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Sample records for vesicle recycling electronic

  1. Mutations in Synaptojanin Disrupt Synaptic Vesicle Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Todd W.; Hartwieg, Erika; Horvitz, H. Robert; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2000-01-01

    Synaptojanin is a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase that is found at synapses and binds to proteins implicated in endocytosis. For these reasons, it has been proposed that synaptojanin is involved in the recycling of synaptic vesicles. Here, we demonstrate that the unc-26 gene encodes the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of synaptojanin. unc-26 mutants exhibit defects in vesicle trafficking in several tissues, but most defects are found at synaptic termini. Specifically, we observed defects in ...

  2. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  3. Quantitative analysis of vesicle recycling at the calyx of Held synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xufeng; Zhu, Qianwen; Sun, Jianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Vesicle recycling is pivotal for maintaining reliable synaptic signaling, but its basic properties remain poorly understood. Here, we developed an approach to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of vesicle recycling with exquisite signal and temporal resolution at the calyx of Held synapse. The combination of this electrophysiological approach with electron microscopy revealed that ∼80% of vesicles (∼270,000 out of ∼330,000) in the nerve terminal are involved in recycling. Under sustained stimulation, recycled vesicles start to be reused in tens of seconds when ∼47% of the preserved vesicles in the recycling pool (RP) are depleted. The heterogeneity of vesicle recycling as well as two kinetic components of RP depletion revealed the existence of a replenishable pool of vesicles before the priming stage and led to a realistic kinetic model that assesses the size of the subpools of the RP. Thus, our study quantified the kinetics of vesicle recycling and kinetically dissected the whole vesicle pool in the calyceal terminal into the readily releasable pool (∼0.6%), the readily priming pool (∼46%), the premature pool (∼33%), and the resting pool (∼20%). PMID:25825725

  4. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... of recycling in the modern quest for a sustainable global society is performed, clearly showing that without intensified focus on recycling, the global community cannot hope to reach even the most modest goals for sustainability in resource use. A general method for finding new recycling alternatives...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  5. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  6. Colocalization of synapsin and actin during synaptic vesicle recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom, Ona; Evergren, Emma; Tomilin, Nikolay

    2003-01-01

    activity, however, synapsin was detected in the pool of vesicles proximal to the active zone. In addition, actin and synapsin were found colocalized in a dynamic filamentous cytomatrix at the sites of synaptic vesicle recycling, endocytic zones. Synapsin immunolabeling was not associated with clathrin......-coated intermediates but was found on vesicles that appeared to be recycling back to the cluster. Disruption of synapsin function by microinjection of antisynapsin antibodies resulted in a prominent reduction of the cytomatrix at endocytic zones of active synapses. Our data suggest that in addition to its known...

  7. A Preferentially Segregated Recycling Vesicle Pool of Limited Size Supports Neurotransmission in Native Central Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; Burden, Jemima J.; Thorpe, Julian R.; Smith, Ikuko T.; Smith, Spencer L.; Häusser, Michael; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Summary At small central synapses, efficient turnover of vesicles is crucial for stimulus-driven transmission, but how the structure of this recycling pool relates to its functional role remains unclear. Here we characterize the organizational principles of functional vesicles at native hippocampal synapses with nanoscale resolution using fluorescent dye labeling and electron microscopy. We show that the recycling pool broadly scales with the magnitude of the total vesicle pool, but its average size is small (∼45 vesicles), highly variable, and regulated by CDK5/calcineurin activity. Spatial analysis demonstrates that recycling vesicles are preferentially arranged near the active zone and this segregation is abolished by actin stabilization, slowing the rate of activity-driven exocytosis. Our approach reveals a similarly biased recycling pool distribution at synapses in visual cortex activated by sensory stimulation in vivo. We suggest that in small native central synapses, efficient release of a limited pool of vesicles relies on their favored spatial positioning within the terminal. PMID:23141069

  8. Concurrent imaging of synaptic vesicle recycling and calcium dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eLi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission involves the calcium-dependent release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles. Genetically encoded optical probes emitting different wavelengths of fluorescent light in response to neuronal activity offer a powerful approach to understand the spatial and temporal relationship of calcium dynamics to the release of neurotransmitter in defined neuronal populations. To simultaneously image synaptic vesicle recycling and changes in cytosolic calcium, we developed a red-shifted reporter of vesicle recycling based on a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1-mOrange2 (VGLUT1-mOr2, and a presynaptically-localized green calcium indicator, synaptophysin-GCaMP3 (SyGCaMP3 with a large dynamic range. The fluorescence of VGLUT1-mOr2 is quenched by the low pH of synaptic vesicles. Exocytosis upon electrical stimulation exposes the luminal mOr2 to the neutral extracellular pH and relieves fluorescence quenching. Re-acidification of the vesicle upon endocytosis again reduces fluorescence intensity. Changes in fluorescence intensity thus monitor synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis, as demonstrated previously for the green VGLUT1-pHluorin. To monitor changes in calcium, we fused the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin to the recently improved calcium indicator GCaMP3. SyGCaMP3 is targeted to presynaptic varicosities, and exhibits changes in fluorescence in response to electrical stimulation consistent with changes in calcium concentration. Using real-time imaging of both reporters expressed in the same synapses, we determine the time course of changes in VGLUT1 recycling in relation to changes in presynaptic calcium concentration. Inhibition of P/Q- and N-type calcium channels reduces calcium levels, as well as the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and the fraction of vesicles released.

  9. Recruitment of resting vesicles into recycling pools supports NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Bush, Daniel; Burden, Jemima J; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Most presynaptic terminals in the central nervous system are characterized by two functionally distinct vesicle populations: a recycling pool, which supports action potential-driven neurotransmitter release via vesicle exocytosis, and a resting pool. The relative proportions of these two pools are highly variable between individual synapses, prompting speculation on their specific relationship, and on the possible functions of the resting pool. Using fluorescence imaging of FM-styryl dyes and synaptophysinI-pHluorin (sypHy) as well as correlative electron microscopy approaches, we show here that Hebbian plasticity-dependent changes in synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons can increase the recycling pool fraction at the expense of the resting pool in individual synaptic terminals. This recruitment process depends on NMDA-receptor activation, nitric oxide signalling and calcineurin and is accompanied by an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release at individual terminals. Blockade of actin-mediated intersynaptic vesicle exchange does not prevent recycling pool expansion demonstrating that vesicle recruitment is intrasynaptic. We propose that the conversion of resting pool vesicles to the functionally recycling pool provides a rapid mechanism to implement long-lasting changes in presynaptic efficacy. PMID:22271866

  10. α-Synuclein Dimers Impair Vesicle Fission during Clathrin-Mediated Synaptic Vesicle Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey T. Medeiros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein that regulates synaptic vesicle (SV trafficking. In Parkinson’s disease (PD and several other neurodegenerative disorders, aberrant oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Despite evidence that α-synuclein oligomers are generated within neurons under physiological conditions, and that altering the balance of monomers and oligomers contributes to disease pathogenesis, how each molecular species of α-synuclein impacts SV trafficking is currently unknown. To address this, we have taken advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal (RS synapses, which are accessible to acute perturbations via axonal microinjection of recombinant proteins. We previously reported that acute introduction of monomeric α-synuclein inhibited SV recycling, including effects on the clathrin pathway. Here, we report the effects of α-synuclein dimers at synapses. Similar to monomeric α-synuclein, both recombinant α-synuclein dimers that were evaluated bound to small liposomes containing anionic lipids in vitro, but with reduced efficacy. When introduced to synapses, the α-synuclein dimers also induced SV recycling defects, which included a build up of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs with constricted necks that were still attached to the plasma membrane, a phenotype indicative of a vesicle fission defect. Interestingly, both α-synuclein dimers induced longer necks on CCPs as well as complex, branching membrane tubules, which were distinct from the CCPs induced by a dynamin inhibitor, Dynasore. In contrast, monomeric α-synuclein induced a buildup of free clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs, indicating an inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis at a later stage during the clathrin uncoating process. Taken together, these data further support the conclusion that excess α-synuclein impairs SV recycling. The data additionally reveal that monomeric and dimeric α-synuclein produce

  11. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  12. Impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles after acute perturbation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shupliakov, Oleg; Bloom, Ona; Gustafsson, Jenny S

    2002-01-01

    Actin is an abundant component of nerve terminals that has been implicated at multiple steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including reversible anchoring, exocytosis, and recycling of synaptic vesicles. In the present study we used the lamprey reticulospinal synapse to examine the role of actin...

  13. Mutant Huntingtin Impairs Vesicle Formation from Recycling Endosomes by Interfering with Rab11 Activity▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyi; Standley, Clive; Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Yoder, Jennifer; Comer-Tierney, Laryssa A.; Esteves, Miguel; Chase, Kathryn; Alexander, Jonathan; Masso, Nicholas; Sobin, Lindsay; Bellve, Karl; Tuft, Richard; Lifshitz, Lawrence; Fogarty, Kevin; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Huntingtin (Htt) localizes to endosomes, but its role in the endocytic pathway is not established. Recently, we found that Htt is important for the activation of Rab11, a GTPase involved in endosomal recycling. Here we studied fibroblasts of healthy individuals and patients with Huntington's disease (HD), which is a movement disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in Htt. The formation of endocytic vesicles containing transferrin at plasma membranes was the same in control and HD patient fibroblasts. However, HD fibroblasts were delayed in recycling biotin-transferrin back to the plasma membrane. Membranes of HD fibroblasts supported less nucleotide exchange on Rab11 than did control membranes. Rab11-positive vesicular and tubular structures in HD fibroblasts were abnormally large, suggesting that they were impaired in forming vesicles. We used total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of living fibroblasts to monitor fluorescence-labeled transferrin-carrying transport intermediates that emerged from recycling endosomes. HD fibroblasts had fewer small vesicles and more large vesicles and long tubules than did control fibroblasts. Dominant active Rab11 expressed in HD fibroblasts normalized the recycling of biotin-transferrin. We propose a novel mechanism for cellular dysfunction by the HD mutation arising from the inhibition of Rab11 activity and a deficit in vesicle formation at recycling endosomes. PMID:19752198

  14. Two modes of vesicle recycling in the rat calyx of Held

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.J. de Lange (Robert); A.D. de Roos; J.G.G. Borst (Gerard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractVesicle recycling was studied in the rat calyx of Held, a giant brainstem terminal involved in sound localization. Stimulation of brain slices containing the calyx-type synapse with a high extracellular potassium ion concentration in the presence of horseradish

  15. Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gramatyka; R. Nowosielski; P. Sakiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the current status of waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling anddisposal in Europe, and its impact on the environment, human health and the economy.Design/methodology/approach: The production of electric and electronic equipment is one of the fastestgrowing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of WEEE. Increased recycling of WEEE issupposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.Findings: Based on comprehensive bi...

  16. UNC-41/stonin functions with AP2 to recycle synaptic vesicles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Mullen

    Full Text Available The recycling of synaptic vesicles requires the recovery of vesicle proteins and membrane. Members of the stonin protein family (Drosophila Stoned B, mammalian stonin 2 have been shown to link the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin to the endocytic machinery. Here we characterize the unc-41 gene, which encodes the stonin ortholog in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenic expression of Drosophila stonedB rescues unc-41 mutant phenotypes, demonstrating that UNC-41 is a bona fide member of the stonin family. In unc-41 mutants, synaptotagmin is present in axons, but is mislocalized and diffuse. In contrast, UNC-41 is localized normally in synaptotagmin mutants, demonstrating a unidirectional relationship for localization. The phenotype of snt-1 unc-41 double mutants is stronger than snt-1 mutants, suggesting that UNC-41 may have additional, synaptotagmin-independent functions. We also show that unc-41 mutants have defects in synaptic vesicle membrane endocytosis, including a ∼50% reduction of vesicles in both acetylcholine and GABA motor neurons. These endocytic defects are similar to those observed in apm-2 mutants, which lack the µ2 subunit of the AP2 adaptor complex. However, no further reduction in synaptic vesicles was observed in unc-41 apm-2 double mutants, suggesting that UNC-41 acts in the same endocytic pathway as µ2 adaptin.

  17. Optimization of electron cooling in the Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Prost, L.R.; Sutherland, M.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The paper describes electron cooling improvements recently implemented: adjustments of electron beam line quadrupoles to decrease the electron angles in the cooling section and better stabilization and control of the electron energy.

  18. Removal of Vesicle Structures From Transmission Electron Microscope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff; Sigworth, Fred J.; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of imaging membrane proteins for single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the isolated protein structure. More precisely, we propose a method for learning and removing the interfering vesicle signals from the micrograph, prior to reconstruction. In our approach, we estimate the subspace of the vesicle structures and project the micrographs onto the orthogonal complement of this subspace. We construct a 2d statistical model of the vesicle structure, based on higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD), by considering the structural symmetries of the vesicles in the polar coordinate plane. We then propose to lift the HOSVD model to a novel hierarchical model by summarizing the multidimensional HOSVD coefficients by their principal components. Along with the model, a solid vesicle normalization scheme and model selection criterion are proposed to make a compact and general model. The results show that the vesicle structures are accurately separated from the background by the HOSVD model that is also able to adapt to the asymmetries of the vesicles. This is a promising result and suggests even wider applicability of the proposed approach in learning and removal of statistical structures. PMID:26642456

  19. Synaptic vesicle morphology and recycling are altered in myenteric neurons of mice lacking dystrophin (mdx mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Corsani, Letizia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2003-11-01

    Several dystrophin isoforms are known. The full-length isoform is present in striated and smooth muscles and neurons and its lack causes Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, a progressive myopathy accompanied by mild cognitive deficits and gastrointestinal dismotility. An ultrastructural study was undertaken in the colon of mice lacking full-length dystrophin and maintaining shorter isoforms (mdx mice) to ascertain whether myenteric neurons have an altered morphology. Results showed a significant increase in the size of synaptic vesicle and in the number of recycling vesicles. An enlargement of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae in a subpopulation of neurons was also seen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the shorter isoforms were expressed in mdx mice myenteric neurons. These findings indicate the presence of a neuropathy at the myenteric plexus which might justify the defective neuronal control of gastrointestinal motility reported for these animals and which might be correlated with full-length dystrophin loss, since the shorter isoforms are present. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuana, Yuana; Koning, Roman I; Kuil, Maxim E; Rensen, Patrick C N; Koster, Abraham J; Bertina, Rogier M; Osanto, Susanne

    2013-12-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles). In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25-260 nm). The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  1. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Yuana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EV are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. Objectives: To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM. Methods: Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. Results: EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles. In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25–260 nm. The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Conclusions: Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  2. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-03-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  3. Imaging and Quantification of Extracellular Vesicles by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Romain; Tan, Sisareuth; Gounou, Céline; Brisson, Alain R

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles that are present in blood and other body fluids. EVs raise major interest for their diverse physiopathological roles and their potential biomedical applications. However, the characterization and quantification of EVs constitute major challenges, mainly due to their small size and the lack of methods adapted for their study. Electron microscopy has made significant contributions to the EV field since their initial discovery. Here, we describe the use of two transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for imaging and quantifying EVs. Cryo-TEM combined with receptor-specific gold labeling is applied to reveal the morphology, size, and phenotype of EVs, while their enumeration is achieved after high-speed sedimentation on EM grids.

  4. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  5. Frontiers and prospects for recycling Waste Electrical and Electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the frontlines and projections for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Nigeria. The paper identified the sources of WEEE, showed chemical characterization of some WEEE components and presented measures to minimize these wastes through recycling opportunities.

  6. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  7. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Throughput All-Optical Analysis of Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Vesicle Recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wabnig

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs undergo a cycle of biogenesis and membrane fusion to release transmitter, followed by recycling. How exocytosis and endocytosis are coupled is intensively investigated. We describe an all-optical method for identification of neurotransmission genes that can directly distinguish SV recycling factors in C. elegans, by motoneuron photostimulation and muscular RCaMP Ca2+ imaging. We verified our approach on mutants affecting synaptic transmission. Mutation of genes affecting SV recycling (unc-26 synaptojanin, unc-41 stonin, unc-57 endophilin, itsn-1 intersectin, snt-1 synaptotagmin showed a distinct 'signature' of muscle Ca2+ dynamics, induced by cholinergic motoneuron photostimulation, i.e. faster rise, and earlier decrease of the signal, reflecting increased synaptic fatigue during ongoing photostimulation. To facilitate high throughput, we measured (3-5 times ~1000 nematodes for each gene. We explored if this method enables RNAi screening for SV recycling genes. Previous screens for synaptic function genes, based on behavioral or pharmacological assays, allowed no distinction of the stage of the SV cycle in which a protein might act. We generated a strain enabling RNAi specifically only in cholinergic neurons, thus resulting in healthier animals and avoiding lethal phenotypes resulting from knockdown elsewhere. RNAi of control genes resulted in Ca2+ measurements that were consistent with results obtained in the respective genomic mutants, albeit to a weaker extent in most cases, and could further be confirmed by opto-electrophysiological measurements for mutants of some of the genes, including synaptojanin. We screened 95 genes that were previously implicated in cholinergic transmission, and several controls. We identified genes that clustered together with known SV recycling genes, exhibiting a similar signature of their Ca2+ dynamics. Five of these genes (C27B7.7, erp-1, inx-8, inx-10, spp-10 were further assessed in

  9. Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Thapa, Khim B.; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2018-01-01

    any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire...... surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify...... the challenges and opportunities towards building a sustainable system for managing e-waste, and offer propositions for a resource-oriented waste management system. This study can serve as a baseline for future research on informal waste recycling, e-waste in particular, in Nepal and similar developing economies...

  10. Removal of Vesicle Structures from Transmission Electron Microscope Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff; Sigworth, Fred; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    symmetries of the vesicles in the polar coordinate plane. We then propose to lift the HOSVD model to a novel hierarchical model by summarizing the multidimensional HOSVD coefficients by their principal components. Along with the model, a solid vesicle normalization scheme and model selection criterion...

  11. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  12. Anaesthetics stop diverse plant organ movements, affect endocytic vesicle recycling and ROS homeostasis, and block action potentials in Venus flytraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, K; Kagenishi, T; Pavlovic, A; Gall, S; Weiland, M; Mancuso, S; Baluška, F

    2017-12-11

    Anaesthesia for medical purposes was introduced in the 19th century. However, the physiological mode of anaesthetic drug actions on the nervous system remains unclear. One of the remaining questions is how these different compounds, with no structural similarities and even chemically inert elements such as the noble gas xenon, act as anaesthetic agents inducing loss of consciousness. The main goal here was to determine if anaesthetics affect the same or similar processes in plants as in animals and humans. A single-lens reflex camera was used to follow organ movements in plants before, during and after recovery from exposure to diverse anaesthetics. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse endocytic vesicle trafficking. Electrical signals were recorded using a surface AgCl electrode. Mimosa leaves, pea tendrils, Venus flytraps and sundew traps all lost both their autonomous and touch-induced movements after exposure to anaesthetics. In Venus flytrap, this was shown to be due to the loss of action potentials under diethyl ether anaesthesia. The same concentration of diethyl ether immobilized pea tendrils. Anaesthetics also impeded seed germination and chlorophyll accumulation in cress seedlings. Endocytic vesicle recycling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, as observed in intact Arabidopsis root apex cells, were also affected by all anaesthetics tested. Plants are sensitive to several anaesthetics that have no structural similarities. As in animals and humans, anaesthetics used at appropriate concentrations block action potentials and immobilize organs via effects on action potentials, endocytic vesicle recycling and ROS homeostasis. Plants emerge as ideal model objects to study general questions related to anaesthesia, as well as to serve as a suitable test system for human anaesthesia.

  13. Photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer kinetics in small unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Pal, Haridas

    2007-11-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to some coumarin derivatives has been studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of the phospholipid, DL-α-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, both below and above the phase transition temperature of the vesicles. The primary interest was to examine whether Marcus inversion [H. Sumi and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] could be observed for the present ET systems in these organized assemblies. The influence of the topology of SUVs on the photophysical properties of the reactants and consequently on their ET kinetics has also been investigated. Absorption and fluorescence spectral data of the coumarins in SUVs and the variation of their fluorescence decays with temperature indicate that the dyes are localized in the bilayer of the SUVs. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra analysis, however, reveals that the dyes are distributed in two different microenvironments in the SUVs, which we attribute to the two leaflets of the bilayer, one toward bulk water and the other toward the inner water pool. The microenvironments in the two leaflets are, however, not indicated to be that significantly different. Time-resolved anisotropy decays were biexponential for all the dyes in SUVs, and this has been interpreted in terms of the compound motion model according to which the dye molecules can experience a fast wobbling-in-cone type of motion as well as a slow overall rotating motion of the cone containing the molecule. The expected bimolecular diffusion-controlled rates in SUVs, as estimated by comparing the microviscosities in SUVs (determined from rotational correlation times) and that in acetonitrile solution, are much slower than the observed fluorescence quenching rates, suggesting that reactant diffusion (translational) does not play any role in the quenching kinetics in the present systems. Accordingly, clear inversions are

  14. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Yuana, Yuana; Koning, Roman I.; Maxim E. Kuil; Rensen, Patrick C.N.; Koster, Abraham J.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Osanto, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited.Objectives: To image EV and determine the morphology, ...

  15. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  16. Fast Transverse Instability and Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Eddy, Nathan; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton; Thangaraj, Jayakar; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zwaska, Robert; Ji, Yichen

    2015-03-01

    A new transverse instability is observed that may limit the proton intensity in the Fermilab Recycler. The instability is fast, leading to a beam-abort loss within two hundred turns. The instability primarily affects the first high-intensity batch from the Fermilab Booster in each Recycler cycle. This paper analyzes the dynamical features of the destabilized beam. The instability excites a horizontal betatron oscillation which couples into the vertical motion and also causes transverse emittance growth. This paper describes the feasibility of electron cloud as the mechanism for this instability and presents the first measurements of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Recycler. Direct measurements of the electron cloud are made using a retarding field analyzer (RFA) newly installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Indirect measurements of the electron cloud are made by propagating a microwave carrier signal through the beampipe and analyzing the phase modulation of the signal. The maximum betatron amplitude growth and the maximum electron cloud signal occur during minimums of the bunch length oscillation.

  17. MODEL OF ELECTRON CLOUD INSTABILITY IN FERMILAB RECYCLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey A. [Chicago U.; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    An electron cloud instability might limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler after the PIP-II upgrade. A multibunch instability typically develops in the horizontal plane within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, leads to beam loss. Recent studies have indicated that the instability is caused by an electron cloud, trapped in the Recycler index dipole magnets. We developed an analytical model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. The resulting instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions is consistent with experimental observations and qualitatively agrees with the simulation in the PEI code. The model allows an estimation of the instability rate for the future intensity upgrades.

  18. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking Informal and Formal Electronics Recycling via an Interface Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Totoki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informal recycling of electronics in the developing world has emerged as a new global environmental concern. The primary approach to address this problem has been command-and-control policies that ban informal recycling and international trade in electronic scrap. These bans are difficult to enforce and also have negative effects by reducing reuse of electronics, and employment for people in poverty. An alternate approach is to link informal and formal sectors so as to maintain economic activity while mitigating environmental damages. This article explores the idea of an interface organization that purchases components and waste from informal dismantlers and passes them on to formal processors. Environmental, economic and social implications of interface organizations are discussed. The main environmental questions to resolve are what e-scrap components should be targeted by the interface organization, i.e., circuit boards, wires, and/or plastic parts. Economically, when formal recycling is more profitable (e.g., for circuit boards, the interface organization is revenue positive. However, price subsidies are needed for copper wires and residual waste to incentivize informal dismantlers to turn in for formal processing. Socially, the potential for corruption and gaming of the system is critical and needs to be addressed.

  20. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to flame retardants in electronics recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christina; Hämeilä, Mervi; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Säkkinen, Kirsi; Puttonen, Katriina; Korpi, Anne; Kiilunen, Mirja; Linnainmaa, Markku; Hesso, Antti

    2011-07-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains various hazardous substances such as flame retardants (FRs). Inhalation exposures to many FRs simultaneously among WEEE recycling site workers have been little studied previously. The breathing zone airborne concentrations of five brominated FR compounds tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecane, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, hexabromobenzene, and one chlorinated FR (Dechlorane Plus®) were measured at four electronics recycling sites in two consecutive years. In addition, concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls were measured. The three most abundant FRs in personal air samples were PBDEs (comprising mostly of deca-BDE), TBBP-A, and DBDPE, with mean concentrations ranging from 21 to 2320 ng m(-)(3), from 8.7 to 430 ng m(-3), and from 3.5 to 360 ng m(-3), respectively. At two of the sites, the emission control actions (such as improvements in ventilation and its maintenance and changes in cleaning habits) proved successful, the mean levels of FRs in personal samples being 10-68 and 14-79% of those from the previous year or alternatively below the limit of quantification. At the two remaining sites, the reductions in FR exposures were less consistent. The concentrations reported may pose a health hazard to the workers, although evaluation of the association between FR exposure and adverse health effects is hampered by lacking occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the exposures should be minimized by adequate control measures and maintaining good occupational hygiene practice.

  2. Complexin Mutants Reveal Partial Segregation between Recycling Pathways That Drive Evoked and Spontaneous Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeva, Nadezhda; Cho, Richard W.; Vasin, Alexander; Gonzalez, Agustin; Littleton, J. Troy

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses. We examined synaptic vesicle recycling pathways at complexin null neuromuscular junctions, where spontaneous release is dramatically enhanced. We combined loading of the lipophilic dye FM1–43 with photoconversion, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology to monitor evoked and spontaneous recycling vesicle pools. We found that the total number of recycling vesicles was equal to those retrieved through spontaneous and evoked pools, suggesting that retrieval following fusion is partially segregated for spontaneous and evoked release. In addition, the kinetics of FM1–43 destaining and synaptic depression measured in the presence of the vesicle-refilling blocker bafilomycin indicated that spontaneous and evoked recycling pools partially intermix during the release process. Finally, FM1–43 photoconversion combined with electron microscopy analysis indicated that spontaneous recycling preferentially involves synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of AZs, whereas vesicles recycled following evoked release involve a larger intraterminal pool. Together, these results suggest that spontaneous and evoked vesicles use separable recycling pathways and then partially intermix during subsequent rounds of fusion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurotransmitter release involves fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane in response to an action potential, or spontaneously in the absence of stimulation. Upon

  3. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    knowledge and insight. The contributions are manifest in a range of epistemic artifacts, i.e. outcomes of my own experiments with recycled glass as well as a series of creative outcomes of collaborative activities. Through the creation of these works, my collaborators and I have developed tacit as well...

  4. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Drug Enforcement Administration Western Lab wins EPA Federal Green Challenge award for electronics recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld presented the Federal Green Challenge award to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Western Laboratory for increasing its electronics recycling mor

  6. EPA Study Finds Electronics Recycling Standards are Well Implemented and Makes Recommendations for Further Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released a study assessing the implementation of the two third-party certification programs for electronic waste recyclers in the United States. EPA's study found that the certificat

  7. Amyloglucosidase enzymatic reactivity inside lipid vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jin-Woo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efficient functioning of enzymes inside liposomes would open new avenues for applications in biocatalysis and bioanalytical tools. In this study, the entrapment of amyloglucosidase (AMG (EC 3.2.1.3 from Aspergillus niger into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC multilamellar vesicles (MLVs and large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs was investigated. Negative-stain, freeze-fracture, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy images verified vesicle formation in the presence of AMG. Vesicles with entrapped AMG were isolated from the solution by centrifugation, and vesicle lamellarity was identified using fluorescence laser confocal microscopy. The kinetics of starch hydrolysis by AMG was modeled for two different systems, free enzyme in aqueous solution and entrapped enzyme within vesicles in aqueous suspension. For the free enzyme system, intrinsic kinetics were described by a Michaelis-Menten kinetic model with product inhibition. The kinetic constants, Vmax and Km, were determined by initial velocity measurements, and Ki was obtained by fitting the model to experimental data of glucose concentration-time curves. Predicted concentration-time curves using these kinetic constants were in good agreement with experimental measurements. In the case of the vesicles, the time-dependence of product (glucose formation was experimentally determined and simulated by considering the kinetic behavior of the enzyme and the permeation of substrate into the vesicle. Experimental results demonstrated that entrapped enzymes were much more stable than free enyzme. The entrapped enzyme could be recycled with retention of 60% activity after 3 cycles. These methodologies can be useful in evaluating other liposomal catalysis operations.

  8. FIJI Macro 3D ART VeSElecT: 3D Automated Reconstruction Tool for Vesicle Structures of Electron Tomograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Verena Kaltdorf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf and (ii to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261. We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models. We confirm the functionality of our macro by applying our 3D ART VeSElecT on zebrafish NMJ showing smaller vesicles in 8 dpf embryos then 4 dpf, which was validated by manual reconstruction of the vesicle pool. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of C. elegans septin mutant unc-59(e261 on vesicle pool formation and vesicle size. Automated vesicle registration and characterization was implemented in Fiji as two macros (registration and measurement. This flexible arrangement allows in particular reducing false positives by an optional manual revision step. Preprocessing and contrast enhancement work on image-stacks of 1nm/pixel in x and y direction. Semi-automated cell selection was integrated. 3D ART VeSElecT removes interfering components, detects vesicles by 3D segmentation and calculates vesicle volume and diameter (spherical approximation, inner/outer diameter. Results are collected in color using the RoiManager plugin including the possibility of manual removal of non-matching confounder vesicles. Detailed evaluation considered performance (detected vesicles and specificity (true vesicles as well as precision and recall. We furthermore show gain in segmentation and morphological filtering compared to learning based methods and a large time gain compared to manual segmentation. 3D ART VeSElecT shows small error rates and its speed gain can be up to 68 times faster in comparison to manual

  9. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  10. Effect of secondary ions on the electron beam optics in the Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.; Saewert, G.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1-0.5 A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The unique combination of the relativistic energy ({gamma} = 9.49), an Ampere-range DC beam, and a relatively weak focusing makes the cooling efficiency particularly sensitive to ion neutralization. A capability to clear ions was recently implemented by way of interrupting the electron beam for 1-30 {micro}s with a repetition rate of up to 40 Hz. The cooling properties of the electron beam were analyzed with drag rate measurements and showed that accumulated ions significantly affect the beam optics. For a beam current of 0.3 A, the longitudinal cooling rate was increased by factor of {approx}2 when ions were removed.

  11. Simultaneous cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy cytometry of cellular vesicles labeled with fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sounderya; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Fang, Chia-Yi; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi; Le Cam, Eric; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Kociak, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of both techniques. Here we propose an alternative in which the electron beam of a scanning TEM (STEM) is used to excite concomitantly the luminescence of nanoparticle labels (a process known as cathodoluminescence, CL), and image the cell ultrastructure. This CL-STEM imaging allows obtaining luminescence spectra and imaging ultrastructure simultaneously. We present a proof of principle experiment, showing the potential of this technique in image cytometry of cell vesicular components. To label the vesicles we used fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (nanodiamonds, NDs) of size ~150 nm coated with different cationic polymers, known to trigger different internalization pathways. Each polymer was associated with a type of ND with a different emission spectrum. With CL-STEM, for each individual vesicle, we were able to measure (i) their size with nanometric resolution, (ii) their content in different ND labels, and realize intracellular component cytometry. In contrast to the recently reported organelle flow cytometry technique that requires cell sonication, CL-STEM-based image cytometry preserves the cell integrity and provides a much higher resolution in size. Although this novel approach is still limited by a low throughput, the automatization of data acquisition and image analysis, combined with improved intracellular targeting, should facilitate applications in cell biology at the subcellular level.Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of

  12. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  13. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  14. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo, E-mail: jrcardoso@ipen.br, E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com, E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  15. Diversity of extracellular vesicles in human ejaculates revealed by cryo-electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L. Höög

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human ejaculates contain extracellular vesicles (EVs, that to a large extent are considered to originate from the prostate gland, and are often denominated “prostasomes.” These EVs are important for human fertility, for example by promoting sperm motility and by inducing immune tolerance of the female immune system to the spermatozoa. So far, the EVs present in human ejaculate have not been studied in their native state, inside the seminal fluid without prior purification and isolation procedures. Using cryo-electron microscopy and tomography, we performed a comprehensive inventory of human ejaculate EVs. The sample was neither centrifuged, fixed, filtered or sectioned, nor were heavy metals added. Approximately 1,500 extracellular structures were imaged and categorized. The extracellular environment of human ejaculate was found to be diverse, with 5 major subcategories of EVs and 6 subcategories of extracellular membrane compartments, including lamellar bodies. Furthermore, 3 morphological features, including electron density, double membrane bilayers and coated surface, are described in all subcategories. This study reveals that the extracellular environment in human ejaculate is multifaceted. Several novel morphological EV subcategories are identified and clues to their cellular origin may be found in their morphology. This inventory is therefore important for developing future experimental approaches, and to interpret previously published data to understand the role of EVs for human male fertility.

  16. Diversity of extracellular vesicles in human ejaculates revealed by cryo-electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höög, Johanna L.; Lötvall, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human ejaculates contain extracellular vesicles (EVs), that to a large extent are considered to originate from the prostate gland, and are often denominated “prostasomes.” These EVs are important for human fertility, for example by promoting sperm motility and by inducing immune tolerance of the female immune system to the spermatozoa. So far, the EVs present in human ejaculate have not been studied in their native state, inside the seminal fluid without prior purification and isolation procedures. Using cryo-electron microscopy and tomography, we performed a comprehensive inventory of human ejaculate EVs. The sample was neither centrifuged, fixed, filtered or sectioned, nor were heavy metals added. Approximately 1,500 extracellular structures were imaged and categorized. The extracellular environment of human ejaculate was found to be diverse, with 5 major subcategories of EVs and 6 subcategories of extracellular membrane compartments, including lamellar bodies. Furthermore, 3 morphological features, including electron density, double membrane bilayers and coated surface, are described in all subcategories. This study reveals that the extracellular environment in human ejaculate is multifaceted. Several novel morphological EV subcategories are identified and clues to their cellular origin may be found in their morphology. This inventory is therefore important for developing future experimental approaches, and to interpret previously published data to understand the role of EVs for human male fertility. PMID:26563734

  17. A Network of Three Types of Filaments Organizes Synaptic Vesicles for Storage, Mobilization, and Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andy A; Chen, Xiaobing; Reese, Thomas S

    2016-03-16

    Synaptic transmission between neurons requires precise management of synaptic vesicles. While individual molecular components of the presynaptic terminal are well known, exactly how the molecules are organized into a molecular machine serving the storage and mobilization of synaptic vesicles to the active zone remains unclear. Here we report three filament types associated with synaptic vesicles in glutamatergic synapses revealed by electron microscope tomography in unstimulated, dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. One filament type, likely corresponding to the SNAREpin complex, extends from the active zone membrane and surrounds docked vesicles. A second filament type contacts all vesicles throughout the active zone and pairs vesicles together. On the third filament type, vesicles attach to side branches extending from the long filament core and form vesicle clusters that are distributed throughout the vesicle cloud and along the active zone membrane. Detailed analysis of presynaptic structure reveals how each of the three filament types interacts with synaptic vesicles, providing a means to traffic reserved and recycled vesicles from the cloud of vesicles into the docking position at the active zone. The formation and release of synaptic vesicles has been extensively investigated. Explanations of the release of synaptic vesicles generally begin with the movement of vesicles from the cloud into the synaptic active zone. However, the presynaptic terminal is filled with filamentous material that would appear to limit vesicular diffusion. Here, we provide a systematic description of three filament types connecting synaptic vesicles. A picture emerges illustrating how the cooperative attachment and release of these three filament types facilitate the movement of vesicles to the active zone to become docked in preparation for release. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363222-09$15.00/0.

  18. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila Reis; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-01

    Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The formal electronic recycling industry: Challenges and opportunities in occupational and environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana Maria; Dong, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    E-waste includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded as waste without intent of reuse. Informal e-waste recycling, typically done in smaller, unorganized businesses, can expose workers and communities to serious chemical health hazards. It is unclear if formalization into larger, better-controlled electronics recycling (e-recycling) facilities solves environmental and occupational health problems. To systematically review the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area. We identified 37 publications from 4 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Environmental Index, NIOSHTIC-2) specific to chemical exposures in formal e-recycling facilities. Environmental and occupational exposures depend on the degree of formalization of the facilities but further reduction is needed. Reported worker exposures to metals were often higher than recommended occupational guidelines. Levels of brominated flame-retardants in worker's inhaled air and biological samples were higher than those from reference groups. Air, dust, and soil concentrations of metals, brominated flame-retardants, dioxins, furans, polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons, or polychlorinated biphenyls found inside or near the facilities were generally higher than reference locations, suggesting transport into the environment. Children of a recycler had blood lead levels higher than public health recommended guidelines. With mounting e-waste, more workers, their family members, and communities could experience unhealthful exposures to metals and other chemicals. We identified research needs to further assess exposures, health, and improve controls. The long-term solution is manufacturing of electronics without harmful substances and easy-to-disassemble components. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  2. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  3. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recycling of the Electronic Waste Applying the Plasma Reactor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázár Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses a high-temperature gasification process and melting of electronic components and computer equipment using plasma reactor technology. It analyses the marginal conditions of batch processing, as well as the formation of solid products which result from the procedure of waste processing. Attention is also paid to the impact of the emerging products on the environment.

  5. Recycling of the Electronic Waste Applying the Plasma Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Marián; Jasminská, Natália; Čarnogurská, Mária; Dobáková, Romana

    2016-12-01

    The following paper discusses a high-temperature gasification process and melting of electronic components and computer equipment using plasma reactor technology. It analyses the marginal conditions of batch processing, as well as the formation of solid products which result from the procedure of waste processing. Attention is also paid to the impact of the emerging products on the environment.

  6. 3D estimation of synaptic vesicle distributions in serial section transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Darkner, Sune; Nava, Nicoletta

    To transfer information between neurons, synaptic vesicles move toward the presynaptic membrane, called the active zone, and fuse with it, releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Thus, the shortest distance from vesicles to the active zone affects the speed of signal transportation...... brains. We demonstrate that ssTEM images have an additive bias field, which is well modelled by a quadratic polynomial. ssTEM images make a 3D study on very high-resolution images possible. However, due to the physical cutting of a section from a 3D embedded tissue, the relations between sections...... are lost. To reconstruct the 3D data we register the images in a common coordinate system. The traditional method to measure the distribution of the vesicles is to measure the distance independently of neighbouring sections. This is biased depending on the slope of the active zone with respect...

  7. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  8. Recovery of metals and nonmetals from electronic waste by physical and chemical recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Muammer

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling. Electrical and/or electronic devices which are unwanted, broken or discarded by their original users are known as e-waste. The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of e-waste problem, strategies of e-waste management and various physical, chemical and metallurgical e-waste recycling processes, their advantages and disadvantages towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with special attention towards extraction of both metallic values and nonmetallic substances. The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals Hg, Cd, Pb, etc., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. Due to the presence of these substances, e-waste is generally considered as hazardous waste and, if improperly managed, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. This review describes the potential hazards and economic opportunities of e-waste. Firstly, an overview of e-waste/printed circuit board (PCB) components is given. Current status and future perspectives of e-waste/PCB recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling methods, liberation and classification processes are also covered. Manual selective dismantling after desoldering and metal-nonmetal liberation at -150μm with two step crushing are seen to be the best techniques. After size reduction, mainly physical separation processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation, etc. have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and nonmetals, along with useful utilizations of the nonmetallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining. Suitable PCB recycling flowsheets for industrial applications are also given

  9. Fast characterisation of cell-derived extracellular vesicles by nanoparticles tracking analysis, cryo-electron microscopy, and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Tatischeff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The joint use of 3 complementary techniques, namely, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy (RTM, is proposed for a rapid characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs of various origins. NTA is valuable for studying the size distribution and concentration, Cryo-EM is outstanding for the morphological characterisation, including observation of vesicle heterogeneity, while RTM provides the global chemical composition without using any exogenous label. The capabilities of this approach are evaluated on the example of cell-derived vesicles of Dictyostelium discoideum, a convenient general model for eukaryotic EVs. At least 2 separate species differing in chemical composition (relative amounts of DNA, lipids and proteins, presence of carotenoids were found for each of the 2 physiological states of this non-pathogenic microorganism, that is, cell growth and starvation-induced aggregation. These findings demonstrate the specific potency of RTM. In addition, the first Raman spectra of human urinary exosomes are reported, presumably constituting the primary step towards Raman characterisation of EVs for the purpose of human diseases diagnoses.

  10. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  11. Suggestive evidence of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell degranulation in chromaffin cells. A high-resolution scanning electron microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellato, Enrico; Solinas, Paola; Isola, Raffaella; Ribatti, Domenico; Riva, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    In this study we used a modified osmium maceration method for high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to study some ultrastructural details fitting the schema of piecemeal degranulation in chromaffin cells. Piecemeal degranulation refers to a particulate pattern of cell secretion that is accomplished by vesicle-mediated extracellular transport of granule-stored material. We investigated adrenal samples from control and angiotensin II-treated rats, and identified a variable proportion of smooth, 30–60-nm-diameter vesicles in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. A percentage of these vesicles were interspersed in the cytosol among chromaffin granules but the majority appeared to be attached to granules. Remarkably, the number of unattached cytoplasmic vesicles was greatly increased in chromaffin cells from angiotensin II-treated animals. Vesicles of the same structure and dimension were detected close to or attached to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane; these, too, were increased in number in chromaffin cells from rats stimulated with angiotensin II. In specimens shaken with a rotating agitator during maceration, the cytoplasmic organelles could be partially removed and the fine structure of the vesicular interaction with the inner side of the plasma membrane emerged most clearly. A proportion of chromaffin granules showed protrusions that we interpreted as vesicular structures budding from the granular envelope. In some instances, the transection plane intersected granules with putative vesicles emerging from the surfaces. In these cases, the protrusions of budding vesicles could be observed from the internal side. This study provides high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images compatible with a vesicle-mediated degranulation mode of cell secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells. The data indicating an increase in the number of vesicles observed in chromaffin cells after stimulation with the chromaffin cell secretagogue angiotensin II suggests

  12. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  13. Extracellular vesicles of calcifying turkey leg tendon characterized by immunocytochemistry and high voltage electron microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; McKee, M. D.; Nanci, A.; Song, M. J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Arena, J.; McEwen, B.

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure and possible function of extracellular vesicles in certain calcifying vertebrate tissues, normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, have been studied in two separate investigations, one concerning the electron microscopic immunolocalization of the 66 kDa phosphoprotein, osteopontin, and the other detailing the organization and distribution of mineral crystals associated with the vesicles as determined by high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction. Immunolabeling shows that osteopontin is related to extracellular vesicles of the tendon in the sense that its initial presence appears coincident with the development of mineral associated with the vesicle loci. By high voltage electron microscopy and 3-D imaging techniques, mineral crystals are found to consist of small irregularly shaped particles somewhat randomly oriented throughout individual vesicles sites. Their appearance is different from that found for the mineral observed within calcifying tendon collagen, and their 3-D disposition is not regularly ordered. Possible spatial and temporal relationships of vesicles, osteopontin, mineral, and collagen are being examined further by these approaches.

  14. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg-1 and 2.6 to 28,500μgg-1. Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Export of toxic chemicals - A review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk; Wu, S.C.; Deng, W.J.; Yu, X.Z. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Luo, Q. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Dioxin Laboratory, and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, A.O.W. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, C.S.C. [Department of Earth Sciences, Hong Kong University, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Luksemburg, W.J.; Wong, A.S. [Vista Analytical Laboratory, Inc., 1104 Windfield Way, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM{sub 2.5} (16.8 ng m{sup -3}) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children. - Uncontrolled e-waste recycling is ruining the environment.

  16. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  17. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  18. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  19. Urban Biomining Meets Printable Electronics: End-To-End at Destination Biological Recycling and Reprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J. (Principal Investigator); Koehne, Jessica; Gandhiraman, Ram; Navarrete, Jesica; Spangle, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Space missions rely utterly on metallic components, from the spacecraft to electronics. Yet, metals add mass, and electronics have the additional problem of a limited lifespan. Thus, current mission architectures must compensate for replacement. In space, spent electronics are discarded; on earth, there is some recycling but current processes are toxic and environmentally hazardous. Imagine instead an end-to-end recycling of spent electronics at low mass, low cost, room temperature, and in a non-toxic manner. Here, we propose a solution that will not only enhance mission success by decreasing upmass and providing a fresh supply of electronics, but in addition has immediate applications to a serious environmental issue on the Earth. Spent electronics will be used as feedstock to make fresh electronic components, a process we will accomplish with so-called 'urban biomining' using synthetically enhanced microbes to bind metals with elemental specificity. To create new electronics, the microbes will be used as 'bioink' to print a new IC chip, using plasma jet electronics printing. The plasma jet electronics printing technology will have the potential to use martian atmospheric gas to print and to tailor the electronic and chemical properties of the materials. Our preliminary results have suggested that this process also serves as a purification step to enhance the proportion of metals in the 'bioink'. The presence of electric field and plasma can ensure printing in microgravity environment while also providing material morphology and electronic structure tunabiity and thus optimization. Here we propose to increase the TRL level of the concept by engineering microbes to dissolve the siliceous matrix in the IC, extract copper from a mixture of metals, and use the microbes as feedstock to print interconnects using mars gas simulant. To assess the ability of this concept to influence mission architecture, we will do an analysis of the infrastructure required to execute

  20. Extracellular vesicles from activated platelets: a semiquantitative cryo-electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Alain R; Tan, Sisareuth; Linares, Romain; Gounou, Céline; Arraud, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm. Heijnen et al. [1] have shown that activated platelets release EVs corresponding to these two types of vesicles, using negative staining electron microscopy (EM) and immuno-gold labeling. Here, we apply cryo-EM and immuno-gold labeling to provide a quantitative analysis of EVs released by platelets activated by thrombin, TRAP and CRP-XL, as well as EVs from serum. We show that EVs activated by these three agonists present a similar size distribution, the majority of them forming a broad peak extending from 50 nm to 1 µm, about 50% of them ranging from 50 to 400 nm. We show also that 60% of the EVs from TRAP or CRP-XL activation expose CD41, a majority of them exposing also PS. To explain the presence of large EVs CD41-negative or PS-negative, several alternative mechanisms of EV formation are proposed. We find also that the majority of EVs in activated platelet samples expose CD63, and distinguish two populations of CD63-positive EVs, namely large EVs with low labeling density and small EVs with high labeling density.

  1. Vesicle Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, S.; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-07-01

    Amphiphiles, under appropriate conditions, can self-assemble into nanoscale thin membrane vessels (vesicles) that encapsulate and hence protect and transport molecular payloads. Vesicles assemble naturally within cells but can also be artificially synthesized. In this article, we review the mechanisms and applications of light-field interactions with vesicles. By being associated with light-emitting entities (e.g., dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as imaging agents in addition to cargo carriers. Vesicles can also be optically probed on the basis of their nonlinear response, typically from the vesicle membrane. Light fields can be employed to transport vesicles by using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or can directly perturb the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy). We conclude with emerging vesicle applications in biology and photochemical microreactors.

  2. The QWERTY/EE concept, Quantifying Recyclability and Eco-Efficiency for End-of-Life Treatment of Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The QWERTY/EE concept addresses recyclability and eco-efficiency of take-back and recycling of consumer electronic products, a topic currently receiving large international attention. Through the environmental part of the concept an alternative for usual weight based recycling percentages is

  3. Electronic waste recovery in Finland: Consumers' perceptions towards recycling and re-use of mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Mella, Jenni; Keiski, Riitta L; Pongrácz, Eva

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' awareness and perceptions towards mobile phone recycling and re-use. The results are based on a survey conducted in the city of Oulu, Finland, and analysed in the theoretical framework based on the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN). The findings indicate that consumers' awareness of the importance and existence of waste recovery system is high; however, awareness has not translated to recycling behaviour. The survey reveals that 55% of respondents have two or more unused mobile phones at homes. The more phones stored at homes, the more often reasons 'I don't know where to return' and/or 'have not got to do it yet' were mentioned. This indicates that proximity and the convenience of current waste management system are inadequate in promoting the return of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To facilitate re-use, and the highest level of recovery, consumers will need to be committed to return end-of-use electronics to WEEE collection centres without delays. Further, the supply and demand of refurbished mobile phones do not meet at this moment in Finland due to consumer's storing habits versus expectations of recent features under guarantee and unrealistic low prizes. The study also points out that, in order to change current storing habits of consumers, there is an explicit need for more information and awareness on mobile phone collection in Finland, especially on regarding retailers' take-back. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  5. Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Seth; Lee, Sung Hoon; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2017-09-04

    During endocytosis, fused synaptic vesicles are retrieved at nerve terminals, allowing for vesicle recycling and thus the maintenance of synaptic transmission during repetitive nerve firing. Impaired endocytosis in pathological conditions leads to decreases in synaptic strength and brain functions. Here, we describe methods used to measure synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the mammalian hippocampal synapse in neuronal culture. We monitored synaptic vesicle protein endocytosis by fusing a synaptic vesicular membrane protein, including synaptophysin and VAMP2/synaptobrevin, at the vesicular lumenal side, with pHluorin, a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein that increases its fluorescence intensity as the pH increases. During exocytosis, vesicular lumen pH increases, whereas during endocytosis vesicular lumen pH is re-acidified. Thus, an increase of pHluorin fluorescence intensity indicates fusion, whereas a decrease indicates endocytosis of the labelled synaptic vesicle protein. In addition to using the pHluorin imaging method to record endocytosis, we monitored vesicular membrane endocytosis by electron microscopy (EM) measurements of Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) uptake by vesicles. Finally, we monitored the formation of nerve terminal membrane pits at various times after high potassium-induced depolarization. The time course of HRP uptake and membrane pit formation indicates the time course of endocytosis.

  6. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Export of toxic chemicals - a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Wu, S C; Deng, W J; Yu, X Z; Luo, Q; Leung, A O W; Wong, C S C; Luksemburg, W J; Wong, A S

    2007-09-01

    This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM(2.5) (16.8ngm(-3)) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children.

  8. Heavy metal contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Changjiang; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment samples decreased downstream of Lianjiang River from Guiyu to the estuary at Haimen Bay. Temporally, heavy metal concentrations in the surface water were high in the rainy season and low in the dry season. In particular, concentrations of Cu from surface water in the Guiyu area were 2.4 to 131 times the reference background concentration, followed in descending order by Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As. However, when compared with China's Environmental Quality Standard, Cd was considered the most harmful element, followed by Hg, Pb, and Cu. Concentrations of Cu in sediment samples in the Guiyu area were 3.2 to 429 times the reference background concentration, followed by Ni, Hg, Pb, Cd, and As. Our findings suggested that high concentrations of heavy metal observed in Guiyu, Lianjiang River and the Haimen Bay could be attributed to the direct effects of e-waste recycling in Guiyu.

  9. Electron cooling of 8-GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler: Results and operational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    Electron cooling of 8 GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler storage ring is now routinely used in the collider operation. It requires a 0.1-0.5 A, 4.3 MeV dc electron beam and is designed to increase the longitudinal phase-space density of the circulating antiproton beam. This paper briefly describes the characteristics of the electron beam that were achieved to successfully cool antiprotons. Then, results from various cooling force measurements along with comparison to a nonmagnetized model are presented. Finally, operational aspects of the implementation of electron cooling at the Recycler are discussed, such as adjustments to the cooling rate and the influence of the electron beam on the antiproton beam lifetime.

  10. Presence of matrix vesicles in the body of odontoblasts and in the inner third of dentinal tissue: A scanning electron microscopyc study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Ortíz, Maricela; Ledesma Montes, Constantino; Reyes-Gasga, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this report is to present the results of a scanning electron microscopic study on the presence of matrix vesicles (MVs) found in human dentine. Study Design: Dentin tissue from 20 human bicuspids was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results: MVs were found as outgrowths of the cellular membrane of the odontoblastic body, the more proximal portion of the odontoblastic process before entering the dentinal tubule and in the odontoblastic process within th...

  11. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  12. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  13. Metal Exposures at three U.S. electronic scrap recycling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals. We found one overexposure to lead and two overexposures to cadmium. We found metals on non-production surfaces, and the skin and clothing of workers before they left work in all of the facilities. We also found some elevated blood lead levels (above 10 micrograms per deciliter), however no employees at any facility had detectable mercury in their urine or exceeded 34% of the OELs for blood or urine cadmium. This article focuses on sampling results for lead, cadmium, mercury, and indium. We provided recommendations for improving local exhaust ventilation, reducing the recirculation of potentially contaminated air, using respirators until exposures are controlled, and reducing the migration of contaminants from production to non-production areas. We also recommended ways for employees to prevent taking home metal dust by using work uniforms laundered on-site, storing personal and work items in separate lockers, and using washing facilities equipped with lead-removing cleaning products.

  14. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ca2+ Dependence of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jeremy; Kavalali, Ege T

    2016-10-01

    Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for structural homeostasis of synapses and maintenance of neurotransmission. Although, the executive role of intrasynaptic Ca(2+) transients in synaptic vesicle exocytosis is well established, identifying the exact role of Ca(2+) in endocytosis has been difficult. In some studies, Ca(2+) has been suggested as an essential trigger required to initiate synaptic vesicle retrieval, whereas others manipulating synaptic Ca(2+) concentrations reported a modulatory role for Ca(2+) leading to inhibition or acceleration of endocytosis. Molecular studies of synaptic vesicle endocytosis, on the other hand, have consistently focused on the roles of Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent phosphatase calcineurin and synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin as potential Ca(2+) sensors for endocytosis. Most studies probing the role of Ca(2+) in endocytosis have relied on measurements of synaptic vesicle retrieval after strong stimulation. Strong stimulation paradigms elicit fusion and retrieval of multiple synaptic vesicles and therefore can be affected by several factors besides the kinetics and duration of Ca(2+) signals that include the number of exocytosed vesicles and accumulation of released neurotransmitters thus altering fusion and retrieval processes indirectly via retrograde signaling. Studies monitoring single synaptic vesicle endocytosis may help resolve this conundrum as in these settings the impact of Ca(2+) on synaptic fusion probability can be uncoupled from its putative role on synaptic vesicle retrieval. Future experiments using these single vesicle approaches will help dissect the specific role(s) of Ca(2+) and its sensors in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Increase male genital diseases morbidity linked to informal electronic waste recycling in Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Bingrong; Huo, Xia

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, occupational and environmental exposure to toxic pollutants has increasingly contributed to declining sperm quality and increasing morbidity of human male genital diseases. This study explored the effects of electronic waste (e-waste) environmental pollutions on male genital health in Guiyu, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in the world. We collected outpatient case information from 2001 to 2009 in Guiyu and a control hospital and performed statistical analysis on male genital diseases morbidity (MGDM). The MGDM in Guiyu and the control hospital per thousand from 2004 to 2009 were 1.410/0.403 (2004), 0.539/0.385 (2005), 0.248/0.284 (2006), 0.485/0.195 (2007), 1.107/0.272 (2008), and 0.741/0.586 (2009) while the average total MGDM from 2004 to 2009 were 0.753 and 0.355 per thousand, respectively. Percentage of occurrence of epididymitis, impotence and prospermia, redundant prepuce, gonorrhea, urethritis, sexual function dysfunction, azoospermia, asthenospermia, and unknown etiology male sterility were higher in Guiyu (P e-waste environmental pollution in Guiyu, especially for diseases that could be influenced by environmental factors, and it may influence local population diathesis.

  17. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  18. Formation of PBDD/F from PBDE in electronic waste in recycling processes and under simulated extruding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennegg, Markus; Schluep, Mathias; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Lienemann, Peter; Haag, Regula; Gerecke, Andreas C

    2014-12-01

    The increasing volumes of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Europe and developing economies demand for efficient disposal solutions. However, WEEE also contains toxic compounds and, therefore, there is a need for recycling technologies for WEEE that creates revenue without causing environmental harm. Among other fast developing economies, South Africa is tempting to make use of recycled plastic. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are additives used to protect plastic materials in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) against ignition. Some BFRs are known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and some BFRs can be transformed into highly toxic compounds such as polybrominated dibenzofurans and dioxins (PBDD/Fs). In this study, the contents of critical BFRs, i.e. polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and highly toxic PBDD/Fs were measured in WEEE material from Switzerland and South Africa. The formation of PBDD/Fs has been observed in two South African recycling processes and under controlled laboratory conditions. Total PBDE-contents in the South African and Swiss plastic waste varied between 1×10(3) and 7×10(6) μg kg(-1). A few WEEE plastic fractions exceeded the RoHS limit of 1×10(6) μg kg(-1) for PBDEs and thus they could not be used for recycling products without special treatment. The total content of ∑PBDFs was around 1×10(3) μg kg(-1). Such contents in materials do not pose a risk for consumer under normal conditions. Workers at recycling plants might be at risk. The measured formation rates of PBDFs were between 2×10(-5) and 2×10(-4)∑PBDE(-1) min(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) for mechanical recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, Rosa; Pozzi, Paolo; Zanasi, Tania

    2010-12-01

    In view of the environmental problem involved in the management of WEEE, and then in the recycling of post-consumer plastic of WEEE there is a pressing need for rapid measurement technologies for simple identification of the various commercial plastic materials and of the several contaminants, to improve the recycling of such wastes. This research is focused on the characterization and recycling of two types of plastics, namely plastic from personal computer (grey plastic) and plastic from television (black plastic). Various analytical techniques were used to monitor the compositions of WEEE. Initially, the chemical structure of each plastic material was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polymeric contaminants of these plastics, in particular brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were detected in grey plastics only using different techniques. These techniques are useful for a rapid, correct and economics identification of a large volumes of WEEE plastics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of shape and spatial interaction of synaptic vesicles using data from focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Sporring, Jon

    2015-01-01

    deviations from spherical shape and systematic trends in their orientation. We studied three-dimensional representations of synapses obtained by manual annotation of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) images of male mouse brain. The configurations of synaptic vesicles were regarded...... in excitatory synapses appeared to be of oblate ellipsoid shape and in inhibitory synapses appeared to be of cigar ellipsoid shape, and followed a systematic pattern regarding their orientation towards the active zone. Moreover, there was strong evidence of spatial alignment in the orientations of pairs...

  1. Economic analysis of electronic waste recycling: modeling the cost and revenue of a materials recovery facility in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yong; Schoenung, Julie M

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the various techniques used for treating electronic waste (e-waste) at material recovery facilities (MRFs) in the state of California and to investigate the costs and revenue drivers for these techniques. The economics of a representative e-waste MRF are evaluated by using technical cost modeling (TCM). MRFs are a critical element in the infrastructure being developed within the e-waste recycling industry. At an MRF, collected e-waste can become marketable output products including resalable systems/components and recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, and glass. TCM has two main constituents, inputs and outputs. Inputs are process-related and economic variables, which are directly specified in each model. Inputs can be divided into two parts: inputs for cost estimation and for revenue estimation. Outputs are the results of modeling and consist of costs and revenues, distributed by unit operation, cost element, and revenue source. The results of the present analysis indicate that the largest cost driver for the operation of the defined California e-waste MRF is the materials cost (37% of total cost), which includes the cost to outsource the recycling of the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) (dollar 0.33/kg); the second largest cost driver is labor cost (28% of total cost without accounting for overhead). The other cost drivers are transportation, building, and equipment costs. The most costly unit operation is cathode ray tube glass recycling, and the next are sorting, collecting, and dismantling. The largest revenue source is the fee charged to the customer; metal recovery is the second largest revenue source.

  2. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  3. Presence of matrix vesicles in the body of odontoblasts and in the inner third of dentinal tissue: A scanning electron microscopyc study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Reyes-Gasga, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this report is to present the results of a scanning electron microscopic study on the presence of matrix vesicles (MVs) found in human dentine. Study Design: Dentin tissue from 20 human bicuspids was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results: MVs were found as outgrowths of the cellular membrane of the odontoblastic body, the more proximal portion of the odontoblastic process before entering the dentinal tubule and in the odontoblastic process within the inner third of the dentin. Size of MVs varied depending on location. In the inner third of dentin, they were seen in diverse positions; as membranal outgrowths, deriving from the odontoblastic process, lying free in the intratubular space and attached to the dentinal wall. Sometimes, they were seen organized forming groups of different sizes and shapes or as multivesicular chains running from the surface of the odontoblastic process to the tubular wall. MVs were present in places never considered: 1) the body of odontoblasts; 2) the most proximal part of the odontoblastic processes before entering the circumpulpal dentine and also: 3) in the inner third of dentinal tissue. Conclusions: According to our results, MVs not only participate during mantle dentin mineralization during early dentinogenesis, they also contribute during the mineralization process of the inner dentin. Key words:Dentin, microvesicles, secretory vesicles, dentin formation, dentin secretion. PMID:23385510

  4. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  5. A readily retrievable pool of synaptic vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Y; Sinha, R.; Thiel, C.; Schmidt, R.; Hueve, J.; Martens, H.; Hell, S.; Egner, A.; Klingauf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is thought to be the predominant mechanism of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, it seems to be too slow for fast recycling. Therefore, it was suggested that a pre-sorted and pre-assembled pool of SV proteins on the presynaptic membrane might support a first wave of fast CME. In this study we monitored the temporal dynamics of such a 'readily retrievable pool' of SV proteins in rat hippocampal neurons using a novel probe. Applying...

  6. Chronic early life lead (Pb2+) exposure alters presynaptic vesicle pools in hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Sara Rose; Stansfield, Kirstie H; McGlothan, Jennifer; Guilarte, Tomas R

    2016-11-02

    Lead (Pb2+) exposure has been shown to impair presynaptic neurotransmitter release in both in vivo and in vitro model systems. The mechanism by which Pb2+ impairs neurotransmitter release has not been fully elucidated. In previous work, we have shown that Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites in cultured hippocampal neurons. We have also shown that Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and alters the distribution of presynaptic vesicles in Shaffer Collateral - CA1 synapses of rodents chronically exposed to Pb2+ during development. In the present study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine presynaptic vesicle pools in Mossy Fiber-CA3 synapses and in Perforant Path-Dentate Gyrus synapses of rats to determine if in vivo Pb2+ exposure altered presynaptic vesicle distribution in these hippocampal regions. Data were analyzed using T-test for each experimental endpoint. We found that Pb2+ exposure significantly reduced the number of vesicles in the readily releasable pool and recycling pool in Mossy Fiber-CA3 terminals. In both Mossy Fiber-CA3 terminals and in Perforant Path-Dentate Gyrus terminals, Pb2+ exposure significantly increased vesicle nearest neighbor distance in all vesicular pools (Rapidly Releasable, Recycling and Resting). We also found a reduction in the size of the postsynaptic densities of CA3 dendrites in the Pb2+ exposed group. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that Pb2+ exposure impairs vesicular release in Shaffer Collateral - CA1 terminals of the hippocampus and that the number of docked vesicles in the presynaptic active zone was reduced. Our current data shows that Pb2+ exposure reduces the number of vesicles that are in proximity to release sites in Mossy Fiber- CA3 terminals. Furthermore, Pb2+ exposure causes presynaptic vesicles to be further from one another, in both Mossy Fiber- CA3 terminals and in Perforant Pathway - Dentate Gyrus terminals, which may interfere with

  7. Recycling of plastic wastes from electric and electronic sector new developments; Reciclado de residuos plasticos del sector electrico y electronico. Nuevos desarrollos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Cacho, I.

    1999-07-01

    Automated technologies for the identification and sorting of plastic wastes have been developed to get an adequate and cost-effective recycling. When dealing with plastics from end-of-live electric and electronic equipment not only the polymeric matrix but also fillers and/or flame retardant additives and/or pigments, need to be taken in account. At present, several specific projects are being carried out by GAIKER in order to solve the technological challenge of recycling plastics from the electric and electronic sector. (Author)

  8. Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Adam Johan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation

  9. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.

  10. 'Away' is a place: The impact of electronic waste recycling on blood lead levels in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Adovor Tsikudo, Kwame A; Bowman, Jay A

    2017-12-01

    E-waste recycling remains a major source of livelihood for many urban poor in developing countries, but this economic activity is fraught with significant environmental health risk. Yet, human exposure to the toxic elements associated with e-waste activities remains understudied and not evidently understood. This study investigates the impact of informal e-waste processing on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of e-waste workers and non-e-waste workers (mainly females working in activities that serve the Agbogbloshie e-waste site), and relates their lead exposure to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics. A total of 128 blood samples were analysed for lead levels. Surprisingly, the mean BLL (3.54μg/dL) of non-e-waste workers was slightly higher than that of e-waste workers (3.49μg/dL), although higher BLLs ranges were found among e-waste workers (0.50-18.80μg/dL) than non-e-waste workers (0.30-8.20μg/dL). Workers who engaged in e-waste burning tended to have the highest BLLs. In general, the BLLs are within the ABLES/US CDC reference level of 5μg/dL, although 12.3% of the workers have elevated BLLs, i.e. BLL ≥5μg/dL. The study concludes that the impact of e-waste recycling is not limited to workers alone. Traders and residents within the Agbogbloshie enclave are equally at risk through a range of environmental vectors. This calls for increased public awareness about the effects of human exposure to lead and other toxic elements from e-waste recycling. A key contribution is that government and stakeholder projects for safe e-waste infrastructure should disaggregate the e-waste value chain, recognize differential risk and resist one-size-fits-all strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C

    2012-06-30

    We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, "formal" and "informal") revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (pmetals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Takashi, E-mail: fujimori.takashi@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Ibaraki (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Ibaraki (Japan); Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, 790-8577, Ehime (Japan); Bekki, Kanae [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Ibaraki (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-cho, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Ishikawa (Japan); Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Ibaraki (Japan); Ballesteros, Florencio C. [College of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, 1101 (Philippines)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified 11 metals in surface matrices from e-waste recycling sites at the Philippines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dust had statistical higher levels of metal contamination and health risk compared to soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formal and informal sites had different metal contaminations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intra-Asian comparison provided common insight on metal contamination from e-waste recycling. - Abstract: We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, 'formal' and 'informal') revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p < 0.005), excluding informal dust (p = 0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites.

  13. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...

  14. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: a case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, C; Zhang, H; Dobon, A; Hortal, M; Beneventi, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2-7.5% in brightness, 8.5-10.7% in whiteness, 1.2-2.2% in L(∗) values, 3.3-3.5% in opacity and 16.1-27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges able to cause problems in current paper recycling processes and restrict the use of recycled paper in current applications. Moreover, real impacts on industrial recycling are expected to be even significantly lower since the proportion of paper product with printed circuits in the current paper waste streams are much lower than the ones tested in this work. However, it should be underlined the fact that this situation may change over the next

  15. Recycling endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  16. Recycling-oriented characterization of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from mobile phones by electronic and chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    This study characterizes the composition of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from end-of-life mobile phones. This knowledge may help define an optimal processing strategy for using these items as potential raw materials. Correct handling of such a waste is essential for its further "sustainable" recovery, especially to maximize the extraction of base, rare and precious metals, minimizing the environmental impact of the entire process chain. A combination of electronic and chemical imaging techniques was thus examined, applied and critically evaluated in order to optimize the processing, through the identification and the topological assessment of the materials of interest and their quantitative distribution. To reach this goal, end-of-life mobile phone derived wastes have been systematically characterized adopting both "traditional" (e.g. scanning electronic microscopy combined with microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy) and innovative (e.g. hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared field) techniques, with reference to frames and printed circuit boards. Results showed as the combination of both the approaches (i.e. traditional and classical) could dramatically improve recycling strategies set up, as well as final products recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insights into the self-reproduction of oleate vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P [' Enrico Fermi' Centre, Compendio Viminale, 00184 Rome (Italy); Wehrli, E [Electron Microscopy Centre (EMEZ), Applied Physics Institute, ETH Hoenggerberg, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Luisi, P L [Biology Department, University of RomaTre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2006-08-23

    In view of the importance of vesicles as models for early cells, several groups have started work looking for conditions under which vesicles can undergo growth and division. Evidence for growth and division has been obtained with the help of ferritin-labelled vesicles; furthermore, it has been shown that in such processes the vesicle size distribution is largely conserved. In both cases, the data suggest that the process under study is mainly characterized by vesicle growth and eventually division into daughter vesicles. However, direct evidence for vesicle division has not been obtained. In this paper, mostly based on freeze-fracture electron microscopy, we describe conditions under which for the first time division intermediates can be trapped in the form of twin vesicles. This finding, together with supporting dynamic light scattering and fluorescence investigations, permits us to establish some additional points in the mechanism of vesicle self-reproduction.

  18. Improvement of the Koradi parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics and application to the economic organization and optimization of recycling costs of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; Queiruga, D.

    2005-09-01

    A parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics, MD, the Koradi point-centered decomposition algorithm, especially designed for inhomogeneous systems, is improved and applied to the organization and optimization of recycling costs of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE, and also to systems of atoms. This organization requires the numbers and locations of storage centers and recycling plants of the WEEE that minimize the recycling cost. The Koradi algorithm finds these optimal numbers and locations, dealing very fast with large numbers of data, in contrast with other methods. The changes of the original algorithm (different ways of generating the initial centers and especially the requirement of location convergence) improve its performance for this economic problem and also for MD simulations.

  19. Presence of matrix vesicles in the body of odontoblasts and in the inner third of dentinal tissue: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Reyes-Gasga, José

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present the results of a scanning electron microscopic study on the presence of matrix vesicles (MVs) found in human dentine. Dentin tissue from 20 human bicuspids was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. MVs were found as outgrowths of the cellular membrane of the odontoblastic body, the more proximal portion of the odontoblastic process before entering the dentinal tubule and in the odontoblastic process within the inner third of the dentin. Size of MVs varied depending on location. In the inner third of dentin, they were seen in diverse positions; as membranal outgrowths, deriving from the odontoblastic process, lying free in the intratubular space and attached to the dentinal wall. Sometimes, they were seen organized forming groups of different sizes and shapes or as multivesicular chains running from the surface of the odontoblastic process to the tubular wall. MVs were present in places never considered: 1) the body of odontoblasts; 2) the most proximal part of the odontoblastic processes before entering the circumpulpal dentine and also: 3) in the inner third of dentinal tissue. According to our results, MVs not only participate during mantle dentin mineralization during early dentinogenesis, they also contribute during the mineralization process of the inner dentin.

  20. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of AP180 and CALM produces defects in synaptic vesicle size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S; Wang, Ya-Xian; Indig, Fred E; Bushlin, Ittai; Wu, Fangbai; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2013-03-01

    Clathrin assembly proteins AP180 and CALM regulate the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), which mediate diverse intracellular trafficking processes, including synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at the synapse. Although studies using several invertebrate model systems have indicated a role for AP180 in SV recycling, less is known about AP180's or CALM's function in the synapse of mammalian neurons. In this study, we examined synapses of rat hippocampal neurons in which the level of AP180 or CALM had been reduced by RNA interference (RNAi). Using light microscopy, we visualized synaptic puncta in these AP180- or CALM-reduced neurons by co-expressing Synaptophysin::EGFP (Syp::EGFP). We found that neurons with reduced AP180 or reduced CALM had smaller Syp::EGFP-illuminated puncta. Using electron microscopy, we further examined the ultrastructure of the AP180- or CALM-reduced presynaptic terminals. We found that SVs became variably enlarged in both the AP180-reduced and CALM-reduced presynaptic terminals. Lower AP180 and CALM also reduced the density of SVs and the size of SV clusters. Our findings demonstrate that in the presynaptic terminals of hippocampal neurons, AP180 and CALM have a similar role in regulating synaptic vesicles. This overlapping activity may be necessary for high-precision and high-efficacy SV formation during endocytosis.

  2. Survey Data About Recycling Electronic Waste in the Municipality of Medianeira - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Abreu Bueno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as its theme the management of electronic waste in the municipality of Medianeira-PR and will aim to address and verify that the computer companies and electronics installed in the municipality of Medianeira are allocating their waste correctly, whether the population has knowledge of this residue as well to have access to collection points to make the allocation of junk. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaire administered to the population and enterprises throughout the municipality. It was found that although companies have concern about waste disposal and direct them to the company responsible for separating and processing all the garbage collected, the population has little information on the correct destination, much has improved, with respect the creation of instruments to regulate the problem of electronic waste in the municipality and the development of campaigns and programs to the population to which it directs the waste to collection points to ensure the best utilization of this waste, to minimize the costs of public with the final disposition and allow the improvement of environmental conditions and quality of life of residents. Keywords: Waste, Collection, Environment, Environmental education.

  3. Coated vesicles as protein release mechanism in myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, L D; Lazarus, S S

    An electron microscopic study was undertaken of the protein release mechanism within myeloma cells showing a very high degree of protein production. Smooth surfaced vesicles (50 millimicrons) were seen to originate from the outer margin of the perinuclear cistern. Similar vesicles were also associated with distended Golgi sacs. Possible function of these vesicles could not be determined. Coated vesicles (60 millimicrons) originated as evaginations from endoplasmic reticulum in the transitional region. They were present throughout the cytoplasm and were seen to fuse with the cell membrane discharging an electron dense material. These vesicles are, therefore, thought to transport protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and discharge it at the cell surface.

  4. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  5. Copper leaching from electronic waste for the improvement of gold recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2016-11-01

    Gold recovery from electronic waste material with high copper content was investigated at ambient conditions. A chemical preliminary treatment was found necessary to remove the large quantities of copper before the precious metal can be extracted. For this purpose inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) and two organic substances EDTA and citrate, were tested. The effect of auxiliary oxidants such as air, ozone and peroxide hydroxide was studied. In pretreatments with peroxide and HCl or citrate, copper extractions greater than 90% were achieved. In the second leaching stage for gold recovery, the solid residue of the copper extraction was contacted with thiourea solutions, resulting in greater than 90% gold removal after only one hour of reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA), light scattering, field flow fractionation and cryo electron microscopy in a multidimensional approach to characterize liposomal carrier vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Carlos; Weiss, Victor U; Gondikas, Andreas; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Marko-Varga, György; Andersson, Roland

    2016-11-20

    For drug delivery, characterization of liposomes regarding size, particle number concentrations, occurrence of low-sized liposome artefacts and drug encapsulation are of importance to understand their pharmacodynamic properties. In our study, we aimed to demonstrate the applicability of nano Electrospray Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analyser (nES GEMMA) as a suitable technique for analyzing these parameters. We measured number-based particle concentrations, identified differences in size between nominally identical liposomal samples, and detected the presence of low-diameter material which yielded bimodal particle size distributions. Subsequently, we compared these findings to dynamic light scattering (DLS) data and results from light scattering experiments coupled to Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4), the latter improving the detectability of smaller particles in polydisperse samples due to a size separation step prior detection. However, the bimodal size distribution could not be detected due to method inherent limitations. In contrast, cryo transmission electron microscopy corroborated nES GEMMA results. Hence, gas-phase electrophoresis proved to be a versatile tool for liposome characterization as it could analyze both vesicle size and size distribution. Finally, a correlation of nES GEMMA results with cell viability experiments was carried out to demonstrate the importance of liposome batch-to-batch control as low-sized sample components possibly impact cell viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The role of cholesterol in exo- and endocytosis of the synaptic vesicles at the frog motor nerve terminal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A M; kasimov, M R; Giniatullin, A R; Tarakanova, O I; Zefirov, A L

    2009-07-01

    In experiments on the frog neuro-muscular preparations using electrophysiological (two electrode fixing of potential) and optical (fluorescent endocytic dye FM1-43) methods, the value of surface cholestertol for exo-endocytic cycle of synaptic vesicles at the prolonged rhythmic activity (20 Hz--3 minutes) was investigated. It is shown that extraction of cholesterol from surface membranes by methyl-betta-cyclodextrin (1 mM MCD) leads to the expressed shifts in recycling of synaptic vesicles. Exocytosis of vesicles is decreased, and oppression of processes leading to restoration of the number of vesicles of ready releasable pool is observed. Cholesterol replacement from external membranes and membranes of recycling synaptic vesicles in addition to above described effects breaks processes of endocytosis and recycle of synaptic vesicles. Thus, in the processes of exocytosis, the key role is played by cholesterol of plasmatic membranes, and endocytosis critically depends on the amount of cholesterol in the membranes of synaptic vesicles.

  8. Assessment of different fixation protocols on the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in Caco-2 cells: a multidimensional view by means of correlative light and 3-D transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Gerald; Cheng, Delfine; Henriquez, Jeffrey; Braet, Filip

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we present a comparative analysis of a variety of chemical and physical fixation protocols for the specific visualisation of the membrane-bound vesicles (MBVs) in the Caco-2 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line. In so doing, we validated the applicability of specific specimen preparation protocols for the preservation and contrasting of membrane-associated vesicles. Next, by employing the best respective chemical (GOT) and physical (SHPF) fixation methods for the application of transmission electron tomography and modelling we were able to characterise MBVs in three-dimensions and at the nanometer scale. In the second part of this study, we employ a correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) approach in order to determine which vesicular compartments are implicated in the uptake of FITC-BSA as a model protein drug. In so doing, we provide a solid foundation for future studies investigating chemotherapeutic drug uptake, transport and fate in cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  10. Factors Influencing Consumers’ Intention to Return the End of Life Electronic Products through Reverse Supply Chain Management for Reuse, Repair and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion, population growth and environmental problems force companies to collect their end of life (EOL products for reuse, recycle and refurbishment through reverse supply chain management (RSCM. Success in collecting the EOL products through RSCM depends on the customers’ participation intention. The objectives of this study are: (1 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ attitude to participate in RSCM; (2 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ subjective norm to participate in RSCM; (3 To examine the main factors influencing customers’ perceived behavioral control to participate in RSCM; (4 To examine the influence of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on customers’ participation intention in RSCM. The Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB has been chosen as the underpinning theory for this research. The research conducted employed the quantitative approach. Non-probability (convenience sampling method was used to determine the sample and data was collected using questionnaires. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM technique was employed. A total of 800 questionnaires were distributed among customers of electronic products in Malaysia. Finally, the questionnaire was distributed among the customers in electronic retailer companies based on convenience sampling method. The empirical results confirm that consumers perception about the risk associated with EOL electronic products, consumers’ ecological knowledge and relative advantages associated with reuse, repair and recycling can influence the attitude of consumers to return the EOL products for reuse, repair and recycling to producer.

  11. Monitoring of lead load and its effect on neonatal behavioral neurological assessment scores in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Chen, Gangjian; Liu, Junxiao; Chen, Songjian; Gu, Chengwu; Zhang, Bao; Zheng, Liangkai; Zheng, Minghao; Huo, Xia

    2008-10-01

    Guiyu is the major electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town in China. The primary purpose of this study was to measure the lead levels in neonates and examine the correlation between lead levels and neurobehavioral development. One hundred full-term neonates from Guiyu and fifty-two neonates from neighboring towns (control group) in the late summer of 2006 were selected for study. The lead levels in the umbilical cord blood (CBPb) and lead levels in meconium (MPb) of neonates were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was conducted on all neonates. A questionnaire related to the exposure to lead of pregnant women was used as a survey of the neonates' mothers. Compared with the control group, neonates in Guiyu had significantly higher levels of lead (P e-waste recycling. Neonates with high levels of lead load have lower NBNA scores (P e-waste recycling activities related to lead contamination. This study suggests that environmental lead contamination due to e-waste recycling have an impact on neurobehavioral development of neonates in Guiyu.

  12. The Government's Environment Policy Index Impact on Recycler Behavior in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suchao He; Xigang Yuan; Xiaoqing Zhang

    2016-01-01

      We establish the model of multilevel closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) which included raw material supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and third-party recycler based on system dynamics (SD...

  13. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  14. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Government’s Environment Policy Index Impact on Recycler Behavior in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the model of multilevel closed-loop supply chain (CLSC which included raw material supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and third-party recycler based on system dynamics (SD. Considering factors which influence recycler behavior-environmental policy index and recovery delay, we apply SD software—Vensim—to simulate CLSC model and study recycler behavior’s influence on the entire CLSC through calculating the bullwhip effect of all levels members order rate. Research shows that (1 the larger the environmental policy index, the greater the recycle proportion and the better the effect of weakening retailer’s order rate in forward supply chain, which however, increasingly, strengthen the reverse supply chain bullwhip effect, (2 the shorter the recovery delay, the better the effect of weakening the forward supply chain bullwhip effect and the longer the recovery delay, which increasingly weakens the reverse supply chain bullwhip effect, and (3 the effect of environmental policy index on the bullwhip effect of all levels members order rate is more significant than recovery delay.

  16. Interaction of insulin with SDS/CTAB catanionic Vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tah, Bidisha; Pal, Prabir; Talapatra, G.B., E-mail: spgbt@iacs.res.in

    2014-01-15

    In the present study, a novel method was used for entrapping the protein, insulin into the catanionic SDS/CTAB vesicle membrane. The anionic SDS and cationic CTAB formed catanionic vesicles at particular concentration (35:65 by volume). In this study, vesicle membrane can be considered as model membrane. The vesicle formation and entrapment efficiency depend on the pH of the aqueous solution. The insulin molecules have attached with the vesicular membrane at pH 7.0. However, at acidic pH, the vesicles were ruptured and the insulin did not entrap into the vesicle membrane, whereas at alkaline pH insulin became fibriller. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Zeta potential studies established the self-assembled structure formation of insulin and catanionic vesicles. To know the protein confirmations, Circular dichroism (CD) was also employed. The temperature dependent steady state and time resolved emission spectroscopy show that at room temperature (25 °C), apart from the 305 nm tyrosine fluorescence, a new emission peak at 450 nm was observed only in case of insulin-vesicle system, and was assigned as the tyrosine phosphorescence. This phosphorescence peak is the signature of the entrapment of insulin into the vesicle membrane. Highlights: • SDS-CTAB based catanionic vesicle has been fabricated. • Insulin has been successfully immobilized on these vesicles. • Immobilized insulin shows room temperature phosphorescence.

  17. Breaking the COPI monopoly on Golgi recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie, B; Pepperkok, R; Nilsson, T

    2000-09-01

    The unexpected discovery of a transport pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independent of COPI coat proteins sheds light on how Golgi resident enzymes and protein toxins gain access to the ER from as far as the trans Golgi network. This new pathway provides an explanation for how membrane is recycled to allow for an apparent concentration of anterograde cargo at distinct stages of the secretory pathway. As signal-mediated COPI-dependent recycling also involves the concentration of resident proteins into retrograde COPI vesicles, the main bulk of lipids must be recycled, possibly through a COPI-independent pathway.

  18. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  19. Characterization and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and vegetations near an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chun-Ling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of PCBs generated from e-waste recycling, and their potential impacts on the soils and vegetations as well. The ΣPCBs concentrations in soil and plant samples ranged from 7.4 to 4000 ng g(-1) and from 6.7 to 1500 ng g(-1), respectively. For the plant samples, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. from vegetable field and the wild plant Bidens pilosa L. from the burning site showed relatively higher PCB concentrations than other species. For the soil samples, the e-waste burning site had relatively higher PCB concentrations than the adjacent areas, and vegetable soils had higher PCB concentrations than paddy soils. The PCB concentrations showed a clear decreasing trend with the increasing distance from the e-waste recycling site. PCB 28, 99, 101, 138, 153, and 180 were the predominant congeners. Principal component analysis results showed a potential fractionation of PCB compositions from the burning site to the surroundings. The PCB congener pattern at the burning site was similar to Arochlor 1260, pointing to an input of non-domestic e-waste. Similar PCB congeners were found in soils and related vegetables, indicating they derived from the same source. The consumption of vegetables grown in soils near e-waste recycling sites should be strictly avoided due to the high PCBs in the plant tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spin State As a Probe of Vesicle Self-Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sanghoon; Bellouard, Christine; Eastoe, Julian; Canilho, Nadia; Rogers, Sarah E; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    A novel system of paramagnetic vesicles was designed using ion pairs of iron-containing surfactants. Unilamellar vesicles (diameter ≈ 200 nm) formed spontaneously and were characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and light and small-angle neutron scattering. Moreover, for the first time, it is shown that magnetization measurements can be used to investigate self-assembly of such functionalized systems, giving information on the vesicle compo...

  1. Spin State As a Probe of Vesicle Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Bellouard, Christine; Eastoe, Julian; Canilho, Nadia; Rogers, Sarah E; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-03-02

    A novel system of paramagnetic vesicles was designed using ion pairs of iron-containing surfactants. Unilamellar vesicles (diameter ≈ 200 nm) formed spontaneously and were characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and light and small-angle neutron scattering. Moreover, for the first time, it is shown that magnetization measurements can be used to investigate self-assembly of such functionalized systems, giving information on the vesicle compositions and distribution of surfactants between the bilayers and the aqueous bulk.

  2. Indicators for the feasibility of WEEE processing plants in brazil: a relationship between virgin mineral copper ore and the recycling of consumer electronic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Alves Cândido

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the economic analysis of the implementation of WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive – processing plants in Brazil, through the study of potential copper extraction from this secondary source. A comparative approach was performed on its copper grade related to levels of its virgin ore mineral extracted from mines located in Brazil, in the United States and through a global average. The results demonstrate that the amount of copper mass originated from the recycling of disassembly of twenty electronic products ranges from 0.24% to 17.83% of its total mass, with an average of 3.63% of copper. In eighteen of these products, values greater than 0.4% were found, which surpass current levels of copper in ore mines in the USA. In fourteen products, these rates exceed the index of 1.5% copper in the ore, considered the minimum rate for the feasibility of opening new units of copper underground mining in Brazil. Thus, this paper shows the economic analysis that aims to guide on the viability of deploying WEEE processing plants, focusing on the expansion of recycling and reuse of copper by the processing industry.

  3. Two distinct populations of synaptic-like vesicles from rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoidis, Galini; Chen, Peng; Pushkin, Alexander V.; Vallega, Gino; Leeman, Susan E.; Fine, Richard E.; Kandror, Konstantin V.

    1998-01-01

    In nonneuronal cells, several plasma membrane proteins such as exofacial enzymes, receptors, and ion channels recycle between their intracellular compartment(s) and the cell surface via an endosomal pathway. In neurons, however, this pathway has not been extensively characterized. In particular, it remains unclear whether or not it is related to the recycling of small synaptic vesicles, the major pathway of membrane traffic in nerve terminals. To approach this problem, we purified and studied a vesicular fraction from rat brain synaptosomes. Two distinct populations of vesicles with different buoyant densities and sedimentation coefficients were detected in this fraction by sucrose gradient centrifugation and Western blot analysis of the individual proteins. Both populations contain proteins that are markers of synaptic vesicles, namely, SV2, synaptotagmin, synaptophysin, secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs), synaptobrevin, and rab3a. A striking difference between the two populations is the presence of arginine aminopeptidase activity (a previously suggested marker for the regulated endosomal recycling pathway) exclusively in the lighter less-dense vesicles. The same two vesicular populations were also detected in the preparation of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from whole rat brain or purified synaptosomes after removal of their clathrin coats by incubation at pH 8.5. We conclude, therefore, that both types of vesicles recycle in synaptosomes via a clathrin-mediated pathway. These data present experimental evidence for biochemical heterogeneity of synaptic-like vesicles in rat brain. PMID:9419350

  4. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  5. Phosphorylation of Synaptojanin Differentially Regulates Endocytosis of Functionally Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Junhua; Wang, Liping; Lee, Joo Yeun; Chen, Chun-Kan; Chang, Karen T

    2016-08-24

    The rapid replenishment of synaptic vesicles through endocytosis is crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission during intense neuronal activity. Synaptojanin (Synj), a phosphoinositide phosphatase, is known to play an important role in vesicle recycling by promoting the uncoating of clathrin following synaptic vesicle uptake. Synj has been shown to be a substrate of the minibrain (Mnb) kinase, a fly homolog of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A); however, the functional impacts of Synj phosphorylation by Mnb are not well understood. Here we identify that Mnb phosphorylates Synj at S1029 in Drosophila We find that phosphorylation of Synj at S1029 enhances Synj phosphatase activity, alters interaction between Synj and endophilin, and promotes efficient endocytosis of the active cycling vesicle pool (also referred to as exo-endo cycling pool) at the expense of reserve pool vesicle endocytosis. Dephosphorylated Synj, on the other hand, is deficient in the endocytosis of the active recycling pool vesicles but maintains reserve pool vesicle endocytosis to restore total vesicle pool size and sustain synaptic transmission. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for Synj in modulating reserve pool vesicle endocytosis and further indicate that dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Synj differentially maintain endocytosis of distinct functional synaptic vesicle pools. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis sustains communication between neurons during a wide range of neuronal activities by recycling used vesicle membrane and protein components. Here we identify that Synaptojanin, a protein with a known role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, is phosphorylated at S1029 in vivo by the Minibrain kinase. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation status of Synaptojanin at S1029 differentially regulates its participation in the recycling of distinct synaptic vesicle pools. Our results reveal a new role for Synaptojanin in

  6. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (pconsumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  8. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D.; Meehan, Barry J.; Morrison, Paul D.; Jones, Oliver A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs) such as trichloromethane (chloroform), dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform); these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb). All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM) compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L). PMID:28505068

  9. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydon D. Alexandrou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs. The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs such as trichloromethane (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform; these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs. Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia. The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb. All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L.

  10. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Meehan, Barry J; Morrison, Paul D; Jones, Oliver A H

    2017-05-15

    Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs) such as trichloromethane (chloroform), dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform); these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb). All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM) compared to samples from final use locations (4.9-9.3 µg/L).

  11. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2007-11-15

    This study is one of the very few investigating the dioxin body burden of a group of child-bearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) (24 +/- 2.83 years of age, 40% were primiparae) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province, about 245 km away from Taizhou) (24 +/- 2.35 years of age, 100% were primiparae) in China. Five sets of samples (each set consisted of human milk, placenta, and hair) were collected from each site. Body burdens of people from the e-waste processing site (human milk, 21.02 +/- 13.81 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat (World Health Organization toxic equivalency 1998); placenta, 31.15 +/- 15.67 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 33.82 +/- 17.74 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) showed significantly higher levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) than those from the reference site (human milk, 9.35 +/- 7.39 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; placenta, 11.91 +/- 7.05 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 5.59 +/- 4.36 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) and were comparatively higher than other studies. The difference between the two sites was due to e-waste recycling operations, for example, open burning, which led to high background levels. Moreover, mothers from the e-waste recycling site consumed more foods of animal origin. The estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs within 6 months by breastfed infants from the e-waste processing site was 2 times higher than that from the reference site. Both values exceeded the WHO tolerable daily intake for adults by at least 25 and 11 times, respectively. Our results implicated that e-waste recycling operations cause prominent PCDD/F levels in the environment and in humans. The elevated body burden may have health implications for the next generation.

  12. Astrocyte VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent cycling and modulate glutamate transporter trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Guillon, Marc; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Key points Mouse cortical astrocytes express VAMP3 but not VAMP2. VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo- and endocytotic cycling at the plasma membrane. VAMP3 vesicle traffic regulates the recycling of plasma membrane glutamate transporters. cAMP modulates VAMP3 vesicle cycling and glutamate uptake. Abstract Previous studies suggest that small synaptic-like vesicles in astrocytes carry vesicle-associated vSNARE proteins, VAMP3 (cellubrevin) and VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2), both contributing to the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters, thereby modulating brain information processing. Here, using cortical astrocytes taken from VAMP2 and VAMP3 knock-out mice, we find that astrocytes express only VAMP3. The morphology and function of VAMP3 vesicles were studied in cultured astrocytes at single vesicle level with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopies. We show that VAMP3 antibodies label small diameter (∼80 nm) vesicles and that VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo-endocytosis. We also show that this pathway modulates the surface expression of plasma membrane glutamate transporters and the glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Finally, using pharmacological and optogenetic tools, we provide evidence suggesting that the cytosolic cAMP level influences astrocytic VAMP3 vesicle trafficking and glutamate transport. Our results suggest a new role for VAMP3 vesicles in astrocytes. PMID:25864578

  13. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  14. Functionally polymerized surfactant vesicles: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Kippenberger, D.J.; Klahn, P.L.; Prieto, N.E.; Fendler, J.H.

    1982-01-27

    Bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony bromide, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony (2-hydroxyethyl)methylammonium bromide, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony acid, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony allylbis(2-dodecanoyloxycarbon bromide, and dimethyl-n-hexadecyl (10-(p-vin decyl)ammonium bromide have been synthesized. The predominantly single compartment bilayer vesicles formed from these surfactants could be polymerized either by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation or by the use of azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The presence of vesicles (unpolymerized and polymeric) has been demonstrated by electron micrography, H/sup 1/ NMR, gel filtration, phase transition, turbidity changes, substrate entrapment, and permeability. Polymerized vesicles are considerably more stable and less permeable and have reduced rates of turbidity changes compared to their unpolymerized counterparts. 19 references.

  15. DNA-fueled molecular machine enables enzyme-free target recycling amplification for electronic detection of microRNA from cancer cells with highly minimized background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Cuiyun; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2015-08-18

    The variations in microRNA (miRNA) expression levels can be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of different cancers. In this work, on the basis of a new miRNA-triggered molecular machine for enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification, the development of a simple electronic sensor for highly sensitive detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells is described. The three-stand DNA duplex probes are self-assembled on the gold electrode surface to fabricate the sensor. The miRNA-21 target binds to the terminal toehold region of the probes, displaces one of the short strands through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, and exposes the secondary toehold region for subsequent hybridization with the methylene blue (MB)-modified DNA fuel strand, which further displaces both the miRNA-21 target and the other short strand to activate the operation of the molecular machine. As a result, the miRNA-21 target is cyclically reused, and many MB-DNA fuel strands are attached to the sensor surface, leading to a significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 down to 1.4 fM. The developed sensor also shows high sequence discrimination capability and can be used to monitor miRNA-21 expression levels in cancer cells. Moreover, this sensor avoids the involvement of any enzymes for target recycling amplification and features with highly minimized background noise for miRNA detection, which makes this method hold great potential for convenient monitoring of different miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of various cancers.

  16. E-waste : Collect more, treat better; Tracking take-back system performance for eco-efficient electronics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation establishes a methodology for evaluating the performance of take-back and treatment systems for end-oflife electronics (e-waste). First, a comprehensive classification is developed to fully understand the complex characteristics of e-waste. A multivariate model is then created to

  17. Prostasome-like vesicles stimulate acrosome reaction of pig spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianò Vito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of small membranous particles characterizes the male genital fluids of different mammalian species. The influence of semen vesicles, denominated prostasomes, on sperm functional properties has been well documented in humans, but their biological activity is scarcely known in other species. The present work investigated prostasome-like vesicles in pig semen for their ability to interact with spermatozoa and to affect acrosome reaction. Methods Prostasome-like vesicles have been isolated from pig seminal plasma by high-speed centrifugation and Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography. Morphology of purified vesicles has been checked by scanning electron microscopy while their protein pattern has been investigated by SDS-PAGE. Then prostasome- like vesicles have been incubated with pig spermatozoa and their ability to interact with sperm has been tested by the aminopeptidase assay. In addition, the efficiency of vesicles to influence the acrosome reaction has been investigated by assessing the sperm acrosomal status by the PI/FITC-PNA (propidium iodide/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peanut agglutinin stainings. Results Purified vesicles revealed a complex protein pattern with the occurrence of bands in the high, medium and low molecular weight range. However, the two major bands were observed at ~90 kDa and ~60 kDa. A vesicle-mediated transfer of aminopeptidase to sperm cells has been also detected. Furthermore, a significant increase of acrosome reaction extent has been revealed in spermatozoa incubated with prostasome-like vesicles in comparison to control sperm. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that pig prostasome-like vesicles are able, in vitro, to interact with spermatozoa and to stimulate the acrosome reaction. These findings lead to hypothesize a transfer of molecules from vesicles to sperm membrane, thus sensitizing male gametes to undergo the acrosome reaction

  18. Biochemical and morphological characterization of light and heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Kevin Peter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Light (30 to 32.5% sucrose) and heavy (38.5 to 42% sucrose) sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (LSR, HSR) were isolated from rabbit leg muscle. They were then diluted and washed with sucrose or KCl and referred to as sucrose or KCl washed vesicles. Thin-section electron microscopy of LSR vesicles reveals empty vesicles of various sizes and shapes where as the HSR vesicles appear as rounded vesicles of uniform size filled with electron dense material. The LSR consists of predominantly Ca2+ + Mg2+ ATPase (80 to 90%), a small amount of the high affinity Ca binding protein (5%), and a 5000 dalton proteolipid. The sucrose HSR vesicles contain the Ca2+ + Mg2+ ATPase (50%), Calsequestrin (25%), high affinity Ca binding protein (5%), one extrinsic 34,000 dalton protein (3%), one intrinsic 30,000 dalton protein (3%), a 9000 dalton proteolipid, and a 5000 dalton proteolipid. The sucrose--washed HSR vesicles contain greater than three times the calcium content of the sucrose washed LSR vesicles where as the KCl--washed vesicles contain less than 15 nmoles Ca2+ mg of protein each. The light and heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were both able to accumulate calcium in the presence of ATP. Exchange of methanesulfonate for chloride resulted in the release of calcium from both the light and heavy SR vesicles. Sucrose causes a slight inhibition of chloride--induced calcium release from the heavy SR vesicles but it greatly reduces the release of calcium from the light SR vesicles. Sodium dantrolene (20 uM) has no effect on the release of calcium from the light SR vesicles but it inhibits the release of calcium from the heavy SR vesicles. The results indicate that the chloride--induced release of calcium may be acting by two mechanisms, osmotic swelling and depolarization.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg -1 )>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg -1 )>nearby highways (1.7ngg -1 )>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg -1 ). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ 26 PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)Electronic waste recycling workshops engaged in metal recovery were found with maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQs) for dl-PCBs and potential cancer risk (10 -6 -10 -4 ) for both adult and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling's technology

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zajdel; R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental problems have been considered as serious situation in the construction. Waste management is pressing harder with alarming signal warning the industry. This paper discusses the potential impact of biodegradable materials on waste management in terms of landfill, incineration, recycle/reuse composting.Design/methodology/approach: This article reviewed the implementation of strategies of WEEE treatment and the recovery technologies of WEEE. It presented the current status ...

  1. How pure are your vesicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jason; Clayton, Aled

    2013-01-01

    We propose a straightforward method to estimate the purity of vesicle preparations by comparing the ratio of nano-vesicle counts to protein concentration, using tools such as the increasingly available NanoSight platform and a colorimetric protein assay such as the BCA-assay. Such an approach is simple enough to apply to every vesicle preparation within a given laboratory, assisting researchers as a routine quality control step. Also, the approach may aid in comparing/standardising vesicle purity across diverse studies, and may be of particular importance in evaluating vesicular biomarkers. We herein propose some criteria to aid in the definition of pure vesicles. PMID:24009896

  2. EPA Funding to Help Syracuse Small Business Develop New Green Technology, Advanced Recovery and Recycling, LLC Receives $100,000 for New Approach that Reduces Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $100,000 to Advanced Recovery and Recycling, LLC of Onondaga County, New York to continue its development of an efficient technology that recycles circuit board components to reduce elec

  3. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  4. Mating-reactive membrane vesicles from cilia of Paramecium caudatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Membrane vesicles with a high mating reactivity were obtained from cilia of Paramecium caudatum by treatment with a solution containing 2 M urea and 0.1 mM Na2-EDTA. All processes of conjugation were induced in cells of the complementary mating type by approximately 10 mug/ml proteins of the vesicles. Electron microscope observation showed that the membrane vesicles have a diameter of 100-150 nm. Electrophoretic analysis on SDS polyacrylamide gel revealed no significant difference in polypeptide patterns of the particles from the two complementary mating types. PMID:818093

  5. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Souffle/Spastizin Controls Secretory Vesicle Maturation during Zebrafish Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-01-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  7. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsamy Kanagaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15. We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research.

  8. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  9. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in childbearing-aged women at an intensive electronic-waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    This study is the first to investigate PBDE body burden with regard to the concurrent analyses of multiple human matrices, namely milk, placenta, and hair, collected from a group of childbearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site to determine the partitioning of PBDEs in these different human matrices and the possible health risks imposed to infants at the e-waste recycling site. Five sets of milk, placenta, and hair samples were collected from an e-waste site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province; 245 km away from Taizhou) in China. The concentrations of total PBDEs in different human tissues were analyzed according to US EPA standard methods. PBDE body burdens of women from the e-waste site (milk 117 +/- 191, 8.89-457 ng/g fat, placenta 19.5 +/- 29.9, 1.28-72.1 ng/g fat, hair 110 +/- 210, 8.47-486 ng/g dry wt.) showed significantly higher levels than those from the reference site (milk 2.06 +/- 0.94, 1.0-3.56 ng/g fat, placenta 1.02 +/- 0.36, 0.59-1.42 ng/g fat, hair 3.57 +/- 2.03, 1.56-5.61 ng/g dry wt.) and were higher than those reported in other studies, due to e-waste recycling operations, especially open burning. On a dry-weight basis, the following trend was found for PBDE among the samples from Taizhou: hair>milk>placenta. Among the donors, the body burden of an e-waste worker ranked second. Higher brominated BDEs (hepta-BDEs) contributed a significantly greater proportion to total PBDEs in hair of the Taizhou women (20%) than that in milk (2.9%) and in placenta (2.6%). The estimated intake of PBDEs of 6-month-old breastfed infants living at the e-waste site was 572 +/- 839 ng/kg body wt/day, which was 57 times higher than that of infants from the reference site (10.1 +/- 4.60 ng/kg body wt/day). Moreover, the maximum calculated value (2,240 ng/kg body wt/day) exceeded the chronic oral reference dose for penta-BDE (2,000 ng/kg/day) of US EPA. BDE-47 was the dominant congener accounting

  10. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  11. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  13. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  14. Immobilization of stable thylakoid vesicles in conductive nanofibers by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M; Winget, G Douglas; Punnamaraju, Srikoundinya; Steckl, Andrew J

    2011-03-14

    Electrospun fibers consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have been used to successfully encapsulate and stabilize thylakoid membrane vesicles isolated from spinach. Light-driven electronic properties were measured. Fibers with immobilized thylakoids show higher electrical conductivity compared with fibers without thylakoids under white light conditions. This is attributed to the electron-generating photosynthetic reactions from the thylakoids. Electron and optical microscopy show the presence of thylakoid vesicles within the fibers using lipid-specific stains. After electrospinning into fibers, the thylakoid vesicles still exhibit an ability to produce a light-driven electron gradient, indicating that activity is preserved during the electrospinning process. These electrospun fibers provide an excellent example of incorporating photosynthetic function into an artificial system.

  15. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in south China: tissue distribution and human dietary exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we determined polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) in the tissues of two fish species-mud carp and northern snakehead-from a natural pond in an electronic waste recycling site in the Pearl River Delta, Southern China. The mean concentrations of PCBs (Σ PCBs )varied from 560 to 10 462 ng x g(-1) wet weight, and from 580 to 50 492 ng x g(-1) wet weight in the tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively, with the highest levels found in the liver. Lipid contents played an important role in the determination of tissue distribution of PCBs. The mean concentrations of Σ MeSO2-PCBs varied between 0.44 and 53 ng x g(-1) wet weight in tissues of mud carp, while varied between 1.86 and 132 ng x g(-1) wet weight in northern snakehead. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO2-PCBs previously reported in fish. The EF values of chiral PCBs in mud carp were lower than those in the sediments, with an exception of PCB149. However, the declined EFs in mud carp were rebounded in northern snakehead, and some values were even higher than those in the sediment. This result may suggest that the mud carp and the northern snakehead preferred to biotransform different enantiomers of PCB congeners. The elevated levels of Σ PCBs and Σ MeSO2-PCBs detected in the present study indicated a high exposure risk to the local residents. Restricting the consumption of these fish in the local markets is important and essential for reducing the health risks to local residents.

  16. The toolbox of vesicle sidedness determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meszaros, Peter; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2012-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from cellular plasma membranes are widely used in science for different purposes. The outer membrane leaflet differs from the inner membrane leaflet of the vesicle, and during vesicle preparation procedures two types of vesicles will be generated: right-side-out vesicles, of which

  17. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  18. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge. PMID:27989272

  19. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, "Basics of Extracellular Vesicles," uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform "Coursera" and is free of charge.

  20. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lässer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs. This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge.

  1. Myosin light chain kinase facilitates endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaomei; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    At nerve terminals, endocytosis efficiently recycles vesicle membrane to maintain synaptic transmission under different levels of neuronal activity. Ca(2+) and its downstream signal pathways are critical for the activity-dependent regulation of endocytosis. An activity- and Ca(2+) -dependent kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to regulate vesicle mobilization, vesicle cycling, and motility in different synapses, but whether it has a general contribution to regulation of endocytosis at nerve terminals remains unknown. We investigated this issue at rat hippocampal boutons by imaging vesicle endocytosis as the real-time retrieval of vesicular synaptophysin tagged with a pH-sensitive green fluorescence protein. We found that endocytosis induced by 200 action potentials (5-40 Hz) was slowed by acute inhibition of MLCK and down-regulation of MLCK with RNA interference, while the total amount of vesicle exocytosis and somatic Ca(2+) channel current did not change with MLCK down-regulation. Acute inhibition of myosin II similarly impaired endocytosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of MLCK prevented depolarization-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, an effect shared by blockers of Ca(2+) channels and calmodulin. These results suggest that MLCK facilitates vesicle endocytosis through activity-dependent phosphorylation of myosin downstream of Ca(2+) /calmodulin, probably as a widely existing mechanism among synapses. Our study suggests that MLCK is an important activity-dependent regulator of vesicle recycling in hippocampal neurons, which are critical for learning and memory. The kinetics of vesicle membrane endocytosis at nerve terminals has long been known to depend on activity and Ca(2+) . This study provides evidence suggesting that myosin light chain kinase increases endocytosis efficiency at hippocampal neurons by mediating Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin. The authors propose that this signal cascade may serve as

  2. Reconstitution of lipid vesicles associated with HVJ (Sendai virus) sikes. Purification and some properties of vesicles containing nontoxic fragment A of diphtheria toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A mixture of HVJ (Sendai virus) spike proteins, the nontoxic fragment A of diphtheria toxin, lecithin, and cholesterol was solubilized in sucrose solution containing a nonionic neutral detergent. The liposomal vesicles which formed on removal of the detergent by dialysis were purified by gel filtration and centrifugation on a sucrose gradient. The resulting purified vesicles had hemagglutinating activity, hemolytic activity and, after solubilization, the enzymic activity of fragment A. The vesicles had no cell fusion activity. Electron microscopy showed that both the outside and inside of membranes of the vesicles were associated with the spikes. When the vesicles were freeze- fractured, no large aggregates of particles were seen on either face. Such fragment A-containing lipid vesicles (liposomes) with HVJ spikes bound to mamalian cell membrane and released their fragment A into the cytoplasm causing cell death. Neither fragment A-containing liposomes without spikes nor empty liposomes with spikes were toxic. PMID:217880

  3. Endothelial plasmalemmal vesicles have a characteristic striped bipolar surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K R; Carley, W W; Palade, G E

    1985-12-01

    Capillary endothelial cells have a large population of small (65-80 nm diameter in transmission electron microscopy) vesicles of which a large fraction is associated with the plasmalemma of the luminal and abluminal side. We studied the fine structure and distribution of these plasmalemmal vesicles by high resolution scanning electron microscopy in cultured endothelial cells obtained from bovine adrenal cortical capillaries. Cell monolayers were covered with polylysine-coated silicon chips, split in high potassium buffer, fixed in aldehyde mixtures, and then treated with OsO4 and thiocarbohydrazide. After critical point drying, the specimens were coated with a thin (less than 2 nm) continuous film of chromium. On the cytoplasmic aspect of the dorsal plasmalemmal fragments seen in such specimens, plasmalemmal vesicles appear as uniform vesicular protrusions approximately 70-90 nm in diameter, preferentially concentrated in distinct large fields in which they occur primarily as single units. Individual plasmalemmal vesicles exhibit a striped surface fine structure which consists of ridges approximately 10 nm in diameter, separated by furrows and oriented as meridians, often ending at two poles on opposite sides of the vesicles in a plane parallel to the plasmalemma. This striped surface structure is clearly distinct from the cage structure of coated pits found, at low surface density, on the same specimens. The cytoplasmic aspect of the plasmalemma proper is covered by a fibrillar infrastructure which does not extend over plasmalemmal vesicles but on which the latter appear to be anchored by fine filaments.

  4. Extracellular Vesicles in Luminal Fluid of the Ovine Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gregory; Brooks, Kelsey; Wildung, Mark; Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Christenson, Lane K.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Microvesicles and exosomes are nanoparticles released from cells and can contain small RNAs, mRNA and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. In sheep, endogenous beta retroviruses (enJSRVs) are expressed in the endometrial epithelia of the uterus and can be transferred to the conceptus trophectoderm. One potential mechanism of enJSRVs transfer from the uterus to the conceptus is via exosomes/microvesicles. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate exosomes in the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of sheep. Exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles) were isolated from the ULF of day 14 cyclic and pregnant ewes using ExoQuick-TC. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis found the isolates contained vesicles that ranged from 50 to 200 nm in diameter. The isolated extracellular vesicles were positive for two common markers of exosomes (CD63 and HSP70) by Western blot analysis. Proteins in the extracellular vesicles were determined by mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. Extracellular vesicle RNA was analyzed for small RNAs by sequencing and enJSRVs RNA by RT-PCR. The ULF extracellular vesicles contained a large number of small RNAs and miRNAs including 81 conserved mature miRNAs. Cyclic and pregnant ULF extracellular vesicles contained enJSRVs env and gag RNAs that could be delivered to heterologous cells in vitro. These studies support the hypothesis that ULF extracellular vesicles can deliver enJSRVs RNA to the conceptus, which is important as enJSRVs regulate conceptus trophectoderm development. Importantly, these studies support the idea that extracellular vesicles containing select miRNAs, RNAs and proteins are present in the ULF and likely have a biological role in conceptus-endometrial interactions important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24614226

  5. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Snipes, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a {le} 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I{sub p}, B{sub T}, and P{sub b}. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if {tau}{sub E} is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ({approximately}100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  6. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Snipes, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a [le] 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I[sub p], B[sub T], and P[sub b]. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if [tau][sub E] is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ([approximately]100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  7. Extracellular vesicles secreted by Schistosoma mansoni contain protein vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Pearson, Mark; Potriquet, Jeremy; Becker, Luke; Pickering, Darren; Mulvenna, Jason; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show for the first time that Schistosoma mansoni adult worms secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles ranging from 50 to 130nm in size. Extracellular vesicles were collected from the excretory/secretory products of cultured adult flukes and purified by Optiprep density gradient, resulting in highly pure extracellular vesicle preparations as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight tracking analysis. Extracellular vesicle proteomic analysis showed numerous known vaccine candidates, potential virulence factors and molecules implicated in feeding. These findings provide new avenues for the exploration of host-schistosome interactions and offer a potential mechanism by which some vaccine antigens exert their protective efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracellular vesicles in human follicular fluid do not promote coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Cordula; Böing, Anita N; Montag, Markus; Strowitzki, Thomas; Markert, Udo R; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Nieuwland, Rienk; Toth, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an observational study, follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (RPS), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and fibrin generation tests (FGT). The presence of extracellular vesicles, especially CD9-positive extracellular vesicles in follicular fluid, was proven. However, clotting tests revealed no procoagulant properties of the detected extracellular vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vesicles and vesicle gels - structure and dynamics of formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gradzielski, M

    2003-01-01

    Vesicles constitute an interesting morphology formed by self-aggregating amphiphilic molecules. They exhibit a rich structural variety and are of interest both from a fundamental point of view (for studying closed bilayer systems) and from a practical point of view (whenever one is interested in the encapsulation of active molecules). In many circumstances vesicular structures have to be formed by external forces, but of great interest are amphiphilic systems, where they form spontaneously. Here the question arises of whether this means that they are also thermodynamically stable structures, which at least in some systems appears to be the case. If such vesicles are well defined in size, it is possible to pack them densely and thereby form vesicle gels that possess highly elastic properties even for relatively low volume fractions of amphiphile. Conditions for the formation and the microstructure of such vesicle gels have been studied in some detail for the case of unilamellar vesicles. Another important and ...

  10. Preeclampsia and Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Sarwat I; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive pregnancy disorder characterized by development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation that remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While preeclampsia is believed to result from complex interactions between maternal and placental factors, the proximate pathophysiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Cell-to-cell communication is a critical signaling mechanism for feto-placental development in normal pregnancies. One mechanism of cellular communication relates to activated cell-derived sealed membrane vesicles called extracellular vesicles (EVs). The concentrations and contents of EVs in biological fluids depend upon their cells of origin and the stimuli which trigger their production. Research on EVs in preeclampsia has focused on EVs derived from the maternal vasculature (endothelium, vascular smooth muscle) and blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets), as well as placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Changes in the concentrations and contents of these EVs may contribute to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia by accentuating the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory states of pregnancy. This review focuses on possible interactions among placental- and maternal-derived EVs and their contents in the initiation and progression of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Understanding the contributions of EVs in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia may facilitate their use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  11. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  12. Assessment of functional changes in nanoparticle-exposed neuroendocrine cells with amperometry: exploring the generalizability of nanoparticle-vesicle matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Haynes, Christy L

    2010-09-01

    Using two of the most commonly synthesized noble metal nanoparticle preparations, citrate-reduced Au and Ag, the impacts of short-term accidental nanoparticle exposure are examined in primary culture murine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Alamar Blue viability studies revealed that nanoparticles are taken up by cells but do not decrease cell viability within 48 hours of exposure. Carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry (CFMA) examination of exocytosis in nanoparticle-exposed cells revealed that nanoparticle exposure does lead to decreased secretion of chemical messenger molecules, of up to 32.5% at 48 hours of Au exposure. The kinetics of intravesicular species liberation also slows after nanoparticle exposure, between 30 and 50% for Au and Ag, respectively. Repeated stimulation of exocytosis demonstrated that these effects persisted during subsequent stimulations, meaning that nanoparticles do not interfere directly with the vesicle recycling machinery but also that cellular function is unable to recover following vesicle content expulsion. By comparing these trends with parallel studies done using mast cells, it is clear that similar exocytosis perturbations occur across cell types following noble metal nanoparticle exposure, supporting a generalizable effect of nanoparticle-vesicle interactions.

  13. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  14. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  15. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, Olga E; Zaripov, Marat M; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Grigor'eva, Alina E; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Yurchenko, Yuri B; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90-95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles.

  16. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  17. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The transbilayer movement of phosphatidylcholine in vesicles reconstituted with intrinsic proteins from the human erythrocyte membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W.J.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Kruijff, B. de; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1980-01-01

    Vesicles have been prepared from 18 : 1c/18 : 1c-phosphatidylcholine with or without purified glycophorin or partially purified band 3 (obtained by organomercurial gel chromatography). The vesicles have been characterized by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, binding studies to DEAE-cellulose,

  19. Supramolecular construction of vesicles based on core-substituted naphthalene diimide appended with triethyleneglycol motifs.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhosale S. V; Jani C. H.; Lalander C. H.; Langford S. J.; Nerush I.; Shapter J. G.; Villamaina D.; Vauthey E.

    2011-01-01

    The self assembly of core substituted naphthalene diimides bearing triethylene glycol motifs leads to the formation of stable vesicles in DMSO and CHCl3/MeOH (6 : 4 v/v) solvents. The vesicles were evaluated by means of UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering.

  20. Supramolecular construction of vesicles based on core-substituted naphthalene diimide appended with triethyleneglycol motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Sheshanath V; Jani, Chintan H; Lalander, Cecilia H; Langford, Steven J; Nerush, Igor; Shapter, Joseph G; Villamaina, Diego; Vauthey, Eric

    2011-08-07

    The self-assembly of core-substituted naphthalene diimides bearing triethylene glycol motifs leads to the formation of stable vesicles in DMSO and CHCl(3)/MeOH (6 : 4, v/v) solvents. The vesicles were evaluated by means of UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering.

  1. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  2. Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Hui, David Chi Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

  3. Clathrin and LRP-1-independent constitutive endocytosis and recycling of uPAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cortese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urokinase receptor (uPAR/CD87 is highly expressed in malignant tumours. uPAR, as a GPI anchored protein, is preferentially located at the cell surface, where it interacts with its ligands urokinase (uPA and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, thus promoting plasmin generation, cell-matrix interactions and intracellular signalling events. Interaction with a complex formed by uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 induces cell surface down regulation and recycling of the receptor via the clathrin-coated pathway, a process dependent on the association to LRP-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have found that along with the ligand-induced down-regulation, uPAR also internalizes and recycles constitutively through a second pathway that is independent of LRP-1 and clathrin but shares some properties with macropinocytosis. The ligand-independent route is amiloride-sensitive, does not require uPAR partitioning into lipid rafts, is independent of the activity of small GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and does not require PI3K activity. Constitutively endocytosed uPAR is found in EEA1 positive early/recycling endosomes but does not reach lysosomes in the absence of ligands. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the presence of uPAR in ruffling domains at the cell surface, in macropinosome-like vesicles and in endosomal compartments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that, in addition to the ligand-induced endocytosis of uPAR, efficient surface expression and membrane trafficking might also be driven by an uncommon macropinocytic mechanism coupled with rapid recycling to the cell surface.

  4. Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiovascular Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Bei, Yihua; Das, Saumya; Rodosthenous, Rodosthenis S.; Holvoet, Paul; Vanhaverbeke, Maarten; Monteiro,Marta Chagas; Monteiro, Valter Vinicius Silva; Radosinska, Jana; Bartekova, Monika; Jansen, Felix; Li, Qian; Rajasingh, Johnson; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small bilayer lipid membrane vesicles that can be released by most cell types and detected in most body fluids. EVs exert key functions for intercellular communication via transferring their bioactive cargos to recipient cells or activating signaling pathways in target cells. Increasing evidence has shown the important regulatory effects of EVs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). EVs secreted by cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem cells pla...

  5. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Yin, Yijun; Lai, Ruenn Chai; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicle or EV is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes, the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized...

  6. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  7. RNA in extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Mustapic, Maja; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Gorospe, Myriam

    2017-07-01

    Cells release a range of membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the environment. Among them, exosomes and microvesicles (collectively measuring 40-1000 nm in diameter) carry proteins, signaling lipids, and nucleic acids from donor cells to recipient cells, and thus have been proposed to serve as intercellular mediators of communication. EVs transport cellular materials in many physiologic processes, including differentiation, stem cell homeostasis, immune responses, and neuronal signaling. EVs are also increasingly recognized as having a direct role in pathologies such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Accordingly, EVs have been the focus of intense investigation as biomarkers of disease, prognostic indicators, and even therapeutic tools. Here, we review the classes of RNAs present in EVs, both coding RNAs (messenger RNAs) and noncoding RNAs (long noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and circular RNAs). The rising attention to EV-resident RNAs as biomarkers stems from the fact that RNAs can be detected at extremely low quantities using a number of methods. To illustrate the interest in EV biology, we discuss EV RNAs in cancer and neurodegeneration, two major age-associated disease processes. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1413. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1413 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Margherita A C; Gai, Chiara; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment. Their importance has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of several organs, in particular in kidney, where different cell types secrete extracellular vesicles that mediate their communication with downstream urinary tract cells. Over the past few years, evidence has been shown that vesicles participate in kidney development and normal physiology. Moreover, EVs are widely demonstrated to be implicated in cellular signaling during renal regenerative and pathological processes. Although many EV mechanisms are still poorly understood, in particular in kidney, the discovery of their role could help to shed light on renal biological processes which are so far elusive. Lastly, extracellular vesicles secreted by renal cells gather in urine, thus becoming a great resource for disease or recovery markers and a promising non-invasive diagnostic instrument for renal disease. In the present review, we discuss the most recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in renal physiopathology and their potential implication in diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Extracellular vesicles in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Diana; Ståhl, Anne-Lie; Arvidsson, Ida

    2017-09-01

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are host cell-derived packages of information that allow cell-cell communication and enable cells to rid themselves of unwanted substances. The release and uptake of extracellular vesicles has important physiological functions and may also contribute to the development and propagation of inflammatory, vascular, malignant, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. This Review describes the different types of extracellular vesicles, how they are detected and the mechanisms by which they communicate with cells and transfer information. We also describe their physiological functions in cellular interactions, such as in thrombosis, immune modulation, cell proliferation, tissue regeneration and matrix modulation, with an emphasis on renal processes. We discuss how the detection of extracellular vesicles could be utilized as biomarkers of renal disease and how they might contribute to disease processes in the kidney, such as in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal transplantation, thrombotic microangiopathies, vasculitides, IgA nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, urinary tract infection, cystic kidney disease and tubulopathies. Finally, we consider how the release or uptake of extracellular vesicles can be blocked, as well as the associated benefits and risks, and how extracellular vesicles might be used to treat renal diseases by delivering therapeutics to specific cells.

  10. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  11. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles: A comprehensive dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiasserini, D.; van Weering, J.R.T.; Piersma, S.R.; Pham, T.V.; Malekzadeh, A.; Teunissen, C.E.; de Wit, H.; Jimenez, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yet little is known about their protein composition. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of CSF EVs by electron microscopy and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in

  12. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  13. Chromosomal beta-lactamase is packaged into membrane vesicles and secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Beveridge, T J; Kadurugamuwa, J

    2000-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy and enzyma...... and enzymatic studies. This is the first report of extracellular secretion of beta-lactamase in P. aeruginosa and it seems that the enzyme is packaged into membrane vesicles.......Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy...

  14. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  15. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  16. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    , good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...... and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of plastic recycling.......Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  17. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pe-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β=0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β=0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracellular Vesicles in Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. These vesicles include exosomes, ectosomes (ie, microparticles, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, and shedding vesicles), and apoptotic bodies. Exosomes are generated by inward budding of the membrane (endocytosis), subsequent forming of multivesicular bodies, and release by exocytosis. Ectosomes are formed by outward blebbing from the plasma membrane and are then released by proteolytic cleavage from the cell surface. Apoptotic bodies are generated on apoptotic cell shrinkage and death. Extracellular vesicles are released when the cells are activated or undergo apoptosis under inflammatory conditions. The number and types of released EVs are different according to the pathophysiological status of the disease. Therefore, EVs can be novel biomarkers for various lung diseases. EVs contain several molecules, including proteins, mRNA, microRNA, and DNA; they transfer these molecules to distant recipient cells. Circulating EVs modify the targeted cells and influence the microenvironment of the lungs. For this unique capability, EVs are expected to be a new drug delivery system and a novel therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of

  20. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  1. Biodegradable theranostic plasmonic vesicles of amphiphilic gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jibin; Pu, Lu; Zhou, Jiajing; Duan, Bo; Duan, Hongwei

    2013-11-26

    We have developed surface-initiated organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization on functional nanocrystals and synthesized amphiphilic gold nanorods carrying well-defined mixed polymer brushes of poly(ethylene glycol) and polylactide. Self-assembly of the amphiphilic gold nanorods affords biodegradable plasmonic vesicles that can be destructed by both enzymatic degradation and near-infrared photothermal heating. When tagged with Raman probes, strongly coupled gold nanorods in the self-assembled vesicles give rise to highly active SERS signals. The biodegradable plasmonic vesicles exhibit a unique combination of optical and structural properties that are of particular interest for theranostic applications. We have demonstrated that bioconjugated SERS-active plasmonic vesicles can specifically target EpCAM-positive cancer cells, leading to ultrasensitive spectroscopic detection of cancer cells. Furthermore, integration of photothermal effect of gold nanorods and large loading capacity of the vesicles provides opportunities for localized synergistic photothermal ablation and photoactivated chemotherapy, which have shown higher efficiency in killing targeted cancer cells than either single therapeutic modality. The versatile chemistry of organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization, in conjugation with recent development in synthesizing functional nanocrystals with tailored optical, electronic, and magnetic properties opens the possibilities for constructing multifunctional biodegradable platforms for clinical translation.

  2. Biochemical and morphological characterization of light and heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Kevin Peter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Light (30 to 32.5% sucrose) and heavy (38.5 to 42% sucrose) sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (LSR,HSR) were isolated from rabbit leg muscle using a combination of differential centrifugation and isopycnic zonal ultracentrifugation. Thin-section electron microscopy of LSR vesicles reveals empty vesicles of various sizes and shapes whereas the HSR vesicles appear as rounded vesicles of uniform size filled with electron dense material, similar to that seen in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The sucrose HSR vesicles have an additional morphological feature which appears as membrane projections that resemble the SR feet. The freeze-fracture morphology of either type of SR reveals an asymmetric distribution of intramembraneous particles in the same orientation and distribution as the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vivo. Biochemical studies were made on the content of Ca, Mg, ATPase, and protein of the vesicles and phosphorylation of the vesicles. The biochemical and morphological data indicate that the LSR is derived from the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum and the HSR is derived from the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, contains junctional SR membrane and has three unique proteins (calsequestrin, an intrinsic 30,000 dalton protein and a 9000 dalton proteolipid).

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Chick Epiphyseal Cartilage Matrix Vesicle Proteolipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    initial calcification in dentine and enamel . J. Ultrastr. Res., 41: 1-17. Bernard GW and Pease DC. 1969. An electron microscopic study of initial...characterization of matrix vesicle protease. Bone, 6: 470. ----------- -40 IT 7, T 7 69 Ketenjian AY and Arsenis C. 1975. Morphological and...J. Biol. Chem., 258: 8601-8607. Siska RF and Provenza DV. 1972. Initial dentin formation in human deciduous teeth . An electron microscopic study

  4. Dysregulations of Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbujo, Chijioke N; Sinclair, Duncan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism. This set of molecular events is an evolutionarily well-conserved process that involves vesicle recruitment, docking, membrane fusion, and recycling, leading to efficient neurotransmitter delivery at the synapse. Accumulated evidence indicate dysregulation of this mechanism impacting postsynaptic signal transduction via different neurotransmitters in key brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. In recent years, after ground-breaking work that elucidated the operations of this mechanism, research efforts have focused on the alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of presynaptic neurotransmitter release molecules in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In this review article, we present recent evidence from schizophrenia human postmortem studies that key proteins involved in the presynaptic release mechanism are dysregulated in the disorder. We also discuss the potential impact of dysfunctional presynaptic neurotransmitter release on the various neurotransmitter systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  5. Exocytosis and Endocytosis of Small Vesicles across the Plasma Membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kathryn; Chiang, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    When Saccharomyces cerevisiae is starved of glucose, the gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, isocitrate lyase, and malate dehydrogenase, as well as the non-gluconeogenic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and cyclophilin A, are secreted into the periplasm. In the extracellular fraction, these secreted proteins are associated with small vesicles that account for more than 90% of the total number of extracellular structures observed. When glucose is added to glucose-starved cells, FBPase is internalized and associated with clusters of small vesicles in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the internalization of FBPase results in the decline of FBPase and vesicles in the extracellular fraction and their appearance in the cytoplasm. The clearance of extracellular vesicles and vesicle-associated proteins from the extracellular fraction is dependent on the endocytosis gene END3. This internalization is regulated when cells are transferred from low to high glucose. It is rapidly occurring and is a high capacity process, as clusters of vesicles occupy 10%–20% of the total volume in the cytoplasm in glucose re-fed cells. FBPase internalization also requires the VPS34 gene encoding PI3K. Following internalization, FBPase is delivered to the vacuole for degradation, whereas proteins that are not degraded may be recycled. PMID:25192542

  6. Synaptic vesicles are primed for fast clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the ribbon synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria ePelassa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval of synaptic vesicles can occur 1-10 s after fusion, but the role of clathrin during this process has been unclear because the classical mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME is an order of magnitude slower, as during retrieval of surface receptors. Classical CME is thought to be rate-limited by the recruitment of clathrin, which raises the question: How is clathrin recruited during synaptic vesicle recycling? To investigate this question we applied total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF to the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells expressing fluorescent constructs of clathrin light-chain A. Upon calcium influx we observed a fast accumulation of clathrin within 100 ms at the periphery of the active zone. The subsequent loss of clathrin from these regions reflected endocytosis because the application of a potent clathrin inhibitor Pitstop2 dramatically slowed down this phase by ~3 fold. These results indicate that clathrin-dependent retrieval of synaptic vesicles is unusually fast, most probably because of a priming step involving a state of association of clathrin with the docked vesicle and with the endosomes and cisternae surrounding the ribbons. FCS and FRAP showed that the majority of clathrin is moving with the same kinetics as synaptic vesicle proteins. Together, these results indicate that the fast endocytic mechanism operating to retrieve synaptic vesicles differs substantially from the classical mode of CME operating via formation of a coated pit.

  7. Cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Antônio O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumors of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare. Among them, there is a spectrum of tumors derived from both epithelium and stroma and so classified as epithelial-stromal tumors. Herein, we report a case of a cystadenoma in a 49-year-old asymptomatic man, detected in a routine ultrasonography for liver disease follow-up. The digital rectal examination detected a large mass anterior to rectum and posterior to bladder. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal prostate and a 9.0 cm cystic tumor, replacing the left seminal vesicle. The gross appearance and microscopic aspect was compatible with cystadenoma of seminal vesicle. Patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful. He is currently alive, 3 years after the diagnosis, with no signs of recurrence.

  8. When to biopsy seminal vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; García-Morata, F; Hernández-Medina, J A; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2015-05-01

    The involvement of seminal vesicles in prostate cancer can affect the prognosis and determine the treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether we could predict its infiltration at the time of the prostate biopsy to know when to indicate the biopsy of the seminal vesicles. observational retrospective study of 466 patients who underwent seminal vesicle biopsy. The indication for this biopsy was a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 10 ng/ml or an asymmetric or obliterated prostatoseminal angle. The following variables were included in the analysis: PSA level, PSA density, prostate volume, number of cores biopsied, suspicious rectal examination, and preservation of the prostatoseminal angle, studying its relationship with the involvement of the seminal vesicles. Forty-one patients (8.8%) had infiltrated seminal vesicles and 425 (91.2%) had no involvement. In the univariate analysis, the cases with infiltration had a higher mean PSA level (P 19.60 ng/dL (P < .01) and 2.95 times higher if there is a suspicious rectal examination (P = .014). Furthermore, this probability increases by 1.04 times for each unit of prostate volume lower (P < .01). The ROC curves showed maximum sensitivity and specificity at 19.6 ng/mL for PSA and 0.39 for PSA density. In this series, greater involvement of seminal vesicles was associated with a PSA level ≥20 ng/ml, a suspicious rectal examination and a lack of prostatoseminal angle preservation. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. SMALL VESICLES, BIG VEHICLES: EXOSOMES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiz-Lopez P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membranous vesicles released by different cell types. Since their discovery, they have evolved from being considered simple vehicles for the liberation of cellular wastes, to become one of the most promising fields in the area of biomedical research, and more specifically in oncology, since the different malignant tumors release exosomes to all biological fluids, being involved in various functions of the neoplastic process. At present, it is possible to study these vesicles by minimally invasive techniques in patients, which approach us to obtain a more detailed diagnosis and prognosis, as well as to the discovery of new antitumoral therapies

  10. Vesicles and vesicle fusion: coarse-grained simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2010-01-01

    Biological cells are highly dynamic, and continually move material around their own volume and between their interior and exterior. Much of this transport encapsulates the material inside phospholipid vesicles that shuttle to and fro, fusing with, and budding from, other membranes. A feature of v...

  11. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  12. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  13. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre...... fraction can be obtained from skim milk by ultracentrifugation. Casein micelle remnants as well as smaller protein components in the crude vesicle fraction can be successfully removed by size chromatography. Electron microscopy of the vesicle isolate reveals circular structures with membrane vesicle...

  14. Large GLUT4 vesicles are stationary while locally and reversibly depleted during transient insulin stimulation of skeletal muscle of living mice: imaging analysis of GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein vesicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Galbo, Henrik; Brandauer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle by GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to sarcolemma and t-tubules. We studied in living animals the recruitment of GLUT4 vesicles in more detail than previously done and, for the first time, analyzed the steady......-state recycling and subsequent re-internalization of GLUT4 on an insulin bolus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A confocal imaging technique was used in GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein-transfected superficial muscle fibers in living mice. RESULTS: During the first 30 min of insulin stimulation, very few...... superficially or deeply located GLUT4 storage vesicles (>1 microm) moved in toto. Rather, big vesicles were stationary in their original position at sarcolemma or t-tubules and were locally depleted of GLUT4 by budding off of smaller vesicles. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during initial...

  15. Vesicle self-assembly by tetrathiafulvalene derivatives in both polar and nonpolar solvents and pseudo-rotaxane mediated vesicle-to-microtube transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang-Da; Wang, Gui-Tao; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Xi-Kui; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2010-05-18

    This paper reports the self-assemblies of vesicles from two tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives (T1 and T2), that bear four or two amphiphilic side chains, in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The formation of vesicles is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments, while the microstructural aspects of the vesicles are investigated by UV-vis, (1)H NMR, and high resolution TEM, which support a monolayer model for the vesicles. It is revealed that the formation of vesicles is driven by the combination of multiple noncovalent interactions, including pi-pi stacking, hydrogen-bonding, van der Waals force, and S...S interactions. It is also found that, in the presence of electron-deficient cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) tetracation cyclophane, vesicles of T2 can transform into microtubes as a result of the formation of the pseudo[2]rotaxane between the TTF unit of T2 and the cyclophane. This process can be reversed by introducing pristine TTF into the solution of microtubes, due to release of T2 from the pseudo[2]rotaxane through the formation of a more stable complex between pristine TTF and tetracation cyclophane.

  16. Characterization of an additional articular cartilage vesicle fraction that generates calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derfus, B; Steinberg, M; Mandel, N; Buday, M; Daft, L; Ryan, L

    1995-08-01

    We previously identified a unique fraction of porcine articular cartilage vesicles, sedimentable at 8 x 10(6) g/min, which generate calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals (CPPD) in vitro. We sought to identify and characterize other fractions of articular cartilage digest, sedimentable at lower g forces, which may also contain mineralizing vesicles. Electron microscopy and alkaline phosphatase and nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH) assays were used to analyze each fraction. Radiometric mineralization assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and compensated polarized light microscopy were used to analyze crystals formed by these fractions. Vesicles of varying sizes identical to epiphyseal cartilage matrix vesicles were seen in all sedimentable fractions examined, but were the exclusive component of fractions sedimentable at 3 x 10(6) g/min, termed the heavy vesicle fraction (HVF), and at 8 x 10(6) g/min, now termed the light vesicle fraction (LVF). All vesicle containing fractions supported ATP dependent calcium pyrophosphate precipitation. The HVF and LVF precipitated 30 x more calcium than vesicle poor supernatant (p < 0.01) and 1.5-4 x more than cell-free unfractionated digest (p < 0.01). HVF differed from LVF in that it contained 3-4 x higher NTPPPH specific activity (p < 0.05). HVF resembled LVF in that both precipitated crystals consistent with CPPD by FTIR spectroscopy and compensated polarized light microscopy. These data expand our previous estimate of the total number of vesicles available for biologic mineralization and demonstrate heterogeneity of vesicle fractions. They support a key role for vesicles in CPPD crystal formation.

  17. Extracellular vesicles in physiological and pathological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Body fluids contain surprising numbers of cell-derived vesicles which are now thought to contribute to both physiology and pathology. Tools to improve the detection of vesicles are being developed and clinical applications using vesicles for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy are under investigation.

  18. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  20. Challenges in plastics recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamin...

  1. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  2. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion: Post-Palade Era Researchers Win the Nobel Prize. Riddhi Atul Jani Subba Rao Gangi Setty. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 421-445 ...

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  4. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  5. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  6. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Beaton

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans.

  7. Plate tectonics: Crustal recycling evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.

  8. The readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G

    2017-04-01

    Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP. We conclude that many RRP vesicles are docked, that some docked vesicles may not be part of the RRP, and that undocked vesicles can contribute to the RRP by rapid recruitment to unoccupied, molecularly activated ready-to-release sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  10. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  11. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles: a comprehensive dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; van Weering, Jan R T; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Malekzadeh, Arjan; Teunissen, Charlotte E; de Wit, Heidi; Jiménez, Connie R

    2014-06-25

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yet little is known about their protein composition. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of CSF EVs by electron microscopy and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in conjunction with bioinformatics. We report an extensive catalog of 1315 proteins identified in EVs isolated from two different CSF pools by ultracentrifugation, including 230 novel EV proteins. Out of 1315 proteins, 760 were identified in both CSF pools and about 30% of those were also quantitatively enriched in the EV fraction versus the soluble CSF fraction. The proteome of CSF EVs was enriched in exosomal markers such as alix and syntenin-1, heat shock proteins and tetraspanins and contained a high proportion of brain-derived proteins (n=373). Interestingly, several known biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as the amyloid precursor protein, the prion protein and DJ-1 were identified in the EV fractions. Our dataset represents the first comprehensive inventory of the EV proteome in CSF, underscoring the biomarker potential of this organelle. Further comparative studies on CSF EVs isolated from patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are warranted. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000608. Biological significance In this study we analyzed the protein composition of extracellular vesicles isolated from pooled samples of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a colorless fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, important for the physiology of the central nervous system, ensuing mechanical protection, regulation of brain blood flow and elimination of byproducts of the brain. Since brain (patho)physiology is reflected in CSF, this biological fluid represents an ideal source of soluble and vesicle-based biomarkers for neurological diseases. Here we confirm the presence of exosome-like extracellular vesicles in CSF, underscoring

  12. The early postnatal pattern of vesicle formation in different regions of the porcien small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Weström, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the early postnatal period, the permeability of the piglet small intestine is high to compensate for the absence of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins during the fetal period. Vesicles, which mainly reflect the uptake of macromolecules and other colostral/milk components, were studied...... in three different regions of the small intestine - proximal, mid and distal - in a total of twelve piglets on day 0 (unsuckled and colostrums-fed), 2 and 6 (all suckled). Tissues were sampled and prepared for light microscopy (paraffin and cryo) and trans-electron microscopy. Different methods were...... present. They disappeared after 2 days (gut closure) and on day 6 adult-looking epithelial cells were present. In the distal region of day 0 pigs digestion vesicles/flocculent vesicles were observed in the cytoplasma. The vesicles appeared empty but with eosinophilic, PAS+ and electron dense...

  13. Release of urinary extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer is associated with altered urinary N-glycosylation profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermassen, Tijl; D'Herde, Katharina; Jacobus, Dominique; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Callewaert, Nico; Decaestecker, Karel; Villeirs, Geert; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie; Delanghe, Joris

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, extracellular vesicles are of great interest in prostate cancer (PCa) research. Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation could play a significant role in the pathological mechanism of these vesicles. We investigated if prostatic protein N-glycosylation profiles were related to urinary vesicle-associated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) extractability and if this parameter showed diagnostic potential for PCa. Urinary extracellular vesicles were visualised using transmission electron microscopy. Urinary extracellular vesicles extraction by means of n -butanol allowed determination of urinary vesicle-associated PSA extractability. Diagnostic value was assessed between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; n=122) and patients with PCa (n=85). Additionally, correlation with urine N-glycosylation was assessed. Urinary extracellular vesicles with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were more abundantly present in urine of patients with PCa versus patients with BPH resulting in a higher vesicle-associated PSA extraction ratio (pvesicle-associated PSA extraction ratio was correlated to biantennary core-fucosylation (p=0.003). Finally, vesicle-associated PSA extraction ratio proved beneficial in PCa diagnosis, next to serum PSA and the urinary glycosylation marker (p=0.021). The urinary vesicle-associated PSA extraction ratio is increased in PCa which is a direct result of the abundant presence of extracellular vesicles in urine of patients with PCa. The urinary vesicle-associated PSA extraction ratio was associated with changes in N-glycoforms and showed diagnostic potential. Further research is warranted to unravel the pathological link between N-glycosylation and extracellular vesicles in cancer, as well as to assess the prognostic value of this biomarker. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and transverse tubule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Avery D; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Alvarez, Manuel G; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy U; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M; Demonbreun, Alexis R

    2014-03-15

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  16. Dynamics of endocytic vesicle creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrais, David; Merrifield, Christien J

    2005-11-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the main path for receptor internalization in metazoans and is essential for controlling cell integrity and signaling. It is driven by a large array of protein and lipid interactions that have been deciphered mainly by biochemical and genetic means. To place these interactions into context, and ultimately build a fully operative model of endocytosis at the molecular level, it is necessary to know the kinetic details of the role of each protein in this process. In this review, we describe the recent efforts made, by using live cell imaging, to define clear steps in the formation of endocytic vesicles and to observe the recruitment of key proteins during membrane invagination, the scission of a newly formed vesicle, and its movement away from the plasma membrane.

  17. Extracellular vesicles and blood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles released from many different cell types by the exocytic budding of the plasma membrane in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. EVs disseminate various bioactive effectors originating from the parent cells and transfer functional RNA and protein between cells, enabling them to alter vascular function and induce biological responses involved in vascular homeostasis. Although most EVs in human blood originate from platelets, EVs are also released from leukocytes, erythrocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cancer cells. EVs were initially thought to be small particles with procoagulant activity; however, they can also evoke cellular responses in the immediate microenvironments and transport microRNAs (miRNA) into target cells. In this review, we summarize the recent literature relevant to EVs, including a growing list of clinical disorders that are associated with elevated EV levels. These studies suggest that EVs play roles in various blood diseases.

  18. Immunotherapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles or EVs is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized endosome-derived vesicles secreted by many cell types and their immunomodulatory potential is independent of their cell source. Besides immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, cancer and stem cells also secrete immunologically active exosomes that could influence both physiological and pathological processes. The immunological activities of exosomes affect both innate and adaptive immunity and include antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cell polarisation to Tregs, immune suppression and anti-inflammation. As such, exosomes carry much immunotherapeutic potential as a therapeutic agent and a therapeutic target.

  19. Phase equilibria in the ''SnO'' - SiO{sub 2} - ''FeO'' system in equilibrium with tin-iron alloy and the potential application for electronic scrap recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni [The Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia). Pyrometallurgy Research Center

    2012-05-15

    Experimental studies have been conducted to determine the primary phases and liquidus temperatures in the pseudo-binary system ''SnO'' - ''FeO'' and the pseudo-ternary system ''SnO'' - SiO{sub 2} - ''FeO'' in equilibrium with tin-iron alloy between 1 148 and 1 673 K, using a high-temperature equilibration and quenching technique followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of the phase compositions in the quenched samples. The following primary phase fields were identified: wustite (FeO{sub x}), spinel (Fe{sub (3-x)}Sn{sub x}O{sub 4}), fayalite (Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), tridymite (SiO{sub 2}), tin iron silicate (Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 7}O{sub 16}), and cassiterite (SiO{sub 2}). With this new information on the chemistry of the ''SnO'' - SiO{sub 2} - ''FeO'' slag this system may potentially be used for the processing and recycling of electronic scrap and the recovery of valuable minor elements. (orig.)

  20. Current and future priorities for mass and material in silicon PV module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Geerligs, L.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Clyncke, J. [PV CYCLE, Rue Montoyer 23, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    A full description of the state-of-the-art PV recycling methods and their rationale is presented, which discusses the quality of the recycled materials and the fate of the substances which end up in the landfill. The aim is to flag the PV module components currently not recycled, which may have a priority in terms of their embedded energy, chemical nature or scarcity, for the next evolution of recycling. The sustainability of different recycling options, emerging in the literature on electronic waste recycling, and the possible improvement of the environmental footprint of silicon PV modules, will be discussed.

  1. Synaptic vesicle proteins and active zone plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Kittel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone. The complex molecular architecture of active zones mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of active zones vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct active zone states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the active zone.The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1 and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and active zone states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  2. Considerations on the recovery and recycling of plastic materials from computer equipment in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Oana C. Salanţă; Vasile F. Soporan; Camelia M. Bungărdean

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the recycled plastics recovered from electrical and electronic equipment. The activity of recycling plastics represents the biggest challenge in harnessing efficient economically, especially due to problems related to collecting enough material segregat to make recycling economically viable. The activity of recycling plastics is important from the point of view of conservation of resources of crude oil. Life cycle, reduced to 2-3 years of comput...

  3. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farsi, Z.; Preobraschenski, J.; Bogaart, G. van den; Riedel, D.; Jahn, R.; Woehler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided

  4. Purification of a vesicle-vacuole fraction functionally linked to aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Anindya; Roze, Ludmila V; Pastor, Alicia; Frame, Melinda K; Linz, John E

    2009-07-01

    Current studies in our laboratory demonstrate a functional link between vesicles, vacuoles and aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus. Under aflatoxin inducing conditions in liquid yeast-extract sucrose medium, A. parasiticus undergoes a shift from vacuole biogenesis to accumulation of an enhanced number of vesicles which exhibit significant heterogeneity in size and density. As a first step in conducting a detailed analysis of the role of these organelles in aflatoxin synthesis, we developed a novel method to purify the vesicle and vacuole fraction using protoplasts prepared from cells harvested during aflatoxin synthesis. The method includes the following steps: 1] preparation of protoplasts from mycelia grown for 36 h under aflatoxin inducing conditions; 2] release of vesicles and vacuoles from purified protoplasts in the presence of Triton X-100; and 3] fractionation of the vesicles and vacuoles using a "one-step high density cushion". The vesicle-vacuole fraction showed a 35 fold enrichment in alpha-mannosidase activity (vacuole marker) and non-detectable succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (mitochondrial and cytoplasmic markers, respectively). Confocal laser scanning microscopy with the vacuole dyes MDY-64 and CMAC demonstrated that the fraction contained pure vesicles and vacuoles and was devoid of membranous debris. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that no mitochondria or unbroken protoplasts contaminated the purified fraction. The purified organelles exhibited significant size heterogeneity with a range of sizes similar to that observed in whole cells and protoplasts.

  5. Toward hybrid proteo-polymeric vesicles generating a photoinduced proton gradient for biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Lee, Hyeseung; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2005-09-01

    We describe our efforts towards constructing a hybrid protein-polymer vesicle device based on the photoactive protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), for applications in the area of biosensors and biofuel cells. Successful protein incorporation into biomimetic polymer vesicles is a prerequisite for developing hybrid 'nano-bio' integrated devices. We suggest a systematic procedure for creating energy transducing, protein-incorporating, functional vesicles, based on the morphological ternary diagram. First, we constructed the morphological ternary diagram of the water/ethanol/polymer system with a size distribution of vesicles. The polymer used was an ABA triblock copolymer, PEtOz-PDMS-PEtOz [poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)]. Second, we incorporated BR in the form of purple membrane (PM) into polymer vesicle membranes under several different conditions, based on the morphological ternary diagram. Generation of electrochemical energy by BR proton pumping was checked by monitoring the pH change in parallel with transmission electron microscope analysis. The morphology of the polymer vesicles changed very little with the addition of PM. This work shows that the morphological ternary diagram provides a systematic method for constructing successful hybrid BR-incorporating biomimetic polymer vesicles.

  6. Three-Dimensional Culture Reduces Cell Size By Increasing Vesicle Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Miaohua; Zhou, Ying; Li, Sen; Wu, Yaojiong

    2018-02-01

    Our previous study has shown that three-dimensional (3D) culture decreases mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) size, leading to enhanced trafficking ability and reduced lung vascular obstructions. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we proposed that 3D culture reduces MSC size by increasing vesicle excretion. Scanning electron microscope showed that 3D culture markedly increased the amount of membrane-bound vesicles on the cell surface. In consistence, tunable resistive pulse sensing quantifying analysis of vesicles in the culture medium indicated that there were higher levels of vesicles in the 3D culture MSC medium. 3D culture significantly lowered the level of actin polymerization (F-actin), suggestive of lowering actin skeleton tension may facilitate vesicle excretion. Indeed, treatment of MSCs with Cytochalasin D or functional blockade of integrin β1 caused increased vesicle secretion and decreased cell sizes. Thus, our results suggest that 3D culture reduces MSC size by increasing vesicle excretion which is likely mediated by lowering cytoskeleton tension. Stem Cells 2018;36:286-292. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Contributors in Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Katsiougiannis, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, including microvesicles, exosomes and apoptotic bodies are recognized as carriers of pathogen-associated molecules with direct involvement in immune signaling and inflammation. Those observations have enforced the way these membranous vesicles are being considered as promising immunotherapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in autoimmunity and highlights their potential use as disease biomarkers as well as targets for ...

  8. Exosomes: secreted vesicles and intercellular communications

    OpenAIRE

    Théry, Clotilde

    2011-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. Although exosomes were originally described in 1983, interest in these vesicles has really increased dramatically in the last 3 years, after the finding that they contain mRNA and microRNA. This discovery sparked renewed interest for the general field of membrane vesicles involved in intercellular communications, and research on these s...

  9. Indicators for the feasibility of WEEE processing plants in Brazil : a relationship between virgin mineral copper ore and the recycling of consumer electronic products

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique Alves Cândido; Wilson Kindlein Júnior; Felipe Palombini

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic analysis of the implementation of WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive – processing plants in Brazil, through the study of potential copper extraction from this secondary source. A comparative approach was performed on its copper grade related to levels of its virgin ore mineral extracted from mines located in Brazil, in the United States and through a global average. The results demonstrate that the amount of copper mass originated from ...

  10. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  11. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  12. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  14. Reversibly formed bilayer vesicles: Energetics and polydispersity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstöm, M.

    1997-01-01

    orders of magnitude larger than where the local free energy minima of the equilibrium vesicle actually occur. Moreover, according to our analysis, the relative width of a vesicle size distribution, sigma(R)/R-max, is generally at full equilibrium equal to 0.283, independently of the energetic vesicle....... and a statistical-mechanical factor that accounts for the fluctuations in composition, chain packing density and shape. We demonstrate that the free energy required to form a spherical vesicle is made up of two main contributions: the (size-independent) work of bending the constituent monolayers and the work...

  15. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D; Aikawa, Elena

    2018-02-19

    Extracellular vesicles have emerged as one of the most important means through which cells interact with each other and the extracellular environment, but extracellular vesicle research remains challenging due to their small size, limited amount of material required for traditional molecular biology assays and inconsistency in the methods of their isolation. The advent of new technologies and standards in the field, however, have led to increased mechanistic insight into extracellular vesicle function. Herein, the latest studies on the role of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular physiology and disease are discussed. Extracellular vesicles help control cardiovascular homeostasis and remodelling by mediating communication between cells and directing alterations in the extracellular matrix to respond to changes in the environment. The message carried from the parent cell to extracellular space can be intended for both local (within the same tissue) and distal (downstream of blood flow) targets. Pathological cargo loaded within extracellular vesicles could further result in various diseases. On the contrary, new studies indicate that injection of extracellular vesicles obtained from cultured cells into diseased tissues can promote restoration of normal tissue function. Extracellular vesicles are an integral part of cell and tissue function, and harnessing the properties inherent to extracellular vesicles may provide a therapeutic strategy to promote tissue regeneration.

  16. Extracellular vesicles in cartilage homeostasis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Shigeru; Lotz, Martin K

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles carry bioactive molecules that can be transferred between cells and tissues. The purpose of this review is to describe how extracellular vesicles regulate functions of cells in cartilage and other joint tissues. The potential application of extracellular vesicles in the treatment of osteoarthritis and as biomarkers will also be discussed. Extracellular vesicles are found in synovial fluid, in articular cartilage and in the supernatants of synoviocytes and chondrocytes. Extracellular vesicles in cartilage have been proposed to be involved in cross talk between cells in joint tissues and to affect extracellular matrix turnover and inflammation. Extracellular vesicles from arthritic joints can promote abnormal gene expression and changes in cartilage extracellular matrix, including abnormal mineralization. Promising results were obtained in the therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for cartilage repair and experimental osteoarthritis. Extracellular vesicles have emerged as vehicles for the exchange of bioactive signaling molecules within cartilage and between joint tissues to promote joint homeostasis and arthritis pathogenesis. As the molecular content of extracellular vesicles can be customized, they offer utility in therapeutic applications.

  17. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  18. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  20. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  1. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  2. Policy design in closed-loop supply chains for the integrated management of component recycling and spare parts supply in the electronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marcus; Spengler, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The strategy to recover components from discarded electrical and electronic equipment to obtain spare parts is promising, especially during the final service phase. In that phase, the original product is no longer produced and the sources of new parts are often limited. Controlling those closed-loop supply chains is challenging. Decision makers have to choose when to acquire discarded equipment, when to recover used parts, and when to produce new parts. We developed a generic system dynamics model that provides a test for various proposed policies to control closed-loop supply chains with parts recovery and spare-parts supply.

  3. X-ray microanalysis of mineralized matrix vesicles of experimental saccular aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhill, N.S.; Presland, M.R.; Rogers, K.M.; Stehbens, W.E.

    1985-10-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray microanalytical study was designed to examine the mineral deposits in matrix vesicles found in the walls of experimental aneurysms from two rabbits (103 and 1071 days postoperatively) and two sheep aneurysms (234 and 1202 days postoperatively). The freeze-substitution technique was adopted for use to retain inorganic ions in situ. Numerous, various sized extracellular electron-dense structures, believed to be matrix vesicles were observed. Size histograms for the mineralized vesicles showed that the proportion of smaller vesicles was higher in the older animals. A total of 370 vesicles were analyzed. Calcium and phosphorus with small amounts of magnesium were identified. No particular calcium phosphate mineral was dominant with the mean Ca/P molar ratio for all animals falling in the 1.1-1.2 range. Correlation coefficients for interrelationships between calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and size were weak except for calcium vs phosphorus which was close to one, consistent with some type of calcium phosphate being the major constituent of the mineralized vesicles. Smaller electron-dense particles, probably mitochondrial granules were seen in some smooth muscle cells; a small number were analyzed and contained calcium and phosphorus (mean Ca/P molar ratio of 0.86) but no magnesium.

  4. Reconstitution of cytochrome c oxidase in phospholipid vesicles containing polyvinylic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P; Antonini, G; Malatesta, F; Vallone, B; Villaschi, S; Brunori, M; Hider, R C; Hamed, K

    1989-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase was reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles in the presence of highly hydrophobic poly(vinyl alkanoate) polymers. Electron-microscopy observations demonstrated that polymer interaction with the lipid phase induces vesicles to adopt smaller diameters than those typical of standard proteoliposomes. Functional characterization of these polymer-proteoliposome structures indicates that the reconstitution of the enzyme proceeds efficiently without causing either scrambling of the protein orientation in the membrane or loss of respiratory control. A clear dependence of respiratory control ratio on vesicle size was also demonstrated, which is in agreement with a previous model proposed for control of activity of cytochrome c oxidase vesicles [Brunori, Sarti, Colosimo, Antonini, Malatesta, Jones & Wilson (1985) EMBO J. 4, 2365-2368]. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2539096

  5. COPI mediates recycling of an exocytic SNARE by recognition of a ubiquitin sorting signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Hankins, Hannah M; MacDonald, Chris; Erlinger, Samuel J; Frazier, Meredith N; Diab, Nicholas S; Piper, Robert C; Jackson, Lauren P; MacGurn, Jason A

    2017-01-01

    The COPI coat forms transport vesicles from the Golgi complex and plays a poorly defined role in endocytic trafficking. Here we show that COPI binds K63-linked polyubiquitin and this interaction is crucial for trafficking of a ubiquitinated yeast SNARE (Snc1). Snc1 is a v-SNARE that drives fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane, and then recycles through the endocytic pathway to the Golgi for reuse in exocytosis. Removal of ubiquitin from Snc1, or deletion of a β'-COP subunit propeller domain that binds K63-linked polyubiquitin, disrupts Snc1 recycling causing aberrant accumulation in internal compartments. Moreover, replacement of the β'-COP propeller domain with unrelated ubiquitin-binding domains restores Snc1 recycling. These results indicate that ubiquitination, a modification well known to target membrane proteins to the lysosome or vacuole for degradation, can also function as recycling signal to sort a SNARE into COPI vesicles in a non-degradative pathway. PMID:29058666

  6. Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiovascular Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yihua; Das, Saumya; Rodosthenous, Rodosthenis S; Holvoet, Paul; Vanhaverbeke, Maarten; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Monteiro, Valter Vinicius Silva; Radosinska, Jana; Bartekova, Monika; Jansen, Felix; Li, Qian; Rajasingh, Johnson; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small bilayer lipid membrane vesicles that can be released by most cell types and detected in most body fluids. EVs exert key functions for intercellular communication via transferring their bioactive cargos to recipient cells or activating signaling pathways in target cells. Increasing evidence has shown the important regulatory effects of EVs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). EVs secreted by cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem cells play essential roles in pathophysiological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte survival and apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and angiogenesis in relation to CVDs. In this review, we will first outline the current knowledge about the physical characteristics, biological contents, and isolation methods of EVs. We will then focus on the functional roles of cardiovascular EVs and their pathophysiological effects in CVDs, as well as summarize the potential of EVs as therapeutic agents and biomarkers for CVDs. Finally, we will discuss the specific application of EVs as a novel drug delivery system and the utility of EVs in the field of regenerative medicine.

  7. An electron-rich free-standing carbon@Au core-shell nanofiber network as a highly active and recyclable catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Xin; Su, Chunyan; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Liu, Yichun

    2013-07-07

    A three-dimensional (3D) free-standing network composed of cross-linked carbon@Au core-shell nanofibers was fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and an in situ reduction approach. The results showed that a uniform Au layer of approximately 5 nm thickness was formed around the electrospun carbon nanofiber. What's more, it's interesting to note that the Au layer was composed of small Au nanoparticles. And, the as-prepared CNFs@Au network exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) based on the electron-rich catalytic platform arising from the synergistic effect between carbon and Au. Notably, the free-standing 3D nanofibrous cross-linked network structure could improve the catalyst's performance in separation and reuse.

  8. Association of Randall's Plaques with Collagen Fibers and Membrane Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R.; Rodriguez, Douglas E.; Gower, Laurie B.; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones develop by deposition of CaOx crystals on Randall's plaques (RP). Mechanisms involved in RP formation are still unclear. Objective It is our hypotheses that RP formation is similar to vascular calcification involving components of extracellular matrix including membrane bound vesicles (MV) and collagen fibers. In order to verify our hypothesis we critically examined renal papillary tissue from stone patients. Methods 4 mm cold-cup biopies of renal papillae were performed on fifteen idiopathic stone patients undergoing PCNL. Tissue was immediately fixed and processed for analyses by various light and electron microscopic techniques. Results and Limitations Spherulitic CaP crystals, the hallmark of RP's, were seen in all samples examined. They were seen in interstitium as well as laminated basement membrane of tubular epithelia. Large crystalline deposits comprised of dark elongated strands mixed with spherulites. Strands showed banded patterns similar to collagen. Crystal deposits were surrounded by collagen fibers and membrane bound vesicles. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalyses (EDX) and electron diffraction identified the crystals as hydroxyapatite. The number of kidneys examined is small and urinary data was not available for all the patients. Conclusions Results presented here show that crystals in the Randall's plaques are associated with both the collagen as well as MV. Collagen fibers appeared calcified and vesicles contained crystals. We conclude that crystal deposition in renal papillae may have started with membrane vesicle induced nucleation and grew by addition of crystals on the periphery within a collagen framework. PMID:22266007

  9. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  10. Illuminating the physiology of extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hongyoon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in intercellular communication by transmitting biological materials from donor cells to recipient cells. They have pathophysiologic roles in cancer metastasis, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation. Extracellular vesicles also show promise as emerging therapeutics, with understanding of their physiology including targeting, distribution, and clearance therefore becoming an important issue. Here, we review recent advances in methods for trackin...

  11. Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Chantal M; Loyer, Xavier; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amabile, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    Membrane vesicles released in the extracellular space are composed of a lipid bilayer enclosing soluble cytosolic material and nuclear components. Extracellular vesicles include apoptotic bodies, exosomes, and microvesicles (also known previously as microparticles). Originating from different subcellular compartments, the role of extracellular vesicles as regulators of transfer of biological information, acting locally and remotely, is now acknowledged. Circulating vesicles released from platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells contain potential valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Extracellular vesicles also accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques, where they affect major biological pathways, including inflammation, proliferation, thrombosis, calcification, and vasoactive responses. Extracellular vesicles also recapitulate the beneficial effect of stem cells to treat cardiac consequences of acute myocardial infarction, and now emerge as an attractive alternative to cell therapy, opening new avenues to vectorize biological information to target tissues. Although interest in microvesicles in the cardiovascular field emerged about 2 decades ago, that for extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes, started to unfold a decade ago, opening new research and therapeutic avenues. This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents.

  12. Detection of extracellular vesicles: size does matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cells release small sacks filled with fluid, which are called "extracellular vesicles". The diameter of extracellular vesicles (EV) typically ranges from 30 nm to 1 µm. Because cells release EV into their environment, our body fluids contain numerous EV. Cells release EV to remove waste and to

  13. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-02

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary extracellular vesicles: biomarkers and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Salih (Mahdi)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractExtracellular vesicles have been isolated in various body fluids including urine. The cargo of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) is composed of proteins and nucleic acids reflecting the physiological and possibly the pathophysiological state of cells lining the nephron. Because

  15. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan Shan H; Held, Richard G; Wong, Man Yan; Liu, Changliang; Karakhanyan, Aziz; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-08-17

    In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize Extracellular vesicles. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some Extracellular vesicles -specific evidence. Characterization of Extracellular vesicles has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, flow cytometry, cryo-EM instruments and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face.

  17. Extracellular vesicles: new players in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaceb, Abderahim; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles, particles released by all cell types, represent a new way to convey information between cells such as proteins, second messengers, and genetic information to modify the phenotype and function of the target cells. Recent data suggest that extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in both physiology and pathology, including coagulation, angiogenesis, cell survival, modulation of the immune response, and inflammation. Thus extracellular vesicles participate in the processes of cardiovascular diseases from atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction to heart failure. Consequently, extracellular vesicles can potentially be exploited for therapy, prognosis, and biomarkers for health and disease. This review focuses on the role of extracellular vesicles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the deleterious and beneficial effects that they may provide in vascular cells and myocardium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Transvesical Removal of Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Kenta; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Ota, Syuichi; Sakurai, Takanori

    2015-07-01

    Primary tumors of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. There have been 25 reports of this tumor from overseas and most cases are cystadenoma. We report a case of seminal vesicle cystadenoma in a 70-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain and urinary frequency. A digital rectal examination detected a projecting and hard mass in the right side of the prostate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 15 cm multiple cystic mass continuous with the right seminal vesicle. A transrectal needle biopsy revealed benign tissue. The tumor was resected using an open transvesical approach that enabled full exposure of the seminal vesicle without damaging the nerves and blood supply of the bladder. Pathology was consistent with a benign seminal vesicle cystadenoma. We describe the natural history, pathology,and surgical approach in this case.

  19. Pushing synaptic vesicles over the RIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S

    2011-05-01

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, neurotransmitter release is largely restricted to specialized sites called active zones. Active zones consist of a complex protein network, and they organize fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane in response to action potentials. Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) are central components of active zones. In a recent series of experiments, we have systematically dissected the molecular mechanisms by which RIMs operate in synaptic vesicle release. We found that RIMs execute two critical functions of active zones by virtue of independent protein domains. They tether presyanptic Ca(2+) channels to the active zone, and they activate priming of synaptic vesicles by monomerizing homodimeric, constitutively inactive Munc13. These data indicate that RIMs orchestrate synaptic vesicle release into a coherent process. In conjunction with previous studies, they suggest that RIMs form a molecular platform on which plasticity of synaptic vesicle release can operate.

  20. Apoptotic Bodies: Selective Detection in Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul; Wang, Sha; Didenko, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Normal and dying cells release various types of membrane-bound vesicles including microvesicles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies. These vesicles play important roles in intercellular communication and signal transduction. However, their diverse forms and subtypes fluctuate in size and other properties. In result current purification approaches do not fully discriminate between different categories of extracellular vesicles. Here, we present a fluorescence technique that specifically identifies apoptotic bodies in preparations of microvesicles, exosomes, and other extracellular vesicles.The approach exclusively labels the vesicles that contain DNA with 5'PO 4 blunt-ended DNA breaks, such as those produced by the apoptotic CAD nuclease during apoptotic DNA degradation. The technique can be useful in studies of apoptosis involving microvesicles and exosomes.

  1. Monosaccharide transport in protein-depleted vesicles from erythrocyte membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M A Zoccoli; G E Lienhard

    1977-01-01

    .... Based on comparisons between erythrocytes and vesicles with regard to specificity, temparture dependence, and effects of inhibitors, we conclude that sorbose uptake into the vesicles occurs by way...

  2. Grp1 plays a key role in linking insulin signaling to glut4 recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Malaby, Andrew W.; Famulok, Michael; Sabe, Hisataka; Lambright, David G.; Hsu, Victor W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The glucose transporter type 4 (glut4) is critical for metabolic homeostasis. Insulin regulates glut4 by modulating its expression on the cell surface. This regulation is achieved mainly by targeting the endocytic recycling of glut4. We identify Grp1 (general receptor for 3-phosphoinositides 1) as a GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) for ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) that promotes glut4 vesicle formation. Grp1 also promotes the later steps of glut4 recycling through ARF6. Insulin signaling regulates Grp1 through phosphorylation by Akt. We also find that mutations which mimic constitutive phosphorylation of Grp1 can bypass upstream insulin signaling to induce glut4 recycling. Thus, we have uncovered a major mechanism by which insulin regulates glut4 recycling. Our findings also reveal the complexity by which a single small GTPase in vesicular transport can coordinate its multiple steps to accomplish a round of transport. PMID:22609160

  3. Spatial modeling of vesicle transport and the cytoskeleton: the challenge of hitting the right road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klann

    Full Text Available The membrane trafficking machinery provides a transport and sorting system for many cellular proteins. We propose a mechanistic agent-based computer simulation to integrate and test the hypothesis of vesicle transport embedded into a detailed model cell. The method tracks both the number and location of the vesicles. Thus both the stochastic properties due to the low numbers and the spatial aspects are preserved. The underlying molecular interactions that control the vesicle actions are included in a multi-scale manner based on the model of Heinrich and Rapoport (2005. By adding motor proteins we can improve the recycling process of SNAREs and model cell polarization. Our model also predicts that coat molecules should have a high turnover at the compartment membranes, while the turnover of motor proteins has to be slow. The modular structure of the underlying model keeps it tractable despite the overall complexity of the vesicle system. We apply our model to receptor-mediated endocytosis and show how a polarized cytoskeleton structure leads to polarized distributions in the plasma membrane both of SNAREs and the Ste2p receptor in yeast. In addition, we can couple signal transduction and membrane trafficking steps in one simulation, which enables analyzing the effect of receptor-mediated endocytosis on signaling.

  4. Cholesterol Regulates Multiple Forms of Vesicle Endocytosis at a Mammalian Central Synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from nonspecific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it is unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase (COase) or methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) impaired three different forms of endocytosis, i.e., slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca2+ channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of MCD reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the vesicle replenishment after RRP depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses. PMID:25893258

  5. Cholesterol regulates multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at a mammalian central synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-07-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from non-specific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired three different forms of endocytosis, including slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca(2+) channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool and the vesicle replenishment after readily releasable pool depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Sheet molding composite recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, K.

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how the SMC Automotive Alliance is helping to develop commercial processes to convert sheet molding composite scrap into new raw materials. A projected 200 million pounds of sheet molding composite (SMC) will be used by the auto industry in 1995. The increasing use of SMC in automobiles has prompted the industry to resolve some of the technical challenges involved with recycling the material. The SMC Automotive Alliance, composed of 30 molders and raw materials suppliers, has implemented cooperative research and development programs that have led to the commercialization of processes to recycle and reuse both postindustrial and eventually post-consumer SMC in new automotive applications.

  7. SMN requirement for synaptic vesicle, active zone and microtubule postnatal organization in motor nerve terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Torres-Benito

    Full Text Available Low levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN protein produce Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA, a severe monogenetic disease in infants characterized by muscle weakness and impaired synaptic transmission. We report here severe structural and functional alterations in the organization of the organelles and the cytoskeleton of motor nerve terminals in a mouse model of SMA. The decrease in SMN levels resulted in the clustering of synaptic vesicles (SVs and Active Zones (AZs, reduction in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP, and the recycling pool (RP of synaptic vesicles, a decrease in active mitochondria and limiting of neurofilament and microtubule maturation. We propose that SMN is essential for the normal postnatal maturation of motor nerve terminals and that SMN deficiency disrupts the presynaptic organization leading to neurodegeneration.

  8. The future of plastics recycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeannette M Garcia; Megan L Robertson

    2017-01-01

    ... to many polymeric materials. Recent research points the way toward chemical recycling methods with lower energy requirements, compatibilization of mixed plastic wastes to avoid the need for sorting, and expanding recycling...

  9. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  10. Isolation and characterization of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatonen, Maria T; Ohman, Tiina; Nyman, Tuula A; Laitinen, Saara; Grönholm, Mikaela; Siljander, Pia R-M

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate, for example, in haemostasis, immunity and development. Most studies of platelet EVs have targeted microparticles, whereas exosomes and EV characterization under various conditions have been less analyzed. Studies have been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining EVs free from contaminating cells and platelet remnants. Therefore, we optimized an EV isolation protocol and compared the quantity and protein content of EVs induced by different agonists. Platelets isolated with iodixanol gradient were activated by thrombin and collagen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Ca(2+) ionophore. Microparticles and exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugations. EVs were quantitated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and total protein. Size distributions were determined by NTA and electron microscopy. Proteomics was used to characterize the differentially induced EVs. The main EV populations were 100-250 nm and over 90% were vesicle subpopulations. Although platelets constitutively release EVs, vesiculation can be increased, and the activation pathway determines the number and the cargo of the formed EVs. These activation-dependent variations render the use of protein content in sample normalization invalid. Since most platelet EVs are 100-250 nm, only a fraction has been analyzed by previously used methods, for example, flow cytometry. As the EV subpopulations could not be distinguished and large vesicle populations may be lost by differential centrifugation, novel methods are required for the isolation and the differentiation of all EVs.

  11. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Varga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. Methods: In this manuscript, the size distribution of an erythrocyte-derived EV sample is determined using state-of-the-art techniques such as nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, and electron microscopy, and novel techniques in the field, such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection. Results: The mode values of the size distributions of the studied erythrocyte EVs reported by the different methods show only small deviations around 130 nm, but there are differences in the widths of the size distributions. Conclusion: SAXS is a promising technique with respect to traceability, as this technique was already applied for traceable size determination of solid nanoparticles in suspension. To reach the traceable measurement of EVs, monodisperse and highly concentrated samples are required.

  12. Extracellular vesicles as emerging intercellular communicasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yae Jin; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2014-10-01

    All living cells release extracellular vesicles having pleiotropic functions in intercellular communication. Mammalian extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes and microvesicles, are spherical bilayered proteolipids composed of various bioactive molecules, including RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids. Extracellular vesicles directly and indirectly control a diverse range of biological processes by transferring membrane proteins, signaling molecules, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and activating receptors of recipient cells. The active interaction of extracellular vesicles with other cells regulates various physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent developments in high-throughput proteomics, transcriptomics, and lipidomics tools have provided ample data on the common and specific components of various types of extracellular vesicles. These studies may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in vesicular cargo sorting and the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, and, further, to the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. This review focuses on the components, functions, and therapeutic and diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicles under various pathophysiological conditions.

  13. Structure of Amphiphilic Terpolymer Raspberry Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymer raspberry vesicles contain domains of different chemical affinities. They are potential candidates as multi-compartment cargo carriers. Their efficacy depends on their stability and load capacity. Using a model star terpolymer system in an aqueous solution, a dissipative particle dynamic (DPD simulation is employed to investigate how equilibrium aggregate structures are affected by polymer concentration and pairwise interaction energy in a solution. It is shown that a critical mass of polymer is necessary for vesicle formation. The free energy of the equilibrium aggregates are calculated and the results show that the transition from micelles to vesicles is governed by the interactions between the longest solvophobic block and the solvent. In addition, the ability of vesicles to encapsulate solvent is assessed. It is found that reducing the interaction energy favours solvent encapsulation, although solvent molecules can permeate through the vesicle’s shell when repulsive interactions among monomers are low. Thus, one can optimize the loading capacity and the release rate of the vesicles by turning pairwise interaction energies of the polymer and the solvent. The ability to predict and control these aspects of the vesicles is an essential step towards designing vesicles for specific purposes.

  14. Nano-pipette directed transport of nanotube transmembrane channels and hybrid vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2013-09-01

    Using computational modeling, we simulate the interactions between a nanopipette and transmembrane, end-functionalized nanotubes that are localized within flat bilayers or nanoscopic vesicles. The functional groups (hairs) provide a ``handle'' for the moving pipette to controllably pick up and move the nanotubes to specific locations in the flat membrane, or the hybrid vesicle to specified regions on a surface. The ability to localize these hybrid vesicles on surfaces paves the way for creating nanoreactor arrays in fluidic devices.Using computational modeling, we simulate the interactions between a nanopipette and transmembrane, end-functionalized nanotubes that are localized within flat bilayers or nanoscopic vesicles. The functional groups (hairs) provide a ``handle'' for the moving pipette to controllably pick up and move the nanotubes to specific locations in the flat membrane, or the hybrid vesicle to specified regions on a surface. The ability to localize these hybrid vesicles on surfaces paves the way for creating nanoreactor arrays in fluidic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33991b

  15. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  16. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Tenório,J. J. L.; Gomes,P. C. C.; Rodrigues,C. C.; Alencar,T. F. F. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW), which were d...

  17. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, Anita N; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E; Coumans, Frank A W; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Fractions 9-12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18-20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19-21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9-12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles.

  18. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita N. Böing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim: To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods: Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3. Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and protein were measured in each fraction. Results: Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively, but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively. HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total, and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total. Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions: SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles.

  19. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  20. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  1. Recycling of the #5 polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Marino

    2012-08-10

    Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the SMM Electronics Challenge encourage electronic manufacturers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public and retailers to certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers.

  3. Systematic photovoltaic waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitzsch, Wolfram; Loser, Ulrich [Loser Chemie GmbH, Langenweissbach (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Indium, selenium, tellurium, gallium, molybdenum, cadmium and silicon are some of the major elements used in photovoltaic cells. Fully aware of the limited availability of these metals in future, recycling has been recognized as the most advisable end-of-life strategy to save these raw materials from turning into production wastes. On the other hand, statutory measures such as 'Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz' (the German law encouraging closed-loop economy) aim to achieve a maximum quota of recycling and a minimum use of resources such as energy and raw materials. By the year of 2050, end-of-life photovoltaic panels are anticipated to amount to 9.57 million tons. Although we are not there yet, discussions on recycling have already started. We have to prepare for higher waste volumes expected in the coming years. But already today we need to solve some environmental problems like loss of conventional resources (e.g., glass) and rare metals. All of the known approaches for recycling photovoltaic semiconductor material seem economically and environmentally inefficient. In this paper, we report about reclaiming metals from scrap of thin film systems and associated photovoltaic manufacturing wastes like sandblasting dust and overspray. We also report one universal wet-chemical treatment for reclaiming the metals from CIS, CIGS or CdTe photovoltaic waste. Further, we discuss the application of our method to new PV systems, such as substrates other than glass (stainless steel, aluminum or plastic foil sheets) and alternative semiconductor alloys such as GaAs. (orig.)

  4. RECYCLING OF SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kislitsyna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculations show that metal produced by method of recycling in rotary furnaces will cost 150-170 USD per ton. It enables to make conclusion on opportunity of new process especially taking into account its economical significance.

  5. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  6. Illuminating the physiology of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-04-16

    Extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in intercellular communication by transmitting biological materials from donor cells to recipient cells. They have pathophysiologic roles in cancer metastasis, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation. Extracellular vesicles also show promise as emerging therapeutics, with understanding of their physiology including targeting, distribution, and clearance therefore becoming an important issue. Here, we review recent advances in methods for tracking and imaging extracellular vesicles in vivo and critically discuss their systemic distribution, targeting, and kinetics based on up-to-date evidence in the literature.

  7. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  8. Classification, Functions, and Clinical Relevance of Extracellular Vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Edwin; Böing, Anita N.; Harrison, Paul; Sturk, Augueste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells release small, phospholipid-enclosed vesicles into their environment. Why do cells release vesicles? Initial studies showed that eukaryotic vesicles are used to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Although this release of vesicles is beneficial to the cell, the

  9. A slow start at the beginning of the recycling chain : How to make consumers recycle their mobile phones?

    OpenAIRE

    Pietikäinen, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out why people recycle their old mobile phones lazily. The interest to recycle electronic equipment has enlarged in past few years; the reason for this is the aim of the European Union (EU) to increase recycling as a whole. In the background, there is the objective of the EU to reduce waste by delegating the responsibility of the products waste handling to producers. The European Parliament and the Council have passed a directive on Waste Electrical and El...

  10. Vesicle-MaNiA: extracellular vesicles in liquid biopsy and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Torrano, Veronica; Royo, Felix; Peinado, Héctor; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Unda, Miguel; Falcón-Perez, Juan M.; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-01-01

    Normal and tumor cells shed vesicles to the environment. Within the large family of extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles have attracted much attention in the recent years. Their interest ranges from mediators of cancer progression, inflammation, immune regulation and metastatic niche regulation, to non-invasive biomarkers of disease. In this respect, the procedures to purify and analyze extracellular vesicles have quickly evolved and represent a source of variability for data in...

  11. Endocytic recycling at the tip region in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Recent live cell imaging analyzing the components required for endocytosis has elucidated that endocytosis actively occurs at the hyphal tip region in filamentous fungi. To examine further the physiological roles of endocytosis we investigated a conditional mutant of endocytosis in Aspergillus oryzae. Endocytosis-deficient hyphae displayed retarded apical growth, abnormal hyphal morphology, mislocalization of a vesicle- SNARE, which is thought to undergo endocytic recycling to the tip region,...

  12. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  13. Stability of Spherical Vesicles in Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The stability of spherical vesicles in alternating (ac) electric fields is studied theoretically for asymmetric conductivity conditions across their membranes. The vesicle deformation is obtained from a balance between the curvature elastic energies and the work done by the Maxwell stresses. The present theory describes and clarifies the mechanisms for the four types of morphological transitions observed experimentally on vesicles exposed to ac fields in the frequency range from 500 to 2 × 107 Hz. The displacement currents across the membranes redirect the electric fields toward the membrane normal to accumulate electric charges by the Maxwell−Wagner mechanism. These accumulated electric charges provide the underlying molecular mechanism for the morphological transitions of vesicles as observed on the micrometer scale. PMID:20575588

  14. Concentration-Independent Spontaneously Forming Biomimetric Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, M.-P.; Harroun, T. A.; Raghunathan, V. A.; Glinka, C. J.; Katsaras, J.

    2003-10-01

    In this Letter we present small-angle neutron scattering data from a biomimetic system composed of the phospholipids dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl phosphorylcholine (DMPC and DHPC, respectively). Doping DMPC-DHPC multilamellar vesicles with either the negatively charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphorylglycerol (DMPG, net charge -1) or the divalent cation, calcium (Ca2+), leads to the spontaneous formation of energetically stabilized monodisperse unilamellar vesicles whose radii are concentration independent and in contrast with previous experimental observations.

  15. Labeling Extracellular Vesicles for Nanoscale Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aizea Morales-Kastresana; Bill Telford; Musich, Thomas A.; Katherine McKinnon; Cassandra Clayborne; Zach Braig; Ari Rosner; Thorsten Demberg; Watson, Dionysios C.; Karpova, Tatiana S.; Freeman, Gordon J.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Pavlakis, George N.; Masaki Terabe; Marjorie Robert-Guroff

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are 30?800?nm vesicles that are released by most cell types, as biological packages for intercellular communication. Their importance in cancer and inflammation makes EVs and their cargo promising biomarkers of disease and cell-free therapeutic agents. Emerging high-resolution cytometric methods have created a pressing need for efficient fluorescent labeling procedures to visualize and detect EVs. Suitable labels must be brig...

  16. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The class V myosin motor, myosin 5c, localizes to mature secretory vesicles and facilitates exocytosis in lacrimal acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelletta, Ronald R; Jacobs, Damon T; Schechter, Joel E; Cheney, Richard E; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the role of the actin-based myosin motor, myosin 5c (Myo5c) in vesicle transport in exocrine secretion. Lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) are the major source for the regulated secretion of proteins from the lacrimal gland into the tear film. Confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Myo5c was associated with secretory vesicles in primary rabbit LGAC. Upon stimulation of secretion with the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, Myo5c was also detected in association with actin-coated fusion intermediates. Adenovirus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the tail domain of Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-tail) showed that this protein was localized to secretory vesicles. Furthermore, its expression induced a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in carbachol-stimulated release of two secretory vesicle content markers, secretory component and syncollin-GFP. Adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP appended to the full-length Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-full) was used in parallel with adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP-Myo5c-tail in LGAC to compare various parameters of secretory vesicles labeled with either GFP-labeled protein in resting and stimulated LGAC. These studies revealed that the carbachol-stimulated increase in secretory vesicle diameter associated with compound fusion of secretory vesicles that was also exhibited by vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-full was impaired in vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-tail. A significant decrease in GFP labeling of actin-coated fusion intermediates was also seen in carbachol-stimulated LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-tail relative to LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-full. These results suggest that Myo5c participates in apical exocytosis of secretory vesicles.

  18. Cellular Phenotype and Extracellular Vesicles: Basic and Clinical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Goldberg, Laura R.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Mark S Dooner; Pereira, Mandy G.; Wen, Sicheng; Camussi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Early work on platelet and erythrocyte vesicles interpreted the phenomena as a discard of material from cells. Subsequently, vesicles were studied as possible vaccines and, most recently, there has been a focus on the effects of vesicles on cell fate. Recent studies have indicated that extracellular vesicles, previously referred to as microvesicles or exosomes, have the capacity to change the phenotype of neighboring cells. Extensive work has shown that vesicles derived from either the lung o...

  19. Ultrastructural localization of RFamide-like peptides in neuronal dense-cored vesicles in the peduncle of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1989-01-01

    The presence of Arg-Phe-amide (RFamide)-like peptides in dense-cored vesicles in neurons of the peduncle of Hydra was demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy. Thin sections of Lowicryl-embedded tissue labeled with antisera to RFamide and 5-nm gold-conjugated, secondary antibody and of Epon....../ml RFamide. These results are the first demonstration that the dense-cored vesicles of Hydra neurons contain a neuropeptide....

  20. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  1. Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Phillips, Rob

    2011-06-01

    In recent experiments [M. Dubois, B. Demé, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J.-C. Dedieu, C. Vautrin, S. Désert, E. Perez, and T. Zemb, Nature (London) 411, 672 (2001)] the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested [M. Dubois, V. Lizunov, A. Meister, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J. M. Verbavatz, E. Perez, J. Zimmerberg, and T. Zemb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 15082 (2004)] that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron.

  2. Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles-Promises and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromada, Carina; Mühleder, Severin; Grillari, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival. Hence, endothelial extracellular vesicles hold promising therapeutic potential to be used as a new tool to detect as well as treat a great number of diseases. This calls for clinically approved, standardized, and efficient isolation and characterization protocols to harvest and purify endothelial extracellular vesicles. However, such methods and techniques to fulfill stringent requirements for clinical trials have yet to be developed or are not harmonized internationally. In this review, recent advances and challenges in the field of endothelial extracellular vesicle research are discussed and current problems and limitations regarding isolation and characterization are pointed out.

  3. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckerich Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii. These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular

  4. Recycling of ferrous scrap; Tetsu no recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, M. [The Japan Research and Development Center for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Scrap is divided by its origin into self-generation scrap, city scrap and import scrap. The self-generation scrap is around 12 million tons/year in amount, stable both in amount of impurities and shape, and is melt in the production process of steel and reused. The city scrap is divided into process scrap generated in processing/assembly process to finished products and waste scrap wasted after products reaching to end users and being used for a certain period. The city scrap is 70% of all the scraps, around 75% of which is the waste scrap. The waste scrap is expected to be 45 million tons in 2010. In recycling, copper and tin in scrap are elements in trouble, and the scrap is reused by limiting the usage and diluting the impurities with reduced iron and pig iron. As the technical development for tramp element, the paper commented on self-discrimination/separation system, and removal of copper and tin using weak acid powder. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 figs.

  5. Real cost of recycled spectacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David A; Cronjé, Sonja; Frick, Kevin; Holden, Brien A

    2012-03-01

    Many programs aimed at mitigating the problem of uncorrected refractive error and the resulting avoidable blindness use recycled (donated) spectacles as a seemingly inexpensive expedient. This article analyses the costs and benefits of recycled spectacles and compares them with alternative methodologies. Although well intentioned, it is argued that recycled spectacles will neither suit many of those affected by uncorrected refractive error nor provide a cost saving solution to the problem. Although this is not the first argument against the use of recycled spectacles, there has been no accurate costing of their delivery. This article assesses the real cost of delivery of recycled spectacles. The useable quantity of recycled spectacles was determined by examining two separate batches of donated spectacles. These data were used in the calculation of the cost of delivery. The metric used for comparison was only cost (i.e., it was a cost minimization analysis) because it was deemed that recycled spectacles and ready-made spectacles were the same mode of correction fundamentally. Only 7% of the 275 recycled spectacles analyzed were suitable for use. The relatively small proportion of useable spectacles contributed to the high societal cost of delivering recycled spectacles, which was found to be U.S.$20.49, more than twice the cost of supplying ready-made spectacles. Recycled spectacles are not a cost-saving method of correcting refractive error and should be discouraged as a strategy for eliminating uncorrected refractive error in developing countries.

  6. Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2017-05-12

    Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells. These microstructures contain proteins, lipids, and genetic information able to modify the phenotype and function of the target cells. EVs carry specific markers of the cell of origin that make possible monitoring their fluctuations in the circulation as potential biomarkers inasmuch their circulating levels are increased in metabolic syndrome patients. Because of the mixed components of EVs, the content or the number of EVs derived from distinct cells of origin, the mode of cell stimulation, and the ensuing mechanisms for their production, it is difficult to attribute specific functions as drivers or biomarkers of diseases. This review reports recent data of EVs from different origins, including endothelial, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, hepatocytes, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and finally, those from microbiota as bioeffectors of message, leading to metabolic syndrome. Depicting the complexity of the mechanisms involved in their functions reinforce the hypothesis that EVs are valid biomarkers, and they represent targets that can be harnessed for innovative therapeutic approaches. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. A novel synaptic vesicle fusion path in the rat cerebral cortex: the "saddle" point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampighi, Guido A; Serrano, Raul; Vergara, Julio L

    2014-01-01

    We improved freeze-fracture electron microscopy to study synapses in the neuropil of the rat cerebral cortex at ∼2 nm resolution and in three-dimensions. In the pre-synaptic axon, we found that "rods" assembled from short filaments protruding from the vesicle and the plasma membrane connects synaptic vesicles to the membrane of the active zone. We equated these "connector rods" to protein complexes involved in "docking" and "priming" vesicles to the active zone. Depending on their orientation, the "rods" define two synaptic vesicle-fusion paths: When parallel to the plasma membrane, the vesicles hemi-fuse anywhere ("randomly") in the active zone following the conventional path anticipated by the SNARE hypothesis. When perpendicular to the plasma membrane, the vesicles hemi-fuse at the base of sharp crooks, called "indentations," that are spaced 75-85 nm center-to-center, arranged in files and contained within gutters. They result from primary and secondary membrane curvatures that intersect at stationary inflection ("saddle") points. Computer simulations indicate that this novel vesicle-fusion path evokes neurotransmitter concentration domains on the post-synaptic spine that are wider, shallower, and that reach higher average concentrations than the more conventional vesicle fusion path. In the post-synaptic spine, large (∼9× ∼15 nm) rectangular particles at densities of 72±10/ µm2 (170-240/spine) match the envelopes of the homotetrameric GluR2 AMPA-sensitive receptor. While these putative receptors join clusters, called the "post-synaptic domains," the overwhelming majority of the rectangular particles formed bands in the "non-synaptic" plasma membrane of the spine. In conclusion, in the neuropil of the rat cerebral cortex, curvatures of the plasma membrane define a novel vesicle-fusion path that preconditions specific regions of the active zone for neurotransmitter release. We hypothesize that a change in the hybridization of the R-SNARE synaptobrevin

  8. The Gαq/11 proteins contribute to T lymphocyte migration by promoting turnover of integrin LFA-1 through recycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Svensson

    Full Text Available The role of Gαi proteins coupled to chemokine receptors in directed migration of immune cells is well understood. In this study we show that the separate class of Gαq/11 proteins is required for the underlying ability of T cells to migrate both randomly and in a directed chemokine-dependent manner. Interfering with Gαq or Gα11 using dominant negative cDNA constructs or siRNA for Gαq causes accumulation of LFA-1 adhesions and stalled migration. Gαq/11 has an impact on LFA-1 expression at plasma membrane level and also on its internalization. Additionally Gαq co-localizes with LFA-1- and EEA1-expressing intracellular vesicles and partially with Rap1- but not Rab11-expressing vesicles. However the influence of Gαq is not confined to the vesicles that express it, as its reduction alters intracellular trafficking of other vesicles involved in recycling. In summary vesicle-associated Gαq/11 is required for the turnover of LFA-1 adhesion that is necessary for migration. These G proteins participate directly in the initial phase of recycling and this has an impact on later stages of the endo-exocytic pathway.

  9. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...... for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis....

  10. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  11. A two phase field model for tracking vesicle-vesicle adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Gunzburger, Max

    2016-11-01

    A multi-phase-field model for simulating the adhesion between two vesicles is constructed. Two phase field functions are introduced to simulate each of the two vesicles. An energy model is defined which accounts for the elastic bending energy of each vesicle and the contact potential energy between the two vesicles; the vesicle volume and surface area constraints are imposed using a penalty method. Numerical results are provided to verify the efficacy of our model and to provide visual illustrations of the different types of contact. The method can be adjusted to solve endocytosis problems by modifying the bending rigidity coefficients of the two elastic bending energies. The method can also be extended to simulate multi-cell adhesions, one example of which is erythrocyte rouleaux. A comparison with laboratory observations demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-phase field approach.

  12. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed......Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables...

  13. APache Is an AP2-Interacting Protein Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking and Neuronal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Alessandra; Castroflorio, Enrico; Valente, Pierluigi; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Aprile, Davide; Michetti, Caterina; Bramini, Mattia; Giansante, Giorgia; Pinto, Bruno; Savardi, Annalisa; Cesca, Fabrizia; Bachi, Angela; Cattaneo, Angela; Wren, Jonathan D; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio; Giovedì, Silvia

    2017-12-19

    Synaptic transmission is critically dependent on synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. Although the precise mechanisms of SV retrieval are still debated, it is widely accepted that a fundamental role is played by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a form of endocytosis that capitalizes on the clathrin/adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) coat and several accessory factors. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized protein KIAA1107, predicted by bioinformatics analysis to be involved in the SV cycle, is an AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein (APache). We found that APache is highly enriched in the CNS and is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles via interaction with AP2. APache-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of maturation at early developmental stages, reduced SV density, enlarged endosome-like structures, and defects in synaptic transmission, consistent with an impaired clathrin/AP2-mediated SV recycling. Our data implicate APache as an actor in the complex regulation of SV trafficking, neuronal development, and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. APache Is an AP2-Interacting Protein Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking and Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piccini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission is critically dependent on synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. Although the precise mechanisms of SV retrieval are still debated, it is widely accepted that a fundamental role is played by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a form of endocytosis that capitalizes on the clathrin/adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2 coat and several accessory factors. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized protein KIAA1107, predicted by bioinformatics analysis to be involved in the SV cycle, is an AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein (APache. We found that APache is highly enriched in the CNS and is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles via interaction with AP2. APache-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of maturation at early developmental stages, reduced SV density, enlarged endosome-like structures, and defects in synaptic transmission, consistent with an impaired clathrin/AP2-mediated SV recycling. Our data implicate APache as an actor in the complex regulation of SV trafficking, neuronal development, and synaptic plasticity.

  15. Recycled aggregate concrete; an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sorato, Renan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to investigate whether recycled materials can be incorporated into the production of concrete without compromising the compressive strength of the concrete produced. In order to shed light on the compressive strength of concrete made from recycled materials, the thesis reviewed studies in which waste materials are utilised as recycled aggregates in the composition of concrete and presented the results of this synthesis and analysis. It was found that som...

  16. Mechanics of post-fusion exocytotic vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas; Wu, Zhanghan; Liu, Jian

    2017-05-23

    Exocytosis is an important cellular process controlled by metabolic signaling. It involves vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane, followed by the opening of a fusion pore, and the subsequent release of the vesicular lumen content into the extracellular space. While most modeling efforts focus on the events leading to membrane fusion, how the vesicular membrane remodels after fusing to plasma membrane remains unclear. This latter event dictates the nature and the efficiency of exocytotic vesicular secretions, and is thus critical for exocytotic function. We provide a generic membrane mechanical model to systematically study the fate of post-fusion vesicles. We show that while membrane stiffness favors full-collapse vesicle fusion into the plasma membrane, the intravesicular pressure swells the vesicle and causes the fusion pore to shrink. Dimensions of the vesicle and its associated fusion pore further modulate this mechanical antagonism. We systematically define the mechanical conditions that account for the full spectrum of the observed vesicular secretion modes. Our model therefore can serve as a unified theoretical framework that sheds light on the elaborate control mechanism of exocytosis.

  17. Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zorec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are no longer considered subservient to neurons, and are, instead, now understood to play an active role in brain signaling. The intercellular communication of astrocytes with neurons and other non-neuronal cells involves the exchange of molecules by exocytotic and endocytotic processes through the trafficking of intracellular vesicles. Recent studies of single vesicle mobility in astrocytes have prompted new views of how astrocytes contribute to information processing in nervous tissue. Here, we review the trafficking of several types of membrane-bound vesicles that are specifically involved in the processes of (i intercellular communication by gliotransmitters (glutamate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, atrial natriuretic peptide, (ii plasma membrane exchange of transporters and receptors (EAAT2, MHC-II, and (iii the involvement of vesicle mobility carrying aquaporins (AQP4 in water homeostasis. The properties of vesicle traffic in astrocytes are discussed in respect to networking with neighboring cells in physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and states in which astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammatory conditions.

  18. Mechanics of post-fusion exocytotic vesicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas; Wu, Zhanghan; Liu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Exocytosis is an important cellular process controlled by metabolic signaling. It involves vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane, followed by the opening of a fusion pore, and the subsequent release of the vesicular lumen content into the extracellular space. While most modeling efforts focus on the events leading to membrane fusion, how the vesicular membrane remodels after fusing to plasma membrane remains unclear. This latter event dictates the nature and the efficiency of exocytotic vesicular secretions, and is thus critical for exocytotic function. We provide a generic membrane mechanical model to systematically study the fate of post-fusion vesicles. We show that while membrane stiffness favors full-collapse vesicle fusion into the plasma membrane, the intravesicular pressure swells the vesicle and causes the fusion pore to shrink. Dimensions of the vesicle and its associated fusion pore further modulate this mechanical antagonism. We systematically define the mechanical conditions that account for the full spectrum of the observed vesicular secretion modes. Our model therefore can serve as a unified theoretical framework that sheds light on the elaborate control mechanism of exocytosis.

  19. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  20. Hyperfibers and vesicles in dentin matrix in dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltimo, J

    1994-10-01

    Dentin matrix of deciduous teeth from two patients affected by dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) associated with types IB and IVB osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) displayed previously undescribed structures in transmission electron microscopic examination. Vesicles were seen in dentin of both patients, and abnormally thick collagen fibers (hyperfibers) were found in dentin of the patient with the rare type IB OI. Both vesicles and hyperfibers were situated in abnormal, atubular areas of dentin. Matrix vesicles, which have normally been identified in mantle dentin only, were abundant in selected areas of the affected dentin, thereby supporting the concept that dentin matrix in OI is elaborated by successive cell generations. The hyperfibers, not previously described in either normal or abnormal human dentin, have possibly been formed by fusion of several collagen fibers. Further ultrastructural studies of dentin in DI with OI may help to clarify the marked clinical variation in teeth of patients affected by OI.

  1. Buoyancy Limitation of Filamentous Cyanobacteria under Prolonged Pressure due to the Gas Vesicles Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayaka, Helayaye Damitha Lakmali; Asaeda, Takashi; Kaneko, Yasuko

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata were cultured in chambers under artificially generated pressures, which correspond to the hydrostatic pressures at deep water. Variations occurred in gas vesicles volume, and buoyancy state of cells under those conditions were analyzed at different time intervals (5 min, 1 day, and 5 days). Variations in gas vesicles morphology of cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy images. Settling velocity ( Vs) of cells which governs the buoyancy was observed with the aid of a modified optical microscope. Moreover, effects of the prolonged pressure on cell ballast composition (protein and polysaccharides) were examined. Elevated pressure conditions reduced the cell ballast and caused a complete disappearance of gas vesicles in Pseudanabaena galeata cells. Hence cyanobacteria cells were not able to float within the study period. Observations and findings of the study indicate the potential application of hydrostatic pressure, which naturally occurred in hypolimnion of lakes, to inhibit the re-suspension of cyanobacteria cells.

  2. Rab3 proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis and priming in embryonic mouse chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonn, Jean-Sébastien; van Weering, Jan R T; Mohrmann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The four Rab3 paralogs A-D are involved in exocytosis, but their mechanisms of action are hard to study due to functional redundancy. Here we used a quadruple Rab3 knock-out (rab3a, rab3b, rab3c, rab3d null, here denoted ABCD(-/-)) mouse line to investigate Rab3 function in embryonic mouse adrenal...... chromaffin cells by electron microscopy and electrophysiological measurements. We show that in cells from ABCD(-/-) animals large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) are less abundant while the number of morphologically docked granules is normal. By capacitance measurements, we show that deletion of Rab3s reduces...... rate after an initial delay. Rescue experiments showed that short-term (4-6 hours) overexpression of Rab3A or Rab3C suffices to rescue vesicle priming and secretion, but it does not restore the number of secretory vesicles. We conclude that Rab3 proteins play two distinct stimulating roles for LDCV...

  3. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  4. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass.

  5. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Senawi Nur Hidayah; Sheau-Ting Low

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste) behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted amo...

  6. Self-assembly in aqueous solution of wheel-shaped Mo154 oxide clusters into vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Li, Huilin; Dress, Andreas W M; Müller, Achim

    2003-11-06

    Surfactants and membrane lipids readily assemble into complex structures such as micelles, liposomes or hollow vesicles owing to their amphiphilic character-the fact that part of their structure is attracted to polar environments while another part is attracted to non-polar environments. The self-assembly of complex structures also occurs in polyoxometallate chemistry, as exemplified by the molybdenum blue solutions known for centuries. But while the presence of nanometre-sized metal oxide aggregates in these solutions has long been recognized, unravelling the composition and formation process of these aggregates proved difficult. Recent work has indicated that discrete, wheel-shaped mixed-valence polyoxomolybdate clusters of the type [Mo154] (refs 2-4) assemble into well-defined nanometre-sized aggregates, including spherical structures. Here we report light-scattering data and transmission electron microscopy images of hollow spherical structures with an average, almost monodisperse radius of about 45 nm and composed of approximately 1,165 [Mo154] wheel-shaped clusters. The clusters appear to lie flat and homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike conventional lipid vesicles, the structures we observe are not stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. Instead, we believe the polyoxomolybdate-based vesicles form owing to a subtle interplay between short-range van der Waals attraction and long-range electrostatic repulsion, with important further stabilization arising from hydrogen bonding involving water molecules encapsulated between the wheel-shaped clusters and in the vesicles' interior.

  7. Unconventional molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle replenishment in cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Christian; Cooper, Benjamin H; Neef, Jakob; Wojcik, Sonja M; Reim, Kerstin; Reisinger, Ellen; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Moser, Tobias; Wichmann, Carolin

    2015-02-15

    Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) employ efficient vesicle replenishment to indefatigably encode sound. In neurons, neuroendocrine and immune cells, vesicle replenishment depends on proteins of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13, also known as Unc13) and Ca(2+)-dependent activator proteins for secretion (CAPS) families, which prime vesicles for exocytosis. Here, we tested whether Munc13 and CAPS proteins also regulate exocytosis in mouse IHCs by combining immunohistochemistry with auditory systems physiology and IHC patch-clamp recordings of exocytosis in mice lacking Munc13 and CAPS isoforms. Surprisingly, we did not detect Munc13 or CAPS proteins at IHC presynaptic active zones and found normal IHC exocytosis as well as auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in Munc13 and CAPS deletion mutants. Instead, we show that otoferlin, a C2-domain protein that is crucial for vesicular fusion and replenishment in IHCs, clusters at the plasma membrane of the presynaptic active zone. Electron tomography of otoferlin-deficient IHC synapses revealed a reduction of short tethers holding vesicles at the active zone, which might be a structural correlate of impaired vesicle priming in otoferlin-deficient IHCs. We conclude that IHCs use an unconventional priming machinery that involves otoferlin. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Oral swirl samples - a robust source of microRNA protected by extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, T; Vella, L J; Seers, C; Nastri, A; Reynolds, E; Cirillo, N; McCullough, M

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are dysregulated in disease states, such as oral cancer. Extracellular vesicles, a potential source of microRNA, are found in saliva. To demonstrate that a quantifiable amount of microRNA can be isolated from oral swirl samples. Additionally, we hypothesized that extracellular vesicles may protect contained microRNA from degradation in these samples. A polyethylene glycol-based precipitation was used for extracellular vesicle enrichment of oral swirl samples. Comparison was made between samples treated with and without RNase. Further, samples from three subjects were exposed to a range of conditions over 7 days and assessed for presence of microRNA by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. Extracellular vesicles from samples were identified under transmission electron microscopy. An adequate quantity of microRNA for qPCR analysis was extractable from samples despite exposure to conditions under which degradation of RNA would be expected. A technique was developed to isolate an adequate quantity of microRNA for analysis from oral swirl samples. Extracellular vesicle-associated microRNA may be protected from degradation. This technique moves towards chairside application of translational microRNA research in the field of oral cancer prognostics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Complexin regulates the closure of the fusion pore during regulated vesicle exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Deborah A; Graham, Margaret E; Burgoyne, Robert D

    2002-05-24

    Membrane fusion during exocytosis and throughout the cell is believed to involve members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) family of proteins. The assembly of these proteins into a four-helix bundle may be part of the driving force for bilayer fusion. Regulated exocytosis in neurons and related cell types is specialized to be fast and Ca(2+)-dependent suggesting the involvement of other regulatory proteins specific for regulated exocytosis. Among these are the complexins, two closely related proteins that bind only to the assembled SNARE complex. We have investigated the function of complexin by analysis of single vesicle release events in adrenal chromaffin cells using carbon fiber amperometry. These cells express complexin II, and overexpression of this protein modified the kinetics of vesicle release events so that their time course was shortened. This effect depended on complexin interaction with the SNARE complex as introduction of a mutation of Arg-59, a residue that interacts with synaptobrevin in the SNARE complex, abolished its effects. The data are consistent with a function for complexin in stabilizing an intermediate of the SNARE complex to allow kiss-and-run recycling of the exocytosed vesicle.

  10. Botulinum neurotoxin D uses synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and gangliosides as receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Peng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs include seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G that target presynaptic terminals and act as proteases cleaving proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Here we identified synaptic vesicle protein SV2 as the protein receptor for BoNT/D. BoNT/D enters cultured hippocampal neurons via synaptic vesicle recycling and can bind SV2 in brain detergent extracts. BoNT/D failed to bind and enter neurons lacking SV2, which can be rescued by expressing one of the three SV2 isoforms (SV2A/B/C. Localization of SV2 on plasma membranes mediated BoNT/D binding in both neurons and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, chimeric receptors containing the binding sites for BoNT/A and E, two other BoNTs that use SV2 as receptors, failed to mediate the entry of BoNT/D suggesting that BoNT/D binds SV2 via a mechanism distinct from BoNT/A and E. Finally, we demonstrated that gangliosides are essential for the binding and entry of BoNT/D into neurons and for its toxicity in vivo, supporting a double-receptor model for this toxin.

  11. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  12. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  13. Analysis of photon recycling in light emitting diodes with nonuniform injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ryzhii, V.; Ikegami, T.

    2000-09-01

    We studied the effect of photon recycling in double heterostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs) with relatively small area contact providing nonuniform injection of electrons. A simple phenomenological model of the electron and photon transport in the LED is used to calculate the spatial distributions of electrons and output radiation as well as the external quantum efficiency as functions of device parameters. It is shown that photon recycling is the governing factor of the operation of LEDs with nonuniform injection.

  14. Time-Resolved SAXS Studies of the Kinetics of Thermally Triggered Release of Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles from Block Copolymer Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mable, Charlotte J; Derry, Matthew J; Thompson, Kate L; Fielding, Lee A; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Armes, Steven P

    2017-06-13

    Silica-loaded poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer vesicles are prepared in the form of concentrated aqueous dispersions via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). As the concentration of silica nanoparticles present during the PISA synthesis is increased up to 35% w/w, higher degrees of encapsulation of this component within the vesicles can be achieved. After centrifugal purification to remove excess non-encapsulated silica nanoparticles, SAXS, DCP, and TGA analysis indicates encapsulation of up to hundreds of silica nanoparticles per vesicle. In the present study, the thermally triggered release of these encapsulated silica nanoparticles is examined by cooling to 0 °C for 30 min, which causes in situ vesicle dissociation. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the change in diblock copolymer morphology and also enable direct visualization of the released silica nanoparticles. Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering is used to quantify the extent of silica release over time. For an initial silica concentration of 5% w/w, cooling induces a vesicle-to-sphere transition with subsequent nanoparticle release. For higher silica concentrations (20 or 30% w/w) cooling only leads to perforation of the vesicle membranes, but silica nanoparticles are nevertheless released through the pores. For vesicles prepared in the presence of 30% w/w silica, the purified silica-loaded vesicles were cooled to 0 °C for 30 min, and SAXS patterns were collected every 15 s. A new SAXS model has been developed to determine both the mean volume fraction of encapsulated silica within the vesicles and the scattering length density. Satisfactory data fits to the experimental SAXS patterns were obtained using this model.

  15. Diverse subpopulations of vesicles secreted by different intracellular mechanisms are present in exosome preparations obtained by differential ultracentrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrie, Angélique; Colombo, Marina; Krumeich, Sophie; Raposo, Graça; Théry, Clotilde

    2012-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles of 50 to 100 nm in diameter, released by many cell types. Exosomes are formed inside the cell in intracellular endosomal compartments and are secreted upon fusion of these compartments with the plasma membrane. Cells also secrete other types of membrane vesicles, for instance, by outward budding from the plasma membrane, and although some of them clearly differ from exosomes by their structural features (larger size), others are possibly more difficult to separate. Here, using Rab27a inhibition to modulate exosome secretion, we show the existence of at least 2 distinct populations of vesicles after purification by classical ultracentrifugation from mouse tumor cell conditioned medium. Rab27a inhibition lead to decreased vesicular secretion of some conventional markers of exosomes (CD63, Tsg101, Alix and Hsc70) but did not affect secretion of others (CD9 and Mfge8). By electron microscopy, CD9 was observed on vesicles of various sizes, ranging from 30 nm to more than 150 nm in diameter. Flotation onto sucrose gradients showed different proportions of CD63, CD9 and Mfge8 not only in fractions of densities classically described for exosomes (around 1.15 g/ml) but also in fractions of densities over 1.20 g/ml, indicating the presence of heterogenous vesicle populations. CD9 and Mfge8 were also found in large vesicles pelleted at low speed and can thus not be considered as specific components of endosome-derived vesicles. We propose that the most commonly used protocols for exosome preparations co-purify vesicles from endosomal and other origins, possibly the plasma membrane. Future work will be required to improve techniques for accurate purification and characterization of the different populations of extracellular vesicles. PMID:24009879

  16. PI3K-C2α knockdown decreases autophagy and maturation of endocytic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Merrill

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K family members are involved in diverse cellular fates including cell growth, proliferation, and survival. While many molecular details are known about the Class I and III PI3Ks, less is known about the Class II PI3Ks. To explore the function of all eight PI3K isoforms in autophagy, we knock down each gene individually and measure autophagy. We find a significant decrease in autophagy following siRNA-mediated PIK3C2A (encoding the Class 2 PI3K, PI3K-C2α knockdown. This defective autophagy is rescued by exogenous PI3K-C2α, but not kinase-dead PI3K-C2α. Using confocal microscopy, we probe for markers of endocytosis and autophagy, revealing that PI3K-C2α colocalizes with markers of endocytosis. Though endocytic uptake is intact, as demonstrated by transferrin labeling, PIK3C2A knockdown results in vesicle accumulation at the recycling endosome. We isolate distinct membrane sources and observe that PI3K-C2α interacts with markers of endocytosis and autophagy, notably ATG9. Knockdown of either PIK3C2A or ATG9A/B, but not PI3KC3, results in an accumulation of transferrin-positive clathrin coated vesicles and RAB11-positive vesicles at the recycling endosome. Taken together, these results support a role for PI3K-C2α in the proper maturation of endosomes, and suggest that PI3K-C2α may be a critical node connecting the endocytic and autophagic pathways.

  17. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  18. Directed vesicle transport by diffusio-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michler, D.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Sprik, R.; Bonn, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on surfactant vesicles that spontaneously move towards an oil droplet that is deposited on a glass substrate. Tracer particles in the surfactant solution show that the motion is not self-propelled: the vesicles are entrained by a macroscopic hydrodynamic flow. Measurements of the flow velocity suggest that the flow is of diffusio-osmotic nature. The surfactant is observed to move into the oil phase which creates a gradient in ion concentration in the vicinity of the droplet. As the diffusion coefficients of the surfactant's co- and counter-ions differ, a charge separation takes place and an electric field arises. This electric field then generates a hydrodynamic flow along the charged glass substrate in which the vesicles are entrained.

  19. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  20. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  1. Electrohydrodynamics of a compound vesicle under an AC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Kumari Priti; Thaokar, Rochish M

    2017-07-12

    Compound vesicles are relevant as simplified models for biological cells as well as in technological applications such as drug delivery. Characterization of these compound vesicles, especially the inner vesicle, remains a challenge. Similarly their response to electric field assumes importance in light of biomedical applications such as electroporation. Fields lower than that required for electroporation cause electrodeformation in vesicles and can be used to characterize their mechanical and electrical properties. A theoretical analysis of the electrohydrodynamics of a compound vesicle with outer vesicle of radius R o and an inner vesicle of radius [Formula: see text], is presented. A phase diagram for the compound vesicle is presented and elucidated using detailed plots of electric fields, free charges and electric stresses. The electrohydrodynamics of the outer vesicle in a compound vesicle shows a prolate-sphere and prolate-oblate-sphere shape transitions when the conductivity of the annular fluid is greater than the outer fluid, and vice-versa respectively, akin to single vesicle electrohydrodynamics reported in the literature. The inner vesicle in contrast shows sphere-prolate-sphere and sphere-prolate-oblate-sphere transitions when the inner fluid conductivity is greater and smaller than the annular fluid, respectively. Equations and methodology are provided to determine the bending modulus and capacitance of the outer as well as the inner membrane, thereby providing an easy way to characterize compound vesicles and possibly biological cells.

  2. Electrohydrodynamics of a compound vesicle under an AC electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti Sinha, Kumari; Thaokar, Rochish M.

    2017-07-01

    Compound vesicles are relevant as simplified models for biological cells as well as in technological applications such as drug delivery. Characterization of these compound vesicles, especially the inner vesicle, remains a challenge. Similarly their response to electric field assumes importance in light of biomedical applications such as electroporation. Fields lower than that required for electroporation cause electrodeformation in vesicles and can be used to characterize their mechanical and electrical properties. A theoretical analysis of the electrohydrodynamics of a compound vesicle with outer vesicle of radius R o and an inner vesicle of radius λ {{R}o} , is presented. A phase diagram for the compound vesicle is presented and elucidated using detailed plots of electric fields, free charges and electric stresses. The electrohydrodynamics of the outer vesicle in a compound vesicle shows a prolate-sphere and prolate-oblate-sphere shape transitions when the conductivity of the annular fluid is greater than the outer fluid, and vice-versa respectively, akin to single vesicle electrohydrodynamics reported in the literature. The inner vesicle in contrast shows sphere-prolate-sphere and sphere-prolate-oblate-sphere transitions when the inner fluid conductivity is greater and smaller than the annular fluid, respectively. Equations and methodology are provided to determine the bending modulus and capacitance of the outer as well as the inner membrane, thereby providing an easy way to characterize compound vesicles and possibly biological cells.

  3. Isolation and characterization of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Aatonen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs participate, for example, in haemostasis, immunity and development. Most studies of platelet EVs have targeted microparticles, whereas exosomes and EV characterization under various conditions have been less analyzed. Studies have been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining EVs free from contaminating cells and platelet remnants. Therefore, we optimized an EV isolation protocol and compared the quantity and protein content of EVs induced by different agonists. Methods: Platelets isolated with iodixanol gradient were activated by thrombin and collagen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Ca2+ ionophore. Microparticles and exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugations. EVs were quantitated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA and total protein. Size distributions were determined by NTA and electron microscopy. Proteomics was used to characterize the differentially induced EVs. Results: The main EV populations were 100–250 nm and over 90% were <500 nm irrespective of the activation. However, activation pathways differentially regulated the quantity and the quality of EVs, which also formed constitutively. Thrombogenic activation was the most potent physiological EV-generator. LPS was a weak inducer of EVs, which had a selective protein content from the thrombogenic EVs. Ca2+ ionophore generated a large population of protein-poor and unselectively packed EVs. By proteomic analysis, EVs were highly heterogeneous after the different activations and between the vesicle subpopulations. Conclusions: Although platelets constitutively release EVs, vesiculation can be increased, and the activation pathway determines the number and the cargo of the formed EVs. These activation-dependent variations render the use of protein content in sample normalization invalid. Since most platelet EVs are 100–250 nm, only a fraction has been analyzed by previously used methods, for example, flow cytometry. As

  4. Synaptic vesicle dynamic changes in a model of fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broek, Jantine A C; Lin, Zhanmin; de Gruiter, H Martijn; van 't Spijker, Heleen; Haasdijk, Elize D; Cox, David; Ozcan, Sureyya; van Cappellen, Gert W A; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Willemsen, Rob; de Zeeuw, Chris I; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single-gene disorder that is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats in the promoter region of the fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1). This leads to a lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which regulates translation of a wide range of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The extent of expression level alterations of synaptic proteins affected by FMRP loss and their consequences on synaptic dynamics in FXS has not been fully investigated. Here, we used an Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying FXS by monitoring protein expression changes using shotgun label-free liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) in brain tissue and synaptosome fractions. FXS-associated candidate proteins were validated using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in synaptosome fractions for targeted protein quantification. Furthermore, functional alterations in synaptic release and dynamics were evaluated using live-cell imaging, and interpretation of synaptic dynamics differences was investigated using electron microscopy. Key findings relate to altered levels of proteins involved in GABA-signalling, especially in the cerebellum. Further exploration using microscopy studies found reduced synaptic vesicle unloading of hippocampal neurons and increased vesicle unloading in cerebellar neurons, which suggests a general decrease of synaptic transmission. Our findings suggest that FMRP is a regulator of synaptic vesicle dynamics, which supports the role of FMRP in presynaptic functions. Taken together, these studies provide novel insights into the molecular changes associated with FXS.

  5. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  6. Design by recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalli, V. [By Design Consultants, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A 'cradle to cradle' concept of building materials' lifecycle is presented in an effort to highlight the advantages of designing buildings in such a way as to ensure sound waste management strategies and practices, facilitate future renovation and demolition by reducing the generation of wastes, and allow for individual materials to be reused and recycled for use in new projects or products, continuing their lifecycle by diverting them from landfill. Some techniques to achieve these objectives include (1) avoidance of concealed, fixed connections, (2) use of reversible type connections, (3) use of materials that have an inherent finish, (4) use of simplified assemblies and modular materials. Examples of 'design for recycling' are cited, including Ottawa's Grace Hospital for the waste management program developed for use during its demolition, and the Mountain Equipment Co-Op for various features such as exposed timber posts with bolted connections, removable interior partitions with inherent finishes and exposed removable light and electrical fixtures. tabs., figs.

  7. Vesicle-MaNiA: extracellular vesicles in liquid biopsy and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrano, Veronica; Royo, Felix; Peinado, Héctor; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Unda, Miguel; Falcón-Perez, Juan M; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-08-01

    Normal and tumor cells shed vesicles to the environment. Within the large family of extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles have attracted much attention in the recent years. Their interest ranges from mediators of cancer progression, inflammation, immune regulation and metastatic niche regulation, to non-invasive biomarkers of disease. In this respect, the procedures to purify and analyze extracellular vesicles have quickly evolved and represent a source of variability for data integration in the field. In this review, we provide an updated view of the potential of exosomes and microvesicles as biomarkers and the available technologies for their isolation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. To shred or to disassemble? Recycling of plastics in mass consumer goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    The recycling of mass consumer products like TV-sets and computers is gaining attention in Europe. The presence of (precious) metals traditionally has been the driving force for the recycling of equipment. While the plastics in electronics usually have a high quality, the recovery of them is

  9. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... situation for both the public company and the logistics provider....

  10. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19…

  11. Bacterial cell-wall recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

  12. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful

  13. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  14. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  15. Plasmonic Vesicles of Amphiphilic Nanocrystals: Optically Active Multifunctional Platform for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jibin; Huang, Peng; Duan, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-15

    Vesicular structures with compartmentalized, water-filled cavities, such as liposomes of natural and synthetic amphiphiles, have tremendous potential applications in nanomedicine. When block copolymers self-assemble, the result is polymersomes with tailored structural properties and built-in releasing mechanisms, controlled by stimuli-responsive polymer building blocks. More recently, chemists are becoming interested in multifunctional hybrid vesicles containing inorganic nanocrystals with unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. In this Account, we review our recent progress in assembling amphiphilic plasmonic nanostructures to create a new class of multifunctional hybrid vesicles and applying them towards cancer diagnosis and therapy. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) gives plasmonic nanomaterials a unique set of optical properties that are potentially useful for both biosensing and nanomedicine. For instance, the strong light scattering at their LSPR wavelength opens up the applications of plasmonic nanostructures in single particle plasmonic imaging. Their superior photothermal conversion properties, on the other hand, make them excellent transducers for photothermal ablation and contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging. Of particular note for ultrasensitive detection is that the confined electromagnetic field resulting from excitation of LSPR can give rise to highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for molecules in close proximity. We have explored several ways to combine well-defined plasmonic nanocrystals with amphiphilic polymer brushes of diverse chemical functionalities. In multiple systems, we have shown that the polymer grafts impart amphiphilicity-driven self-assembly to the hybrid nanoparticles. This has allowed us to synthesize well-defined vesicles in which we have embedded plasmonic nanocrystals in the shell of collapsed hydrophobic polymers. The hydrophilic brushes extend into external and interior aqueous

  16. Novel pH-Sensitive Lipid Based Exo-Endocytosis Tracers Reveal Fast Intermixing of Synaptic Vesicle Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kahms

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Styryl dyes and genetically encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins like pHluorin are well-established tools for the optical analysis of synaptic vesicle (SV recycling at presynaptic boutons. Here, we describe the development of a new class of fluorescent probes based on pH-sensitive organic dyes covalently bound to lipids, providing a promising complementary assay to genetically encoded fluorescent probes. These new optical tracers allow a pure read out of membrane turnover during synaptic activity and visualization of multiple rounds of stimulation-dependent SV recycling without genetic perturbation. Measuring the incorporation efficacy of different dye-labeled lipids into budding SVs, we did not observe an enrichment of lipids with affinity for liquid ordered membrane domains. But most importantly, we found no evidence for a static segregation of SVs into recycling and resting pools. A small but significant fraction of SVs that is reluctant to release during a first round of evoked activity can be exocytosed during a second bout of stimulation, showing fast intermixing of SV pools within seconds. Furthermore, we found that SVs recycling spontaneously have a higher chance to re-occupy release sites than SVs recycling during high-frequency evoked activity. In summary, our data provide strong evidence for a highly dynamic and use-dependent control of the fractions of releasable or resting SVs.

  17. Nanodomains in biomembranes with recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Mareike; Destainville, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes are out of thermodynamic equilibrium notably because of membrane recycling, i.e. active exchange of material with the cytosol. We propose an analytically tractable model of biomembrane predicting the effects of recycling on the size of protein nanodomains. It includes a short-range attraction between proteins and a weaker long-range repulsion which ensures the existence of so-called cluster phases at equilibrium, where monomeric proteins coexist with finite-size domains. Our main finding is that when taking recycling into account, the typical cluster size increases logarithmically with the recycling rate. Using physically realistic model parameters, the predicted two-fold increase due to recycling in living cells is very likely experimentally measurable with the help of super-resolution microscopy.

  18. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  19. The role of extracellular vesicles in malaria biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Natalia Guimaraes; Cheng, Lesley; Eriksson, Emily M

    2017-06-09

    In the past decade, research on the functions of extracellular vesicles in malaria has expanded dramatically. Investigations into the various vesicle types, from both host and parasite origin, has revealed important roles for extracellular vesicles in disease pathogenesis and susceptibility, as well as cell-cell communication and immune responses. Here, work relating to extracellular vesicles in malaria is reviewed, and the areas that remain unknown and require further investigations are highlighted.

  20. Adsorption of DOPC vesicles on hydrophobic substrates in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    In the present study, the interaction between an intact DOPC vesicle and the hydropho- bic surface is mainly through van der Waals interac- tion. In presence of increasing concentrations of electrolytes, counter ions are present in the vicinity of the DOPC vesicle. As the vesicle approaches the solid substrate, the counter ions ...

  1. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zohreh; Preobraschenski, Julia; van den Bogaart, Geert; Riedel, Dietmar; Jahn, Reinhard; Woehler, Andrew

    2016-02-26

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided by an electrochemical proton gradient. However, it is unclear how transmitter molecules carrying different net charges can be efficiently sequestered while maintaining charge neutrality and osmotic balance. We used single-vesicle imaging to monitor pH and electrical gradients and directly showed different uptake mechanisms for glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) operating in parallel. In contrast to glutamate, GABA was exchanged for protons, with no other ions participating in the transport cycle. Thus, only a few components are needed to guarantee reliable vesicle filling with different neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Role of Outer Membrane Vesicles of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Role of Outer Membrance Vesicles of Bacteria. M V Jagannadham M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 20 Issue 8 ... Keywords. Outer membrane ves ic les (OMVs); secretion; communication; virulence; antibiotic resistance; vaccines.

  3. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Stevens

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP and a slowly releasable (SRP pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles.

  4. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  5. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, like permeability, stability or chemical reactivity.In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multi-compartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nano-scale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nano-reactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins.

  6. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, Zoltán; Yuana, Yuana; Grootemaat, Anita E.; van der Pol, Edwin; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. In this manuscript, the size distribution of an

  7. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jin [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Gengze [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jose, Pedro A. [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Physiology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zeng, Chunyu, E-mail: Chunyuzeng01@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  8. Theory of Disk-to-Vesicle Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Shi, An-Chang

    2009-03-01

    Self-assembled membranes from amphiphilic molecules, such as lipids and block copolymers, can assume a variety of morphologies dictated by energy minimization of system. The membrane energy is characterized by a bending modulus (κ), a Gaussian modulus (κG), and the line tension (γ) of the edge. Two basic morphologies of membranes are flat disks that minimize the bending energy at the cost of the edge energy, and enclosed vesicles that minimize the edge energy at the cost of bending energy. In our work, the transition from disk to vesicle is studied theoretically using the string method, which is designed to find the minimum energy path (MEP) or the most probable transition path between two local minima of an energy landscape. Previous studies of disk-to-vesicle transition usually approximate the transitional states by a series of spherical cups, and found that the spherical cups do not correspond to stable or meta-stable states of the system. Our calculation demonstrates that the intermediate shapes along the MEP are very different from spherical cups. Furthermore, some of these transitional states can be meta-stable. The disk-to-vesicle transition pathways are governed by two scaled parameters, κG/κ and γR0/4κ, where R0 is the radius of the disk. In particular, a meta-stable intermediate state is predicted, which may correspond to the open morphologies observed in experiments and simulations.

  9. Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles using Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Wooje; Nanou, Afroditi; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Rho, Hoon Suk; le Gac, Severine; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we aim to characterize extracellular vesicles(EVs) with Confocal Raman spectroscopy to reveal relevant spectral lines that signify differences between EVs derived from different cell lines. In the first stage we performed confocal Raman measurements on various EV samples. For these

  10. Recycling Colonial Cultural Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Troels Degn

    2017-01-01

    Danish art collective Superflex’ project Porcelain Pirates for the Zeeuws Museum in Middelburg, the Netherlands, is a fascinating and complex example of how a museum collection of artefacts from a colonial past may gain critical new meaning by means of cultural production and curatorial strategy...... as a nationally Dutch and regionally Zeelandish dimension. The installation and the television series is based on peculiar historical construction based on the Zeeuws Museem’s collection of porcelain: The Dutch capture of the Portuguese vessel San Jago which set sail from Goa bound for Lisbon in 1601 with one....... This paper provides an analysis of Superflex’ project with special reference to the cultural recycling of artefacts tied up with a sensitive colonial context. The analysis focuses especially on the role of the artefact and the way the project contributes to and challenges regional and national postcolonial...

  11. EPA Report Shows Progress on E-Recycling and Identifies Opportunity to Advance G7s Recognition of Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Facts and Figures report showing progress in consumer electronics recycling in the United States. Consumer electronics re

  12. CD18-mediated adhesion is required for the induction of a proinflammatory phenotype in lung epithelial cells by mononuclear cell-derived extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Tommaso; Scalise, Valentina; Passalacqua, Ilaria; Giusti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Stefania; Balia, Cristina; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Berrettini, Stefano; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Dolo, Vincenza; Celi, Alessandro

    2018-02-21

    Extracellular vesicles are submicron vesicles that upregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators by lung epithelial cells. We investigated whether these structures adhere to lung epithelial cells, and whether adhesion is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Extracellular vesicles were generated by stimulation of normal human mononuclear cells with the calcium ionophore A23187, and labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Adhesion of vesicles to monolayers of immortalized bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and alveolar (A549) cells was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. The role of candidate adhesion receptors was evaluated with inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and soluble peptides. The synthesis of proinflammatory mediators was assessed by ELISA. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the generation of closed vesicles with an approximate size range between 50 and 600 nm. Adhesion of extracellular vesicles to epithelial cells was upregulated upon stimulation of the latter with tumor necrosis factor-α. Adhesion was blocked by an anti-CD18 antibody, by peptides containing the sequence RGD and, to a lesser extent, by an antibody to ICAM-1. The same molecules also blocked the upregulation of the synthesis of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced by extracellular vesicles. CD18-mediated adhesion of extracellular vesicles is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Eps15 C. elegans homologue EHS-1 is implicated in synaptic vesicle recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Hilliard, M A; Croce, A

    2001-01-01

    implicated Eps15 in endocytosis, its function in the endocytic machinery remains unclear. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, zk1248.3 (ehs-1), is the orthologue of Eps15 in nematodes, and that its product, EHS-1, localizes to synaptic-rich regions. ehs-1-impaired worms showed temperature...

  14. On the interaction between chromaffin granule membranes and intragranular vesicles--theory and analysis of freeze-fracture micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J; Pastushenko, V F; Richter, W; Donath, E

    1991-01-01

    We present a model for the calculation of intragranular vesicle adhesion energy in a two-vesicle system consisting of an external secretory vesicle (chromaffin granule) and an intragranular vesicle (IGV) that adheres from the inside to the granule membrane. The geometrical parameters characterizing the granule-IGV systems were derived from freeze-fracture electron micrographs. Adhesion is brought about by incubation of the granules in hyperosmolar sucrose solutions. It is accompanied by a deformation of the granule because the intragranular vesicle bulges it outwards, and by segregation of intramembraneous particles from the adherent part of the granule membrane. Adhesion prevents the deformed granules from osmotic reexpansion and, therefore, causes hyperosmotic relaxation lysis. We estimated specific adhesion energy at -3 erg/cm2, a value which is 10 - 1000 times larger than the energy of van der Waals interaction between membranes. This large interaction energy probably results from changes of the granule core induced by dehydration. A minimization of the interface between the granule core and adjacent membranes could exclude intragranular vesicles from the core and squeeze them towards the granule membrane. This might induce a new kind of interaction between both membranes, which is irreversible and causes lysis upon osmotic relaxation.

  15. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  16. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  17. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles...... to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  18. Loading of Vesicles into Soft Amphiphilic Nanotubes using Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Petra M; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Štacko, Peter; van Dijken, Derk Jan; Chen, Jiawen; Stuart, Marc C A; Boekema, Egbert J; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-12-07

    The facile assembly of higher-order nanoarchitectures from simple building blocks is demonstrated by the loading of vesicles into soft amphiphilic nanotubes using osmosis. The nanotubes are constructed from rigid interdigitated bilayers which are capped with vesicles comprising phospholipid-based flexible bilayers. When a hyperosmotic gradient is applied to these vesicle-capped nanotubes, the closed system loses water and the more flexible vesicle bilayer is pulled inwards. This leads to inclusion of vesicles inside the nanotubes without affecting the tube structure, showing controlled reorganization of the self-assembled multicomponent system upon a simple osmotic stimulus. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  20. Using Dynamic Covalent Chemistry To Drive Morphological Transitions: Controlled Release of Encapsulated Nanoparticles from Block Copolymer Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Renhua; Derry, Matthew J; Mable, Charlotte J; Ning, Yin; Armes, Steven P

    2017-06-07

    Dynamic covalent chemistry is exploited to drive morphological order-order transitions to achieve the controlled release of a model payload (e.g., silica nanoparticles) encapsulated within block copolymer vesicles. More specifically, poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer vesicles were prepared via aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly in either the presence or absence of silica nanoparticles. Addition of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) to such vesicles results in specific binding of this reagent to some of the pendent cis-diol groups on the hydrophilic PGMA chains to form phenylboronate ester bonds in mildly alkaline aqueous solution (pH ∼ 10). This leads to a subtle increase in the effective volume fraction of this stabilizer block, which in turn causes a reduction in the packing parameter and hence induces a vesicle-to-worm (or vesicle-to-sphere) morphological transition. The evolution in copolymer morphology (and the associated sol-gel transitions) was monitored using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, oscillatory rheology, and small-angle X-ray scattering. In contrast to the literature, in situ release of encapsulated silica nanoparticles is achieved via vesicle dissociation at room temperature; moreover, the rate of release can be fine-tuned by varying the solution pH and/or the APBA concentration. Furthermore, this strategy also works (i) for relatively thick-walled vesicles that do not normally exhibit stimulus-responsive behavior and (ii) in the presence of added salt. This novel molecular recognition strategy to trigger morphological transitions via dynamic covalent chemistry offers considerable scope for the design of new stimulus-responsive copolymer vesicles (and hydrogels) for targeted delivery and controlled release of cargoes. In particular, the conditions used in this new approach are relevant to liquid laundry formulations, whereby enzymes require

  1. 3 CFR 8453 - Proclamation 8453 of November 13, 2009. America Recycles Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Curbside recycling, electronics collection drives, community composting programs, and other similar methods... our long-term success and ensure a bright future for the next generation of Americans. NOW, THEREFORE...

  2. A review of the recycling of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marques, André Canal; Cabrera Marrero, José-María; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2013-01-01

    ...) that are the basis of the electronics industry. This type of waste disposal is difficult, given that recycling is complex and expensive, because of the diversity of existing materials and components, and their difficult separation process...

  3. Battery recycling machine; Maquina recicladora de pilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera Gonzalez, R.M; Esquivel Montes, C.E; Perez Razo, E; Sanchez Guerrero, O.A. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Batteries pollute the environment and therefore require special treatment or confine recycling in appropriate places, Mexico only has places for confining the batteries and send them to other countries for recycling. The purpose of this project is to reduce the contamination of soil and create a culture for the recycling of batteries. The prototype performs the separation of metals and chemical residues, so that later they can be processed separately. The machine is divided into two parts, mechanics and electronics, the mechanical part was designed to disarm it for easy maintenance, another advantage in the field of electronics and security is to control the machine from a computer at a distance significantly reducing accidents. To automate the machine will use a PLC clock for easy programming. [Spanish] Las pilas contaminan el medio ambiente y por ello requieren un tratamiento especial de reciclaje o confinarlos en lugares adecuados, Mexico solo cuenta con lugares para confinar las pilas y mandarlas a otros paises para su reciclaje. El proposito de este proyecto es reducir la contaminacion del suelo y crear una cultura para el reciclaje de pilas. El prototipo realiza la separacion de metales y residuos quimicos, para que mas adelante se puedan procesar por separado. La maquina se divide en dos partes; la mecanica y la electronica, la parte mecanica fue disenada para desarmarse esto para su facil mantenimiento, otra de las ventajas en el campo de electronica y seguridad es poder controlar el prototipo desde una computadora, a una distancia considerable reduciendo asi los accidentes. Para automatizar la maquina se utilizo un reloj PLC por su facil programacion.

  4. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  5. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  6. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by pseudogemini surfactants in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Zheng, Liqiang

    2014-08-14

    The phase behavior of a kind of pseudogemini surfactant in aqueous solutions, formed by the mixture of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and butane-1,4-bis (methylimidazolium bromide) ([mim-C4-mim]Br2) or butane-1,4-bis(methylpyrrolidinium bromide) ([mpy-C4-mpy]Br2) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, is reported in the present work. When [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 is mixed with SDBS in aqueous solutions, one cationic [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 molecule "bridges" two SDBS molecules by noncovalent interactions (e.g. electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions), behaving like a pseudogemini surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of pseudogemini surfactant, determined by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) or cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The mixed system of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 was also constructed, and only micelles were observed. We infer that a pseudogemini surfactant is formed under the synergic effect of electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions in the SDBS/[mim-C4-mim]Br2/H2O system, while electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interactions may provide the directional force for vesicle formation in the SDBS/[mpy-C4-mpy]Br2/H2O system.

  7. Soft vesicles in the synthesis of hard materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renhao; Liu, Weimin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-04-17

    Vesicles of surfactants in aqueous solution have received considerable attention because of their use as simple model systems for biological membranes and their applications in various fields including colloids, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Because of their architecture, vesicles could prove useful as "soft" templates for the synthesis of "hard materials". The vesicle phase, however, has been challenging and difficult to work with in the construction of hard materials. In the solution-phase synthesis of various inorganic or macromolecular materials, templating methods provide a powerful strategy to control the size, morphology, and composition of the resulting micro- and nanostructures. In comparison with hard templates, soft templates are generally constructed using amphiphilic molecules, especially surfactants and amphiphilic polymers. These types of compounds offer advantages including the wide variety of available templates, simple fabrication processes under mild conditions, and easy removal of the templates with less damage to the final structures. Researchers have used many ordered molecular aggregates such as vesicles, micelles, liquid crystals, emulsion droplets, and lipid nanotubes as templates or structure-directing agents to control the synthesis or assembly hard micro- and nanomaterials composed from inorganic compounds or polymers. In addition to their range of sizes and morphologies, vesicles present unique structures that can simultaneously supply different microenvironments for the growth and assembly of hard materials: the inner chamber of vesicles, the outer surface of the vesicles, and the space between bilayers. Two main approaches for applying vesicles in the field of hard materials have been explored: (i) in situ synthesis of micro- or nanomaterials within a specific microenvironment by vesicle templating and (ii) the assembly or incorporation of guest materials during the formation of vesicles. This Account provides an in-depth look at

  8. Biochemical and immunochemical analyses of detergent solubilized antigens from membrane vesicles of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechura, J E; Riefel, R S; Daft, L J

    1987-11-01

    A membrane vesicle fraction isolated from exponentially growing Aspergillus fumigatus strain Ag 507 cultures was obtained by mechanical disruption of intact Aspergillus cells under specific osmotic conditions followed by a pH fractionation technique. Electron micrographs of the membrane vesicles indicated unit membrane structures free from cell wall material. High glucose-6-phosphatase and low lactate dehydrogenase activities verified the relative purity of the membrane vesicle fraction. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) patient and normal human sera were incubated with the membrane vesicle fraction followed by colloidal gold tagged rabbit antiserum to human IgG or IgE. Electron micrographs indicated ABPA patient sera possessed specific IgG and IgE antibodies to membranous components. The detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside was used to extract membrane vesicle components (MC). The enzyme profile of MC compared with cell sap components (CS) showed differences in types of enzymes. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses of MC and CS detected components shared as well as unique to each fraction. In crossed immunoelectrophoresis using both rabbit antisera raised to MC and ABPA patient sera, 5 peaks were detected, while analysis of CS using rabbit antisera raised to CS produced 20 major peaks. Immunoelectrophoresis and double immunodiffusion data supported the crossed immunoelectrophoretic data: MC differed from CS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated high specific IgG and IgE antibody levels to MC in ABPA patient sera. Crossed immuno-affinoelectrophoresis with concanavalin A partially characterized the MC, which consist of components which have glycoprotein elements (i.e., containing alpha-D-glucose or alpha-D-mannose).

  9. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  10. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  12. Recycled Plastic Composite Railroad Crossties

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) led a team that developed, demonstrated, and patented innovative recycled plastic composite material for use as railroad crossties to replace chemically-treated wood ties. Replacement of turnout ties is a major cost item because of the size and complexity of these components. Since the mid-1990s CERL has conducted research on composite RR ties made of recycled post-consumer waste plasti...

  13. Signaling by Extracellular Vesicles Advances Cancer Hallmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Masamitsu; Bachmann, Michael H; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian cells secrete various extracellular vesicles (EVs; exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) that differ in biogenesis, composition, and function. Each vesicle type can originate from normal or cancerous cells, transfer molecular cargo to both neighboring and distant cells, and modulate cellular behaviors involved in eubiology and pathology, such as tumor development. Here, we review evidence for the role of EVs in the establishment and maintenance of cancer hallmarks, including sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppression, resisting cell death, reprogramming energy metabolism, acquiring genomic instability, and remodeling the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss how EVs are implicated in the induction of angiogenesis, control of cellular invasion, initiation of premetastatic niches, maintenance of inflammation, and evasion of immune surveillance. The deeper understanding of the biology of EVs and their contribution to the development and progression of tumors is leading to new opportunities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seminal vesicle cystadenoma: a rare clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Gideon; Pizov, Galina; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov

    2011-08-01

    A 52-yr-old man presented with severe obstructive urinary symptoms. Ten years earlier, a digital rectal examination disclosed a small mass above the prostate, and a computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3.5-cm cystic tumor of the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed conservatively elsewhere. Reevaluation of the mass with a CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the mass had grown to a maximal diameter of 14 cm. A transabdominal needle biopsy revealed benign fibromuscular tissue. The tumor was then resected by an open transvesical approach. Pathology was consistent with a benign seminal vesicle cystadenoma. The natural history, pathology, and surgical approach are described. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Docking of secretory vesicles is syntaxin dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi de Wit

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones.

  16. Selective adhesion, lipid exchange and membrane-fusion processes between vesicles of various sizes bearing complementary molecular recognition groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Artzner, V; Gulik-Krzywicki, T; Guedeau-Boudeville, M A; Gosse, C; Sanderson, J M; Dedieu, J C; Lehn, J M

    2001-06-18

    Equimolar mixtures of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) obtained from mixtures of egg lecithin and lipids containing complementary hydrogen bonding head groups (barbituric acid (BAR) and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP)) were shown to aggregate and fuse. These events have been studied in detail using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, and by fluorimetry using membrane or water-soluble fluorescence probes. It was shown that aggregation was followed by two competitive processes: a) lipid mixing leading to redispersion of the vesicles; b) fusion events generating much larger vesicles. In order to better understand the nature of the interaction, the effects of ionic strength and surface concentration of recognition lipids on the aggregation process were investigated by dynamic light scattering. Additionally, it was possible to inhibit the aggregation kinetics through addition of a soluble barbituric acid competitor. The study was extended to giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to investigate the size effect and visualise the phenomena in situ. The interactions between complementary LUVs and GUVs or GUVs and GUVs were studied by optical microscopy using dual fluorescent labelling of both vesicle populations. A selective adhesion of LUVs onto GUVs was observed by electron and optical microscopies, whereas no aggregation took place in case of a GUV/GUV mixture. Furthermore, a fusion assay of GUV and LUV using the difference of size between GUV and LUV and calceine self-quenching showed that no mixing between the aqueous pools occured. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  17. Vitrification of Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    ABE, Yasuyuki; AONO, Nobuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Matsumoto, Hiromichi; BAKHTIYARI, Mehrdad; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2004-01-01

    In order to cryopreserve germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, we first need to develop a novel container for keeping large quantities of GV oocytes, because of collecting them as cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) that have bigger size and larger volume than oocytes themselves, and second modify a protocol for optimizing vitrification of them. In this mini-review, we describe our recent progress for attaining these objectives. When 65 bovine COCs having GV oocytes could be placed on a sheet of ...

  18. Inflammatory Stroke Extracellular Vesicles Induce Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Akbar, Naveed; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Dickens, Alex M; Neuhaus, Ain A; Burgess, Annette I; Rothwell, Peter M; Buchan, Alastair M

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke. Our aim was to determine the inflammatory potential of stroke EVs. EVs were quantified and analyzed in the sera of patients after an acute stroke (inflammation in immune cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Endothelial microparticles: Sophisticated vesicles modulating vascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anne M; Edelberg, Jay; Jonas, Rebecca; Rogers, Wade T; Moore, Jonni S; Syed, Wajihuddin; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) belong to a family of extracellular vesicles that are dynamic, mobile, biological effectors capable of mediating vascular physiology and function. The release of EMPs can impart autocrine and paracrine effects on target cells through surface interaction, cellular fusion, and, possibly, the delivery of intra-vesicular cargo. A greater understanding of the formation, composition, and function of EMPs will broaden our understanding of endothelial communication and may expose new pathways amenable for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:23892447

  20. A novel method for the isolation of extracellular vesicles and RNA from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, Anna; Pendergrast, R Scott; Pendergrast, J Stephen; Pendergrast, P Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of urinary extracellular biomarkers has been impeded by the lack of efficient methods for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs: exosomes and microvesicles) and extracellular nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) from urine. Ultracentrifugation (UC), considered the gold standard for vesicle isolation from many biofluids, is efficacious but laborious, and, like most commercially available methods, is unable to isolate enough material from small volumes for protein or RNA-based biomarker discovery. We have developed a novel precipitation method for the isolation of EVs and nucleic acids from urine. The method, which is now commercially available, takes less than 30 min and does not require polyethylene glycol. Transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight particle analysis confirm that the method isolates intact vesicles with a similar size, shape, and number to UC. Immunoblot analysis of preparations made from a variety of urine samples demonstrates that the method isolates multiple vesicle protein markers more efficiently than other commercial kits, especially from more diluted samples. Bioanalyzer, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and array analysis show that the method is extremely efficient at the isolation of extracellular miRNAs. The Ymir Genomics EV and Extracellular RNA Isolation Kits offer an efficient and rapid alternative to UC and other commercial kits.

  1. A novel method for the isolation of extracellular vesicles and RNA from urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Markowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of urinary extracellular biomarkers has been impeded by the lack of efficient methods for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs: exosomes and microvesicles and extracellular nucleic acid (RNA and DNA from urine. Ultracentrifugation (UC, considered the gold standard for vesicle isolation from many biofluids, is efficacious but laborious, and, like most commercially available methods, is unable to isolate enough material from small volumes for protein or RNA-based biomarker discovery. We have developed a novel precipitation method for the isolation of EVs and nucleic acids from urine. The method, which is now commercially available, takes less than 30 min and does not require polyethylene glycol. Transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight particle analysis confirm that the method isolates intact vesicles with a similar size, shape, and number to UC. Immunoblot analysis of preparations made from a variety of urine samples demonstrates that the method isolates multiple vesicle protein markers more efficiently than other commercial kits, especially from more diluted samples. Bioanalyzer, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and array analysis show that the method is extremely efficient at the isolation of extracellular miRNAs. The Ymir Genomics EV and Extracellular RNA Isolation Kits offer an efficient and rapid alternative to UC and other commercial kits.

  2. Joint small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data analysis of asymmetric lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Barbara; Heberle, Frederick A; Marquardt, Drew; Rechberger, Gerald N; Katsaras, John; Pabst, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Low- and high-resolution models describing the internal transbilayer structure of asymmetric lipid vesicles have been developed. These models can be used for the joint analysis of small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. The models describe the underlying scattering length density/electron density profiles either in terms of slabs or through the so-called scattering density profile, previously applied to symmetric lipid vesicles. Both models yield structural details of asymmetric membranes, such as the individual area per lipid, and the hydrocarbon thickness of the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. The scattering density profile model, however, comes at a cost of increased computational effort but results in greater structural resolution, showing a slightly lower packing of lipids in the outer bilayer leaflet of ∼120 nm diameter palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidyl-choline (POPC) vesicles, compared to the inner leaflet. Analysis of asymmetric dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/POPC vesicles did not reveal evidence of transbilayer coupling between the inner and outer leaflets at 323 K, i.e. above the melting transition temperature of the two lipids.

  3. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  4. Detection of platelet vesicles by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John P; Jones, Jennifer C

    2017-05-01

    The composition and function of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in health and in disease are a major topic of investigation in biomedical research. However, efforts to delineate specific molecular repertoires and roles for different types of EVs in the circulation are limited not only by the lack of flow cytometers capable of analyzing submicron- and nano-materials across the full size spectrum of plasma EVs, but also by the lack of standardized methods and reference materials that would permit inter-laboratory reproducibility for these analyses. In this review, we summarize the flow cytometry of EVs, with a focus on platelet vesicles in plasma. In addition to delineating the basic principles that govern what precautions must be considered when using flow cytometry for the analysis of platelet vesicles, we provide an overview for how to standardize, control, annotate, and report EV flow cytometry data reproducibly, while looking forward to a next generation of high sensitivity instruments for the analysis of EVs and other submicron biomaterials in the circulation.

  5. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  6. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Diseases: More than Novel Biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdbrügger, Uta; Le, Thu H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles from the urine and circulation have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers in renal diseases. Urinary extracellular vesicles contain proteins from all sections of the nephron, whereas most studied circulating extracellular vesicles are derived from platelets, immune cells, and the endothelium. In addition to their diagnostic role as markers of kidney and vascular damage, extracellular vesicles may have functional significance in renal health and disease by facilitating communication between cells and protecting against kidney injury and bacterial infection in the urinary tract. However, the current understanding of extracellular vesicles has derived mostly from studies with very small numbers of patients or in vitro data. Moreover, accurate assessment of these vesicles remains a challenge, in part because of a lack of consensus in the methodologies to measure extracellular vesicles and the inability of most techniques to capture the entire size range of these vesicles. However, newer techniques and standardized protocols to improve the detection of extracellular vesicles are in development. A clearer understanding of the composition and biology of extracellular vesicles will provide insights into their pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular disease: are they Jedi or Sith?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Németh, Andrea; Sódar, Barbara W; Vukman, Krisztina V; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, extracellular vesicles have become recognized as important players in cell biology and biomedicine. Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed structures found to be secreted by most if not all cells. Extracellular vesicle secretion represents a universal and highly conserved active cellular function. Importantly, increasing evidence supports that extracellular vesicles may serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets or tools in human diseases. Cardiovascular disease undoubtedly represents one of the most intensely studied and rapidly growing areas of the extracellular vesicle field. However, in different studies related to cardiovascular disease, extracellular vesicles have been shown to exert diverse and sometimes discordant biological effects. Therefore, it might seem a puzzle whether these vesicles are in fact beneficial or detrimental to cardiovascular health. In this review we provide a general introduction to extracellular vesicles and an overview of their biological roles in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we aim to untangle the various reasons for the observed discrepancy in biological effects of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular diseases. To this end, we provide several examples that demonstrate that the observed functional diversity is in fact due to inherent differences among various types of extracellular vesicles. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  10. Thermodynamic metrics for measuring the ``sustainability'' of design for recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; van Schaik, Antoinette

    2008-08-01

    In this article, exergy is applied as a parameter to measure the “sustainability” of a recycling system in addition to the fundamental prediction of material recycling and energy recovery, summarizing a development of over 20 years by the principal author supported by various co-workers, Ph.D., and M.Sc. students. In order to achieve this, recyclate qualities and particle size distributions throughout the system must be predicted as a function of product design, liberation during shredding, process dynamics, physical separation physics, and metallurgical thermodynamics. This crucial development enables the estimation of the true exergy of a recycling system from its inputs and outputs including all its realistic industrial traits. These models have among others been linked to computer aided design tools of the automotive industry and have been used to evaluate the performance of waste electric and electronic equipment recycling systems in The Netherlands. This paper also suggests that the complete system must be optimized to find a “truer” optimum of the material production system linked to the consumer market.

  11. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reusing recycled fibers in high-value fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Improving bending strength by surface cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Bao, Limin; Kobayashi, Ryouhei; Kato, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites were recycled using superheated steam. Recycled glass fibers (R-GFs) and recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs) were surface treated for reuse as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Treated R-GFs (TR-GFs) and treated R-CFs (TR-CFs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and remanufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Most residual resin impurities were ...

  13. Evidence for the recruitment of autophagic vesicles in human brain after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugier, Tony; Taylor, Juliet M; McLean, Catriona; Bye, Nicole; Beart, Philip M; Devenish, Rodney J; Crack, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is a homeostatic process for recycling proteins and organelles that is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic target for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke. Confirmation that autophagy is present in the human brain after stroke is imperative before prospective therapies can begin the translational process into clinical trials. Our current study using human post-mortem tissue observed an increase in staining in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1; also known as p62) and the increased appearance of autophagic vesicles after stroke. These data confirm that alterations in autophagy take place in the human brain after stroke and suggest that targeting autophagic processes after stroke may have clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biogeochemical Recycling on Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, R.; Stewart, B.; Khaing, H.; Tatro, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    Trace elements are recycled on sea-salt particles that are produced and later re-deposited in the surface ocean. This recycling process involves aluminum, iron, and other elements commonly associated with mineral dust. Non-crustal Al can amount to as much as ~ 30% of the total aerosol Al at Bermuda, but this occurs only during a few months of the year when the dust concentrations and deposition rates are low. Simple model calculations suggest that ~15 to 20% of the total Al dry deposition during December and January can be attributed to recycled sea salt, but when dust concentrations are higher, recycling accounts for only ~ 1% of the Al dry deposition. Non-crustal/non-sea salt (NC/NSS) sources account for > 70% of the aerosol Sb, Se, V, and Zn, but differences in the dry deposition velocities for particles of different sizes are such that the amount of Sb and Se recycled on sea spray approaches or exceeds their new inputs to the open ocean from dust and the NC/NSS sources. More recently, recycling on aerosol particles has been found to occur in other environments, including the deserts in the southwestern USA. In this case, the recycling of radionuclides released during nuclear weapons tests many years ago occurs via the resuspension of contaminated soil particles. Studies conducted near Carlsbad, NM have shown that the temporal variability in ^{239,240}Pu and ^{241}Am activities tracks that of Al, a mineral dust indictor, in aerosol samples. Analyses of soil samples from various sites have shown that plutonium is released from the particles by chemical procedures developed for removing iron oxides from mineral particles; this implies that the dust/plutonium relationship is mediated by iron oxides.

  15. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  16. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  17. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  18. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human mammospheres secrete hormone-regulated active extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. One of the most important prognostic factors for survival is the early detection of the disease. Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles may provide diagnostic information for cancer management. We demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by primary breast epithelial cells enriched for stem/progenitor cells cultured as mammospheres, in non-adherent conditions. Using a proteomic approach we identified proteins contained in these vesicles whose expression is affected by hormonal changes in the cellular environment. In addition, we showed that these vesicles are capable of promoting changes in expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers. Our findings suggest that secreted extracellular vesicles could represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for breast cancer and support a role for extracellular vesicles in cancer progression.

  20. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jaewook; Park, Jaesung; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    Like mammalian cells, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria release nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular environment either in a constitutive manner or in a regulated manner. These bacterial extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids enriched with bioactive proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and virulence factors. Recent progress in this field supports the critical pathophysiological functions of these vesicles in both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially regarding the biogenesis, components, and functions in poly-species communities. We hope that this review will stimulate additional research in this emerging field of bacterial extracellular vesicles and contribute to the development of extracellular vesicle-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines against pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Sic; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Go, Gyeongyun; Park, Seon-Min; Kim, Si Hyun; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Chang, Chulhun L; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-10-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles, also known as outer membrane vesicles, membrane vesicles, exosomes, and microvesicles, is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon from bacteria to eukaryotes. It has been reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases extracellular vesicles harboring immunologically active molecules, and these extracellular vesicles have been suggested to be applicable in vaccine development and biomarker discovery. However, the comprehensive proteomic analysis has not been performed for M. tuberculosis extracellular vesicles. In this study, we identified a total of 287 vesicular proteins by four LC-MS/MS analyses with high confidence. In addition, we identified several vesicular proteins associated with the virulence of M. tuberculosis. This comprehensive proteome profile will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of M. tuberculosis. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001160 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001160). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. DNA-mediated self-assembly of artificial vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2010-03-26

    Although multicompartment systems made of single unilamellar vesicles offer the potential to outperform single compartment systems widely used in analytic, synthetic, and medical applications, their use has remained marginal to date. On the one hand, this can be attributed to the binary character of the majority of the current tethering protocols that impedes the implementation of real multicomponent or multifunctional systems. On the other hand, the few tethering protocols theoretically providing multicompartment systems composed of several distinct vesicle populations suffer from the readjustment of the vesicle formation procedure as well as from the loss of specificity of the linking mechanism over time. In previous studies, we presented implementations of multicompartment systems and resolved the readjustment of the vesicle formation procedure as well as the loss of specificity by using linkers consisting of biotinylated DNA single strands that were anchored to phospholipid-grafted biotinylated PEG tethers via streptavidin as a connector. The systematic analysis presented herein provides evidences for the incorporation of phospholipid-grafted biotinylated PEG tethers to the vesicle membrane during vesicle formation, providing specific anchoring sites for the streptavidin loading of the vesicle membrane. Furthermore, DNA-mediated vesicle-vesicle self-assembly was found to be sequence-dependent and to depend on the presence of monovalent salts. This study provides a solid basis for the implementation of multi-vesicle assemblies that may affect at least three distinct domains. (i) Analysis. Starting with a minimal system, the complexity of a bottom-up system is increased gradually facilitating the understanding of the components and their interaction. (ii) Synthesis. Consecutive reactions may be implemented in networks of vesicles that outperform current single compartment bioreactors in versatility and productivity. (iii) Personalized medicine. Transport and

  4. Cellular phenotype and extracellular vesicles: basic and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Peter J; Goldberg, Laura R; Aliotta, Jason M; Dooner, Mark S; Pereira, Mandy G; Wen, Sicheng; Camussi, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Early work on platelet and erythrocyte vesicles interpreted the phenomena as a discard of material from cells. Subsequently, vesicles were studied as possible vaccines and, most recently, there has been a focus on the effects of vesicles on cell fate. Recent studies have indicated that extracellular vesicles, previously referred to as microvesicles or exosomes, have the capacity to change the phenotype of neighboring cells. Extensive work has shown that vesicles derived from either the lung or liver can enter bone marrow cells (this is a prerequisite) and alter their fate toward that of the originating liver and lung tissue. Lung vesicles interacted with bone marrow cells result in the bone marrow cells expressing surfactants A-D, Clara cell protein, and aquaporin-5 mRNA. In a similar vein, liver-derived vesicles induce albumin mRNA in target marrow cells. The vesicles contain protein, mRNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA and variably some DNA. This genetic package is delivered to cells and alters the phenotype. Further studies have shown that initially the altered phenotype is due to the transfer of mRNA and a transcriptional modulator, but long-term epigenetic changes are induced through transfer of a transcriptional factor, and the mRNA is rapidly degraded in the cell. Studies on the capacity of vesicles to restore injured tissue have been quite informative. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived vesicles are able to reverse the injury to the damaged liver and kidney. Other studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cell-derived vesicles can reverse radiation toxicity of bone marrow stem cells. Extracellular vesicles offer an intriguing strategy for treating a number of diseases characterized by tissue injury.

  5. [Seminal vesicle cystadenoma as the cause of a retrovesical tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Kania, U; Ortloff, P; Sperling, H

    2014-04-01

    Tumors of the seminal vesicle are rare. Malignant tumors are more common than benign tumors. A seminal vesicle cystadenoma is a rarity. We report on a 41-year-old man with the incidental finding of an asymptomatic retrovesical tumor. The tumor, the seminal vesicle, and the abdominal part of the ductus deferens were surgically removed. The operative access is variable and surgical treatment is the method of choice. The patient's prognosis is good and there are no signs of recurrence.

  6. Vesicle-independent extracellular release of a proinflammatory outer membrane lipoprotein in free-soluble form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarsson Jan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral bacterium associated with aggressively progressing periodontitis. Extracellular release of bacterial outer membrane proteins has been suggested to mainly occur via outer membrane vesicles. This study investigated the presence and conservation of peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (AaPAL among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, the immunostimulatory effect of AaPAL, and whether live cells release this structural outer membrane lipoprotein in free-soluble form independent of vesicles. Results The pal locus and its gene product were confirmed in clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and immunoblotting. Culturing under different growth conditions revealed no apparent requirement for the AaPAL expression. Inactivation of pal in a wild-type strain (D7S and in its spontaneous laboratory variant (D7SS resulted in pleiotropic cellular effects. In a cell culture insert model (filter pore size 0.02 μm, AaPAL was detected from filtrates when strains D7S and D7SS were incubated in serum or broth in the inserts. Electron microscopy showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans vesicles (0.05–0.2 μm were larger than the filter pores and that there were no vesicles in the filtrates. The filtrates were immunoblot negative for a cytoplasmic marker, cyclic AMP (cAMP receptor protein. An ex vivo model indicated cytokine production from human whole blood stimulated by AaPAL. Conclusion Free-soluble AaPAL can be extracellularly released in a process independent of vesicles.

  7. Application of pyrolysis to recycling organics from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bo; Chen, Zhenyang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-08-05

    Tantalum capacitors (TCs) are widely used in electronic appliances. The rapid replacement of electronic products results in generating large amounts of waste TCs (WTCs). WTCs, rich in valuable tantalum, are considered as high quality tantalum resources for recycling. However, environmental pollution will be caused if the organics of WTCs were not properly disposed. Therefore, effectively recycling the organics of WTCs is significant for recovering the valuable parts. This study proposed an argon (Ar) pyrolysis process to recycle the organics from WTCs. The organic decomposition kinetic was first analyzed by thermogravimetry. The results showed that the organics were decomposed in two major steps and the average activation energy was calculated to 234kJ/mol. Then, the suitable pyrolysis parameters were determined as 550°C, 30min and 100ml/min. The organics were effectively decomposed and converted to oils (mainly contained phenol homologs and benzene homologs) and gases (some hydrocarbon). These pyrolysis products could be reutilized as energy sources. Moreover, based on the products and bond energy theory, the pyrolysis mechanisms of the organics were also discussed. Finally, a reasonable technological process for products utilization was presented. This study contributes to the efficient recycling the organics before valuable material recovery from WTCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance Characteristic of Cold Recycled Mixture with Asphalt Emulsion and Chemical Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of chemical additives were used to modify asphalt emulsion recycled mixture. These chemical additives include composite Portland cement (CPC, hydrated lime (HL, and a combination of hydrated lime and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBF. The influence of different additives on the recycled mixture performance was investigated by volumetric and strength tests, moisture susceptibility test, rutting resistance test, and low temperature bending test. To better understand its performance characteristic, the microstructure images of the recycled mixture were observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM. Test results demonstrate that the performance improvement of the emulsion recycled mixture depends on the types and content of chemical additives. Several recommendations are presented for the selection of chemical materials. Based on ESEM image analysis, the interface bonding mechanism is proposed to explain the performance characteristic of the recycled mixture with asphalt emulsion and cementitious materials.

  9. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  10. Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Röther

    Full Text Available In compensatory endocytosis, scission of vesicles from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm is a prerequisite for intravesicular reacidification and accumulation of neurotransmitter molecules. Here, we provide time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population which appears upon endocytic retrieval. Using fast perfusion pH-cycling in live-cell microscopy, synapto-pHluorin expressing rat hippocampal neurons were electrically stimulated. We found that the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population depended significantly on the electrical stimulus size: With increasing number of action potentials the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population expanded. In contrast to that, increasing the stimulus frequency reduced the relative size of the population of alkaline vesicles. Measurement of the time constant for reacification and calculation of the time constant for endocytosis revealed that both time constants were variable with regard to the stimulus condition. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population can be predicted by a simple mathematical model. In conclusion, here a novel methodical approach to analyze dynamic properties of alkaline vesicles is presented and validated as a convenient method for the detection of intracellular events. Using this method we show that the population of alkaline vesicles is highly dynamic and depends both on stimulus strength and frequency. Our results implicate that determination of the alkaline vesicle population size may provide new insights into the kinetics of endocytic retrieval.

  11. Floating Escherichia coli by expressing cyanobacterial gas vesicle genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Kang, Li; Li, Jiaheng; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Peiran; Gong, Minghao; Lai, Weihong; Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Lei; Peng, Yong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Lian; Bao, Yingying; Xu, Haowen; Zhang, Xiaohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow, air-filled polyprotein structures that provide the buoyancy to cells. They are found in a variety of prokaryotes. In this study, we isolated a partial gas vesicle protein gene cluster containing gvpA and gvpC20Ψ from Planktothrix rubescens, and inserted it into an expression vector and expressed it in E. coli. The gas vesicle was developed in bacterial cells, which made bacterial cells to float on medium surface. We also amplified gvpA and gvpC20Ψ separately and synthesized an artificial operon by fusing these two genes with the standardized gene expression controlling elements of E. coli. The artificial operon was expressed in E. coli, forming gas vesicles and floating bacteria cells. Our findings verified that the whole set of genes and the overall structure of gas vesicle gene cluster are not necessary for developing gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Two genes, gvpA and gvpC20Ψ, of the gas vesicle gene cluster are sufficient for synthesizing an artificial operon that can develop gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Our findings provided a wide range of applications including easing the harvest of cultured microalgae and bacteria, as well as enriching and remediating aquatic pollutants by constructing gas vesicles in their cells.

  12. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  13. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2013-12-13

    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  14. Role of extracellular vesicles in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Delphine; Truchetet, Marie-Elise; Faustin, Benjamin; Augusto, Jean-François; Contin-Bordes, Cécile; Brisson, Alain; Blanco, Patrick; Duffau, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) consist of exosomes released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the cell plasma membrane and microparticles shed directly from the cell membrane of many cell types. EVs can mediate cell-cell communication and are involved in many processes including inflammation, immune signaling, angiogenesis, stress response, senescence, proliferation, and cell differentiation. Accumulating evidence reveals that EVs act in the establishment, maintenance and modulation of autoimmune processes among several others involved in cancer and cardiovascular complications. EVs could also present biomedical applications, as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets or agents for drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  16. Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, María Teresa; Valero, María Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

  17. A Nonconventional Model of Protocell-like Vesicles: Anionic Clay Surface-Mediated Formation from a Single-Tailed Amphiphile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Na; Song, Ruiying; Li, Haiping; Song, Shue; Zhang, Renjie; Hou, Wanguo

    2015-11-24

    We report a novel model system of precursor cellular membranes, self-assembled from micellar solution of a common anionic single-tailed amphiphile (STA), including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). The self-assembly process was mediated with solid surfaces of Mg2Al-CO3 hydrotalcite-like compound (HTlc), an anionic clay, in the absence of cosurfactants or any additives. The resultant STA vesicles were characterized using negative-staining and cryogenic transmission electron microscopies, as well as dynamic light scattering and steady state fluorescence techniques. Interestingly, the obtained STA vesicles displayed good stability even after the removal of the anionic clay surface (ACS), and a self-reproduction phenomenon was observed for the "preformed" STA vesicles when mixing with corresponding STA micellar solutions. More importantly, the micelle-to-vesicle transition for SDS could be still arisen in high-salinity artificial seawater under the ACS mediation. Instead of conventional fatty acid scenario, our finding provides another novel possible model for protocell-like vesicles, which are easily formed under the plausible prebiotic conditions.

  18. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  19. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Katharine L; Jackson, Claire; Balakrishnan, Saju; Bellamy, Tomas C

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar parallel fibres release glutamate at both the synaptic active zone and at extrasynaptic sites-a process known as ectopic release. These sites exhibit different short-term and long-term plasticity, the basis of which is incompletely understood but depends on the efficiency of vesicle release and recycling. To investigate whether release of calcium from internal stores contributes to these differences in plasticity, we tested the effects of the ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine on both synaptic and ectopic transmission. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from Purkinje neurons and Bergmann glia were carried out in transverse cerebellar slices from juvenile (P16-20) Wistar rats. Caffeine caused complex changes in transmission at both synaptic and ectopic sites. The amplitude of postsynaptic currents in Purkinje neurons and extrasynaptic currents in Bergmann glia were increased 2-fold and 4-fold respectively, but paired pulse ratio was substantially reduced, reversing the short-term facilitation observed under control conditions. Caffeine treatment also caused synaptic sites to depress during 1 Hz stimulation, consistent with inhibition of the usual mechanisms for replenishing vesicles at the active zone. Unexpectedly, pharmacological intervention at known targets for caffeine--intracellular calcium release, and cAMP signalling--had no impact on these effects. We conclude that caffeine increases release probability and inhibits vesicle recovery at parallel fibre synapses, independently of known pharmacological targets. This complex effect would lead to potentiation of transmission at fibres firing at low frequencies, but depression of transmission at high frequency connections.

  20. A Method for Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles and Characterization of Exosomes from Brain Extracellular Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Rocío; Gauthier, Sebastien A; Kumar, Asok; Saito, Mitsuo; Saito, Mariko; Levy, Efrat

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes, secreted vesicles of endocytic origin, and microvesicles derived from the plasma membrane, have been widely isolated and characterized from conditioned culture media and bodily fluids. The difficulty in isolating EV from tissues, however, has hindered their study in vivo. Here, we describe a novel method designed to isolate EV and characterize exosomes from the extracellular space of brain tissues. The purification of EV is achieved by gentle dissociation of the tissue to free the brain extracellular space, followed by sequential low-speed centrifugations, filtration, and ultracentrifugations. To further purify EV from other extracellular components, they are separated on a sucrose step gradient. Characterization of the sucrose step gradient fractions by electron microscopy demonstrates that this method yields pure EV preparations free of large vesicles, subcellular organelles, or debris. The level of EV secretion and content are determined by assays for acetylcholinesterase activity and total protein estimation, and exosomal identification and protein content are analyzed by Western blot and immuno-electron microscopy. Additionally, we present here a method to delipidate EV in order to improve the resolution of downstream electrophoretic analysis of EV proteins.

  1. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  2. Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

  3. Montgomery Recycling Corporation for Notice of Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NOV alleges that Montgomery Recycling generated more than 12.5 million invalid biomass-based diesel renewable identification numbers (RINs). Montgomery Recycling failed to produce any qualifying renewable fuel and transferred the majority.

  4. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  5. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  6. Vesicle formation and stability in the surfactant sodium 4-(1'-heptylnonyl) benzenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Talmon, Y.; Scriven, L.E.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.

    1982-04-01

    Surfactants composed of a hydrophilic moiety covalently attached to the end of a hydrocarbon chain (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate), spontaneously form micelles, equilibrium aggregates, in solution if the surfactant concentration exceeds a critical value called the CMC. Naturally occurring double-tail surfactants (e.g., phospholipids) are not known to form micelles. Over a considerable range in surfactant concentration, 2 phases coexist in equilibrium: a hydrated, multilamellar (smectic) surfactant phase and an aqueous phase saturated with surfactant. In this report the preparation of vesicles, their direct, unstained visualization by electron microscopy, and investigation of their stability and structure by turbidimetry, conductimetry, light microscopy, densitometry, scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed. Dispersed liquid crystal was studied by the same means. For comparison, parallel studies on bovine lecithin are presented. From the results, it is concluded that these vesicles may be stable for many months, but eventually revert to multilamellar liquid crystals.

  7. Plesiomonas shigelloides exports a lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE by membrane vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilucia Santos Ludovico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50 kDa and isoelectric point (pI around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice. Hence, we entitled it as lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE. The presence of membrane vesicles (MVs on cell surfaces of P. shigelloides was observed by scan electron microscopy (SEM. From these MVs the LCE toxin was extracted and confirmed by biological and serological assays. These data suggest that P. shigelloides also exports this cytotoxic-enterotoxin by membrane vesicles, a different mechanism of delivering extra cellular virulence factors, so far not described in this bacterium.

  8. Influence of Glucose Deprivation on Membrane Potentials of Plasma Membranes, Mitochondria and Synaptic Vesicles in Rat Brain Synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Pekun, Tatyana G; Waseem, Tatyana V; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause neuronal cell death similar to that of glutamate-induced cell death. In the present paper, we investigated the effect of glucose removal from incubation medium on changes of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in rat brain synaptosomes using the fluorescent dyes DiSC3(5) and JC-1. We also monitored pH gradients in synaptic vesicles and their recycling by the fluorescent dye acridine orange. Glucose deprivation was found to cause an inhibition of K(+)-induced Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and a shift of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials to more positive values. The sensitivity of these parameters to the energy deficit caused by the removal of glucose showed the following order: mitochondrial membrane potential > plasma membrane potential > pH gradient in synaptic vesicles. The latter was almost unaffected by deprivation compared with the control. The pH-dependent dye acridine orange was used to investigate synaptic vesicle recycling. However, the compound's fluorescence was shown to be enhanced also by the mixture of mitochondrial toxins rotenone (10 µM) and oligomycin (5 µg/mL). This means that acridine orange can presumably be partially distributed in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Glucose removal from the incubation medium resulted in a 3.7-fold raise of acridine orange response to rotenone + oligomycin suggesting a dramatic increase in the mitochondrial pH gradient. Our results suggest that the biophysical characteristics of neuronal presynaptic endings do not favor excessive non-controlled neurotransmitter release in case of hypoglycemia. The inhibition of exocytosis and the increase of the mitochondrial pH gradient, while preserving the vesicular pH gradient, are proposed as compensatory mechanisms.

  9. MOLECULAR MACHINES DETERMINING THE FATE OF ENDOCYTOSED SYNAPTIC VESICLES IN NERVE TERMINALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFassio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cycle of a synaptic vesicle (SV within the nerve terminal is a step-by-step journey with the final goal of ensuring the proper synaptic strength under changing environmental conditions.The SV cycle is a precisely regulated membrane traffic event in cells and, because of this, a plethora of membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins are devoted to assist SVs in each step of the journey. The cycling fate of endocytosed SVs determines both the availability for subsequent rounds of release and the lifetime of SVs in the terminal and is therefore crucial for synaptic function and plasticity. Molecular players that determine the destiny of SVs in nerve terminals after a round of exo-endocytosis are largely unknown. Here we review the functional role in SV fate of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of SV proteins and of small GTPases acting on membrane trafficking at the synapse, as they are emerging as key molecules in determining the recycling route of SVs within the nerve terminal. In particular, we focus on (i the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and calcineurin control of the recycling pool of SVs; (ii the role of small GTPases of the Rab and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf families in defining the route followed by SV in their nerve terminal cycle. These regulatory proteins together with their synaptic regulators and effectors, are molecular nanomachines mediating homeostatic responses in synaptic plasticity and potential targets of drugs modulating the efficiency of synaptic transmission.

  10. Structure parameters of synaptic vesicles quantified by small-angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorph, Simon; Riedel, Dietmar; Arleth, Lise; Sztucki, Michael; Jahn, Reinhard; Holt, Matthew; Salditt, Tim

    2010-04-07

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are small, membrane-bound organelles that are found in the synaptic terminal of neurons, and which are crucial in neurotransmission. After a rise in internal [Ca(2+)] during neuronal stimulation, SVs fuse with the plasma membrane releasing their neurotransmitter content, which then signals neighboring neurons. SVs are subsequently recycled and refilled with neurotransmitter for further rounds of release. Recently, tremendous progress has been made in elucidating the molecular composition of SVs, as well as putative protein-protein interactions. However, what is lacking is an empirical description of SV structure at the supramolecular level-which is necessary to enable us to fully understand the processes of membrane fusion, retrieval, and recycling. Using small-angle x-ray scattering, we have directly investigated the size and structure of purified SVs. From this information, we deduced detailed size and density parameters for the protein layers responsible for SV function, as well as information about the lipid bilayer. To achieve a convincing model fit, a laterally anisotropic structure for the protein shell is needed, as a rotationally symmetric density profile does not explain the data. Not only does our model confirm many of the preexisting ideas concerning SV structure, but also for the first time, to our knowledge, it indicates structural refinements, such as the presence of protein microdomains. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure Parameters of Synaptic Vesicles Quantified by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorph, Simon; Riedel, Dietmar; Arleth, Lise; Sztucki, Michael; Jahn, Reinhard; Holt, Matthew; Salditt, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are small, membrane-bound organelles that are found in the synaptic terminal of neurons, and which are crucial in neurotransmission. After a rise in internal [Ca2+] during neuronal stimulation, SVs fuse with the plasma membrane releasing their neurotransmitter content, which then signals neighboring neurons. SVs are subsequently recycled and refilled with neurotransmitter for further rounds of release. Recently, tremendous progress has been made in elucidating the molecular composition of SVs, as well as putative protein-protein interactions. However, what is lacking is an empirical description of SV structure at the supramolecular level—which is necessary to enable us to fully understand the processes of membrane fusion, retrieval, and recycling. Using small-angle x-ray scattering, we have directly investigated the size and structure of purified SVs. From this information, we deduced detailed size and density parameters for the protein layers responsible for SV function, as well as information about the lipid bilayer. To achieve a convincing model fit, a laterally anisotropic structure for the protein shell is needed, as a rotationally symmetric density profile does not explain the data. Not only does our model confirm many of the preexisting ideas concerning SV structure, but also for the first time, to our knowledge, it indicates structural refinements, such as the presence of protein microdomains. PMID:20371319

  12. Recyclability and the selection of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David

    1992-12-01

    Costs of solid-waste disposal, concern for environmental impact, and "green" marketing opportunities have placed more attention on recyclability of packaging materials. Recyclability is determined not only by the characteristics of materials themselves, but also by the presence or absence of collection facilities, ease of separation, technology for reprocessing, and markets for recovered materials. By these measures, packaging materials are becoming more recyclable and recyclability is growing in importance as a factor in material selection.

  13. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  14. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  15. Hydrogen isotope recycling at a tungsten target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, M., E-mail: sakamoto@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rusinov, A. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeda, H.; Akabane, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Hydrogen recycling has been studied focusing on the neutral behavior in front of tungsten target in the plasma–wall interaction simulator APSEDAS and the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. The line intensity of hydrogen Balmer series decreased toward the target corresponding to a decrease in the electron density in APSEDAS. The relative population of n = 3 and n = 4 increased and that of n = 5 and n = 6 decreased just in front of the target (Z < 5 mm). This might be attributed to the reflected atom or reemitted molecule from the target. In GAMMA 10, the intensity of hydrogen Balmer (H{sub α}) line decreased exponentially with distance from the target with two decay lengths: ∼16 mm and ∼53 mm. These two short decay lengths are attributed to the fact that a fraction of the reflected atoms and atoms dissociated from molecules are at excited energy states.

  16. Bioinformatics Tools for Extracellular Vesicles Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Gangoda, Lahiru; Gho, Yong Song; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a class of membranous vesicles that are released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. This unique class of extracellular organelles which play pivotal role in intercellular communication are conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Depending upon the cell origin and the functional state, the molecular cargo including proteins, lipids, and RNA within the EVs are modulated. Owing to this, EVs are considered as a subrepertoire of the host cell and are rich reservoirs of disease biomarkers. In addition, the availability of EVs in multiple bodily fluids including blood has created significant interest in biomarker and signaling research. With the advancement in high-throughput techniques, multiple EV studies have embarked on profiling the molecular cargo. To benefit the scientific community, existing free Web-based resources including ExoCarta, EVpedia, and Vesiclepedia catalog multiple datasets. These resources aid in elucidating molecular mechanism and pathophysiology underlying different disease conditions from which EVs are isolated. Here, the existing bioinformatics tools to perform integrated analysis to identify key functional components in the EV datasets are discussed.

  17. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D

    2015-03-24

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1-positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42-associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling.

  18. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  19. Large-scale isolation and cytotoxicity of extracellular vesicles derived from activated human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Ambrose Y; Wu, Chun-Hua; Li, Jingbo; Sun, Jianping; Fabbri, Muller; Wayne, Alan S; Seeger, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically. In this report, we present a simple, robust, and cost-effective method to isolate a large quantity of NK EVs. After propagating and activating NK cells ex vivo and then incubating them in exosome-free medium for 48 h, EVs were isolated using a polymer precipitation method. The isolated vesicles contain the tetraspanin CD63, an EV marker, and associated proteins (fibronectin), but are devoid of cytochrome C, a cytoplasmic marker. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed a size distribution between 100 and 200 nm while transmission electron microscopy imaging displayed vesicles with an oval shape and comparable sizes, fulfilling the definition of EV. Importantly, isolated EV fractions were cytotoxic against cancer cells. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that isolated activated NK (aNK) cell EVs contain the cytotoxic proteins perforin, granulysin, and granzymes A and B, incorporated from the aNK cells. Activation of caspase -3, -7 and -9 was detected in cancer cells incubated with aNK EVs, and caspase inhibitors blocked aNK EV-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that aNK EVs activate caspase pathways in target cells. The ability to isolate functional aNK EVs on a large scale may lead to new clinical applications. Abbreviations: NK: natural killer cells; activated NK (aNK) cells; EVs: extracellular vesicles; ALL: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; aAPC: artificial antigen-presenting cell; TEM: transmission electron

  20. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly