals required for secretion are emerging from comparisons of inhibitory and activating synapses formed by natural killer cells.

  13. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Margherita A C; Gai, Chiara; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment. Their importance has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of several organs, in particular in kidney, where different cell types secrete extracellular vesicles that mediate their communication with downstream urinary tract cells. Over the past few years, evidence has been shown that vesicles participate in kidney development and normal physiology. Moreover, EVs are widely demonstrated to be implicated in cellular signaling during renal regenerative and pathological processes. Although many EV mechanisms are still poorly understood, in particular in kidney, the discovery of their role could help to shed light on renal biological processes which are so far elusive. Lastly, extracellular vesicles secreted by renal cells gather in urine, thus becoming a great resource for disease or recovery markers and a promising non-invasive diagnostic instrument for renal disease. In the present review, we discuss the most recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in renal physiopathology and their potential implication in diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Characterisation of extracellular vesicle-subsets derived from brain endothelial cells and analysis of their protein cargo modulation after TNF exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozio, Vito; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the composition and functional differences between extracellular vesicle (EV) subsets, such as microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), nor to what extent their cargo reflects the phenotypic state of the cell of origin. Brain endothelial cells are the constitutive part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a selective barrier that maintains brain homeostasis. BBB impairment is associated with several neuroinflammatory diseases with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) often playing a key role. In the present study, shotgun proteomics and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM)-based targeted mass spectrometry were used to characterise brain endothelial cell-released EVs, and to study how TNF exposure modulated EV protein cargoes. MVs were found to be enriched in mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins, whereas EXOs were enriched in adhesion, histone and ribosomal proteins. After stimulation with TNF, several proteins involved in TNF and NF-κB signalling pathways, that were found to be differentially expressed in cells, were also differentially expressed in both MVs and EXOs. Thus, our results revealed some novel proteins as potentially useful candidates for discriminating between MVs and EXOs, together with additional evidence that cells "package" proteins in EVs systematically and according to their phenotypic state.

  15. Urinary extracellular vesicles: biomarkers and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Salih (Mahdi)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractExtracellular vesicles have been isolated in various body fluids including urine. The cargo of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) is composed of proteins and nucleic acids reflecting the physiological and possibly the pathophysiological state of cells lining the nephron. Because

  16. Membrane vesicle protein PagC as a novel biomarker for detecting pathogenic Salmonella in the viable but not culturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Suita, Kazuasa; Okuno, Katsuya; Takaya, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Isogai, Emiko

    2017-12-04

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a remarkable survival mechanism in which cells exist in a physiologically inactive state. Bacteria in the VBNC state do not form colonies, and thus, are difficult to detect using colony-based methods. As a result, VBNC bacteria are potentially virulent and can cause widespread contamination during food production. In the present study, we reported a novel biomarker, the membrane vesicle protein PagC, for the detection of VBNC Salmonella. Salmonella cells were chemically induced into the VBNC state by H2O2 treatment. The bacterial cells retained their shapes but were observed to release numerous membrane vesicles, which were accompanied by a transient PagC overexpression. Immunoblotting was performed to detect PagC in pathogenic strains, including Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, which are harmful and known to cause food-borne gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. Therefore, our findings demonstrated the potential use of PagC as a biomarker for the detection of VBNC Salmonella in food production.

  17. Pushing synaptic vesicles over the RIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S

    2011-05-01

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, neurotransmitter release is largely restricted to specialized sites called active zones. Active zones consist of a complex protein network, and they organize fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane in response to action potentials. Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) are central components of active zones. In a recent series of experiments, we have systematically dissected the molecular mechanisms by which RIMs operate in synaptic vesicle release. We found that RIMs execute two critical functions of active zones by virtue of independent protein domains. They tether presyanptic Ca(2+) channels to the active zone, and they activate priming of synaptic vesicles by monomerizing homodimeric, constitutively inactive Munc13. These data indicate that RIMs orchestrate synaptic vesicle release into a coherent process. In conjunction with previous studies, they suggest that RIMs form a molecular platform on which plasticity of synaptic vesicle release can operate.

  18. The proteins of exocytosis: lessons from the sperm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Claudia Nora

    2015-02-01

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated process that consists of multiple functionally, kinetically and/or morphologically definable stages such as recruitment, targeting, tethering and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, priming of the fusion machinery and calcium-triggered membrane fusion. After fusion, the membrane around the secretory vesicle is incorporated into the plasma membrane and the granule releases its contents. The proteins involved in these processes belong to several highly conserved families: Rab GTPases, SNAREs (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptors), α-SNAP (α-NSF attachment protein), NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor), Munc13 and -18, complexins and synaptotagmins. In the present article, the molecules of exocytosis are reviewed, using human sperm as a model system. Sperm exocytosis is driven by isoforms of the same proteinaceous fusion machinery mentioned above, with their functions orchestrated in a hierarchically organized and unidirectional signalling cascade. In addition to the universal exocytosis regulator calcium, this cascade includes other second messengers such as diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and cAMP, as well as the enzymes that synthesize them and their target proteins. Of special interest is the cAMP-binding protein Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) due in part to its enzymatic activity towards Rap. The activation of Epac and Rap leads to a highly localized calcium signal which, together with assembly of the SNARE complex, governs the final stages of exocytosis. The source of this releasable calcium is the secretory granule itself.

  19. Loss-of-function of the ciliopathy protein Cc2d2a disorganizes the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane and indirectly affects Rab8-trafficking in zebrafish photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Naharros, Irene; Gesemann, Matthias; Mateos, José M; Barmettler, Gery; Forbes, Austin; Ziegler, Urs; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra

    2017-12-01

    Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors. The link between the TZ and upstream vesicle trafficking has been little explored to date. Moreover, the role of the small GTPase Rab8 in opsin-carrier vesicle (OCV) trafficking has been recently questioned in a mouse model. Using correlative light and electron microscopy and live imaging in zebrafish photoreceptors, we provide the first live characterization of Rab8-mediated trafficking in photoreceptors in vivo. Our results support a possibly redundant role for both Rab8a/b paralogs in OCV trafficking, based on co-localization of Rab8 and opsins in vesicular structures, and joint movement of Rab8-tagged particles with opsin. We further investigate the role of the TZ protein Cc2d2a in Rab8-mediated trafficking using cc2d2a zebrafish mutants and identify a requirement for Cc2d2a in the latest step of OCV trafficking, namely vesicle fusion. Progressive accumulation of opsin-containing vesicles in the apical portion of photoreceptors lacking Cc2d2a is caused by disorganization of the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane with mislocalization and loss of the t-SNAREs SNAP25 and Syntaxin3 and of the exocyst component Exoc4. We further observe secondary defects on upstream Rab8-trafficking with cytoplasmic accumulation of Rab8. Taken together, our results support participation of Rab8 in OCV trafficking and identify a novel role for the TZ protein Cc2d2a in fusion of incoming

  20. Secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, Justin W; Perrais, David; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Almers, Wolfhard

    2003-02-18

    Classical cell biology teaches that exocytosis causes the membrane of exocytic vesicles to disperse into the cell surface and that a cell must later retrieve by molecular sorting whatever membrane components it wishes to keep inside. We have tested whether this view applies to secretory granules in intact PC-12 cells. Three granule proteins were labeled with fluorescent proteins in different colors, and two-color evanescent-field microscopy was used to view single granules during and after exocytosis. Whereas neuro-peptide Y was lost from granules in seconds, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and the membrane protein phogrin remained at the granule site for over 1 min, thus providing markers for postexocytic granules. When tPA was imaged simultaneously with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a cytosolic marker, the volume occupied by the granule appeared as a dark spot where it excluded CFP. The spot remained even after tPA reported exocytosis, indicating that granules failed to flatten into the cell surface. Phogrin was labeled with GFP at its luminal end and used to sense the pH in granules. When exocytosis caused the acidic granule interior to neutralize, GFP-phogrin at first brightened and later dimmed again as the interior separated from the extracellular space and reacidified. Reacidification and dimming could be reversed by application of NH(4)Cl. We conclude that most granules reseal in <10 s after releasing cargo, and that these empty or partially empty granules are recaptured otherwise intact.

  1. ELKS1 localizes the synaptic vesicle priming protein bMunc13-2 to a specific subset of active zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Hiroshi; Mitkovski, Miso; Kaeser, Pascal S; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Opazo, Felipe; Nestvogel, Dennis; Kalla, Stefan; Fejtova, Anna; Verrier, Sophie E; Bungers, Simon R; Cooper, Benjamin H; Varoqueaux, Frederique; Wang, Yun; Nehring, Ralf B; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Südhof, Thomas C; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Brose, Nils

    2017-04-03

    Presynaptic active zones (AZs) are unique subcellular structures at neuronal synapses, which contain a network of specific proteins that control synaptic vesicle (SV) tethering, priming, and fusion. Munc13s are core AZ proteins with an essential function in SV priming. In hippocampal neurons, two different Munc13s-Munc13-1 and bMunc13-2-mediate opposite forms of presynaptic short-term plasticity and thus differentially affect neuronal network characteristics. We found that most presynapses of cortical and hippocampal neurons contain only Munc13-1, whereas ∼10% contain both Munc13-1 and bMunc13-2. Whereas the presynaptic recruitment and activation of Munc13-1 depends on Rab3-interacting proteins (RIMs), we demonstrate here that bMunc13-2 is recruited to synapses by the AZ protein ELKS1, but not ELKS2, and that this recruitment determines basal SV priming and short-term plasticity. Thus, synapse-specific interactions of different Munc13 isoforms with ELKS1 or RIMs are key determinants of the molecular and functional heterogeneity of presynaptic AZs. © 2017 Kawabe et al.

  2. Proteomic and Bioinformatic Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles Released from Human Macrophages upon Influenza A Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypryk, Wojciech; Lorey, Martina; Puustinen, Anne; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa

    2017-01-06

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are aggressive pathogens that cause acute respiratory diseases and annual epidemics in humans. Host defense against IAV infection is initiated by macrophages, which are the principal effector cells of the innate immune system. We have previously shown that IAV infection of human macrophages is associated with robust secretion of proteins via conventional and unconventional protein release pathways. Here we have characterized unconventional, extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated protein secretion in human macrophages during IAV infection using proteomics, bioinformatics, and functional studies. We demonstrate that at 9 h postinfection a robust EV-mediated protein secretion takes place. We identified 2359 human proteins from EVs of IAV-infected macrophages compared with 1448 proteins identified from EVs of control cells. Bioinformatic analysis shows that many proteins involved in translation, like components of spliceosome machinery and the ribosome, are secreted in EVs in response to IAV infection. Our data also shows that EVs derived from IAV-infected macrophages contain fatty acid-binding proteins, antiviral cytokines, copper metabolism Murr-1 domain proteins, and autophagy-related proteins. In addition, our data suggest that secretory autophagy plays a role in activating EV-mediated protein secretion during IAV infection.

  3. Extracellular Vesicles in Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. These vesicles include exosomes, ectosomes (ie, microparticles, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, and shedding vesicles), and apoptotic bodies. Exosomes are generated by inward budding of the membrane (endocytosis), subsequent forming of multivesicular bodies, and release by exocytosis. Ectosomes are formed by outward blebbing from the plasma membrane and are then released by proteolytic cleavage from the cell surface. Apoptotic bodies are generated on apoptotic cell shrinkage and death. Extracellular vesicles are released when the cells are activated or undergo apoptosis under inflammatory conditions. The number and types of released EVs are different according to the pathophysiological status of the disease. Therefore, EVs can be novel biomarkers for various lung diseases. EVs contain several molecules, including proteins, mRNA, microRNA, and DNA; they transfer these molecules to distant recipient cells. Circulating EVs modify the targeted cells and influence the microenvironment of the lungs. For this unique capability, EVs are expected to be a new drug delivery system and a novel therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    droplets, it had 10.4 ± 2.1 secretory cells of oil droplets per mm2. All of Zingiberaceae's root and leaves did not have secretory cells of protein. Zingiberaceae's rhizomes had amylum grain, protein granules, and oil droplets. Jahe merah's rhizomes had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 198.3 ± 21.1 cells of amylum grain per mm2. Jahe emprit's rhizomes had the greatest density of protein granules, it had254.0 ± 90.0 cells of protein granules per mm². Kunyit putih's rhizomes had the greatest density of oil droplets, it had 254.0 ± 90.0 cells of oil droplets per mm².

  5. Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Priya Valeru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment.

  6. Melanoma affects the composition of blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Koliha; Ute Heider; Tobias Ozimkowski; Martin Wiemann; Andreas Bosio; Stefan Wild

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of extracellular vesicles reflects the type and status of the originating cell and extracellular vesicles in melanoma patient’s plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, extracellular vesicles might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of extracellular vesicles from plasma of...

  7. Electroimmunodiffusion Studies of alpha Chain, Secretory Piece and Secretory IgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    V of proteins in biological flui ds collected in wt amounts~ ‘thus eliminating the need for stimulation of secretions and sample concentration...useful for determining levels of iminunoglobulins in unconcentrated saliva . The main immuno- glc ulin in saliva and other external secretions is...throughout this study (Behring Diagnostics , Somerville, N.J.). According to the manufacturer antiserum to free secretory piece was produced by immunization

  8. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize Extracellular vesicles. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some Extracellular vesicles -specific evidence. Characterization of Extracellular vesicles has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, flow cytometry, cryo-EM instruments and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face.

  9. Extracellular vesicles: new players in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaceb, Abderahim; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles, particles released by all cell types, represent a new way to convey information between cells such as proteins, second messengers, and genetic information to modify the phenotype and function of the target cells. Recent data suggest that extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in both physiology and pathology, including coagulation, angiogenesis, cell survival, modulation of the immune response, and inflammation. Thus extracellular vesicles participate in the processes of cardiovascular diseases from atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction to heart failure. Consequently, extracellular vesicles can potentially be exploited for therapy, prognosis, and biomarkers for health and disease. This review focuses on the role of extracellular vesicles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the deleterious and beneficial effects that they may provide in vascular cells and myocardium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin with midgut brush border membrane vesicles proteins and its stability in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Harpal; Ranjan, Amol; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) binds to several proteins in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and causes toxicity. Most of these were glycosylated. Six ASAL-binding proteins were selected for identification. PMF and MS/MS data showed their similarity with midgut aminopeptidase APN2, polycalins and alkaline phosphatase of H. armigera, cadherin-N protein (partial AGAP009726-PA) of Acyrthosiphon pisum, cytochrome P450 (CYP315A1) of Manduca sexta and alkaline phosphatase of Heliothis virescens. Some of the ASAL-binding midgut proteins were similar to the larval receptors responsible for the binding of δ-endotoxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin also interacted with most of the ASAL-binding proteins. The ASAL showed resistance to midgut proteases and was detected in the larval hemolymph and excreta. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of ASAL in the body tissue also. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dynamics of endocytic vesicle creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrais, David; Merrifield, Christien J

    2005-11-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the main path for receptor internalization in metazoans and is essential for controlling cell integrity and signaling. It is driven by a large array of protein and lipid interactions that have been deciphered mainly by biochemical and genetic means. To place these interactions into context, and ultimately build a fully operative model of endocytosis at the molecular level, it is necessary to know the kinetic details of the role of each protein in this process. In this review, we describe the recent efforts made, by using live cell imaging, to define clear steps in the formation of endocytic vesicles and to observe the recruitment of key proteins during membrane invagination, the scission of a newly formed vesicle, and its movement away from the plasma membrane.

  12. Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from a Plasmodium falciparum Kenyan clinical isolate defines a core parasite secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Abdirahman; Yu, Lu; Goulding, David; Rono, Martin K; Bejon, Philip; Choudhary, Jyoti; Rayner, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Many pathogens secrete effector molecules to subvert host immune responses, to acquire nutrients, and/or to prepare host cells for invasion. One of the ways that effector molecules are secreted is through extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes. Recently, the malaria parasite P. falciparum has been shown to produce EVs that can mediate transfer of genetic material between parasites and induce sexual commitment. Characterizing the content of these vesicles may improve our understanding of P. falciparum pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of P. falciparum EVs have been limited to long-term adapted laboratory isolates. In this study, we isolated EVs from a Kenyan P. falciparum clinical isolate adapted to in vitro culture for a short period and characterized their protein content by mass spectrometry (data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD006925). We show that P. falciparum extracellular vesicles ( PfEVs) are enriched in proteins found within the exomembrane compartments of infected erythrocytes such as Maurer's clefts (MCs), as well as the secretory endomembrane compartments in the apical end of the merozoites, suggesting that these proteins play a role in parasite-host interactions. Comparison of this novel clinically relevant dataset with previously published datasets helps to define a core secretome present in Plasmodium EVs. P. falciparum extracellular vesicles contain virulence-associated parasite proteins. Therefore, analysis of PfEVs contents from a range of clinical isolates, and their functional validation may improve our understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the parasite, and potentially identify targets for interventions or diagnostics.

  13. Cutis laxa: intersection of elastic fiber biogenesis, TGFβ signaling, the secretory pathway and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL), a disease characterized by redundant and inelastic skin, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. Together with geroderma osteodysplasticum and arterial tortuosity syndrome, which show phenotypic overlap with CL, eleven CL-related genes have been identified to date, which encode proteins within 3 groups. Elastin, fibulin-4, fibulin-5 and latent transforming growth factor-β-binding protein 4 are secreted proteins which form elastic fibers and are involved in the sequestration and subsequent activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Proteins within the second group, localized to the secretory pathway, perform transport and membrane trafficking functions necessary for the modification and secretion of elastic fiber components. Key proteins include a subunit of the vacuolar-type proton pump, which ensures the efficient secretion of tropoelastin, the precursor or elastin. A copper transporter is required for the activity of lysyl oxidases, which crosslink collagen and elastin. A Rab6-interacting goglin recruits kinesin motors to Golgi-vesicles facilitating the transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. The Rab and Ras interactor 2 regulates the activity of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase essential for the endocytosis of various cell surface receptors, including integrins. Proteins of the third group related to CL perform metabolic functions within the mitochondria, inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Two of these proteins catalyze subsequent steps in the conversion of glutamate to proline. The third transports dehydroascorbate into mitochondria. Recent studies on CL-related proteins highlight the intricate connections among membrane trafficking, metabolism, extracellular matrix assembly, and TGFβ signaling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Melanoma affects the composition of blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Koliha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of extracellular vesicles reflects the type and status of the originating cell and extracellular vesicles in melanoma patient’s plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, extracellular vesicles might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of extracellular vesicles from plasma of melanoma patients and healthy donors as well as from T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and platelets using a multiplex bead-based platform. Using this method, we succeeded in analyzing 58 proteins that were differentially displayed on extracellular vesicles. Hierarchal clustering of protein intensity patterns grouped extracellular vesicles according to their originating cell type. The analysis of extracellular vesicles from stimulated B cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells revealed the transfer of surface proteins to vesicles depending on the cell status. The protein profiles of plasma vesicles resembled the protein profiles of extracellular vesicles from platelets, antigen presenting cells and natural cells as shown by platelet markers, costimulatory proteins, and a natural killer cell subpopulation marker. In comparison to healthy plasma vesicles, melanoma plasma vesicles showed altered signals for platelet markers indicating a changed vesicle secretion or protein loading of extracellular vesicles by platelets and a lower CD8 signal that might be associated with a diminished activity of natural killer cells or T cells. As we hardly detected melanoma-derived vesicles in patient’s plasma, we concluded that blood cells induced the observed differences. In summary, our results question a direct effect of melanoma cells on the composition of extracellular vesicles in melanoma plasma, but rather argue

  15. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles...... to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  16. Extracellular vesicles as emerging intercellular communicasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yae Jin; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2014-10-01

    All living cells release extracellular vesicles having pleiotropic functions in intercellular communication. Mammalian extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes and microvesicles, are spherical bilayered proteolipids composed of various bioactive molecules, including RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids. Extracellular vesicles directly and indirectly control a diverse range of biological processes by transferring membrane proteins, signaling molecules, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and activating receptors of recipient cells. The active interaction of extracellular vesicles with other cells regulates various physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent developments in high-throughput proteomics, transcriptomics, and lipidomics tools have provided ample data on the common and specific components of various types of extracellular vesicles. These studies may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in vesicular cargo sorting and the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, and, further, to the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. This review focuses on the components, functions, and therapeutic and diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicles under various pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  18. A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Resch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS, the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. M1 serotype GAS isolates in culture exhibit MV structures both on the cell wall surface and in the near vicinity of bacterial cells. A comprehensive analysis of MV proteins identified both virulence-associated protein substrates of the general secretory pathway in addition to “anchorless surface proteins.” Characteristic differences in the contents, distributions, and fatty acid compositions of specific lipids between MVs and GAS cell membrane were also observed. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of vesicular RNAs revealed that GAS MVs contained differentially abundant RNA species relative to bacterial cellular RNA. MV production by GAS strains varied in a manner dependent on an intact two-component system, CovRS, with MV production negatively regulated by the system. Modulation of MV production through CovRS was found to be independent of both GAS cysteine protease SpeB and capsule biosynthesis. Our data provide an explanation for GAS secretion of macromolecules, including RNAs, lipids, and proteins, and illustrate a regulatory mechanism coordinating this secretory response.

  19. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasuo [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Brown, R. Lane [Neurological Science Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006 (United States); Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); VALWAY Technology Center, NEC Soft Ltd, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  20. Effects of smoking, mother's age, body mass index, and parity number on lipid, protein, and secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Pamela; Yafawi, Rula; Jaber, Farouk; Choueiri, Elias; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of smoking, mother's age, body mass index (BMI), and parity number on density, lipids, proteins, and secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) of human milk. Transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 23 nursing smoker mothers and 43 nursing nonsmoker mothers. Proteins, lipids, and SIgA concentrations were determined as well as the milk density and the general protein profile. Our investigation showed that the milk of smokers contained less lipids and proteins (statistically significant 26% and 12% decrease, respectively), whereas milk density was unchanged. SIgA concentration was 27% lower in milk from smokers, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The general protein profile showed no significant smoking-associated changes in the four identified proteins (β-casein, immunoglobulin A heavy chain, serum albumin, and lactoferrin). Mothers' age and residential area showed noticeable but statistically nonsignificant differences in some of the measured parameters. However, parity number, lactation stage, and BMI were associated with a significant modification of milk composition. Mature milk contained more lipids and less protein, whereas the increase of parity number was associated with an increase in lipid concentration. The group of overweight mothers showed lower milk protein concentration in comparison with the normal group. Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant interaction effect of the variables (smoking, parity number, lactation stage, age, and BMI) on lipids and between some of them on proteins and SIgA. Our study showed that smoking was associated with lower milk lipid and protein concentrations and that the parity number and BMI were associated with a change in milk lipids and proteins content, respectively.

  1. [The microbiology of secretory otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta, J L; Infante, J C; Undabeitia, E; Gastañares, M J

    1995-01-01

    The AA. realize a comparative study on the differences between the nasopharyngeal microbial flora of 50 children suffering a secretory otitis and other 40 children without middle ear disease. In nasopharyngeal cultures the pathogenic flora (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus beta hemoliticus group A, Staphilococcus aureus) amounted for 96 percent in children with secretory otitis, which figure was reduced to 80 percent in healthy infants (p < 0.05). Haemophilus influenzae was the most identified microorganism in a both nasopharyngeal and otic flora. We have found a significative association (p < 0.001) among nasopharyngeal and otic flora of each individual.

  2. Unintended molecular interactions in transgenic plants expressing clinically useful proteins: the case of bovine aprotinin traveling the potato leaf cell secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, M Amine; Rivard, Daniel; Coenen, Karine; Michaud, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the impact of subcellular targeting on the heterologous expression of a clinically useful protease inhibitor, bovine aprotinin, in leaves of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Transgenic potato lines targeting aprotinin to the cytosol, the ER or the apoplast were first generated, and then assessed for their ability to accumulate the recombinant protein. On-chip detection and quantitation of aprotinin variants by SELDI TOF MS showed the inhibitor to be absent in the cytosol, but present under different forms in the ER and the apoplast. No visible phenotypic effects of aprotinin were observed for the transgenic lines, but aprotinin retention in the ER was associated with a significant decrease of leaf soluble protein content. A 2-D gel assessment of control and transgenic lines revealed a possible link between this altered protein content and the down-regulation of proteins implicated in protein synthesis and maturation. These observations, supported by complementary 2-DE analyses with potato lines targeting aprotinin to the apoplast, suggest an aprotinin-mediated feedback in planta negatively altering protein anabolism. From a practical viewpoint, these data illustrate the importance of taking into account not only the characteristics of recombinant proteins expressed in heterologous environments, but also their possible effects on protein accumulation in the host plant factory.

  3. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...

  4. Interaction of insulin with SDS/CTAB catanionic Vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tah, Bidisha; Pal, Prabir; Talapatra, G.B., E-mail: spgbt@iacs.res.in

    2014-01-15

    In the present study, a novel method was used for entrapping the protein, insulin into the catanionic SDS/CTAB vesicle membrane. The anionic SDS and cationic CTAB formed catanionic vesicles at particular concentration (35:65 by volume). In this study, vesicle membrane can be considered as model membrane. The vesicle formation and entrapment efficiency depend on the pH of the aqueous solution. The insulin molecules have attached with the vesicular membrane at pH 7.0. However, at acidic pH, the vesicles were ruptured and the insulin did not entrap into the vesicle membrane, whereas at alkaline pH insulin became fibriller. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Zeta potential studies established the self-assembled structure formation of insulin and catanionic vesicles. To know the protein confirmations, Circular dichroism (CD) was also employed. The temperature dependent steady state and time resolved emission spectroscopy show that at room temperature (25 °C), apart from the 305 nm tyrosine fluorescence, a new emission peak at 450 nm was observed only in case of insulin-vesicle system, and was assigned as the tyrosine phosphorescence. This phosphorescence peak is the signature of the entrapment of insulin into the vesicle membrane. Highlights: • SDS-CTAB based catanionic vesicle has been fabricated. • Insulin has been successfully immobilized on these vesicles. • Immobilized insulin shows room temperature phosphorescence.

  5. The human cytomegalovirus US28 protein is located in endocytic vesicles and undergoes constitutive endocytosis and recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraile-Ramos, A; Kledal, T N; Pelchen-Matthews, A

    2001-01-01

    Genes encoding chemokine receptor-like proteins have been found in herpes and poxviruses and implicated in viral pathogenesis. Here we describe the cellular distribution and trafficking of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) chemokine receptor encoded by the US28 gene, after transient and stable...

  6. Mutations in Synaptojanin Disrupt Synaptic Vesicle Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Todd W.; Hartwieg, Erika; Horvitz, H. Robert; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2000-01-01

    Synaptojanin is a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase that is found at synapses and binds to proteins implicated in endocytosis. For these reasons, it has been proposed that synaptojanin is involved in the recycling of synaptic vesicles. Here, we demonstrate that the unc-26 gene encodes the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of synaptojanin. unc-26 mutants exhibit defects in vesicle trafficking in several tissues, but most defects are found at synaptic termini. Specifically, we observed defects in ...

  7. The Q-soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (Q-SNARE) SNAP-47 Regulates Trafficking of Selected Vesicle-associated Membrane Proteins (VAMPs)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Aurelia; Nola, Sebastien; Dingli, Florent; Vacca, Barbara; Gauchy, Christian; Beaujouan, Jean-Claude; Nunez, Marcela; Moncion, Thomas; Loew, Damarys; Formstecher, Etienne; Galli, Thierry; Proux-Gillardeaux, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    SNAREs constitute the core machinery of intracellular membrane fusion, but vesicular SNAREs localize to specific compartments via largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we identified an interaction between VAMP7 and SNAP-47 using a proteomics approach. We found that SNAP-47 mainly localized to cytoplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ERGIC and could also shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. SNAP-47 preferentially interacted with the trans-Golgi network VAMP4 and post-Golgi VAMP7 and -8. SNAP-47 also interacted with ER and Golgi syntaxin 5 and with syntaxin 1 in the absence of Munc18a, when syntaxin 1 is retained in the ER. A C-terminally truncated SNAP-47 was impaired in interaction with VAMPs and affected their subcellular distribution. SNAP-47 silencing further shifted the subcellular localization of VAMP4 from the Golgi apparatus to the ER. WT and mutant SNAP-47 overexpression impaired VAMP7 exocytic activity. We conclude that SNAP-47 plays a role in the proper localization and function of a subset of VAMPs likely via regulation of their transport through the early secretory pathway. PMID:26359495

  8. The Q-soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (Q-SNARE) SNAP-47 Regulates Trafficking of Selected Vesicle-associated Membrane Proteins (VAMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Aurelia; Nola, Sebastien; Dingli, Florent; Vacca, Barbara; Gauchy, Christian; Beaujouan, Jean-Claude; Nunez, Marcela; Moncion, Thomas; Loew, Damarys; Formstecher, Etienne; Galli, Thierry; Proux-Gillardeaux, Veronique

    2015-11-20

    SNAREs constitute the core machinery of intracellular membrane fusion, but vesicular SNAREs localize to specific compartments via largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we identified an interaction between VAMP7 and SNAP-47 using a proteomics approach. We found that SNAP-47 mainly localized to cytoplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ERGIC and could also shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. SNAP-47 preferentially interacted with the trans-Golgi network VAMP4 and post-Golgi VAMP7 and -8. SNAP-47 also interacted with ER and Golgi syntaxin 5 and with syntaxin 1 in the absence of Munc18a, when syntaxin 1 is retained in the ER. A C-terminally truncated SNAP-47 was impaired in interaction with VAMPs and affected their subcellular distribution. SNAP-47 silencing further shifted the subcellular localization of VAMP4 from the Golgi apparatus to the ER. WT and mutant SNAP-47 overexpression impaired VAMP7 exocytic activity. We conclude that SNAP-47 plays a role in the proper localization and function of a subset of VAMPs likely via regulation of their transport through the early secretory pathway. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. MiR-21-5p in urinary extracellular vesicles is a novel biomarker of urothelial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Jingushi, Kentaro; Kawashima, Atsunari; Ujike, Takeshi; Nagahara, Akira; Ueda, Yuko; Tanigawa, Go; Yoshioka, Iwao; Ueda, Koji; Hanayama, Rikinari; Uemura, Motohide; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles are lipid bilayer vesicles containing protein, messengerRNA and microRNA. Cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles may be diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We extracted extracellular vesicles from urine of urothelial carcinoma patients and the control group to identify cancer-specific microRNAs in urinary extracellular vesicles as new biomarkers. Materials and methods microRNA from urinary extracellular vesicles extracted from 6 urothelial carcinoma patie...

  10. The presence of a helix breaker in the hydrophobic core of signal sequences of secretory proteins prevents recognition by the signal-recognition particle in Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, H; Scottie, P.A.; Cock, H.; Luirink, S.; Tommassen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Signal sequences often contain α-helix-destabilizing amino acids within the hydrophobic core. In the precursor of the Escherichia coli outer-membrane protein PhoE, the glycine residue at position -10 (Gly

  11. The Golgi-associated long coiled-coil protein NECC1 participates in the control of the regulated secretory pathway in PC12 cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz-García, David; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P; Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Vaudry, Hubert; Anouar, Youssef; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Malagón, María M

    2012-01-01

    .... In the present study, we characterize the intracellular distribution as well as the biochemical and functional properties of a novel long coiled-coil protein present in neuroendocrine tissues, NECC1...

  12. Activity of Specific Lipid-regulated ADP Ribosylation Factor-GTPase–activating Proteins Is Required for Sec14p-dependent Golgi Secretory Function in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Lora L.; Marchena, Jennifer; Xie, Zhigang; Li, Xinmin; Poon, Pak P.; Singer, Richard A.; Johnston, Gerald C.; Randazzo, Paul A.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2002-01-01

    Yeast phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Sec14p) coordinates lipid metabolism with protein-trafficking events. This essential Sec14p requirement for Golgi function is bypassed by mutations in any one of seven genes that control phosphatidylcholine or phosphoinositide metabolism. In addition to these “bypass Sec14p” mutations, Sec14p-independent Golgi function requires phospholipase D activity. The identities of lipids that mediate Sec14p-dependent Golgi function, and the identity of the p...

  13. Proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, R.

    2005-01-01

    A number of filamentous fungi are saprophytes and they secrete a wide spectrum of enzymes to degrade their complex substrates. Many secreted proteins enter the secretory pathway as proproteins and need some form of proteolytic processing before they obtain their mature active state. As described in

  14. Secretory phospholipase A(2) in newborn infants with sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, A. J. J.; De Beaufort, A. J.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; Berger, H. M.; Walther, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate secretory phospholipase A(2) ( sPLA(2)) activity in neonatal sepsis. Study Design: Plasma sPLA(2) activity, C- reactive protein ( CRP) concentration, leukocyte count and immature/ total neutrophil ( I/ T) ratio were assessed in a group of 156 infants admitted for neonatal

  15. Depression-like behavior induced by nesfatin-1 in rats: involvement of increased immune activation and imbalance of synaptic vesicle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge eJinfang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a multicausal disorder and has been associated with metabolism regulation and immuno-inflammatory reaction. The anorectic molecule nesfatin-1 has recently been characterized as a potential mood regulator, but its precise effect on depression and the possible mechanisms remain unknown, especially when given peripherally. In the present study, nesfatin-1 was intraperitoneally injected to the rats and the depression-like behavior and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis were evaluated. The plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP; and the hypothalamic expression levels of nesfatin-1, synapsinⅠ, and synaptotagminⅠmRNA were evaluated in nesfatin-1 chronically treated rats. The results showed that both acute and chronic administration of nesfatin-1 increased immobility in the forced swimming test (FST, and resulted in the hyperactivity of HPA axis, as indicated by the increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA. Moreover, after chronic nesfatin-1 administration, the rats exhibited decreased activity and exploratory behavior in the open field test (OFT and increased mRNA expression of synapsinⅠand synaptotagminⅠin the hypothalamus. Furthermore, chronic administration of nesfatin-1 elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, which were positively correlated with despair behavior, plasma corticosterone level, and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of synapsinⅠ and synaptotagminⅠ. These results indicated that exogenous nesfatin-1 could induce the immune-inflammatory activation,which might be a central hug linking the depression-like behavior and the imbalanced mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in the hypothalamus.

  16. The Protein Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Expanded Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived CD133+and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Explains Why both Sources are Advantageous for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulski, Addeli B B; Capriglione, Luiz G; Batista, Michel; Marcon, Bruna H; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Correa, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133 + cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133 + cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 623 proteins for expanded CD133 + -EVs and 797 proteins for hMSCs-EVs. Although the EVs from both origins were qualitatively similar, when protein abundance was considered, hMSCs-EVs and CD133 + -EVs were different. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis in CD133 + -EVs revealed proteins involved in a variety of angiogenesis-related functions as well proteins related to the cytoskeleton and highly implicated in cell motility and cellular activation. In contrast, when overrepresented proteins in hMSCs-EVs were analyzed, a GO cluster of immune response-related genes involved with immune response-regulating factors acting on phagocytosis and innate immunity was identified. Together our data demonstrate that from the point of view of protein content, expanded CD133 + -EVs and hMSCs-EVs are in part similar but also sufficiently different to reflect the main beneficial paracrine effects widely reported in pre-clinical studies using expanded CD133 + cells and/or hBM-MSCs.

  17. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  18. Identification of LZP gene from Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus coding for a novel liver-specific ZP domain-containing secretory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Gang; Du, Jian-Jun; Cui, Shu-Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qin; Huo, Ke-Ke; Li, Yu-Yang; Han, Ze-Guang

    2004-04-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) domain has been recognized in a number of receptor-like eukaryotic glycoproteins, which involved in many important biological processes, such as signal transduction, development, differentiation and so on. Here we report the identification of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus orthologues of Homo sapiens LZP gene which codes for a novel ZP domain-containing protein. Sequence analysis revealed that human, rat and mouse LZP proteins are highly conserved. Mouse LZP gene has two transcripts, 2.4 and 2.8 KB long respectively, coding for identical protein. Mouse LZP mRNA is expressed specifically in hepatocytes. Our data also showed that mouse LZP localizes mostly on nuclear envelope, and at the same time, it can be secreted into blood in a truncated form.

  19. Membrane and luminal proteins reach the apicoplast by different trafficking pathways in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Rahul; Dey, Vishakha; Narayan, Aishwarya; Sharma, Shobhona; Patankar, Swati

    2017-01-01

    The secretory pathway in Plasmodium falciparum has evolved to transport proteins to the host cell membrane and to an endosymbiotic organelle, the apicoplast. The latter can occur via the ER or the ER-Golgi route. Here, we study these three routes using proteins Erythrocyte Membrane Protein-1 (PfEMP1), Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (PfTPxGl) and inhibitors of vesicular transport. As expected, the G protein-dependent vesicular fusion inhibitor AlF4(-) and microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine block the trafficking of PfEMP-1, a protein secreted to the host cell membrane. However, while both PfTPxGl and ACP are targeted to the apicoplast, only ACP trafficking remains unaffected by these treatments. This implies that G protein-dependent vesicles do not play a role in classical apicoplast protein targeting. Unlike the soluble protein ACP, we show that PfTPxGl is localized to the outermost membrane of the apicoplast. Thus, the parasite apicoplast acquires proteins via two different pathways: first, the vesicular trafficking pathway appears to handle not only secretory proteins, but an apicoplast membrane protein, PfTPxGl; second, trafficking of apicoplast luminal proteins appear to be independent of G protein-coupled vesicles.

  20. Extracellular vesicles and blood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles released from many different cell types by the exocytic budding of the plasma membrane in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. EVs disseminate various bioactive effectors originating from the parent cells and transfer functional RNA and protein between cells, enabling them to alter vascular function and induce biological responses involved in vascular homeostasis. Although most EVs in human blood originate from platelets, EVs are also released from leukocytes, erythrocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cancer cells. EVs were initially thought to be small particles with procoagulant activity; however, they can also evoke cellular responses in the immediate microenvironments and transport microRNAs (miRNA) into target cells. In this review, we summarize the recent literature relevant to EVs, including a growing list of clinical disorders that are associated with elevated EV levels. These studies suggest that EVs play roles in various blood diseases.

  1. Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Sic; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Go, Gyeongyun; Park, Seon-Min; Kim, Si Hyun; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Chang, Chulhun L; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-10-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles, also known as outer membrane vesicles, membrane vesicles, exosomes, and microvesicles, is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon from bacteria to eukaryotes. It has been reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases extracellular vesicles harboring immunologically active molecules, and these extracellular vesicles have been suggested to be applicable in vaccine development and biomarker discovery. However, the comprehensive proteomic analysis has not been performed for M. tuberculosis extracellular vesicles. In this study, we identified a total of 287 vesicular proteins by four LC-MS/MS analyses with high confidence. In addition, we identified several vesicular proteins associated with the virulence of M. tuberculosis. This comprehensive proteome profile will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of M. tuberculosis. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001160 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001160). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tooth enamel protein amelogenin binds to ameloblast cell membrane-mimicking vesicles via its N-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokappa, Sowmya Bekshe; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-08-28

    We have recently reported that the extracellular enamel protein amelogenin has affinity to interact with phospholipids and proposed that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities. Here, in order to identify the liposome-interacting domains of amelogenin we designed four different amelogenin mutants containing only a single tryptophan at positions 25, 45, 112 and 161. Circular dichroism studies of the mutants confirmed that they are structurally similar to the wild-type amelogenin. Utilizing the intrinsic fluorescence of single tryptophan residue and fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET], we analyzed the accessibility and strength of their binding with an ameloblast cell membrane-mimicking model membrane (ACML) and a negatively charged liposome used as a membrane model. We found that amelogenin has membrane-binding ability mainly via its N-terminal, close to residues W25 and W45. Significant blue shift was also observed in the fluorescence of a N-terminal peptide following addition of liposomes. We suggest that, among other mechanisms, enamel malformation in cases of Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) with mutations at the N-terminal may be the result of defective amelogenin-cell interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Cassidy, John S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type CaV channels (CaV2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases CaV channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls CaV2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and CaV2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of CaV2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via CaV2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS.

  4. Secretory TAT-peptide-mediated protein transduction of LIF receptor α-chain distal cytoplasmic motifs into human myeloid HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q. [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiong, J. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Lu, J. [Office of Medical Education, Training Department, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xu, S. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Y. [State Food and Drug Administration of China,Huangdao Branch, Qingdao (China); Zhong, X.P.; Gao, G.K. [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Liu, H.Q. [2Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-06-22

    The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3) can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss) inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05) 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy.

  5. Secretory TAT-peptide-mediated protein transduction of LIF receptor α-chain distal cytoplasmic motifs into human myeloid HL-60 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3 can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy.

  6. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  7. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E

    2009-01-01

    gestation-matched women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy (n = 8), evacuation of uterus for miscarriage (n = 6) and surgery for EP (n = 11) was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR, morphological assessment, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sera were analysed for progesterone and human...... chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels. Immortalized endometrial epithelial cells were cultured with physiological concentrations of hCG. CRISP-3 mRNA and protein expression were greater in endometrium from ectopic when compared with intrauterine pregnancies (P ... to epithelium and granulocytes of endometrium. CRISP-3 serum concentrations were not different in women with ectopic compared with intrauterine pregnancies. CRISP-3 expression in endometrium was not related to the degree of decidualization or to serum progesterone levels. Endometrial CRISP-3 expression...

  8. Cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP3 is strongly up-regulated in prostate carcinomas with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franclim R Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A large percentage of prostate cancers harbor TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions, leading to aberrant overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. The target genes deregulated by this rearrangement, however, remain mostly unknown. To address this subject we performed genome-wide mRNA expression analysis on 6 non-malignant prostate samples and 24 prostate carcinomas with (n = 16 and without (n = 8 TMPRSS2-ERG fusion as determined by FISH. The top-most differentially expressed genes and their associations with ERG over-expression were technically validated by quantitative real-time PCR and biologically validated in an independent series of 200 prostate carcinomas. Several genes encoding metabolic enzymes or extracellular/transmembrane proteins involved in cell adhesion, matrix remodeling and signal transduction pathways were found to be co-expressed with ERG. Within those significantly over-expressed in fusion-positive carcinomas, CRISP3 showed more than a 50-fold increase when compared to fusion-negative carcinomas, whose expression levels were in turn similar to that of non-malignant samples. In the independent validation series, ERG and CRISP3 mRNA levels were strongly correlated (r(s = 0.65, p<0.001 and both were associated with pT3 disease staging. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results showed CRISP3 protein overexpression in 63% of the carcinomas and chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-ERG antibody showed that CRISP3 is a direct target of the transcription factor ERG. We conclude that ERG rearrangement is associated with significant expression alterations in genes involved in critical cellular pathways that define a subset of locally advanced PCa. In particular, we show that CRISP3 is a direct target of ERG that is strongly overexpressed in PCa with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene.

  9. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM.

  10. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Anita E. Grootemaat; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively.Aim: To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids.Methods: Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet...

  11. Low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta are associated with preterm birth and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M; Fransson, Emma; Dubicke, Aurelija; Hjelmstedt, Anna K; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bohlin, Kajsa

    2018-03-01

    Anti-secretory factor is a protein that regulates secretory and inflammatory processes and preterm birth is associated with inflammation. Therefore, our hypothesis was that anti-secretory factor might play a role in immune reactivity and homeostasis during pregnancy. Following spontaneous onset of labor and preterm or term delivery, placenta biopsies were collected. The levels of anti-secretory factor and markers of inflammation (CD68, CD163) and vascularization (CD34, smooth muscle actin) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The 61 placental biopsies included 31 preterm (preterm placentas exhibited lower levels of anti-secretory factor (p = 0.008) and larger numbers of CD68-positive cells (p Preterm placentas had blood vessel of smaller diameter (p = 0.036) indicative of immaturity. The level of interleukin-6 in cord blood was higher after very preterm than term birth, suggesting a fetal inflammatory response. The placenta level of anti-secretory factor was positively correlated to the length of gestation (p = 0.025) and negatively correlated to the levels of the inflammatory markers CD68 (p = 0.015) and CD163 (p = 0.028). Preterm delivery is associated with low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta. Inflammation, a potential trigger of preterm birth, is more pronounced in the preterm placenta and inversely related to the placental level of anti-secretory factor, suggesting both a link and a potential target for intervention. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Immunotherapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles or EVs is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized endosome-derived vesicles secreted by many cell types and their immunomodulatory potential is independent of their cell source. Besides immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, cancer and stem cells also secrete immunologically active exosomes that could influence both physiological and pathological processes. The immunological activities of exosomes affect both innate and adaptive immunity and include antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cell polarisation to Tregs, immune suppression and anti-inflammation. As such, exosomes carry much immunotherapeutic potential as a therapeutic agent and a therapeutic target.

  13. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  14. RNA in extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Mustapic, Maja; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Gorospe, Myriam

    2017-07-01

    Cells release a range of membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the environment. Among them, exosomes and microvesicles (collectively measuring 40-1000 nm in diameter) carry proteins, signaling lipids, and nucleic acids from donor cells to recipient cells, and thus have been proposed to serve as intercellular mediators of communication. EVs transport cellular materials in many physiologic processes, including differentiation, stem cell homeostasis, immune responses, and neuronal signaling. EVs are also increasingly recognized as having a direct role in pathologies such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Accordingly, EVs have been the focus of intense investigation as biomarkers of disease, prognostic indicators, and even therapeutic tools. Here, we review the classes of RNAs present in EVs, both coding RNAs (messenger RNAs) and noncoding RNAs (long noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and circular RNAs). The rising attention to EV-resident RNAs as biomarkers stems from the fact that RNAs can be detected at extremely low quantities using a number of methods. To illustrate the interest in EV biology, we discuss EV RNAs in cancer and neurodegeneration, two major age-associated disease processes. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1413. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1413 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Profiling of small RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles shed by Trypanosoma cruzi reveals a specific extracellular signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calero, Tamara; Garcia-Silva, Rosa; Pena, Alvaro; Robello, Carlos; Persson, Helena; Rovira, Carlos; Naya, Hugo; Cayota, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, an expanding family of small regulatory RNAs (e.g. microRNAs, siRNAs and piRNAs) was recognized as key players in novel forms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in most eukaryotes. However, the machinery associated with Ago/Dicer-dependent small RNA biogenesis was thought to be either entirely lost or extensively simplified in some unicellular organisms including Trypanosoma cruzi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Leishmania major and Plasmodium falciparum. Although the biogenesis of small RNAs from non-coding RNAs represent a minor fraction of the normal small RNA transcriptome in eukaryotic cells, they represent the unique small RNA pathways in Trypanosoma cruzi which produce different populations of small RNAs derived from tRNAs, rRNAs, sn/snoRNAs and mRNAs. These small RNAs are secreted included in extracellular vesicles and transferred to other parasites and susceptible mammalian cells. This process represents a novel form of cross-kingdom transfer of genetic material suggesting that secreted vesicles could represent new relevant pieces in life cycle transitions, infectivity and cell-to-cell communication. Here, we provide for the first time a detailed analysis of the small RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles from T. cruzi epimastigotes under nutritional stress conditions compared to the respective intracellular compartment using deep sequencing. Compared with the intracellular compartment, shed extracellular vesicles showed a specific extracellular signature conformed by distinctive patterns of small RNAs derived from rRNA, tRNA, sno/snRNAs and protein coding sequences which evidenced specific secretory small RNA processing pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Diseases: More than Novel Biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdbrügger, Uta; Le, Thu H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles from the urine and circulation have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers in renal diseases. Urinary extracellular vesicles contain proteins from all sections of the nephron, whereas most studied circulating extracellular vesicles are derived from platelets, immune cells, and the endothelium. In addition to their diagnostic role as markers of kidney and vascular damage, extracellular vesicles may have functional significance in renal health and disease by facilitating communication between cells and protecting against kidney injury and bacterial infection in the urinary tract. However, the current understanding of extracellular vesicles has derived mostly from studies with very small numbers of patients or in vitro data. Moreover, accurate assessment of these vesicles remains a challenge, in part because of a lack of consensus in the methodologies to measure extracellular vesicles and the inability of most techniques to capture the entire size range of these vesicles. However, newer techniques and standardized protocols to improve the detection of extracellular vesicles are in development. A clearer understanding of the composition and biology of extracellular vesicles will provide insights into their pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Human mammospheres secrete hormone-regulated active extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. One of the most important prognostic factors for survival is the early detection of the disease. Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles may provide diagnostic information for cancer management. We demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by primary breast epithelial cells enriched for stem/progenitor cells cultured as mammospheres, in non-adherent conditions. Using a proteomic approach we identified proteins contained in these vesicles whose expression is affected by hormonal changes in the cellular environment. In addition, we showed that these vesicles are capable of promoting changes in expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers. Our findings suggest that secreted extracellular vesicles could represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for breast cancer and support a role for extracellular vesicles in cancer progression.

  18. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jaewook; Park, Jaesung; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    Like mammalian cells, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria release nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular environment either in a constitutive manner or in a regulated manner. These bacterial extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids enriched with bioactive proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and virulence factors. Recent progress in this field supports the critical pathophysiological functions of these vesicles in both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially regarding the biogenesis, components, and functions in poly-species communities. We hope that this review will stimulate additional research in this emerging field of bacterial extracellular vesicles and contribute to the development of extracellular vesicle-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines against pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  20. Cellular phenotype and extracellular vesicles: basic and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Peter J; Goldberg, Laura R; Aliotta, Jason M; Dooner, Mark S; Pereira, Mandy G; Wen, Sicheng; Camussi, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Early work on platelet and erythrocyte vesicles interpreted the phenomena as a discard of material from cells. Subsequently, vesicles were studied as possible vaccines and, most recently, there has been a focus on the effects of vesicles on cell fate. Recent studies have indicated that extracellular vesicles, previously referred to as microvesicles or exosomes, have the capacity to change the phenotype of neighboring cells. Extensive work has shown that vesicles derived from either the lung or liver can enter bone marrow cells (this is a prerequisite) and alter their fate toward that of the originating liver and lung tissue. Lung vesicles interacted with bone marrow cells result in the bone marrow cells expressing surfactants A-D, Clara cell protein, and aquaporin-5 mRNA. In a similar vein, liver-derived vesicles induce albumin mRNA in target marrow cells. The vesicles contain protein, mRNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA and variably some DNA. This genetic package is delivered to cells and alters the phenotype. Further studies have shown that initially the altered phenotype is due to the transfer of mRNA and a transcriptional modulator, but long-term epigenetic changes are induced through transfer of a transcriptional factor, and the mRNA is rapidly degraded in the cell. Studies on the capacity of vesicles to restore injured tissue have been quite informative. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived vesicles are able to reverse the injury to the damaged liver and kidney. Other studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cell-derived vesicles can reverse radiation toxicity of bone marrow stem cells. Extracellular vesicles offer an intriguing strategy for treating a number of diseases characterized by tissue injury.

  1. Extracellular vesicles provide a means for tissue crosstalk during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitham, Martin; Parker, Benjamin L; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Exercise stimulates the release of molecules into the circulation, supporting the concept that inter-tissue signaling proteins are important mediators of adaptations to exercise. Recognizing that many circulating proteins are packaged in extracellular vesicles (EVs), we employed quantitative...... vesicles. Pulse-chase and intravital imaging experiments suggested EVs liberated by exercise have a propensity to localize in the liver and can transfer their protein cargo. Moreover, by employing arteriovenous balance studies across the contracting human limb, we identified several novel candidate...

  2. Volume Density, Distribution, and Ultrastructure of Secretory and Basolateral Membranes and Mitochondria Predict Parietal Cell Secretory (Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid secretion in gastric parietal cells requires highly coordinated membrane transport and vesicle trafficking. Histologically, consensus defines acid secretion as the ratio of the volume density (Vd of canalicular and apical membranes (CAMs to tubulovesicular (TV membranes, a value which varies widely under normal conditions. Examination of numerous achlorhydric mice made it clear that this paradigm is discrepant when used to assess most mice with genetic mutations affecting acid secretion. Vd of organelles in parietal cells of 6 genetically engineered mouse strains was obtained to identify a stable histological phenotype of acid secretion. We confirmed that CAM to TV ratio fairly represented secretory activity in untreated and secretion-inhibited wild-type (WT mice and in NHE2−/− mice as well, though the response was significantly attenuated in the latter. However, high CAM to TV ratios wrongly posed as active acid secretion in AE2−/−, GHKA−/−, and NHE4−/− mice. Achlorhydric genotypes also had a significantly higher Vd of basolateral membrane than WT mice, and reduced Vd of mitochondria and canaliculi. The Vd of mitochondria, and ratio of the Vd of basolateral membranes/Vd of mitochondria were preferred predictors of the level of acid secretion. Alterations in acid secretion, then, cause significant changes not only in the Vd of secretory membranes but also in mitochondria and basolateral membranes.

  3. Volume density, distribution, and ultrastructure of secretory and basolateral membranes and mitochondria predict parietal cell secretory (dys)function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marian L; Andringa, Anastasia; Zavros, Yana; Bradford, Emily M; Shull, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    Acid secretion in gastric parietal cells requires highly coordinated membrane transport and vesicle trafficking. Histologically, consensus defines acid secretion as the ratio of the volume density (Vd) of canalicular and apical membranes (CAMs) to tubulovesicular (TV) membranes, a value which varies widely under normal conditions. Examination of numerous achlorhydric mice made it clear that this paradigm is discrepant when used to assess most mice with genetic mutations affecting acid secretion. Vd of organelles in parietal cells of 6 genetically engineered mouse strains was obtained to identify a stable histological phenotype of acid secretion. We confirmed that CAM to TV ratio fairly represented secretory activity in untreated and secretion-inhibited wild-type (WT) mice and in NHE2-/- mice as well, though the response was significantly attenuated in the latter. However, high CAM to TV ratios wrongly posed as active acid secretion in AE2-/-, GHKAalpha-/-, and NHE4-/- mice. Achlorhydric genotypes also had a significantly higher Vd of basolateral membrane than WT mice, and reduced Vd of mitochondria and canaliculi. The Vd of mitochondria, and ratio of the Vd of basolateral membranes/Vd of mitochondria were preferred predictors of the level of acid secretion. Alterations in acid secretion, then, cause significant changes not only in the Vd of secretory membranes but also in mitochondria and basolateral membranes.

  4. Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julien; Bassaganyas, Laia; Lepreux, Sebastien; Chiritoiu, Marioara; Costet, Pierre; Ripoche, Jean; Malhotra, Vivek; Schekman, Randy

    2017-12-06

    An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that mediate the unconventional secretion of FABP4. Here, we demonstrate that FABP4 secretion is mediated by a membrane-bounded compartment, independent of the conventional endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. We show that FABP4 secretion is also independent of GRASP proteins, autophagy, and multivesicular bodies but involves enclosure within endosomes and secretory lysosomes. We highlight the physiological significance of this pathway with the demonstration that an increase in plasma levels of FABP4 is inhibited by chloroquine treatment of mice. These findings chart the pathway of FABP4 secretion and provide a potential therapeutic means to control metabolic disorders associated with its dysregulated secretion. © 2018 Villeneuve et al.

  5. Biochemical and morphological characterization of light and heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Kevin Peter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Light (30 to 32.5% sucrose) and heavy (38.5 to 42% sucrose) sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (LSR, HSR) were isolated from rabbit leg muscle. They were then diluted and washed with sucrose or KCl and referred to as sucrose or KCl washed vesicles. Thin-section electron microscopy of LSR vesicles reveals empty vesicles of various sizes and shapes where as the HSR vesicles appear as rounded vesicles of uniform size filled with electron dense material. The LSR consists of predominantly Ca2+ + Mg2+ ATPase (80 to 90%), a small amount of the high affinity Ca binding protein (5%), and a 5000 dalton proteolipid. The sucrose HSR vesicles contain the Ca2+ + Mg2+ ATPase (50%), Calsequestrin (25%), high affinity Ca binding protein (5%), one extrinsic 34,000 dalton protein (3%), one intrinsic 30,000 dalton protein (3%), a 9000 dalton proteolipid, and a 5000 dalton proteolipid. The sucrose--washed HSR vesicles contain greater than three times the calcium content of the sucrose washed LSR vesicles where as the KCl--washed vesicles contain less than 15 nmoles Ca2+ mg of protein each. The light and heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were both able to accumulate calcium in the presence of ATP. Exchange of methanesulfonate for chloride resulted in the release of calcium from both the light and heavy SR vesicles. Sucrose causes a slight inhibition of chloride--induced calcium release from the heavy SR vesicles but it greatly reduces the release of calcium from the light SR vesicles. Sodium dantrolene (20 uM) has no effect on the release of calcium from the light SR vesicles but it inhibits the release of calcium from the heavy SR vesicles. The results indicate that the chloride--induced release of calcium may be acting by two mechanisms, osmotic swelling and depolarization.

  6. First demonstration of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-associated prion protein (PrPTSE) in extracellular vesicles from plasma of mice infected with mouse-adapted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by in vitro amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saá, Paula; Yakovleva, Oksana; de Castro, Jorge; Vasilyeva, Irina; De Paoli, Silvia H; Simak, Jan; Cervenakova, Larisa

    2014-10-17

    The development of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in three recipients of non-leukoreduced red blood cells from asymptomatic donors who subsequently developed the disease has confirmed existing concerns about the possible spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) via blood products. In addition, the presence of disease-associated misfolded prion protein (PrP(TSE)), generally associated with infectivity, has been demonstrated in the blood of vCJD patients. However, its origin and distribution in this biological fluid are still unknown. Various studies have identified cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) among the protein cargo in human blood-circulating extracellular vesicles released from endothelial cells and platelets, and exosomes isolated from the conditioned media of TSE-infected cells have caused the disease when injected into experimental mice. In this study, we demonstrate the detection of PrP(TSE) in extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma samples collected during the preclinical and clinical phases of the disease from mice infected with mouse-adapted vCJD and confirm the presence of the exosomal marker Hsp70 in these preparations. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Floating Escherichia coli by expressing cyanobacterial gas vesicle genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Kang, Li; Li, Jiaheng; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Peiran; Gong, Minghao; Lai, Weihong; Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Lei; Peng, Yong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Lian; Bao, Yingying; Xu, Haowen; Zhang, Xiaohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow, air-filled polyprotein structures that provide the buoyancy to cells. They are found in a variety of prokaryotes. In this study, we isolated a partial gas vesicle protein gene cluster containing gvpA and gvpC20Ψ from Planktothrix rubescens, and inserted it into an expression vector and expressed it in E. coli. The gas vesicle was developed in bacterial cells, which made bacterial cells to float on medium surface. We also amplified gvpA and gvpC20Ψ separately and synthesized an artificial operon by fusing these two genes with the standardized gene expression controlling elements of E. coli. The artificial operon was expressed in E. coli, forming gas vesicles and floating bacteria cells. Our findings verified that the whole set of genes and the overall structure of gas vesicle gene cluster are not necessary for developing gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Two genes, gvpA and gvpC20Ψ, of the gas vesicle gene cluster are sufficient for synthesizing an artificial operon that can develop gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Our findings provided a wide range of applications including easing the harvest of cultured microalgae and bacteria, as well as enriching and remediating aquatic pollutants by constructing gas vesicles in their cells.

  8. Prostasome-like vesicles stimulate acrosome reaction of pig spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianò Vito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of small membranous particles characterizes the male genital fluids of different mammalian species. The influence of semen vesicles, denominated prostasomes, on sperm functional properties has been well documented in humans, but their biological activity is scarcely known in other species. The present work investigated prostasome-like vesicles in pig semen for their ability to interact with spermatozoa and to affect acrosome reaction. Methods Prostasome-like vesicles have been isolated from pig seminal plasma by high-speed centrifugation and Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography. Morphology of purified vesicles has been checked by scanning electron microscopy while their protein pattern has been investigated by SDS-PAGE. Then prostasome- like vesicles have been incubated with pig spermatozoa and their ability to interact with sperm has been tested by the aminopeptidase assay. In addition, the efficiency of vesicles to influence the acrosome reaction has been investigated by assessing the sperm acrosomal status by the PI/FITC-PNA (propidium iodide/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peanut agglutinin stainings. Results Purified vesicles revealed a complex protein pattern with the occurrence of bands in the high, medium and low molecular weight range. However, the two major bands were observed at ~90 kDa and ~60 kDa. A vesicle-mediated transfer of aminopeptidase to sperm cells has been also detected. Furthermore, a significant increase of acrosome reaction extent has been revealed in spermatozoa incubated with prostasome-like vesicles in comparison to control sperm. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that pig prostasome-like vesicles are able, in vitro, to interact with spermatozoa and to stimulate the acrosome reaction. These findings lead to hypothesize a transfer of molecules from vesicles to sperm membrane, thus sensitizing male gametes to undergo the acrosome reaction

  9. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates.

  10. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  11. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R-M; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit I; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Cordeiro-da Silva, Anabela; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H H; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Nyman, Tuula A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412755211; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Wauben, Marca H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological

  12. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, like permeability, stability or chemical reactivity.In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multi-compartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nano-scale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nano-reactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins.

  13. Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in cellular senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Masaki

    2018-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a cellular program that prevents the proliferation of cells at risk of neoplastic transformation. On the other hand, age-related accumulation of senescent cells promotes aging at least partially due to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, whereby cells secrete high levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Emerging evidence, however, indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of the effects of senescent cells on their microenvironment. Senescent cells secrete more EphA2 and DNA via EVs, which can promote cancer cell proliferation and inflammation, respectively. Extracellular vesicles secreted from DNA-damaged cells can also affect telomere regulation. Furthermore, it has now become clear that EVs actually play important roles in many aspects of aging. This review is intended to summarize these recent progresses, with emphasis on relationships between cellular senescence and EVs. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A readily retrievable pool of synaptic vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Y; Sinha, R.; Thiel, C.; Schmidt, R.; Hueve, J.; Martens, H.; Hell, S.; Egner, A.; Klingauf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is thought to be the predominant mechanism of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, it seems to be too slow for fast recycling. Therefore, it was suggested that a pre-sorted and pre-assembled pool of SV proteins on the presynaptic membrane might support a first wave of fast CME. In this study we monitored the temporal dynamics of such a 'readily retrievable pool' of SV proteins in rat hippocampal neurons using a novel probe. Applying...

  15. Biochemical analysis of secretory trafficking in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Protein trafficking within the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is amenable to analysis by biochemical methods. This can be achieved by monitoring posttranslational modifications that occur naturally within the secretory pathway, or by measuring the delivery of cargo to the cell surface or extracellular medium. These approaches can be combined with additional manipulations such as specific temperature blocks that permit analysis of distinct trafficking steps. Biochemical analysis is advantageous in that it permits both a sensitive and quantitative measure of trafficking along the pathway. The methods discussed in this chapter permit the analysis of trafficking of both endogenous cargo proteins and ectopically expressed model cargos, which can be followed using either Western blotting or metabolic pulse-chase approaches. These methods are relatively straightforward and suitable for use in most modern cell biology laboratories. In addition to the well-established methods that we describe here in detail, we also refer to the development of more recent tailored approaches that add further to the arsenal of tools that can be used to assess trafficking in the secretory pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  17. The Vesicle Priming Factor CAPS Functions as a Homodimer via C2 Domain Interactions to Promote Regulated Vesicle Exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Matt; Esquibel, Joseph; Kabachinski, Greg; Maciuba, Stephanie; Takahashi, Hirohide; Edwardson, J Michael; Martin, Thomas F J

    2016-09-30

    Neurotransmitters and peptide hormones are secreted by regulated vesicle exocytosis. CAPS (also known as CADPS) is a 145-kDa cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for vesicle docking and priming steps that precede Ca 2+ -triggered vesicle exocytosis. CAPS binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) and SNARE proteins and is proposed to promote SNARE protein complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. We characterized purified soluble CAPS as mainly monomer in equilibrium with small amounts of dimer. However, the active form of CAPS bound to PC12 cell membranes or to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P 2 and Q-SNARE proteins was mainly dimer. CAPS dimer formation required its C2 domain based on mutation or deletion studies. Moreover, C2 domain mutations or deletions resulted in a loss of CAPS function in regulated vesicle exocytosis, indicating that dimerization is essential for CAPS function. Comparison of the CAPS C2 domain to a structurally defined Munc13-1 C2A domain dimer revealed conserved residues involved in CAPS dimerization. We conclude that CAPS functions as a C2 domain-mediated dimer in regulated vesicle exocytosis. The unique tandem C2-PH domain of CAPS may serve as a PI(4,5)P 2 -triggered switch for dimerization. CAPS dimerization may be coupled to oligomeric SNARE complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Discovery of heterocyclic nonacetamide synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) ligands with single-digit nanomolar potency: opening avenues towards the first SV2A positron emission tomography (PET) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Joël; Archen, Laurence; Bollu, Véronique; Carré, Stéphane; Evrard, Yves; Jnoff, Eric; Kenda, Benoît; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Michel, Philippe; Montel, Florian; Moureau, Florence; Price, Nathalie; Quesnel, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Valade, Anne; Provins, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    The role of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) protein, target of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam, is still mostly unknown. Considering its potential to provide in vivo functional insights into the role of SV2A in epileptic patients, the development of an SV2A positron emission tomography (PET) tracer has been undertaken. Using a 3D pharmacophore model based on close analogues of levetiracetam, we report the rationale design of three heterocyclic non-acetamide lead compounds, UCB-A, UCB-H and UCB-J, the first single-digit nanomolar SV2A ligands with suitable properties for development as PET tracers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Introduction to Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, RNA Cargo Selection, Content, Release, and Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Erik R; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-limited vesicles loaded with various proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Release of extracellular vesicles from its cell of origin occurs either through the outward budding of the plasma membrane or through the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, resulting in the formation of multivesicular bodies, which release vesicles upon fusion with the plasma membrane. The release of vesicles can facilitate intercellular communication by contact with or by internalization of contents, either by fusion with the plasma membrane or by endocytosis into "recipient" cells. Although the interest in extracellular vesicle research is increasing, there are still no real standards in place to separate or classify the different types of vesicles. This review provides an introduction into this expanding and complex field of research focusing on the biogenesis, nucleic acid cargo loading, content, release, and uptake of extracellular vesicles.

  20. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuana, Yuana; Koning, Roman I; Kuil, Maxim E; Rensen, Patrick C N; Koster, Abraham J; Bertina, Rogier M; Osanto, Susanne

    2013-12-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles). In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25-260 nm). The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  1. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Yuana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EV are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. Objectives: To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM. Methods: Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. Results: EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles. In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25–260 nm. The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Conclusions: Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  2. A scenario for a genetically controlled fission of artificial vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2011-01-01

    Artificial vesicles have been used for decades as model systems of biological cells to investigate scientific questions in simulacra. In recent years, the significance of artificial vesicles further increased because they represent ideal candidates to become the building block of a de novo...... construction of a cell in a bottom-up manner. Numerous efforts to build an artificial cell that bridge the living and non-living world will most presumably represent one of the main goals of science in the 21st century. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery can...... be incorporated into vesicles, and therefore allow the synthesis of a large number of proteins (Noireaux et al. 2005). However, vesicle fission remains one of the upcoming challenges in the artificial cell project (Noireaux et al. 2011). So far, vesicle fission is implemented by applying mechanical stress...

  3. ISEV position paper: extracellular vesicle RNA analysis and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Hill

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are the collective term for the various vesicles that are released by cells into the extracellular space. Such vesicles include exosomes and microvesicles, which vary by their size and/or protein and genetic cargo. With the discovery that EVs contain genetic material in the form of RNA (evRNA has come the increased interest in these vesicles for their potential use as sources of disease biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents. Rapid developments in the availability of deep sequencing technologies have enabled the study of EV-related RNA in detail. In October 2012, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV held a workshop on “evRNA analysis and bioinformatics.” Here, we report the conclusions of one of the roundtable discussions where we discussed evRNA analysis technologies and provide some guidelines to researchers in the field to consider when performing such analysis.

  4. Placental Extracellular Vesicles and Feto-Maternal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Chamley, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    The human placenta is an anatomically unique structure that extrudes a variety of extracellular vesicles into the maternal blood (including syncytial nuclear aggregates, microvesicles, and nanovesicles). Large quantities of extracellular vesicles are produced by the placenta in both healthy and diseased pregnancies. Since their first description more than 120 years ago, placental extracellular vesicles are only now being recognized as important carriers for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which may play a crucial role in feto-maternal communication. Here, we summarize the current literature on the cargos of placental extracellular vesicles and the known effects of such vesicles on maternal cells/systems, especially those of the maternal immune and vascular systems. PMID:25635060

  5. [EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: INTERCELLULAR INFORMATION FLOW AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupyshev, A B

    2015-01-01

    The major features of extracellular vesicles secreted by mammalian cells are considered. Cell activation caused by formation of pathology stimulates the secretion acutely. The vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles) are enriched with annexin V, tetraspanin, miRNA. Exosomes are enriched especially by integrins, heat shock proteins. Microvesicles contain elevated amounts of tissue factors, phosphatidylserine, mRNA. The vesicles carry information about the pathological process, and microvesicles contain more proteins characteristic of inflammation and death than exosomes. They are important mediators of inflammation and infection in the body, have different effects on the immune system and the processes of carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. However, antigenic profiles of extracellular vesicles differ not profoundly in various pathologies and so far they help diagnostics limitedly. The vesicles carry signals of genetic reprogramming of the cells and epigenetic stimulation, connected with both protein factors and mRNA and miRNA. Profiles of miRNA vesicles produced by the various pathological sources are studied actively and are useful as indicators of source and stage of cancer. Some ways of therapeutic use of the vesicles are also considered.

  6. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  7. A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Badr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The secretory pathway is a critical index of the capacity of cells to incorporate proteins into cellular membranes and secrete proteins into the extracellular space. Importantly it is disrupted in response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum that can be induced by a variety of factors, including expression of mutant proteins and physiologic stress. Activation of the ER stress response is critical in the etiology of a number of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer. We have developed a highly sensitive assay to monitor processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in real-time based on the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc.An expression cassette for Gluc was delivered to cells, and its secretion was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in the conditioned medium. Gluc secretion was decreased down to 90% when these cells were treated with drugs that interfere with the secretory pathway at different steps. Fusing Gluc to a fluorescent protein allowed quantitation and visualization of the secretory pathway in real-time. Expression of this reporter protein did not itself elicit an ER stress response in cells; however, Gluc proved very sensitive at sensing this type of stress, which is associated with a temporary decrease in processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. The Gluc secretion assay was over 20,000-fold more sensitive as compared to the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP, a well established assay for monitoring of protein processing and ER stress in mammalian cells.The Gluc assay provides a fast, quantitative and sensitive technique to monitor the secretory pathway and ER stress and its compatibility with high throughput screening will allow discovery of drugs for treatment of conditions in which the ER stress is generally induced.

  8. Dynamics of peptidergic secretory granule transport are regulated by neuronal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Ann E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidergic neurons store and secrete the contents of large dense core vesicles (LDCVs from axon terminals and from dendrites. Secretion of peptides requires a highly regulated exocytotic mechanism, plus coordinated synthesis and transport of LDCVs to their sites of release. Although these trafficking events are critical to function, little is known regarding the dynamic behavior of LDCVs and the mechanisms by which their transport is regulated. Sensory neurons also package opiate receptors in peptide-containing LDCVs, which is thought to be important in pain sensation. Since peptide granules cannot be refilled locally after their contents are secreted, it is particularly important to understand how neurons support regulated release of peptides. Results A vector encoding soluble peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase fused to green fluorescent protein was constructed to address these questions in cultured primary peptidergic neurons of the trigeminal ganglion using time lapse confocal microscopy. The time course of release differs with secretagogue; the secretory response to depolarization with K+ is rapid and terminates within 15 minutes, while phorbol ester stimulation of secretion is maintained over a longer period. The data demonstrate fundamental differences between LDCV dynamics in axons and growth cones under basal conditions. Conclusions Under basal conditions, LDCVs move faster away from the soma than toward the soma, but fewer LDCVs travel anterograde than retrograde. Stimulation decreased average anterograde velocity and increases granule pausing. Data from antibody uptake, quantification of enzyme secretion and appearance of pHluorin fluorescence demonstrate distributed release of peptides all along the axon, not just at terminals.

  9. Extracellular Vesicles in Luminal Fluid of the Ovine Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gregory; Brooks, Kelsey; Wildung, Mark; Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Christenson, Lane K.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Microvesicles and exosomes are nanoparticles released from cells and can contain small RNAs, mRNA and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. In sheep, endogenous beta retroviruses (enJSRVs) are expressed in the endometrial epithelia of the uterus and can be transferred to the conceptus trophectoderm. One potential mechanism of enJSRVs transfer from the uterus to the conceptus is via exosomes/microvesicles. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate exosomes in the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of sheep. Exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles) were isolated from the ULF of day 14 cyclic and pregnant ewes using ExoQuick-TC. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis found the isolates contained vesicles that ranged from 50 to 200 nm in diameter. The isolated extracellular vesicles were positive for two common markers of exosomes (CD63 and HSP70) by Western blot analysis. Proteins in the extracellular vesicles were determined by mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. Extracellular vesicle RNA was analyzed for small RNAs by sequencing and enJSRVs RNA by RT-PCR. The ULF extracellular vesicles contained a large number of small RNAs and miRNAs including 81 conserved mature miRNAs. Cyclic and pregnant ULF extracellular vesicles contained enJSRVs env and gag RNAs that could be delivered to heterologous cells in vitro. These studies support the hypothesis that ULF extracellular vesicles can deliver enJSRVs RNA to the conceptus, which is important as enJSRVs regulate conceptus trophectoderm development. Importantly, these studies support the idea that extracellular vesicles containing select miRNAs, RNAs and proteins are present in the ULF and likely have a biological role in conceptus-endometrial interactions important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24614226

  10. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    were shown to fuse if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium (Nomura et al. 2004). In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we...... enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different...

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Blood Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiovascular Disease by LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Ruilope, Luis M; Barderas, Maria G

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are membrane vesicles related to cell communication. These vesicles consist of proteins, RNA, and microRNA and are an interesting and important tool to understand the processes taking place in the secreting cell, especially in diseases in which its release is often enhanced. The used of blood extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular disease as a low invasive, easily accessible source of circulating markers could give us important information related to pathological process even more with the use of proteomic analysis. In this chapter, we describe a protocol to isolate and proteomic analyze extracellular vesicles from blood associated with cardiovascular disease.

  12. Removal of Vesicle Structures From Transmission Electron Microscope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff; Sigworth, Fred J.; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of imaging membrane proteins for single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the isolated protein structure. More precisely, we propose a method for learning and removing the interfering vesicle signals from the micrograph, prior to reconstruction. In our approach, we estimate the subspace of the vesicle structures and project the micrographs onto the orthogonal complement of this subspace. We construct a 2d statistical model of the vesicle structure, based on higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD), by considering the structural symmetries of the vesicles in the polar coordinate plane. We then propose to lift the HOSVD model to a novel hierarchical model by summarizing the multidimensional HOSVD coefficients by their principal components. Along with the model, a solid vesicle normalization scheme and model selection criterion are proposed to make a compact and general model. The results show that the vesicle structures are accurately separated from the background by the HOSVD model that is also able to adapt to the asymmetries of the vesicles. This is a promising result and suggests even wider applicability of the proposed approach in learning and removal of statistical structures. PMID:26642456

  13. Placenta-derived extracellular vesicles: their cargo and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familari, Mary; Cronqvist, Tina; Masoumi, Zahra; Hansson, Stefan R

    2017-03-01

    The literature on extracellular vesicles consists of rapidly expanding and often contradictory information. In this paper we attempt to review what is currently known regarding extracellular vesicles released specifically from human placental syncytiotrophoblast cells with a focus on the common but complex pregnancy-associated syndrome pre-eclampsia, where the level of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicle release is significantly increased. We review common methods for syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicle derivation and isolation and we discuss the cargo of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles including proteins, RNA and lipids and their possible functions. A meta-analysis of available trophoblast-derived extracellular vesicle proteomic datasets revealed only three proteins in common: albumin, fibronectin-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, suggesting some variability in vesicle cargo, most likely reflecting stage and cell type of origin. We discuss the possible sources of variability that may have led to the low number of common markers, which has led us to speculate that markers and density in common use may not be strict criteria for identifying and isolating placenta-derived exosomes.

  14. New insights in the composition of extracellular vesicles from pancreatic cancer cells: implications for biomarkers and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scory, Susanne; Tehrani, Mahnaz Moradian; Eilert-Micus, Christina; Adamczyk, Kamila A; Wojtalewicz, Nathalie; Schnölzer, Martina; Hahn, Stephan A; Schmiegel, Wolff; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer development is associated with characteristic alterations like desmoplastic reaction and immune escape which are mediated by the cell-cell communication mechanism and by the microenvironment of the cells. The whole of released components are important determinants in these processes. Especially the extracellular vesicles released by pancreatic cancer cells play a role in cell communication and modulate cell growth and immune responses. Here, we present the proteomic description of affinity purified extracellular vesicles from pancreatic tumour cells, compared to the secretome, defined as the whole of the proteins released by pancreatic cancer cells. The proteomic data provide comprehensive catalogues of hundreds of proteins, and the comparison reveals a special proteomic composition of pancreatic cancer cell derived extracellular vesicles. The functional analysis of the protein composition displayed that membrane proteins, glycoproteins, small GTP binding proteins and a further, heterogeneous group of proteins are enriched in vesicles, whereas proteins derived from proteasomes and ribosomes, as well as metabolic enzymes, are not components of the vesicles. Furthermore proteins playing a role in carcinogenesis and modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell-cell interactions are components of affinity purified extracellular vesicles. The data deepen the knowledge of extracellular vesicle composition by hundreds of proteins that have not been previously described as vesicle components released by pancreatic cancer cells. Extracellular vesicles derived from pancreatic cancer cells show common proteins shared with other vesicles as well as cell type specific proteins indicating biomarker candidates and suggesting functional roles in cancer cell stroma interactions.

  15. Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Seth; Lee, Sung Hoon; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2017-09-04

    During endocytosis, fused synaptic vesicles are retrieved at nerve terminals, allowing for vesicle recycling and thus the maintenance of synaptic transmission during repetitive nerve firing. Impaired endocytosis in pathological conditions leads to decreases in synaptic strength and brain functions. Here, we describe methods used to measure synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the mammalian hippocampal synapse in neuronal culture. We monitored synaptic vesicle protein endocytosis by fusing a synaptic vesicular membrane protein, including synaptophysin and VAMP2/synaptobrevin, at the vesicular lumenal side, with pHluorin, a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein that increases its fluorescence intensity as the pH increases. During exocytosis, vesicular lumen pH increases, whereas during endocytosis vesicular lumen pH is re-acidified. Thus, an increase of pHluorin fluorescence intensity indicates fusion, whereas a decrease indicates endocytosis of the labelled synaptic vesicle protein. In addition to using the pHluorin imaging method to record endocytosis, we monitored vesicular membrane endocytosis by electron microscopy (EM) measurements of Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) uptake by vesicles. Finally, we monitored the formation of nerve terminal membrane pits at various times after high potassium-induced depolarization. The time course of HRP uptake and membrane pit formation indicates the time course of endocytosis.

  16. Mating-reactive membrane vesicles from cilia of Paramecium caudatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Membrane vesicles with a high mating reactivity were obtained from cilia of Paramecium caudatum by treatment with a solution containing 2 M urea and 0.1 mM Na2-EDTA. All processes of conjugation were induced in cells of the complementary mating type by approximately 10 mug/ml proteins of the vesicles. Electron microscope observation showed that the membrane vesicles have a diameter of 100-150 nm. Electrophoretic analysis on SDS polyacrylamide gel revealed no significant difference in polypeptide patterns of the particles from the two complementary mating types. PMID:818093

  17. A novel multiplex bead-based platform highlights the diversity of extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Stefan; Koliha, Nina; Wiencek, Yvonne; Heider, Ute; Jüngst, Christian; Kladt, Nikolay; Krauthäuser, Susanne; Ian C. D. Johnston; Bosio, Andreas; Schauss, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The surface protein composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is related to the originating cell and may play a role in vesicle function. Knowledge of the protein content of individual EVs is still limited because of the technical challenges to analyse small vesicles. Here, we introduce a novel multiplex bead-based platform to investigate up to 39 different surface markers in one sample. The combination of capture antibody beads with fluorescently labelled detection antibodies allows the an...

  18. A low nicotine concentration augments vesicle motion and exocytosis triggered by K(+) depolarisation of chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Antonio M G; Tapia, Laura; Alvarez, Rocío M; Mosquera, Marta; Cortés, Lorena; López, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez, Luis M; Gandía, Luis; García, Antonio G

    2008-11-19

    Tobacco smokers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease; this is likely associated to an enhanced catecholamine release by circulating nicotine. Here, we have explored how low concentrations of nicotine in the range of those found in the blood of tobacco smokers, might affect the release of catecholamines in bovine chromaffin cells. We have combined patch-clamp and Ca(2+) imaging techniques to study cell excitability, cytosolic Ca(2+) transients, vesicle movement, and secretory responses. We found that low concentrations of nicotine (1.5-3 microM) did not enhance catecholamine release by themselves. However, they drastically augmented the catecholamine release response triggered by a supramaximal K(+) depolarising pulse. Furthermore, low nicotine concentrations caused slight depolarisation with superimposed action potentials, a transient elevation of [Ca(2+)](c) and augmented Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle motion underneath the plasmalemma. We suggest that low nicotine concentrations overload the secretory machinery with secretory vesicles, which cause chromaffin cells to respond with an exaggerated adrenaline release into the circulation during stress. This might contribute to the higher cardiovascular risk of tobacco smokers.

  19. Commercial cow milk contains physically stable extracellular vesicles expressing immunoregulatory TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Bartijn C H; Arntz, Onno J; Bennink, Miranda B; Broeren, Mathijs G A; van Caam, Arjan P M; Koenders, Marije I; van Lent, Peter L E M; van den Berg, Wim B; de Vries, Marieke; van der Kraan, Peter M; van de Loo, Fons A J

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, have been identified in all biological fluids and rediscovered as an important part of the intercellular communication. Breast milk also contains extracellular vesicles and the proposed biological function is to enhance the antimicrobial defense in newborns. It is, however, unknown whether extracellular vesicles are still present in commercial milk and, more importantly, whether they retained their bioactivity. Here, we characterize the extracellular vesicles present in semi-skimmed cow milk available for consumers and study their effect on T cells. Extracellular vesicles from commercial milk were isolated and characterized. Milk-derived extracellular vesicles contained several immunomodulating miRNAs and membrane protein CD63, characteristics of exosomes. In contrast to RAW 267.4 derived extracellular vesicles the milk-derived extracellular vesicles were extremely stable under degrading conditions, including low pH, boiling and freezing. Milk-derived extracellular vesicles were easily taken up by murine macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, we found that they can facilitate T cell differentiation towards the pathogenic Th17 lineage. Using a (CAGA)12-luc reporter assay we showed that these extracellular vesicles carried bioactive TGF-β, and that anti-TGF-β antibodies blocked Th17 differentiation. Our findings show that commercial milk contains stable extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, and carry immunoregulatory cargo. These data suggest that the extracellular vesicles present in commercial cow milk remains intact in the gastrointestinal tract and exert an immunoregulatory effect.

  20. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jin [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Gengze [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jose, Pedro A. [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Physiology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zeng, Chunyu, E-mail: Chunyuzeng01@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  1. Secretin empties bile duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles when it initiates ductular HCO3- secretion in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buanes, T; Grotmol, T; Landsverk, T; Raeder, M G

    1988-08-01

    To determine whether secretin has any effect on bile duct cell ultrastructure, bile duct cells from liver biopsy specimens of pigs were analyzed morphometrically. During secretory rest, bile duct cell cytoplasmic vesicles totaled 96 (84-103) arbitrary units per cell volume (U). Secretin increased bile HCO3- secretion from 9 mumol/min (range 6-15) to 131 mumol/min (range 118-200) and lowered the bile duct cell vesicles to 5 U (range 3-9). Acute elevation of arterial PCO2 to 10.9 kPa (range 10.2-11.1) doubled vesicle number in resting duct cells and augmented the secretory response to secretin. At high arterial PCO2, secretin cleared the duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles and more than doubled the basolateral plasma membrane surface area. Taurocholate-induced canalicular choleresis, in contrast, did not alter duct cell morphology. It is concluded that secretin clears the bile duct cell cytoplasm of vesicles as it initiates ductular HCO3- secretion, possibly through causing exocytotic insertion of vesicle material into the basolateral plasma membrane.

  2. Inflammatory Stroke Extracellular Vesicles Induce Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Akbar, Naveed; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Dickens, Alex M; Neuhaus, Ain A; Burgess, Annette I; Rothwell, Peter M; Buchan, Alastair M

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke. Our aim was to determine the inflammatory potential of stroke EVs. EVs were quantified and analyzed in the sera of patients after an acute stroke (inflammation in immune cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. TNF-? promotes extracellular vesicle release in mouse astrocytes through glutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kaizhe; Ye, Ling; Lu, Hongfang; Chen, Huili; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-? promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expressio...

  4. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo Jeong; Jeon, Hyejin; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kwon, Hyo Il; Selasi, Gati Noble; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Park, Tae In; Lee, Sang Hwa; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-11-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture. OMVs from S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 were cytotoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OMVs stimulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in A549 cells. Early inflammatory responses such as congestion and neutrophilic infiltrations and profound expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes were observed in the lungs of mice injected with S. maltophilia OMVs, and were similar to responses elicited by the bacteria. Our data demonstrate that S. maltophilia OMVs are important secretory nanocomplexes that elicit a potent inflammatory response that might contribute to S. maltophilia pathogenesis during infection. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. CD63 is tightly associated with intracellular, secretory events chaperoning piecemeal degranulation and compound exocytosis in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Lívia A S; Bonjour, Kennedy; Ueki, Shigeharu; Neves, Josiane S; Liu, Linying; Spencer, Lisa A; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F; Melo, Rossana C N

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of presynthesized, granule-stored mediators that determine the course of allergic, inflammatory, and immunoregulatory responses. CD63, a member of the transmembrane-4 glycoprotein superfamily (tetraspanins) and present on the limiting membranes of eosinophil-specific (secretory) granules, is considered a potential surface marker for eosinophil degranulation. However, the intracellular secretory trafficking of CD63 in eosinophils and other leukocytes is not understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of CD63 trafficking at high resolution within human eosinophils stimulated with inflammatory stimuli, CCL11 and tumor necrosis factor α, which induce distinctly differing secretory processes in eosinophils: piecemeal degranulation and compound exocytosis, respectively. By using different transmission electron microscopy approaches, including an immunonanogold technique, for enhanced detection of CD63 at subcellular compartments, we identified a major intracellular pool of CD63 that is directly linked to eosinophil degranulation events. Transmission electron microscopy quantitative analyses demonstrated that, in response to stimulation, CD63 is concentrated within granules undergoing secretion by piecemeal degranulation or compound exocytosis and that CD63 tracks with the movements of vesicles and granules in the cytoplasm. Although CD63 was observed at the cell surface after stimulation, immunonanogold electron microscopy revealed that a strong CD63 pool remains in the cytoplasm. It is remarkable that CCL11 and tumor necrosis factor α triggered increased formation of CD63(+) large vesiculotubular carriers (eosinophil sombrero vesicles), which fused with granules in the process of secretion, likely acting in the intracellular translocation of CD63. Altogether, we identified active, intracellular CD63 trafficking connected to eosinophil granule-derived secretory pathways. This is important for understanding the

  6. The toolbox of vesicle sidedness determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meszaros, Peter; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2012-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from cellular plasma membranes are widely used in science for different purposes. The outer membrane leaflet differs from the inner membrane leaflet of the vesicle, and during vesicle preparation procedures two types of vesicles will be generated: right-side-out vesicles, of which

  7. Localization of Core Planar Cell Polarity Proteins, PRICKLEs, in Ameloblasts of Rat Incisors: Possible Regulation of Enamel Rod Decussation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2015-04-28

    To confirm the possible involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis, one group of core proteins, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, PRICKLE3, and PRICKLE4, was examined in enamel epithelial cells and ameloblasts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 showed similar localization in the proliferation and secretory zones of the incisor. Immunoreactive dots and short rods in ameloblasts and stratum intermedium cells were evident in the proliferation to differentiation zone, but in the secretion zone, cytoplasmic dots decreased and the distal terminal web was positive for PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2. PRICKLE3 and PRICKLE4 showed cytoplasmic labeling in ameloblasts and other enamel epithelial cells. Double labeling of PRICKLE2 with VANGL1, which is another planar cell polarity protein, showed partial co-localization. To examine the transport route of PRICKLE proteins, PRICKLE1 localization was examined after injection of a microtubule-disrupting reagent, colchicine, and was compared with CX43, which is a membrane protein transported as vesicles via microtubules. The results confirmed the retention of immunoreactive dots for PRICKLE1 in the cytoplasm of secretory ameloblasts of colchicine-injected animals, but fewer dots were observed in control animals. These results suggest that PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 are transported as vesicles to the junctional area, and are involved in pattern formation of distal junctional complexes and terminal webs of ameloblasts, further implying a role in the formed enamel rod arrangement.

  8. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles: a comprehensive dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; van Weering, Jan R T; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Malekzadeh, Arjan; Teunissen, Charlotte E; de Wit, Heidi; Jiménez, Connie R

    2014-06-25

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yet little is known about their protein composition. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of CSF EVs by electron microscopy and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in conjunction with bioinformatics. We report an extensive catalog of 1315 proteins identified in EVs isolated from two different CSF pools by ultracentrifugation, including 230 novel EV proteins. Out of 1315 proteins, 760 were identified in both CSF pools and about 30% of those were also quantitatively enriched in the EV fraction versus the soluble CSF fraction. The proteome of CSF EVs was enriched in exosomal markers such as alix and syntenin-1, heat shock proteins and tetraspanins and contained a high proportion of brain-derived proteins (n=373). Interestingly, several known biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as the amyloid precursor protein, the prion protein and DJ-1 were identified in the EV fractions. Our dataset represents the first comprehensive inventory of the EV proteome in CSF, underscoring the biomarker potential of this organelle. Further comparative studies on CSF EVs isolated from patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are warranted. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000608. Biological significance In this study we analyzed the protein composition of extracellular vesicles isolated from pooled samples of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a colorless fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, important for the physiology of the central nervous system, ensuing mechanical protection, regulation of brain blood flow and elimination of byproducts of the brain. Since brain (patho)physiology is reflected in CSF, this biological fluid represents an ideal source of soluble and vesicle-based biomarkers for neurological diseases. Here we confirm the presence of exosome-like extracellular vesicles in CSF, underscoring

  9. Proteomic profiling of extracellular vesicles released from vascular smooth muscle cells during initiation of phosphate-induced mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Khalid, Sana; Smethurst, Victoria; Monier, Daisy; Mobley, James; Huet, Alexis; Conway, James F; Napierala, Dobrawa

    2018-02-22

    Elevated serum phosphate is one of the major factors contributing to vascular calcification. Studies suggested that extracellular vesicles released from vascular smooth muscle cells significantly contribute to the initiation and progression of this pathology. Recently, we have demonstrated that elevated phosphate stimulates release of extracellular vesicles from osteogenic cells at the initiation of the mineralization process. Here, we used MOVAS cell line as an in vitro model of vascular calcification to examine whether vascular smooth muscle cells respond to high phosphate levels in a similar way and increase formation of extracellular vesicles. Vesicles residing in extracellular matrix as well as vesicles released to culture medium were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analyses. In addition, using mass spectrometry and protein profiling, protein composition of extracellular vesicles released by MOVAS cells under standard growth conditions and upon exposure to high phosphate was compared. Significant increase of the number of extracellular vesicles was detected after 72 hours of exposure of cells to high phosphate. Elevated phosphate levels also affected protein composition of extracellular vesicles released from MOVAS cells. Finally, the comparative analyses of proteins in extracellular vesicles isolated from extracellular matrix and from conditioned medium identified significant differences in protein composition in these two groups of extracellular vesicles. In conclusion, results of this study demonstrate that exposure of MOVAS cells to high phosphate levels stimulates the release of extracellular vesicles and changes their protein composition.

  10. Interactions between Melanin Enzymes and Their Atypical Recruitment to the Secretory Pathway by Palmitoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijana Upadhyay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered “atypical” secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs in A. fumigatus. Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism.

  11. Emergent properties of extracellular vesicles: a holistic approach to decode the complexity of intercellular communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Changjin

    2017-06-27

    Shedding of nano-sized bilayered extracellular vesicles and extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication are evolutionarily conserved biological processes. Communication between cells and the environment is an essential process in living organisms and dysregulation of intercellular communication leads to various diseases. Thus, systematic studies on extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes, microvesicles, and outer membrane vesicles, are critical for a deeper understanding of intercellular communication networks that are crucial for decoding the exact causes of various difficult-to-cure diseases. Recent progress in this emerging field reveals that extracellular vesicles are endogenous carriers of specific subsets of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and other bioactive materials, as well as play diverse pathophysiological roles. However, certain issues regarding diverse subtypes and the complex pathophysiological roles of extracellular vesicles are not yet clearly elucidated. In this review, we first briefly introduce the complexity of extracellular vesicles in terms of their vesicular cargos and protein-protein interaction networks, their diverse subtypes, and multifaceted pathophysiological functions. Then, we introduce the limitation of reductionist approaches in understanding the complexity of extracellular vesicles. We finally suggest that molecular systems biology approaches based on the concept of emergent properties are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the complex pathophysiological functions of heterogeneous extracellular vesicles, either at the single vesicle level or at a systems level as a whole.

  12. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  13. Tomosyn inhibits synaptic vesicle priming in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Gracheva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans TOM-1 is orthologous to vertebrate tomosyn, a cytosolic syntaxin-binding protein implicated in the modulation of both constitutive and regulated exocytosis. To investigate how TOM-1 regulates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in vivo, we analyzed C. elegans tom-1 mutants. Our electrophysiological analysis indicates that evoked postsynaptic responses at tom-1 mutant synapses are prolonged leading to a two-fold increase in total charge transfer. The enhanced response in tom-1 mutants is not associated with any detectable changes in postsynaptic response kinetics, neuronal outgrowth, or synaptogenesis. However, at the ultrastructural level, we observe a concomitant increase in the number of plasma membrane-contacting vesicles in tom-1 mutant synapses, a phenotype reversed by neuronal expression of TOM-1. Priming defective unc-13 mutants show a dramatic reduction in plasma membrane-contacting vesicles, suggesting these vesicles largely represent the primed vesicle pool at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Consistent with this conclusion, hyperosmotic responses in tom-1 mutants are enhanced, indicating the primed vesicle pool is enhanced. Furthermore, the synaptic defects of unc-13 mutants are partially suppressed in tom-1 unc-13 double mutants. These data indicate that in the intact nervous system, TOM-1 negatively regulates synaptic vesicle priming.

  14. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete

  15. Antibody Binding Alters the Characteristics and Contents of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Histoplasma capsulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Baltazar, Ludmila; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Choi, Hyungwon; Casadevall, Arturo; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum produces extracellular vesicles containing virulence-associated molecules capable of modulating host machinery, benefiting the pathogen. Treatment of H. capsulatum cells with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can change the outcome of infection in mice. We evaluated the sizes, enzymatic contents, and proteomic profiles of the vesicles released by fungal cells treated with either protective MAb 6B7 (IgG1) or nonprotective MAb 7B6 (IgG2b), both of which bind H. capsulatum heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Our results showed that treatment with either MAb was associated with changes in size and vesicle loading. MAb treatments reduced vesicle phosphatase and catalase activities compared to those of vesicles from untreated controls. We identified 1,125 proteins in vesicles, and 250 of these manifested differences in abundance relative to that of proteins in vesicles isolated from yeast cells exposed to Hsp60-binding MAbs, indicating that surface binding of fungal cells by MAbs modified protein loading in the vesicles. The abundance of upregulated proteins in vesicles upon MAb 7B6 treatment was 44.8% of the protein quantities in vesicles from fungal cells treated with MAb 6B7. Analysis of orthologous proteins previously identified in vesicles from other fungi showed that different ascomycete fungi have similar proteins in their extracellular milieu, many of which are associated with virulence. Our results demonstrate that antibody binding can modulate fungal cell responses, resulting in differential loading of vesicles, which could alter fungal cell susceptibility to host defenses. This finding provides additional evidence that antibody binding modulates microbial physiology and suggests a new function for specific immunoglobulins through alterations of fungal secretion. IMPORTANCE Diverse fungal species release extracellular vesicles, indicating that this is a common pathway for the delivery of molecules to the extracellular space. However, there has

  16. Exposure to static magnetic fields increases insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Libin; Wang, Huiqin; Ma, Fenghui; Guo, Zhixia; He, Hongpeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting. Exposure to an SMF increased the expression and secretion of insulin by INS-1 cells but did not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, SMF exposure up-regulated the expression of several pancreas-specific transcriptional factors. Specifically, the activity of the rat insulin promoter was enhanced in INS-1 cells exposed to an SMF, and the expression levels of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and syntaxin-1A were up-regulated after exposure to an SMF. SMF exposure can promote insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

  17. Inter-Golgi transport mediated by COPI-containing vesicles carrying small cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Patrina A; Dietrich, Felix; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Rothman, James E; Lavieu, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    A core prediction of the vesicular transport model is that COPI vesicles are responsible for trafficking anterograde cargoes forward. In this study, we test this prediction by examining the properties and requirements of inter-Golgi transport within fused cells, which requires mobile carriers in order for exchange of constituents to occur. We report that both small soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargo and exogenous Golgi resident glycosyl-transferases are exchanged between separated Golgi. Large soluble aggregates, which traverse individual stacks, do not transfer between Golgi, implying that small cargoes (which can fit in a typical transport vesicle) are transported by a different mechanism. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that the carriers of both anterograde and retrograde cargoes are the size of COPI vesicles, contain coatomer, and functionally require ARF1 and coatomer for transport. The data suggest that COPI vesicles traffic both small secretory cargo and steady-state Golgi resident enzymes among stacked cisternae that are stationary. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01296.001 PMID:24137546

  18. Loss of the Atp2c1 secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1) in mice causes Golgi stress, apoptosis, and midgestational death in homozygous embryos and squamous cell tumors in adult heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Gbolahan W; Miller, Marian L; Azhar, Mohamad; Andringa, Anastasia; Sanford, L Philip; Doetschman, Thomas; Prasad, Vikram; Shull, Gary E

    2007-09-07

    Loss of one copy of the human ATP2C1 gene, encoding SPCA1 (secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1), causes Hailey-Hailey disease, a skin disorder. We performed targeted mutagenesis of the Atp2c1 gene in mice to analyze the functions of this Golgi membrane Ca(2+) pump. Breeding of heterozygous mutants yielded a normal Mendelian ratio among embryos on gestation day 9.5; however, null mutant (Spca1(-/-)) embryos exhibited growth retardation and did not survive beyond gestation day 10.5. Spca1(-/-) embryos had an open rostral neural tube, but hematopoiesis and cardiovascular development were ostensibly normal. Golgi membranes of Spca1(-/-) embryos were dilated, had fewer stacked leaflets, and were expanded in amount, consistent with increased Golgi biogenesis. The number of Golgi-associated vesicles was also increased, and rough endoplasmic reticulum had fewer ribosomes. Coated pits, junctional complexes, desmosomes, and basement membranes appeared normal in mutant embryos, indicating that processing and trafficking of proteins in the secretory pathway was not massively impaired. However, apoptosis was increased, possibly the result of secretory pathway stress, and a large increase in cytoplasmic lipid was observed in mutant embryos, consistent with impaired handling of lipid by the Golgi. Adult heterozygous mice appeared normal and exhibited no evidence of Hailey-Hailey disease; however, aged heterozygotes had an increased incidence of squamous cell tumors of keratinized epithelial cells of the skin and esophagus. These data show that loss of the Golgi Ca(2+) pump causes Golgi stress, expansion of the Golgi, increased apoptosis, and embryonic lethality and demonstrates that SPCA1 haploinsufficiency causes a genetic predisposition to cancer.

  19. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, Olga E; Zaripov, Marat M; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Grigor'eva, Alina E; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Yurchenko, Yuri B; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90-95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles.

  20. Vesicles and vesicle gels - structure and dynamics of formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gradzielski, M

    2003-01-01

    Vesicles constitute an interesting morphology formed by self-aggregating amphiphilic molecules. They exhibit a rich structural variety and are of interest both from a fundamental point of view (for studying closed bilayer systems) and from a practical point of view (whenever one is interested in the encapsulation of active molecules). In many circumstances vesicular structures have to be formed by external forces, but of great interest are amphiphilic systems, where they form spontaneously. Here the question arises of whether this means that they are also thermodynamically stable structures, which at least in some systems appears to be the case. If such vesicles are well defined in size, it is possible to pack them densely and thereby form vesicle gels that possess highly elastic properties even for relatively low volume fractions of amphiphile. Conditions for the formation and the microstructure of such vesicle gels have been studied in some detail for the case of unilamellar vesicles. Another important and ...

  1. α-Synuclein can inhibit SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion through direct interactions with lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, David C; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2013-04-09

    The native function of α-synuclein is thought to involve regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent work has also implicated a role in neurotransmission, possibly through interactions with the proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion. Here, we demonstrate that α-synuclein inhibits SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion through binding the membrane, without a direct interaction between α-synuclein and any of the SNARE proteins. This work supports a model in which α-synuclein plays a role in the regulation of vesicle fusion by modulating properties of the lipid bilayer.

  2. A comparative immunohistochemistry study of diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors: usefulness of mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, and p63 cytoplasmic staining for the diagnosis of mammary analog secretory carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projetti, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Serrano, Elie; Vergez, Sebastien; Barres, Béatrice Herbault; Meilleroux, Julie; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland has been recently described according to morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular (ETV6-NTRK3 translocation) similarities with the mammary secretory carcinoma. The most important differential diagnostic considerations of MASC are low-grade adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS), cystadenocarcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). These tumors may share an overlapping morphology with MASC, and additional immunohistochemical studies are required to reinforce the diagnosis. Mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, and p63 staining have been reported in MASC. Our study was designed to check the specificity of these antibodies in MASC compared to other frequent tumors of salivary glands. A series of 62 salivary gland tumors [10 MASCs, 5 adenocarcinomas NOS and 2 cystadenocarcinomas with MASC features and without ETV6 rearrangement, one low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC), 9 AciCCs, 10 MECs, 10 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdeCCs), 5 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGAs), and 10 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs)] was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, and p63 antibodies. Positivity for mammaglobin was observed in all MASCs, cystadenocarcinomas, LGCCC, and PLGAs, in some adenocarcinomas NOS, PAs, and MECs, rarely in AciCCs and never in AdeCCs. Positivity for GCDFP-15 was observed in most of the tumor types except in AdeCCs. Interestingly, cytoplasmic positivity for p63 was observed in most of MASCs and PLGAs while rarely in adenocarcinomas NOS and PAs, and never in the other tumor types. Our study revealed the usefulness of mammaglobin and p63 cytoplasmic staining to define which tumors are worth to be screened for ETV6 rearrangement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Preeclampsia and Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Sarwat I; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive pregnancy disorder characterized by development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation that remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While preeclampsia is believed to result from complex interactions between maternal and placental factors, the proximate pathophysiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Cell-to-cell communication is a critical signaling mechanism for feto-placental development in normal pregnancies. One mechanism of cellular communication relates to activated cell-derived sealed membrane vesicles called extracellular vesicles (EVs). The concentrations and contents of EVs in biological fluids depend upon their cells of origin and the stimuli which trigger their production. Research on EVs in preeclampsia has focused on EVs derived from the maternal vasculature (endothelium, vascular smooth muscle) and blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets), as well as placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Changes in the concentrations and contents of these EVs may contribute to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia by accentuating the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory states of pregnancy. This review focuses on possible interactions among placental- and maternal-derived EVs and their contents in the initiation and progression of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Understanding the contributions of EVs in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia may facilitate their use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  4. Astrocyte VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent cycling and modulate glutamate transporter trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Guillon, Marc; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Key points Mouse cortical astrocytes express VAMP3 but not VAMP2. VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo- and endocytotic cycling at the plasma membrane. VAMP3 vesicle traffic regulates the recycling of plasma membrane glutamate transporters. cAMP modulates VAMP3 vesicle cycling and glutamate uptake. Abstract Previous studies suggest that small synaptic-like vesicles in astrocytes carry vesicle-associated vSNARE proteins, VAMP3 (cellubrevin) and VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2), both contributing to the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters, thereby modulating brain information processing. Here, using cortical astrocytes taken from VAMP2 and VAMP3 knock-out mice, we find that astrocytes express only VAMP3. The morphology and function of VAMP3 vesicles were studied in cultured astrocytes at single vesicle level with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopies. We show that VAMP3 antibodies label small diameter (∼80 nm) vesicles and that VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo-endocytosis. We also show that this pathway modulates the surface expression of plasma membrane glutamate transporters and the glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Finally, using pharmacological and optogenetic tools, we provide evidence suggesting that the cytosolic cAMP level influences astrocytic VAMP3 vesicle trafficking and glutamate transport. Our results suggest a new role for VAMP3 vesicles in astrocytes. PMID:25864578

  5. Plasma biomarker discovery in preeclampsia using a novel differential isolation technology for circulating extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Hian; Tan, Soon Sim; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lee, Wai Kheong Ryan; Ng, Mor Jack; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2014-10-01

    To circumvent the complex protein milieu of plasma and discover robust predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia (PE), we investigate if phospholipid-binding ligands can reduce the milieu complexity by extracting plasma extracellular vesicles for biomarker discovery. Cholera toxin B chain (CTB) and annexin V (AV) which respectively binds GM1 ganglioside and phosphatidylserine were used to isolate extracellular vesicles from plasma of PE patients and healthy pregnant women. The proteins in the vesicles were identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibody array, and mass spectrometry. CTB and AV were found to bind 2 distinct groups of extracellular vesicles. Antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that PE patients had elevated levels of CD105, interleukin-6, placental growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1, and atrial natriuretic peptide in cholera toxin B- but not AV-vesicles, and elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, pro-calcitonin, S100b, tumor growth factor β, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, brain natriuretic peptide, and placental growth factor in both cholera toxin B- and AV-vesicles. CD9 level was elevated in cholera toxin B-vesicles but reduced in AV vesicles of PE patients. Proteome analysis revealed that in cholera toxin B-vesicles, 87 and 222 proteins were present only in PE patients and healthy pregnant women respectively while in AV-vesicles, 104 and 157 proteins were present only in PE and healthy pregnant women, respectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that CTB and AV bind unique extracellular vesicles, and their protein cargo reflects the disease state of the patient. The successful use of these 2 ligands to isolate circulating plasma extracellular vesicles for biomarker discovery in PE represents a novel technology for biomarker discovery that can be applied to other specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Concurrent imaging of synaptic vesicle recycling and calcium dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eLi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission involves the calcium-dependent release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles. Genetically encoded optical probes emitting different wavelengths of fluorescent light in response to neuronal activity offer a powerful approach to understand the spatial and temporal relationship of calcium dynamics to the release of neurotransmitter in defined neuronal populations. To simultaneously image synaptic vesicle recycling and changes in cytosolic calcium, we developed a red-shifted reporter of vesicle recycling based on a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1-mOrange2 (VGLUT1-mOr2, and a presynaptically-localized green calcium indicator, synaptophysin-GCaMP3 (SyGCaMP3 with a large dynamic range. The fluorescence of VGLUT1-mOr2 is quenched by the low pH of synaptic vesicles. Exocytosis upon electrical stimulation exposes the luminal mOr2 to the neutral extracellular pH and relieves fluorescence quenching. Re-acidification of the vesicle upon endocytosis again reduces fluorescence intensity. Changes in fluorescence intensity thus monitor synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis, as demonstrated previously for the green VGLUT1-pHluorin. To monitor changes in calcium, we fused the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin to the recently improved calcium indicator GCaMP3. SyGCaMP3 is targeted to presynaptic varicosities, and exhibits changes in fluorescence in response to electrical stimulation consistent with changes in calcium concentration. Using real-time imaging of both reporters expressed in the same synapses, we determine the time course of changes in VGLUT1 recycling in relation to changes in presynaptic calcium concentration. Inhibition of P/Q- and N-type calcium channels reduces calcium levels, as well as the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and the fraction of vesicles released.

  7. Reconstitution of lipid vesicles associated with HVJ (Sendai virus) sikes. Purification and some properties of vesicles containing nontoxic fragment A of diphtheria toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A mixture of HVJ (Sendai virus) spike proteins, the nontoxic fragment A of diphtheria toxin, lecithin, and cholesterol was solubilized in sucrose solution containing a nonionic neutral detergent. The liposomal vesicles which formed on removal of the detergent by dialysis were purified by gel filtration and centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. The resulting purified vesicles had hemagglutinating activity, hemolytic activity and, after solubilization, the enzymic activity of fragment A. The vesicles had no cell fusion activity. Electron microscopy showed that both the outside and inside of membranes of the vesicles were associated with the spikes. When the vesicles were freeze- fractured, no large aggregates of particles were seen on either face. Such fragment A-containing lipid vesicles (liposomes) with HVJ spikes bound to mamalian cell membrane and released their fragment A into the cytoplasm causing cell death. Neither fragment A-containing liposomes without spikes nor empty liposomes with spikes were toxic. PMID:217880

  8. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  9. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutscheson, JD; Aikawa, M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain...... obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin...... regulated the loading of the calcification protein tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) into extracellular vesicles, thereby conferring its calcification potential. Furthermore, SMC calcification required Rab11-dependent trafficking and FAM20C/casein kinase 2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation...

  10. Optimal posttranslational translocation of the precursor of PhoE protein across Escherichia coli membrane vesicles requires both ATP and the protonmotive force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, T. de; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Kruijff, B. de

    1987-01-01

    In order to reach their final destination, periplasmic and outer membrane proteins have to pass the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli cells. To study the transport of PhoE protein, we developed an in vitro transcription-translation and translocation system. In this in vitro system, the

  11. Cdk5 is essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Timothy C; Valova, Valentina A; Malladi, Chandra S

    2003-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) is triggered by calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of the dephosphin proteins. SVE is maintained by the subsequent rephosphorylation of the dephosphins by unidentified protein kinases. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylates dynamin...

  12. Characterization and treatment of persistent hepatocellular secretory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Remco; Kremer, Andreas E.; Smit, Wouter; van den Elzen, Bram; van Gulik, Thomas; Gouma, Dirk; Lameris, Johan S.; Bikker, Hennie; Enemuo, Valentine; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Feist, Mark; Bosma, Piter; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular secretory failure induced by drugs, toxins or transient biliary obstruction may sometimes persist for months after removal of the initiating factor and may then be fatal without liver transplantation. We characterized patients with severe persistent hepatocellular secretory failure

  13. The unique ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells depends upon the presence of H+, K+ -ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marian L; Judd, Louise M; Van Driel, Ian R; Andringa, Anastasia; Flagella, Michael; Bell, Sheila M; Schultheis, Patrick J; Spicer, Zachary; Shull, Gary E

    2002-09-01

    Ion transporters play a central role in gastric acid secretion. To determine whether some of these transporters are necessary for the normal ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells, mice lacking transporters for H+, K+, Cl-, and Na+ were examined for alterations in volume density (Vd) of basolateral, apical, tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes, microvillar dimensions, membrane flexibility, and ultrastructure. In mice lacking Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) or the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1), the ultrastructure and Vd of secretory membranes and the secretory canalicular to tubulovesicular membrane ratio (SC/TV), a morphological correlate of secretory activity, were similar to those of wild-type mice. In mice lacking Na+/H+ exchanger 2 (NHE2) or gastric H+, K+ -ATPase alpha- or beta-subunits, the SC/TV ratio and Vd of secretory membranes were decreased, though canaliculi were often dilated. In H+, K+ -ATPase-deficient parietal cells, canalicular folds were decreased, normally abundant tubulovesicles were replaced with a few rigid round vesicles, and microvilli were sparse, stiff and short, in contrast to the long and flexible microvilli in wild-type cells. In addition, microvilli of the H+, K+ -ATPase-deficient parietal cells had centrally bundled F-actin filaments, unlike the microvilli of wild-type cells, in which actin filaments were peripherally positioned concentric to the plasmalemma. Data showed that the absence of H+, K+ -ATPase produced fundamental changes in parietal cell membrane ultrastructure, suggesting that the pump provides an essential link between the membranes and F-actin, critical to the gross architecture and suppleness of the secretory membranes.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of excretory/secretory compounds from Contracaecum osculatum larvae in a zebrafish inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Kania, Per Walter; Nazemi, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins...

  15. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumors and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ciregia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs, and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins. Indeed, exosomes are fundamental to assemble and transport proteins during development, but they can also transfer neurotoxic misfolded proteins in pathogenesis. The present review will focus on their roles in neurological diseases, specifically brain tumors, such as glioblastoma (GBM, neuroblastoma (NB, medulloblastoma (MB, and metastatic brain tumors and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, multiple sclerosis (MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Huntington, and Prion diseseases highlighting their involvement in spreading neurotoxicity, in therapeutics, and in pathogenesis.

  16. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumors and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciregia, Federica; Urbani, Andrea; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs), and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins. Indeed, exosomes are fundamental to assemble and transport proteins during development, but they can also transfer neurotoxic misfolded proteins in pathogenesis. The present review will focus on their roles in neurological diseases, specifically brain tumors, such as glioblastoma (GBM), neuroblastoma (NB), medulloblastoma (MB), and metastatic brain tumors and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington, and Prion diseseases highlighting their involvement in spreading neurotoxicity, in therapeutics, and in pathogenesis. PMID:28912682

  17. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  18. Brivaracetam, a selective high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) ligand with preclinical evidence of high brain permeability and fast onset of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Hannestad, Jonas; Holden, Daniel; Kervyn, Sophie; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Tytgat, Dominique; Huang, Yiyun; Chanteux, Hugues; Staelens, Ludovicus; Matagne, Alain; Mathy, François-Xavier; Mercier, Joël; Stockis, Armel; Carson, Richard E; Klitgaard, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Rapid distribution to the brain is a prerequisite for antiepileptic drugs used for treatment of acute seizures. The preclinical studies described here investigated the high-affinity synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) antiepileptic drug brivara-cetam (BRV) for its rate of brain penetration and its onset of action. BRV was compared with levetiracetam (LEV). In vitro permeation studies were performed using Caco-2 cells. Plasma and brain levels were measured over time after single oral dosing to audiogenic mice and were correlated with anticonvulsant activity. Tissue distribution was investigated after single dosing to rat (BRV and LEV) and dog (LEV only). Positron emission tomography (PET) displacement studies were performed in rhesus monkeys using the SV2A PET tracer [11C]UCB-J. The time course of PET tracer displacement was measured following single intravenous (IV) dosing with LEV or BRV. Rodent distribution data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling were used to compute blood-brain barrier permeability (permeability surface area product, PS) values and then predict brain kinetics in man. In rodents, BRV consistently showed a faster entry into the brain than LEV; this correlated with a faster onset of action against seizures in audiogenic susceptible mice. The higher permeability of BRV was also demonstrated in human cells in vitro. PBPK modeling predicted that, following IV dosing to human subjects, BRV might distribute to the brain within a few minutes compared with approximately 1 h for LEV (PS of 0.315 and 0.015 ml/min/g for BRV and LEV, respectively). These data were supported by a nonhuman primate PET study showing faster SV2A occupancy by BRV compared with LEV. These preclinical data demonstrate that BRV has rapid brain entry and fast brain SV2A occupancy, consistent with the fast onset of action in the audiogenic seizure mice assay. The potential benefit of BRV for treatment of acute seizures remains to be confirmed in clinical

  19. Diacylglycerol is required for the formation of COPI vesicles in the Golgi-to-ER transport pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Vilella, Montserrat; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Sarri, Elisabet; Martínez, Susana E; Jiménez, Nuria; Claro, Enrique; Mérida, Isabel; Burger, Koert N J; Egea, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    Diacylglycerol is necessary for trans-Golgi network (TGN) to cell surface transport, but its functional relevance in the early secretory pathway is unclear. Although depletion of diacylglycerol did not affect ER-to-Golgi transport, it led to a redistribution of the KDEL receptor to the Golgi, indicating that Golgi-to-ER transport was perturbed. Electron microscopy revealed an accumulation of COPI-coated membrane profiles close to the Golgi cisternae. Electron tomography showed that the majority of these membrane profiles originate from coated buds, indicating a block in membrane fission. Under these conditions the Golgi-associated pool of ARFGAP1 was reduced, but there was no effect on the binding of coatomer or the membrane fission protein CtBP3/BARS to the Golgi. The addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol or the diacylglycerol analogue phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate reversed the effects of endogenous diacylglycerol depletion. Our findings implicate diacylglycerol in the retrograde transport of proteins from Golgi to the ER and suggest that it plays a critical role at a late stage of COPI vesicle formation.

  20. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA) and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs) in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), also named membrane secretory component (SC). Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT) and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials. PMID:23487566

  1. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Brandtzaeg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR, also named membrane secretory component (SC. Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials.

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL198W, YDR084C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGL198W YIP4 Protein that interacts with Rab GTPases, localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational... GTPases, localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interactio

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL161C, YDR084C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGL161C YIP5 Protein that interacts with Rab GTPases, localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational...GTPases, localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction

  4. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YPL095C, YGL198W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d to late Golgi vesicles; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a ...gene name YIP4 Prey description Protein that interacts with Rab GTPases, localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational

  5. Fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles leads to uncontrolled exocytosis in the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhong; Ahuja, Malini; Kim, Min Seuk; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Jha, Archana; Zeng, Mei; Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Zerfas, Patricia M; Eckhaus, Michael A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in TRPML1 cause the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The role of TRPML1 in cell function and how the mutations cause the disease are not well understood. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes. Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Airway Secretory microRNAome Changes during Rhinovirus Infection in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood.Nasal airway secretions were obtained from children (≤3 yrs. old during PCR-confirmed RV infections (n = 10 and age-matched controls (n = 10. Nasal EVs were isolated with polymer-based precipitation and global miR profiles generated using NanoString microarrays. We validated our in vivo airway secretory miR data in an in vitro airway epithelium model using apical secretions from primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC differentiated at air-liquid interface (ALI. Bioinformatics tools were used to determine the unified (nasal and bronchial signature airway secretory miRNAome and changes during RV infection in children.Multiscale analysis identified four signature miRs comprising the baseline airway secretory miRNAome: hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-302d-3p, hsa- miR-320e, hsa-miR-612. We identified hsa-miR-155 as the main change in the baseline miRNAome during RV infection in young children. We investigated the potential biological relevance of the airway secretion of hsa-mir-155 using in silico models derived from gene datasets of experimental in vivo human RV infection. These analyses confirmed that hsa-miR-155 targetome is an overrepresented pathway in the upper airways of individuals infected with RV.Comparative analysis of the airway secretory microRNAome in children indicates that RV infection is associated with airway

  7. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge. PMID:27989272

  8. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, "Basics of Extracellular Vesicles," uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform "Coursera" and is free of charge.

  9. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lässer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs. This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge.

  10. Biogenesis and function of ESCRT-dependent extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Thomas; Fürthauer, Maximilian

    2018-02-01

    From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis. Studies of the ESCRT machinery may therefore provide important insights into the formation and function of extracellular vesicles. In the present review, we first describe the cell biological mechanisms through which ESCRT components contribute to the biogenesis of different types of extracellular vesicles. We then discuss how recent functional studies have started to uncover important roles of ESCRT-dependent extracellular vesicles in a wide variety of processes, including the transport of developmental signaling molecules and embryonic morphogenesis, the regulation of social behavior and host-pathogen interactions, as well as the etiology and progression of neurodegenerative pathologies and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P.; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N.; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira

    2012-01-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding–deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells. PMID:22918957

  12. The role of extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Camelia; Hill, Andrew F

    2017-02-19

    Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membranous vesicles released from many biotypes, contributing to the disease progression and spreading. These extracellular vesicles provide an important mode of cell-to-cell communication by delivering proteins, lipids and RNA to target cells. Exosomes are found associated with neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterised by progressive degeneration of neurons and often associated with misfolded protein. The common diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's diseases (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the prion diseases. Of all neurodegenerative diseases, prion diseases are classified as the distinctive group owing to its transmissible and infectious nature of misfolded prion protein. The infectious prion particles have been demonstrated to be present in exosomes to spread prion infectivity within cells. Similarly, misfolded proteins involved in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyloid-β and tau in AD, α-synuclein in PD, and superoxide dismutase 1 in ALS have been demonstrated to exploit exosomes for induced spreading of misfolded proteins in a prion-like mechanism. Furthermore, RNA molecules can be taken up by the recipient cells as cargo in exosomes. These RNAs can module the expression of the target genes by repressing or inhibiting protein translation. Here we review the role of exosomes in prion diseases and other common neurodegenerative diseases, and discuss the potential of these vesicles for disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Melanoma Affects the Composition of Blood Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliha, Nina; Heider, Ute; Ozimkowski, Tobias; Wiemann, Martin; Bosio, Andreas; Wild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of EVs reflects the type and status of the originating cell and EVs in melanoma patient's plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, EVs might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of EVs from plasma of melanoma patients and healthy donors as well as from T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), and platelets using a multiplex bead-based platform. Using this method, we succeeded in analyzing 58 proteins that were differentially displayed on EVs. Hierarchical clustering of protein intensity patterns grouped EVs according to their originating cell type. The analysis of EVs from stimulated B cells and moDCs revealed the transfer of surface proteins to vesicles depending on the cell status. The protein profiles of plasma vesicles resembled the protein profiles of EVs from platelets, antigen-presenting cells and NK cells as shown by platelet markers, co-stimulatory proteins, and a NK cell subpopulation marker. In comparison to healthy plasma vesicles, melanoma plasma vesicles showed altered signals for platelet markers, indicating a changed vesicle secretion or protein loading of EVs by platelets and a lower CD8 signal that might be associated with a diminished activity of NK cells or T cells. As we hardly detected melanoma-derived vesicles in patient's plasma, we concluded that blood cells induced the observed differences. In summary, our results question a direct effect of melanoma cells on the composition of EVs in melanoma plasma, but rather argue for an indirect influence of melanoma cells on the vesicle secretion or vesicle protein loading by blood cells.

  14. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Makiko, E-mail: shibu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiraoki, Toshifumi [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University (Japan); Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Suzuki, Kuniaki [Department of Molecular Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effects of general anesthetics on liposome using ESR spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two spin labels, 5-DSA and 16-DSA, were located in different position in liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics did not change the environment around the spin labels in the liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics remained on the surface of the lipid bilayer of liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteins in the liposome did not change the effects of anesthetics on liposome. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and {tau} values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  15. C11ORF24 is a novel type I membrane protein that cycles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane in Rab6-positive vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, Vincent; Kasri, Amal; Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Nair, Deepak; Mayeux, Adeline; Bardin, Sabine; Toyoda, Yusuke; Poser, Ina; Poznyakovskiy, Andrei; Goud, Bruno; Hyman, Anthony A; Dimitrov, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an intracellular compartment necessary for post-translational modification, sorting and transport of proteins. It plays a key role in mitotic entry through the Golgi mitotic checkpoint. In order to identify new proteins involved in the Golgi mitotic checkpoint, we combine the results of a knockdown screen for mitotic phenotypes and a localization screen. Using this approach, we identify a new Golgi protein C11ORF24 (NP_071733.1). We show that C11ORF24 has a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a transmembrane domain in the C-terminal region. C11ORF24 is localized on the Golgi apparatus and on the trans-Golgi network. A large part of the protein is present in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus whereas only a short tail extends into the cytosol. This cytosolic tail is well conserved in evolution. By FRAP experiments we show that the dynamics of C11ORF24 in the Golgi membrane are coherent with the presence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. C11ORF24 is not only present on the Golgi apparatus but also cycles to the plasma membrane via endosomes in a pH sensitive manner. Moreover, via video-microscopy studies we show that C11ORF24 is found on transport intermediates and is colocalized with the small GTPase RAB6, a GTPase involved in anterograde transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Knocking down C11ORF24 does not lead to a mitotic phenotype or an intracellular transport defect in our hands. All together, these data suggest that C11ORF24 is present on the Golgi apparatus, transported to the plasma membrane and cycles back through the endosomes by way of RAB6 positive carriers.

  16. Identification of secretory odontoblasts using DMP1-GFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-04-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue- and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-secretory multiple myeloma: from biology to clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis MM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Megan Murray Dupuis,1 Sascha A Tuchman2 1Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the US. It is typically characterized by production of large amounts of defective immunoglobulin (Ig. Diagnosing MM and monitoring treatment response, including eventual relapse, are largely based on sequential measurements of Ig. However, a small subset of MM called non-secretory multiple myeloma (NSMM produces no detectable Ig. This subset of true NSMM has become even smaller over time, as the advent of the serum free light chain assay has resulted in the majority of NSMM patients being recategorized as light-chain MM – that is, MM cells that produce only the light-chain component of Ig. True forms of NSMM, meaning MM that secretes no monoclonal proteins whatsoever, constitute a distinct entity that is reviewed; definition of NSMM using current detection methods, discuss the biology underpinning NSMM development, and share recommendations for how NSMM should be managed clinically with respect to detection, treatment, and monitoring. Keywords: multiple myeloma, non-secretory, immunoglobulin

  18. Identification of Secretory Odontoblasts Using DMP1-GFP Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. PMID:21172466

  19. Distinct characteristics of two intestinal protein compartments discriminated by using fenbendazole and a benzimidazole resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shompole, Sankale; Yao, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiaoya; Knox, David; Johnson, Sandra; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2002-08-01

    The intestine of Haemonchus contortus is hypersensitive to the effects of the anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ). The effects are postulated to stem from disruption of microtubules and interference with apical secretory vesicle transport, followed by release of digestive enzymes into the intestinal cell cytoplasm. Here, FBZ caused marker proteins for both apical (pepsinogen-like protease, PEP-1) and basal (cystatin-like protein) protein compartments to became homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm of H. contortus intestinal cells. The observations with PEP-1 support the hypothesis that release of hydrolytic enzymes into the intestinal cell cytoplasm contributes to the mechanism of benzimidazole efficacy. A benzimidazole resistant isolate of H. contortus expressed type 1 and 2 intestinal beta-tubulin transcripts that would encode predominantly tyr200 and phe200 variants, respectively. This isolate was resistant to the known intestinal cell alterations induced by FBZ treatment in the susceptible isolate, including inhibition of apical vesicle transport. These results implicate type 1 beta-tubulin in mediating apical vesicle transport in intestinal cells and suggest that the tyr200 variant is a determinant of FBZ resistance in intestinal cells. In contrast, the basal protein compartment demonstrated sensitivity to FBZ treatment in these otherwise "resistant" worms. Hence, distinct FBZ-sensitive components appear to be involved in distributing intestinal proteins into the described apical and basal compartments of normal worms.

  20. Growth and instability of a phospholipid vesicle in a bath of fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, J.; Noireaux, V.; Libchaber, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Using a microfluidic trap, we study the behavior of individual phospholipid vesicles in contact with fatty acids. We show that spontaneous fatty acids insertion inside the bilayer is controlled by the vesicle size, osmotic pressure difference across the membrane and fatty acids concentration in the external bath. Depending on these parameters, vesicles can grow spherically or become unstable and fragment into several daughter vesicles. We establish the phase diagram for vesicle growth and we derive a simple thermodynamic model that reproduces the time evolution of the vesicle volume. Finally, we show that stable growth can be achieved on an artificial cell expressing a simple set of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, paving the way toward artificial cell reproduction.

  1. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles: An Epigenetic View of the Cancer Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhongrun; Shen, Qi; Yang, Xi; Qiu, Yongming; Zhang, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes, microvesicles, and other extracellular vesicles are released by many cell types, including cancer cells and cancer-related immune cells. Extracellular vesicles can directly or indirectly facilitate the transfer of bioinformat